Reading comprehension

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This article is about human reading comprehension. For machine reading comprehension,
see natural language understanding.

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Reading comprehension is the ability to read text, process it, and understand its
meaning.[1] Although this definition may seem simple; it is not necessarily simple to teach, learn or
practice (K12 Publishing, LLC, 2015.) An individual's ability to comprehend text is influenced by their
traits and skills, one of which is the ability to make inferences. If word recognition is difficult, students
use too much of their processing capacity to read individual words, which interferes with their ability
to comprehend what is read. There are a number of approaches to improve reading comprehension,
including improving one's vocabulary and reading strategies. According to a study by Madhumathi
Pasupathi and Arijit Ghosh, the students with higher level of reading proficiency frequently used
reading strategies to comprehend academic texts.[2]


 1Definition
o 1.1Reading comprehension levels
o 1.2Brain region activation
 2History
 3Vocabulary
o 3.1Three tier vocabulary words
o 3.2Broad vocabulary approach
o 3.3Morphemic instruction
o 3.4Reading strategies
 3.4.1Reciprocal teaching
 3.4.2Instructional conversations
 3.4.3Text factors

including prior knowledge about the subject. and the ability to make inferences. which is "the construction of thought processes". is the ability to be self-correcting to solve comprehension problems as they arise. Lockhart. Barbara Foorman. Jump up^ Tompkins. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. Charles Perfetti. (2011). "What is Reading Comprehension?".4.5Partner reading  3. which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words.[7] There are specific traits that determine how successfully an individual will comprehend text. Pearson.00004. andpragmatics.E.7Comprehension Strategies o 3. Mass: MIT Press. Deep processing involves semantic processing. Spelling. Comprehension. syntax. Grammar.1. G.[3][4] Comprehension is a "creative. Jump up^ the processing of sentence and word structure and their associated sounds. Some people learn through education or instruction and others through direct experiences. Lastly. well-developed language. Pearson. multifaceted process" dependent upon four language skills: phonology.psu. Cambridge. OCLC 62108874. p 37 6.1Running Records  4Difficult or complex content o 4.6670&rep=rep1&type=pdf 3. Jump up^ http://citeseerx.915.1Reading difficult texts o 4. Boston.[5] Proficient reading depends on the ability to recognize words quickly and effortlessly. David Pesetsky & Mark Seidenberg (November 2001). Having the skill to monitor comprehension is a factor: "Why is this important?" and "Do I need to read the entire text?" are examples. doi:10. Boston.4. Literacy in the early grades: A successful start for prek-4 readers (3rd edition).1111/1529-1006. Jump up^ Tompkins.[8] Reading comprehension levels[edit] Reading comprehension involves two levels of processing. "How Psychological Science Informs the Teaching of Reading". Retrieved 2016-05-13. 2 (2): 31–74.  3. Reading Worksheets.4.4.6Multiple reading strategies  3.E. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written. p 203. 4. and how they trigger knowledge outside the text/message. semantics. This theory was first identified by Fergus I.4Visualization  3. .5Assessment  3. ISBN 0-262-51076-6. M. shallow (low-level) processing and deep (high-level) processing. Marilyn McCord (1994).[6] It is also determined by an individual's cognitive development. Jump up^ Keith Rayner. Beginning to read: thinking and learning about print.2Hyperlinks  5Professional development  6See also  7References  8Further reading  9External links Definition[edit] Reading comprehension is as the level of understanding of a text/message. Lesson Plans. Craik and Robert S. (2011).5. G. Shallow processing involves structural and phonemic recognition.1. 2.[9] 1. Literacy in the early grades: A successful start for prek-4 readers (3rd edition). 5.

Boston. The shallows: what the Internet is doing to our brains. "Reading comprehension strategy instruction and attribution retraining for secondary students with disabilities". then their ability to understand the overall meaning of a story or other text will be compromised 15. ^ Jump up to:a b Pressley. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag. 9– 11. Ula Casale (2005). Manzo. pp. Jump up^ Matthew M. Beck.E. Jump up^ Linda Kucan. 23. pp. Michael (2006). 25. Retrieved 15 March 2013. OCLC 449865498. Bringing words to life: robust vocabulary instruction. The University of Kansas. 5. ^ Jump up to:a b c Dan Bell.speedreadinfo.2C_2006" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). if they don’t understand the meaning of the words. ISBN 978-0-06-045521-7.OCLC 58833339. David. New York: Wiley. pp. Literacy in the early grades: A successful start for prek-4 readers (3rd edition). Jump up^ Robinson. ^ Jump up to:a b Cain. (2011). Dissertation Abstracts: Humanities and Social Sciences. 2006 17. ISBN 0-393-07222-3. Pearson. Jump up^ "How to take running records" (PDF). Canada: Scholastic Canada Ltd. Jump up^ Nicholas G. 18. 9.E. G. New York: Guilford Press. G. Effective Study (6th ed. New York: Guilford Press. 21.1016/j. The GRE Handbook .The How to on GRE. How to take running records. Canada: Scholastic Canada Ltd. Literacy in the early grades: A successful start for prek-4 readers (3rd edition). Retrieved 2016-05-13. Jane (2009). Retrieved 2016-05-13. Pearson. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help) 28. Pearson. Jump up^ Tompkins. (2011). ISBN 1-59385-229-0. Isabel L. OCLC 61229782. 12. Pearson. Berkeley. OCLC 48450880. (2002). Boston. 14. McKeown. (2011).ucv. Universityof California. (2011). Tal. Scholastic. Literacy in the early grades: A successful start for prek-4 readers (3rd edition). p.062.2008. Reading instruction that works: the case for balanced teaching. Jump up^ Tompkins. Jump up^ Tompkins. Scholastic Canada Ltd. (2011). pp. Francis Pleasant (1978). New York: W. 2002. 249. name "Cain. Norton. http://www. ISBN 0-471- 15167-X. 8. pp. G.. ^ Jump up to:a b "Partner Reading". Jump up^ Sherry Berkeley (2007). interview by Didier Eribon for Le Nouvel Observateur issue of November 6–12.E. Jump up^ Jacques Derrida (1987) Heidegger. republished in Points: Interviews 1974-1994(1995) pp. 2002. Nicole.External link in |work= (help) 13. Pearson. the Philosopher's Hell. Zacks.neuroimage. Content area literacy: strategic teaching for strategic learning. 68 (3-A): 949.7. "The Behavioral and Biological Foundations of Reading Comprehension". proficiently/ 24. Jump up^ Tompkins. Boston. n/a (2002). 205. 11. "Study shows greater focus on vocabulary can help make students better readers". G.. 211-212. Jump up^ Tompkins. Anthony V. Kate. 208-209. New York: Harper & Row.postgradolinguistica.doi:10. Jump up^ Pearson. 27.68 20. Jeffrey (2008). Guilford Press: 143–175. 19. P.). Everything You Need to Know about GRE. Literacy in the early grades: A successful start for prek-4 readers (3rd edition). Jump up^ n/a. Reading Rockets. Jump up^ How To Take Running Records. 163–4. 181. Jump up^ http://www.03.187-8 29. "The Roots of Reading Comprehension Instruction" (PDF). Yarkoni. news. Manzo. 7. 10. Retrieved 15 March 2013. Margaret G. 41 (4): 1408– 1425. . Jump up^ Biemiller & Boote. "Neural substrates of narrative comprehension and memory".ku. 22. Boston. Literacy in the early grades: A successful start for prek-4 readers (3rd edition). ISBN 1-57230-753-6. 1. 16.E. 183. G. NeuroImage. Jump up^ Speer. 171. Diane. 26. p.W. Complete Expert's Hints and Tips Guide by the Leading Experts. Jump up^ Nielsen. Carr (2010). Boston.

it is the most difficult and most important of the three.2d.wnr. semantics. 30. Hypermedia Interface Design: The Effects of Number of Links and Granularity of Nodes. What exactly IS reading comprehension? Simply put. Friederici AD (November 2003). NeuroImage. Jump up^ Zhu. ^ Jump up to:a b c DeStefano.1016/j. letters and words) and ability to comprehend or construct meaning from the text. Hervé PY.chb. When a person reads a text he engages in a complex array of cognitive processes. Jump up^ Antonenko. doi:10.ISSN 0747-5632. In order to understand a text the reader must be able to comprehend the vocabulary used in the .1016/j.chb. 26 (2): 140– 150. Diana.1097/01. Reading comprehension is one of the pillars of the act of reading. "The Influence of Leads on Cognitive Load and Learning in a Hypertext Environment". This last component of the act of reading is reading comprehension. LeFevre. It cannot occur independent of the other two elements of the process. learn or practice. Oostendorp and Melguizo: Computers in Human Behavior 25 (2009) 66–75 Further reading[edit]  Heim S. 23 (3): 1616– 1641. There are two elements that make up the process of reading comprehension: vocabulary knowledge andtext comprehension. interactive process that occurs before. At the same time. Reading comprehension is an intentional. 14 (16): 2031– 3.11. et al. Niederhauser (2010).012. Beaucousin V. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. 31.2009. Computers in Human Behavior. Jo-Anne (2007). PMID 14600492.014. "Phonological processing in language production: time course of brain activity".doi:10. "Cognitive load in hypertext reading: A review". Jump up^ Madrid. Erping. "Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: phonology.08.1016/j.75061. phonics (connection between letters and sounds and the relationship between sounds. 33. during and after a person reads a particular piece of writing.neuroimage. reading comprehension is the act of understanding what you are reading. While the definition can be simply stated the act is not simple to teach. NeuroReport.10. (May 2006).doi:10. He is simultaneously using his awareness and understanding of phonemes (individual sound “pieces” in language). v8 n3 p331-58 1999 32. Computers in Human Behavior.  Vigneau M. active. doi:10. 30(4): 1414– 32. and sentence processing".2005. PMID 16413796.2005.002.0000091133.

As their reading materials become more diverse and challenging. reading comprehension is incredibly complex and multifaceted. The best vocabulary instruction occurs at the point of need. These include monitoring for understanding. In addition to being able to understand each distinct word in a text. It might seem that once a child learns to read in the elementary grades he is able to tackle any future text that comes his way. If the individual words don’t make the sense then the overall story will not either. summarizing and being aware of and using a text’s structure to aid comprehension. answering and generating questions.piece of writing. parents and teachers need to continue to help their children develop reading comprehension strategies. This is text comprehension. the child also has to be able to put them together to develop an overall conception of what it is trying to say. readers do not develop the ability to comprehend texts quickly. practiced and reinforced continually throughout life. but they also need to continually be taught new words. Text comprehension is much more complex and varied that vocabulary knowledge. Children can draw on their prior knowledge of vocabulary. Reading comprehension strategies must be taught over an extended period of time by parents and teachers who have knowledge and experience using them. magazine and journal articles pose different reading comprehension challenges for young people and thus require different comprehension strategies. How does reading comprehension develop? As you can see. Reading comprehension strategies must be refined. Content area materials such as textbooks and newspaper. Because of this. Why is reading comprehension so important? . Even in the middle grades and high school. easily or independently. This is not true. Parents and teachers should pre-teach new words that a child will encounter in a text or aid her in understanding unfamiliar words as she comes upon them in the writing. The development of reading comprehension is a lifelong process that changes based on the depth and breadth of texts the person is reading. children need to learn new tools for comprehending these texts. Readers use many different text comprehension strategies to develop reading comprehension.

This definition was written about child learners. You may appreciate the words aesthetically and even be able to draw some small bits of meaning from the page. Think of the potentially dire effects of not being able to comprehend dosage directions on a bottle of medicine or warnings on a container of dangerous chemicals. The words on the page have no meaning. Much has been written about the importance of functional literacy. travel directions). reading comprehension is essential to life. . Beyond this. Reading comprehension is a critical component of functional literacy.41 The RAND Reading Study Group defined comprehension in a way that has informed the thinking of many educators in this field. housing agreements (leases. People read for many reasons but understanding is always a part of their purpose. directions on packaging and transportation documents (bus and train schedules. We define reading comprehension as the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language.Without comprehension. people are able not only to live safely and productively. but you are not truly reading the story. maps. but it applies equally well to adult literacy learners. … These three dimensions define a phenomenon that occurs within a largersociocultural context … that shapes and is shaped by the reader and that interacts with each of the three elements. purchase contracts). Imagine being handed a story written in Egyptian hieroglyphics with no understanding of their meaning. but also to continue to develop socially. They are simply symbols. emotionally and intellectually Comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading. In order to survive and thrive in today’s world individuals must be able to comprehend basic texts such as bills. reading is nothing more than tracking symbols on a page with your eyes and sounding them out. Comprehension entails three elements: The reader who is doing the comprehending The text that is to be comprehended The activity in which comprehension is a part. We use the words extracting and constructing to emphasize both the importance and the insufficiency of the text as a determinant of reading comprehension. With the ability to comprehend what they read. Reading comprehension is important because without it reading doesn’t provide the reader with any information.

accessing the learner’s content knowledge and helping them to relate it to new contexts will help them to comprehend texts in English. ranging from the very personal and everyday to broad and specialised knowledge. background knowledge and knowledge about texts  an awareness of their own processes and strategies as they approach reading. but for all learners. page 11 Knowledge for comprehension In order to comprehend written texts. including vocabulary and syntax. as a reader starts an article about rugby. Return to top . different kinds of sentences. If the reader knows very little about rugby. Readers from diverse cultural and language backgrounds will have diverse schemas. the more that can be interpreted. for example. The more relevant prior knowledge the reader has. For example. comprehension strategies. Likewise. they will bring to mind everything they already know about rugby. strategies and awareness. schema theory emphasises the critical role of the reader’s prior knowledge in comprehension. In the context of reading. the article may be difficult to comprehend. Content schemas will be activated as the reader engages with the words and any pictures in the text. and strategies for applying that knowledge  knowledge and experiences of the world. from word-level information to complex information about structure and register. understood and added to the store. the more they will comprehend when they read a text that connects with their existing content schema. Researchers have identified different kinds of schema that are particularly significant for reading.43Content schemas concern knowledge about the world.42 Schema theory is concerned with how knowledge is represented and organised in long- term memory (as sets of information. the reader needs to have some basic knowledge. These include:  the ability to decode print accurately and fluently  knowledge about language. from the title onwards. The theory suggests that individuals relate all new information to what they already know or have experienced.44The implication for ESOL learning is that accessing the learner’s textual schema and building new language knowledge is the key to increasing expertise in English. Textual schemas concern knowledge that readers (and writers) have about the forms and organisation of written texts. vocabulary. Relevant processes and strategies include motivation and engagement. about text types or genres. monitoring strategies and “fix-up” strategies. Return to top Schema theory and comprehension An important source of understanding about the nature of the knowledge that informs comprehension is schema theory. The textual schema will enable the reader to recall and interpret the text in the light of what they already know about texts. Schemas are activated when a reader sees and starts to read a text. 2002. the more knowledge that is stored. tone and register.Snow. or schemas) and then brought to mind as new information comes in. including life experiences. These schemas may also enable the reader to make predictions about the kind of text this will be by referring to their stored knowledge of text types. content knowledge.

To do this. but there is general agreement about the kinds of strategies that readers employ as they use their knowledge to comprehend texts. knowing that newspaper articles often state the main idea in the first sentence).Comprehension strategies Comprehension strategies are specific. or the context or task within which the reading is required.49 The learning progression for comprehension reflects what we know from research and describes points along the continuum from beginner to expert reader. which good readers will check as they read. Hypotheses may be based on any aspect of the text. words and texts.55  Creating mental images or visualising. page 177 A large amount of research45 has shown that good readers use a range of comprehension strategies. Readers construct mental images as they read in order to represent the information or ideas in ways that help them connect with their own background . they draw on their prior knowledge and experience of the ways in which texts are structured (for example. readers draw on their background knowledge as well as the words on the page. learned procedures that foster active. the size and shape of book. To do this.  Activating prior knowledge or making connections. Strategies are not discrete behaviours.50  Forming and testing hypotheses or making predictions. self-regulated and intentional reading. the subject matter.53  Summarising. vocabulary and text structure to find and connect important points. even though many adults may be relatively unaware of their own comprehension strategies.48There is some experimental evidence that indicates that this is also true for adult literacy learners. Good readers also monitor their comprehension46 and apply fix-up strategies when they experience a breakdown in comprehension. Readers bring to mind the knowledge (schemas) they already have about the world. they infer meaning and determine relative importance. making and testing hypotheses about what the writer probably intended. they are used in a great many different ways by different readers who are able to combine and integrate them as they encounter new problems or ideas in texts. The way in which text is structured plays an important role in comprehension. and they apply that prior knowledge to help them understand the new knowledge in a text. Vocabulary knowledge and the reading context are of central importance to all of them. Readers use what they already know or are learning about text structure to help navigate and comprehend new texts. such as the text structure. Readers make rapid summaries (rather like making mental notes) of what they are reading as they work through a text. The reading progressions in this book are based on the following set of reading comprehension strategies. Readers may also hypothesise and synthesise different aspects of the text in order to identify the main ideas. It includes suggestions for ways in which tutors may assist the development of adult learners’ awareness of how to engage actively in the process of comprehending written texts. Researchers may describe comprehension strategies in different ways and their lists of strategies may vary somewhat.54  Drawing inferences or reading between the lines.51  Identifying the main ideas. 2002. 52  Making use of text structure knowledge. checking for connections and clarification and using their knowledge of topics.47 There is sound evidence that readers can be taught to use comprehension strategies and to monitor their use. Readers form expectations about texts before and during reading. Their expectations lead them to make predictions. competent. to confirm or revise them against the new information they are gaining from the text. Readers make educated guesses to fill in gaps as they read. inferring the information that the writer has not made explicit. Trabassco and Bouchard. Readers determine what the most important or central ideas in texts are.

Most readers are constantly posing and answering questions while they read. Pressley. 1999. for example. 42 Anderson.58 Return to top 41 Hock and Mellard. 48 Rosenshine and Meister. summarise and co-ordinate the use of other comprehension strategies. National Reading Panel. but expert readers have the ability to bring the strategies to mind. 56  Asking questions of the text and seeking for answers. Pearson and Fielding. 2004. which will lead them to a deeper understanding of the text. Questions may relate to the meanings of words or sentences. to the structure of the text as a whole. 2000. Dymock and Nicholson. 50 Anderson. As they approach the new text. 1981. reading and listening to written texts. The text structure will also assist them as they use the strategies of identifying the main ideas and summarising the content of the text. 2002. 2005. 46 Paris and Meyers.57 Selecting and combining comprehension strategies Readers draw on a vast range of information and use it strategically through an interplay of these comprehension strategies. 49 Gambrell and Heathington. Readers approaching a text will have some prior knowledge of text structure (the ways in which texts are organised at sentence. Anderson and Pearson. Snow. Dymock. 1996. a key source of information for adults is their knowledge of text structure. 1994. 2002. Readers also use mental images to help them see patterns. Metacognitive thinking and reading comprehension Most readers use comprehension strategies without consciously thinking about their own complex processing and accessing of knowledge. 1984. paragraph and whole-text level in order to convey information or ideas in particular ways). 1996. Stanovich. Pressley. 2003. They also have an awareness of what to do and how to do it (that is. Through asking questions. they think metacognitively) as they read. Meister and Chapman. 2002. to the plot or character development (in a story). as a strategy for understanding the text they are engaged with. Sweet and Snow. 45 Duke and Pearson. knowledge. For example. . 2004. 1991. 1998. 2000 and 2002. Rosenshine. in ideas or text structure. 47 Brown. This in turn will help them to form hypotheses about the content and how it might be organised. readers are able to form and test hypotheses. 1986. 43 Singhal. 1981. 44 Singhal. or to any other aspect of the text and its context. 2000. Brown et al. they will use this text structure knowledge to help them identify and understand the structures used in the text.. 2005. make inferences. 1998. They will have gained this knowledge from their experiences of seeing.

You don't retain much. Meyer. understanding and storing information. magazines and books. 123-4567 This is easy to read because of prior knowledge and structure. Hock and Mellard. If you don't know anything about a subject. 1985. if you like sports. try reading these numbers: 7516324 This is hard to read and remember. The purpose of reading is to connect the ideas on the page to what you already know.51 Pearson and Duke. Broaden your background knowledge by reading newspapers. 2005. Snow. 751-6324 This is easier because of chunking. 54 Pressley. 2000. 1995. For example. Similarly. 1980. You have a framework in your mind for reading. 58 Pressley. 55 Pressley and Afflerbach. 2002. 57 Pressley. 1986. 2002. Sadoski. Meyer. 1978. Brandt and Bluth. concentration and good study techniques. Become interested . Here are some suggestions. 2002. The Purpose of Reading. Reading comprehension requires motivation. 52 Afflerbach and Johnston. 53 Kintsch and van Dijk. then reading the sports page is easy. 56 Gambrell and Bales. 2002. Improving Comprehension. mental frameworks for holding ideas. Pressley. 1975. then pouring words of text into your mind is like pouring water into your hand. Develop a broad background. 1986. 2002.

Look for the method of world events. The stronger your interest. logically. discuss ideas with classmates. this reinforces your understanding. Does the author use cause and effect reasoning. Read the first and last paragraph in a chapter. the greater your comprehension. spatially or hierarchical? See section 10 for more examples on organization. Study pictures. Create motivation and interest. induction or deduction. Is the material organized chronologically. . model building. Know the structure of paragraphs. phrases or paragraphs that change the topic. ask questions. serially. the first sentence will give an overview that helps provide a framework for adding details. hypothesis. Pay attention to supporting cues. Also. systems thinking? Anticipate and predict. Preview material. graphs and headings. look for transitional words. functionally. If you're wrong. Really smart readers try to anticipate the author and predict future ideas and questions. or the first sentence in each section. middle and end. Identify the type of reasoning. Often. you make adjustments quicker. Good writers construct paragraphs that have a beginning. If you're right.

Ph. your appetite is probably whetted for more. they can still make some meaning of the passage if they are actively involved and trying to comprehend it. Weaknesses in phonemic awareness can lead to trouble reading later. Students need to be able to do the following:  Fluently read with accuracy. writes in his article "Reading Comprehension: Reading for Meaning" at the National Center for Learning Disabilities website that to become a good reader. Students can improve by learning how to identify phonemes. However. and they can make meaning from the words on the page. There are three main themes to reading comprehension skills:  The role of vocabulary development and instruction play an important role in helping students to understand the complex cognitive process of reading. Horowitz. there are many experts who have answers.. He likes to use the strategy called Say- Think-Feel-Mean to illustrate what successful students do when they read difficult text. language structures.  The reader must be actively involved with the text by intentionally thinking about what he or she is reading. Ed. genres. start by reading what several experts in the field have to say. Even when strong readers not know every word. If you want to help your students improve their reading abilities.  Defining Reading Comprehension What is reading comprehension? Experts have a variety of answers for this question. speed and expression  Understand the words and build their vocabulary .See What Several Experts Say written by: Kellie Hayden • edited by: Wendy Finn • updated: 8/10/2015 Do you know the basics of reading comprehension? If so.  Beyond Sounding out Words Sheldon H. cognitive and metacognitive strategies. University of Kansas.  Expert Opinions The National Reading Panel (NRP) on its website National Reading Panel reported comprehension is key to improving reading skills. To find a more in-depth answer to this question." How the student interprets the words to make meaning of the words can be different for different students. reasoning abilities. The following is a compilation of a few.D. and motivation can all affect comprehension.  Teacher preparation of comprehension strategies to improve understanding is connected to reading achievement. writes in the article "An Introduction to Reading Comprehension" at the Special Connections website that "the process of comprehending involves decoding the writer's words and then using background knowledge to construct an approximate understanding of the writer's message. knowing phonemes and phonics is not enough to understand or make meaning from a text. Keith Lenz. Reading Comprehension Defined in Detail -.D. Steve Peha reports in the article "Comprehending Comprehension" at the Teaching That Makes Sense website that comprehending is a process of reading rather than a product of reading. children need to understand phonemic awareness and phonic skills when they begin to learn to read. The basic answer is that students understand what they read. text structures. Knowledge of the topic.

However. question and summarize sections as students read  Teach students plot structure so that students can follow a story better  Allow students to listen to the book on tape while they read  Ask students to monitor their comprehension through mental notes. from Teaching That Makes Sense-TTMS. teachers can try the following strategies:  Use programs on the computer or software designed to improve comprehension  Read aloud story books to students to help with difficult vocabulary. book markers with areas to write important events. etc. even automatic way. They first need to listen to the story and then read it themselves  For low readers. The reader must also be intentional and thoughtful while reading.Frequently Asked Questions  Classroom Strategies from Reading Rockets. use easier vocabulary in place of more difficult words  Create lists of difficult words from the text that students learn before reading the text  Discuss challenging words in small groups before. during and after a student is assigned to read a passage. References  Comprehending Comprehension. To build vocabulary. from the website of the University of Connecticut. And the reader must apply . Vocabulary clearly plays a critical role in understanding what has been read.  Literacy Journals.  National Reading Panel .org Reading Comprehension is It’s clear that reading comprehension is a complex cognitive process that depends upon a number of ingredients all working together in a reading is so important in all the other subject areas that it is well worth the effort. teachers need to try a variety of strategies to improve a student’s vocabulary level and his or her understanding. reading journals. short story or novel. teachers can try the following strategies:  Direct students to complete pre-reading strategies to preview and predict what will happen in the passage  Ask students to predict. To improve reading comprehension.  Relate the reading to their own lives  Read aloud and receive feedback from good readers  Comprehend what they read by monitoring what they are understand and do not understand while they are reading  Reading Strategies Handing a book to a student is not enough to help improve his or her reading ability. monitoring the words and their meaning as reading progresses.  Pair students or place them in small groups so that they can read together and practice reading strategies together  Require students to use reading graphic organizers to take notes or to organize information they learned while reading  Discuss reading selection with students through question and answer sessions  Require students to summarize reading passage in writing  Tell students to write questions about things they did not understand after they finish a reading assignment Building reading comprehension takes a great deal of planning and effort by the teacher. Activities need to happen before. during and after the reading To build comprehension and fluency. especially for struggling readers.

a process of inquiry. Asking questions is the art of carrying on an inner conversation with an author. Creating Mental Images Comprehension involves breathing life experiences into the abstract language of written texts. Authors rely on readers to contribute to a text’s meaning by linking their background knowledge to information in the text. 2. to a significant degree. Proficient readers activate prior knowledge before. Comprehension Processes of Proficient Readers Comprehension Process Description 1. 4. In addition to acknowledging . and they constantly evaluate how a text enhances or alters their previous understandings. Proficient readers pose question to themselves as they read. 3. Proficient readers use visual. auditory and other sensory connections to create mental images of an author’s message. Generating Questions Comprehension is. Making Connections to Prior Knowledge Reading comprehension results when readers can match what they already know (their schema) with new information and ideas in a text.reading comprehension strategies as ways to be sure that what is being read matches their expectations and builds on their growing body of knowledge that is being stored for immediate or future reference. as well as an internal dialogue within one’s self. during and after reading. Making Inferences Much of what is to be understood in a text must be inferred.

Effective comprehension leads to new learning and the development of new schema (background knowledge). In J. Proficient readers make evaluations. (2007). DE: International Reading Association. 7. D. Source: Buehl. proficient readers “read between the lines” to discern implicit meaning. and draw conclusions from a text. 5. Texts contain key ideas and concepts amidst much background detail.). .explicitly stated messages. make predictions and read with a critical eye. Determining Importance Our memories quickly overload unless we can pare down a text to its essential ideas. Proficient readers strive to differentiate key ideas. A professional development framework for embedding comprehension instruction into content classrooms. Moorman (Eds. Adolescent literacy instruction: Policies and promising practices (p. Monitoring Reading and Applying Fix-Up Strategies Proficient readers “watch” themselves as they read and expect to make adjustments in their strategies to ensure that they are able to achieve a satisfactory understanding of a text. construct generalizations. Synthesizing Proficient readers glean the essence or a text (determine importance) and organize these ideas into coherent summaries of meaning. Lewis & G. 6. Newark. themes and information from details so that they are not overwhelmed by facts. 200).

I flew from his home in Mexico City to New York City. I spent a week in New York and then flew to London and enjoyed several weeks in Europe. When I had seen the sights in Europe. First. nobody knew where the plane had crashed. But my sister and I enjoyed the film. Travelling Around The World Deri saved his money and spent two months traveling around the world. the passengers were eating raw fish and meat. I took a train to Istanbul and visited many places in Asia. After a few weeks. Going to School . 2. But their boat sank and they were drowned. I went to south America and finally back home to Indonesia. It was an American movie called The Lost Flight. three of the men made a boat and sailed away to find help. It showed how people can quickly change when they have to look after themselves in the jungle. Although the passengers were safe. He wrote his journey in his diary.Watching Movie My sister and I went to see a film last night. Deri felt tired but he was very excited and wanted to travel again. The film ended without saying whether the passengers were rescued or not. After through Asia. It was an interesting film about a plane which crashed on a small empty island in the Pacific Ocean. 3. So the passengers had to learn how to hunt for food in the jungle and how to catch fish from the sea to eat. After they had been on the island for two months.

because I was about to propose a girl. I thought it was the perfect time to ask her to be my wife. Then she said “Yes. we had a romantic dinner.” After driven her home I went back to my house. 5. I reached my pocket to get a ring and put it around her finger. I wrapped my works and got ready to pick her up and of course proposed her. Only after my mother was totally satisfied. took a little walk and went to a movie. would I be allowed to rush out of the frontdoor. My Bad Day on Sunday . 4. My Great Day of Proposing Girl I woke up at about five o’clock yesterday. The playground would be full in the summer and the noise would make me want to rush into the yard and get into a good game of football before the bell went. It wasn’t a regular day.My mother got me ready for school then I had to wait for her to brush my hair and place every strand in just the perfect position. it was three o’clock. I was a little bit crazy. I practiced the lines to almost all girls I met at my lunch. Yes. I had to show her my shoes that I had cleaned the night before and my school bag had to be neatly put on my shoulder before I could get near the door. She smiled. So. I had my early breakfast. At about nine o’clock I was in my office but my soul wasn’t there. At one o’clock. I would leave home at 8 am on the dot and make my way down the lane. Then I said the lines that I practiced the whole afternoon. Finally. After praying and taking a bath. At seven. After a walk of about 700 metres I would be able to see the tall steeple of the school. I met her at four o’clock. I remembered all my lines. I had my lunch but I wasn’t enjoying it either. I was thinking about the lines that I had to say to her.

I wanted to take a taxi. I was so surprised! He was a singer in D’ Masive! 7. I said ‘no’ at first. 6. I found the record store and listened to a few records. Going Camping . but I walked with him to the end of Sunda Street. I looked in my bag for my wallet and found a piece of paper the man gave me. He was very friendly. I thought it was money. and his face looked so familiar. I was walking down Sunda Street. A man stopped me and asked me the way to the Hyatt Hotel. Meeting a Star On Saturday morning at 9:30. D’ Masive had a new record that was number two in the top twenty. looking for a record store. I walked the three miles to my school only to discover that it was Sunday! I hope I never have a day as the one I had yesterday. After breakfast. Then. I wasn’t sure exactly where it was. I ran out of the house trying to get the 9:30 bus. He thanked me and tried to give me something. so I took it. Then I remembered where the Hyatt was and told him how to get there. It was a photo. Finally. I decided to buy it. but I didn’t have enough money. First.I had a terrible day yesterday. I got dressed so quickly that I forgot to wear socks. but of course I missed it. I was in such a hurry that I burned my hand when I was making breakfast. but he really wanted me to have it. Next. I woke up an hour late because my alarm clock didn’t go off.

so I was the one who talked to people. It was a really great place. the food was great. so we built a fire camp.Last weekend. Last Saturday I got on the bus and went to the north of the island. we held a fire camp night. We reached the camping ground after we walked for about one and a half hour from the parking lot. I learned Balinese–I couldn’t say much. In the afternoon we went to the river and caught some fish for supper. played magic tricks. Semoga bisa membantu bagi yang sedang belajar bahasa Inggris di sekolah sekolah SMA. Itulah contoh recount text pendek. read poetry. but no tourists. Most days were pretty. but my brother Fachri just spent all his time lying on the beach with his eyes closed. 8. my friends and I went camping. The people were friendly. Fachri actually spoke it quite well. we packed our bags and got ready to go home. but it was fun to try. It was much quieter there than here– very beautiful. On Monday. We sang. The next day we went across to the east coast to see some of the old villages. At night. we spent our time observing plantation and insects while the girls were preparing meals. and even some of us performed a standing comedy. Masih kurang banyak? Baca kumpulan contoh recount text yang lainnya . but he was afraid to open his mouth. Holiday in Bali We had a wonderful holiday in Bali. and the weather was a lot better than at home. danced. The next day. It was getting darker and colder. I swam two or three times a day. We built the camp next to a small river.

2008. Jakarta : Pusat Perbukuan.Source: Achmad. Developing english competencies 1. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional . D.