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# Process Control, 12/03/2018

Second-Order Systems with Numerator Dynamics

The previous discussion involved pure second-order systems, where the relative order
(difference between the denominator and numerator polynomial orders) was two.
Consider now a second-order system with numerator dynamics with the gain/time constant
form

𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝 (𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛 𝑠𝑠 + 1)
𝑔𝑔𝑝𝑝 (𝑠𝑠) =
(𝜏𝜏1 𝑠𝑠 + 1)(𝜏𝜏2 𝑠𝑠 + 1)

which is relative order one. The reader should show that the pole-zero form is

𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 (𝑠𝑠 − 𝑧𝑧1 )
𝑔𝑔𝑝𝑝 (𝑠𝑠) =
(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑝𝑝1 )(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑝𝑝2 )
where the parameters are

𝑘𝑘𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛 1 1 1
𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = , 𝑝𝑝1 = − , 𝑝𝑝2 = − , 𝑧𝑧1 = −
𝜏𝜏1 𝜏𝜏2 𝜏𝜏1 𝜏𝜏2 𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛
The gain/time constant form has the following time-domain response to a step input

𝜏𝜏 − 𝜏𝜏1 −𝑡𝑡/𝜏𝜏1 𝜏𝜏 − 𝜏𝜏2 −𝑡𝑡/𝜏𝜏2
𝑦𝑦(𝑡𝑡) = 𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝 Δ𝑢𝑢 �1 + � 𝑛𝑛 � 𝑒𝑒 + � 𝑛𝑛 � 𝑒𝑒 �
𝜏𝜏1 − 𝜏𝜏2 𝜏𝜏1 − 𝜏𝜏2

The reader should show that, if 𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛 = 𝜏𝜏2 , the response is the same as a first-order process.

Example: Illustration of Numerator Dynamics

Consider the following input-output relationship:

(𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛 𝑠𝑠 + 1)
𝑦𝑦(𝑠𝑠) = 𝑢𝑢(𝑠𝑠)
(3𝑠𝑠 + 1)(15𝑠𝑠 + 1)

The unit step responses are shown in Figure. Notice that negative numerator time constants
(corresponding to positive zeros) yield a step response which initially decreases before
increasing to the final steady state. This type of response is known as inverse response and
causes tough challenges for process control systems. Positive zeros are often caused by two
first-order transfer functions, with gains of opposite sign, acting in parallel.

Dr. Salvador Tututi | UANL 1

12/03/2018 Notice also that a numerator time constant that is greater than the denominator time constant causes overshoot before settling to the final steady state.Process Control. This form is normally used when the roots (poles) of the denominator polynomial are real.49) 𝑎𝑎𝑚𝑚 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚 + 𝑎𝑎𝑚𝑚−1 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚−1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑎1 𝑠𝑠 + 𝑎𝑎0 The values of s that cause the numerator of Equation (3. Salvador Tututi | UANL 2 . Also notice that the inverse response becomes "deeper" as the numerator zero (−1/𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛 ) approaches a value of 0 from the positive side.49) to equal zero are known as the "poles" of the transfer function. The values of s that cause the denominator of Equation (3. Poles and Zeros There are a number of different ways to represent process transfer functions. The "polynomial" form is 𝑏𝑏𝑚𝑚 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚 + 𝑏𝑏𝑚𝑚−1 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚−1 + ⋯ + 𝑏𝑏1 𝑠𝑠 + 𝑏𝑏0 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠) = (3. 𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝 (𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛1 𝑠𝑠 + 1)(𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛2 𝑠𝑠 + 1) … (𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 𝑠𝑠 + 1) 𝑔𝑔𝑝𝑝 (𝑠𝑠) = �𝜏𝜏𝑝𝑝1 𝑠𝑠 + 1�(𝜏𝜏𝜏𝜏2 𝑠𝑠 + 1) … (𝜏𝜏𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛 𝑠𝑠 + 1) where 𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 is a numerator time constant and 𝜏𝜏𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 is a denominator time constant.49) to equal zero are known as the "zeros" of the transfer function. The "pole-zero" form is 𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 (𝑠𝑠 − 𝑧𝑧1 )(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑧𝑧2 ) … (𝑠𝑠 − 𝑧𝑧𝑚𝑚 ) 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠) = (𝑠𝑠 − 𝑝𝑝1 )(𝑠𝑠 − 𝑝𝑝2 ) … (𝑠𝑠 − 𝑝𝑝𝑛𝑛 ) and complex poles (or zeros) must occur in complex conjugate pairs. Dr. The "gain-time constant" form is the one that we use most often for control system design.

0) and (-1/15. For this system. there is no imaginary component and the poles and zeros lie on the real axis. imaginary)]. Recall that complex poles will yield an oscillatory response. RHP (positive) poles are unstable.0).0) and the zero location is (1/10. RHP zeros have a characteristic inverse response. and the poles are –1/3 and –1/15.7: Comparison of Various Transfer Function Forms Consider a transfer function with the following gain-time constant form 2(−10𝑠𝑠 + 10) 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠) = (3𝑠𝑠 + 1)(15𝑠𝑠 + 1) The polynomial form is 20𝑠𝑠 + 2 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠) = − 45𝑠𝑠2+ 18𝑠𝑠 + 1 The gain-polynomial form is 2(−10𝑠𝑠 + 10) 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠) = (3𝑠𝑠 + 1)(15𝑠𝑠 + 1) and the pole-zero form is 1� �𝑠𝑠 − 10 4 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠) = �− � 9 �𝑠𝑠 + 1� �𝑠𝑠 + 1 � 3 15 The zero is 1/10. as shown in Figure 3-11 for n = - 10 (which corresponds to a zero of +0. Dr. Notice that the zero for Example 3. A pole-zero plot of the transfer function in Example 3.1). 12/03/2018 Example 3. Salvador Tututi | UANL 3 . with the coordinates (real. indicating a stable process. A positive zero is called a right-half-plane (RHP) zero.7 is positive. Also notice that the poles are negative (left-half-plane).Process Control.7 is shown in Figure 3-13 [the pole locations are (-1/3. because it appears in the right half of the complex plane (with real and imaginary axes).

the system never settles to a steady state when a step input change Multiple RHP zeros cause multiple "changes in direction". initially going in one direction. 3. Recall also that a process with a pole at the origin (and none in the RHP) is known as an integrating system.Process Control.4 we found that a time-delay of 𝜃𝜃 time units had a transfer function of 𝑒𝑒−𝜃𝜃𝜃𝜃 . Dr.10 Processes with Dead Time Many processes have a delayed response to a process input. that is. either due to transport lags (such as flow through pipes) or high-order effects. for example. 12/03/2018 As poles move further to the left they yield a faster response and increasing the magnitude of the imaginary portion makes the response more oscillatory.14. with two RHP zeros. Salvador Tututi | UANL 4 . the step response. switches direction. This behavior is summarized in Figure 3. then switches back to the initial direction. In Section 3.3.

where 𝜃𝜃 is the time delay. 𝜏𝜏𝑝𝑝 = 10. the Padé approximation for dead time is often used in this case.11 Padé Approximation for Dead Time As discussed in the previous section the transfer function for a pure time delay is 𝑒𝑒−𝜃𝜃𝜃𝜃 . We see that the time-delay shifts the response of the output.Process Control. A first-order Padé approximation is − 2𝜃𝜃 𝑠𝑠 + 1 𝑒𝑒−𝜃𝜃𝜃𝜃 ≈ 𝜃𝜃 2 𝑠𝑠 + 1 A second-order Padé approximation is 𝜃𝜃2 𝑠𝑠2 − 𝜃𝜃 𝑠𝑠 + 1 𝑒𝑒−𝜃𝜃𝜃𝜃 ≈ 122 2 𝜃𝜃 𝑠𝑠2 + 𝜃𝜃 𝑠𝑠 + 1 12 2 Example 3. 12/03/2018 A first-order process combined with a time-delay has the transfer function 𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝 𝑒𝑒−𝜃𝜃𝜃𝜃 𝑔𝑔𝑝𝑝 (𝑠𝑠) = 𝜏𝜏𝑝𝑝 𝑠𝑠 + 1 Consider a process with 𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝 = 1.8: Application of the Padé Approximations for Dead Time Dr. Some control system design techniques require a rational transfer function. 3. Salvador Tututi | UANL 5 . A unit step input change at 𝑡𝑡 = 0 yields the response shown in Figure 3-15. and 𝜃𝜃 = 5.

where the time-delay dominates the time constant 𝑒𝑒−10𝑠𝑠 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠) = 5𝑠𝑠 + 1 The first-order Padé approximation yields the transfer function 𝑒𝑒−10𝑠𝑠 −5𝑠𝑠 + 1 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠) = ⋅ 5𝑠𝑠 + 1 5𝑠𝑠 + 1 and the second-order Padé approximation yields 100 2 10 𝑒𝑒−10𝑠𝑠 12 𝑠𝑠 − 2 𝑠𝑠 + 1 8. 𝑔𝑔1 (𝑠𝑠). complex-conjugate zeros of the numerator transfer function of 𝑔𝑔2 (𝑠𝑠). and 𝑔𝑔2 (𝑠𝑠) is shown in Figure 3-16.3333𝑠𝑠2 − 5𝑠𝑠 + 1 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠) = ⋅ = 5𝑠𝑠 + 1 100 𝑠𝑠2 + 10 𝑠𝑠 + 1 41. 12/03/2018 Consider the first-order + dead time transfer function. and there are two positive. Dr. Salvador Tututi | UANL 6 ." The reader should find that there is a single positive zero for 𝑔𝑔1 (𝑠𝑠).333𝑠𝑠2 + 10𝑠𝑠 + 1 12 2 A comparison of the step responses of 𝑔𝑔(𝑠𝑠). Notice that the first-order approximation has an inverse response.667𝑠𝑠3 + 33. while the second-order approximation has a "double inverse response.Process Control.

𝜏𝜏1 = 3 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚. One of the many advantages to using SIMULINK is that time delays are easily handled so that no approximation is required. 𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛 = 20 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 find the peak temperature and the time that it occurs. 𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝 (𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛 𝑠𝑠 + 1) 𝑔𝑔𝑝𝑝 (𝑠𝑠) = (𝜏𝜏1 𝑠𝑠 + 1)(𝜏𝜏2 𝑠𝑠 + 1) For 𝑘𝑘𝑝𝑝 = 1°𝐶𝐶/(𝐿𝐿/𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚). which can then be numerically integrated. Solution: Dr. 𝜏𝜏2 = 15 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚. 12/03/2018 Most ordinary differential equation numerical integrators require pure differential equations (with no time delays). solve for the time domain output response to a step input change of magnitude Δ𝑢𝑢 at 𝑡𝑡 = 0. the Padé approximation can be used to convert them to delay-free differential equations. Example For the following second-order process with numerator dynamics.Process Control. Salvador Tututi | UANL 7 . If you have a system of differential equations that has time delays.

4 0. we use the Matlab convolution function conv([3 1].8 0. >> D=1.ynew) 1. 12/03/2018 (20𝑠𝑠 + 1) Δ𝑢𝑢 𝑔𝑔𝑝𝑝 (𝑠𝑠) = ⋅ (3𝑠𝑠 + 1)(15𝑠𝑠 + 1) 𝑠𝑠 syms s D >> g=(20*s+1)/((3*s+1)*(15*s+1)) g= (20*s + 1)/((3*s + 1)*(15*s + 1)) >> u=D/s u= D/s >> y=ilaplace(g*u) y= D . >> ynew=D . Salvador Tututi | UANL 8 .(17*D*exp(-t/3))/12 + (5*D*exp(-t/15))/12. >> plot(t.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 To plot directly the transfer function.[15 1]) Dr.6 0.1:100.2 0 -0.(17*D*exp(-t/3))/12 + (5*D*exp(-t/15))/12 In order to make a plot >> t=0:0.Process Control.2 1 0.

8 0.2 1 0. 12/03/2018 ans = 45 18 1 >> syst=tf([20 1].Process Control.4 0. Salvador Tututi | UANL 9 . >> step(syst) Step Response 1.[45 18 1]) syst = 20 s + 1 ----------------- 45 s^2 + 18 s + 1 Continuous-time transfer function. Dr.2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time (seconds) Note that the Matlab’s step function takes into account a Δ𝑢𝑢 = 1.6 Amplitude 0.