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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

(Redirected from Electrical conductivity)

see Conductivity. For specific applications in electrical elements, see Electrical resistance and
conductance.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume
resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow
of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement
of electric charge. Resistivity is commonly represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho). The SI unit of
electrical resistivity is the ohm⋅metre (Ω⋅m) although other units like ohm⋅centimetre (Ω⋅cm)
are also in use. As an example, if a 1 m × 1 m × 1 m solid cube of material has sheet contacts on
two opposite faces, and the resistance between these contacts is 1 Ω, then the resistivity of the
material is 1 Ω⋅m.
Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity, and
measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. It is commonly represented by the
Greek letter σ (sigma), but κ (kappa) (especially in electrical engineering) or γ (gamma) are also
occasionally used. Its SI unit is siemens per metre (S/m) and CGSE unit is
reciprocal second (s−1).
Another related quantity, widely used in the literature of plasma physics, is the magnetic
diffusivity defined as where is the magnetic permeability. The unit
of the magnetic diffusivity, in SI, is .

Contents
[hide]

 1 Definition
o 1.1 Resistors or conductors with uniform cross-section
o 1.2 General definition
 2 Causes of conductivity
o 2.1 Band theory simplified
o 2.2 In metals
o 2.3 In semiconductors and insulators
o 2.4 In ionic liquids/electrolytes
o 2.5 Superconductivity
o 2.6 Plasma
 3 Resistivity and conductivity of various materials
 4 Temperature dependence
o 4.1 Linear approximation
o 4.2 Metals
o 4.3 Semiconductors
 5 Complex resistivity and conductivity
 6 Tensor equations for anisotropic materials
 7 Resistance versus resistivity in complicated geometries
 8 Resistivity density products
 10 Notes
 11 References
 12 Further reading
 13 External links
Definition
Resistors or conductors with uniform cross-section

A piece of resistive material with electrical contacts on both ends.

Many resistors and conductors have a uniform cross section with a uniform flow of electric
current, and are made of one material. (See the diagram to the right.) In this case, the electrical
resistivity ρ (Greek: rho) is defined as:

where
R is the electrical resistance of a uniform specimen of the
material (measured inohms, Ω)
is the length of the piece of material (measured in metres,
m)
A is the cross-sectional area of the specimen (measured
in square metres, m2).
The reason resistivity is defined this way is that it
makes resistivity an intrinsic property, unlike
resistance. All copper wires, irrespective of their
shape and size, have approximately the
same resistivity, but a long, thin copper wire has a
much larger resistance than a thick, short copper
wire. Every material has its own characteristic
resistivity – for example, resistivity of rubber is far
larger than copper's.
In a hydraulic analogy, passing current through a
high-resistivity material is like pushing water through
a pipe full of sand—while passing current through a
low-resistivity material is like pushing water through
an empty pipe. If the pipes are the same size and
shape, the pipe full of sand has higher resistance to
flow. Resistance, however, is not solely determined
by the presence or absence of sand. It also depends
on the length and width of the pipe: short or wide
pipes have lower resistance than narrow or long
pipes.
The above equation can be transposed to
get Pouillet's law (named after Claude Pouillet):
The resistance of a given material increases
with length, but decrease with increasing cross-
sectional area. From the above equations,
resistivity has SI units of ohm⋅metre. Other units
like ohm⋅cm or ohm⋅inch are also sometimes
used.

The formula can be used to

intuitively understand the meaning of a
resistivity value. For example, if
and (forming a cube with perfectly
conductive contacts on opposite faces), then the
resistance of this element in ohms is numerically
equal to the resistivity of the material it is made
of in ohm-meters. Likewise, a 1 ohm⋅cm
material would have a resistance of 1 ohm if
contacted on opposite faces of a
1 cm×1 cm×1 cm cube.
Conductivity σ (Greek: sigma) is defined as the
inverse of resistivity:

Conductivity has SI units of siemens per

meter (S/m).
General definition
The above definition was specific to
resistors or conductors with a uniform cross-
section, where current flows uniformly
through them. A more basic and general
definition starts from the fact that an electric
field inside a material makes electric
current flow. The electrical resistivity ρ is
defined as the ratio of the electric field to the
density of the current it creates:

where
ρ is the resistivity of the conductor material (measured in
ohm⋅metres, Ω⋅m),
E is the magnitude of the electric field (in volts per metre,
V⋅m−1),
J is the magnitude of the current
density (in amperes per square metre, A⋅m−2),
in which E and J are inside
the conductor.
Conductivity is the inverse:
For example, rubber is
a material with
large ρ and small σ—
because even a very
large electric field in
rubber makes almost
no current flow through
it. On the other hand,
copper is a material
with small ρ and
large σ—because even
a small electric field
pulls a lot of current
through it.

Causes of
conductivity[edit
]
Band theory
simplified

Filling of the
electronic Density of
states in various
types of materials
at equilibrium. Here
the vertical axis is
energy while the
horizontal axis is the
Density of states for a
particular band in the
material listed.
Inmetals and semimet
als the Fermi
level EF lies inside at
least one band.
In insulators and semi
conductorsthe Fermi
level is inside a band
gap; however, in
semiconductors the
bands are near
enough to the Fermi
level to be thermally
populated with
electrons orholes.
edit

Quantum
mechanics states that
electrons in an atom
cannot take on any
arbitrary energy value.
Rather, the electrons
must occupy fixed
energy levels, and
values between these
levels are impossible.
When a large number
of such allowed energy
levels are spaced close
together (in energy-
space)—i.e., have
similar (minutely
differing)—energies,
we can talk about these
energy levels together
as an "energy band."
There can be many
such energy bands in a
material, depending on
the atomic number
{number of electrons (if
atom is neutral)} and
their distribution
(besides external
factors like
environmental
modification of the
energy bands).
The material's
electrons seek to
minimize the total
energy in the material
by going to low energy
states; however,
the Pauli exclusion
principle means that
they cannot all go to
the lowest state. The
up" the band structure
starting from the
bottom. The
characteristic energy
level up to which the
electrons have filled is
called the Fermi level.
The position of the
Fermi level with respect
to the band structure is
very important for
electrical conduction:
only electrons in
energy levels near
the Fermi level are free
to move around since
the electrons can easily
jump among the
partially occupied
states in that region. In
contrast, the low
energy states are
rigidly filled with a fixed
number of electrons at
all times, and the high
energy states are
empty of electrons at
all times.
In metals there are
many energy levels
near the Fermi level,
meaning that there are
many electrons
available to move. This
is what causes the high
electronic conductivity
in metals.
An important part of
band theory is that
there may be forbidden
bands in energy:
energy intervals that
contain no energy
levels. In insulators and
semiconductors, the
number of electrons
happens to be just the
right amount to fill a
certain integer number
of low energy bands,
exactly to the
boundary. In this case,
the Fermi level falls
within a band gap.
Since there are no
available states near
the Fermi level, and the
electrons are not freely
movable, the electronic
conductivity is very low.
In metals

Like balls in
electrons in a metal
quickly transfer
energy from one
terminal to another,
despite their own
negligible movement.

A metal consists of
a lattice of atoms, each
with an outer shell of
electrons that freely
dissociate from their
parent atoms and travel
through the lattice. This
is also known as a
positive ionic
lattice. This 'sea' of
dissociable electrons
allows the metal to
conduct electric
current. When an
electrical potential
difference (a voltage) is
applied across the
metal, the
resulting electric
field causes electrons
to drift towards the
positive terminal. The
actual drift velocity of
electrons is very small,
in the order of
magnitude of a meter
per hour. However, as
the electrons are
densely packed in the
material, the
electromagnetic field
is propagated through
the metal at the speed
of light. The
mechanism is similar to
transfer of momentum
of balls in a Newton's
Near room
temperatures, metals
have resistance. The
primary cause of this
resistance is the
collision of electrons
with the atoms that
make up the crystal
lattice. This acts to
scatter electrons and
lose their energy on
collisions rather than
on linear movement
through the lattice. Also
contributing to
resistance in metals
with impurities are the
resulting imperfections
in the lattice.
The larger the cross-
sectional area of the
conductor, the more
electrons per unit
length are available to
carry the current. As a
result, the resistance is
lower in larger cross-
section conductors.
The number of
scattering events
encountered by an
electron passing
through a material is
proportional to the
length of the conductor.
The longer the
conductor, therefore,
the higher the
resistance. Different
materials also affect
the resistance.
In
semiconductors
and
insulators
Main
articles: Semiconductor
and Insulator
(electricity)
In metals, the Fermi
level lies in the
conduction band (see
Band Theory, above)
giving rise to free
conduction electrons.
However,
in semiconductors the
position of the Fermi
level is within the band
gap, approximately
half-way between the
conduction band
minimum and valence
band maximum for
intrinsic (undoped)
semiconductors. This
means that at 0 kelvin,
there are no free
conduction electrons,
and the resistance is
infinite. However, the
resistance continues to
decrease as the charge
carrier density in the
conduction band
increases. In extrinsic
(doped)
semiconductors, dopan
t atoms increase the
majority charge carrier
concentration by
donating electrons to
the conduction band or
accepting holes in the
valence band. For both
types of donor or
acceptor atoms,
increasing dopant
density reduces
resistance. Hence,
highly doped
semiconductors
behave metallically. At
very high temperatures,
the contribution of
thermally generated
carriers dominate over
the contribution from
dopant atoms, and the
resistance decreases
exponentially with
temperature.
In ionic
liquids/electrolyte
s
Main
article: Conductivity
(electrolytic)
In electrolytes,
electrical conduction
happens not by band
electrons or holes, but
by full atomic species
(ions) traveling, each
carrying an electrical
charge. The resistivity
of ionic liquids varies
tremendously by the
concentration – while
distilled water is almost
an insulator, salt
water is a very efficient
electrical conductor.
In biological
membranes, currents
are carried by ionic
salts. Small holes in the
membranes, called ion
channels, are selective
to specific ions and
determine the
membrane resistance.
Superconductivity

Main
article: Superconductivi
ty
The electrical resistivity
of a
metallic conductor decr
temperature is lowered.
In ordinary conductors,
such
as copper or silver, this
decrease is limited by
impurities and other
defects. Even
near absolute zero, a
real sample of a normal
conductor shows some
resistance. In a
superconductor, the
resistance drops
abruptly to zero when
the material is cooled
below its critical
temperature.
An electric
current flowing in a
loop
of superconducting
wire can persist
indefinitely with no
power source.
In 1986, researchers
discovered that
some cuprate-
perovskite ceramic mat
erials have a critical
temperature above
90 K (−183 °C).[citation
needed]
Such a high
transition temperature
is theoretically
impossible for
a conventional
superconductor, so the
researchers named
these conductors high-
temperature
superconductors. Liqui
d nitrogen boils at 77 K,
facilitating many
experiments and
applications that are
less practical at lower
temperatures. In
conventional
superconductors,
electrons are held
together in pairs by an
attraction mediated by
lattice phonons. The
best available model of
high-temperature
superconductivity is still
somewhat crude. There
is a hypothesis that
electron pairing in high-
temperature
superconductors is
mediated by short-
range spin waves
known as
paramagnons.
Plasma
Main article: Plasma
(physics)
Lightning is an
example of plasma
present at Earth's
surface. Typically,
lightning discharges
30,000 amperes at up
to 100 million volts,
and emits light, radio
waves, X-rays and
even gamma
rays. Plasma
temperatures in
lightning can
approach 28,000
Kelvin (28,000 °C)
(50,000 °F) and
electron densities
may exceed 1024 m−3.

Plasmas are very

good electrical
conductors and electric
potentials play an
important role. The
potential as it exists on
average in the space
between charged
particles, independent
of the question of how
it can be measured, is
called the plasma
potential, or space
potential. If an
electrode is inserted
into a plasma, its
potential generally lies
considerably below the
plasma potential, due
to what is termed
good electrical
conductivity of plasmas
makes their electric
fields very small. This
results in the important
concept
ofquasineutrality, which
says the density of
negative charges is
approximately equal to
the density of positive
charges over large
volumes of the plasma
(ne = <Z>ni), but on the
scale of the Debye
length there can be
charge imbalance. In
the special case
that double layers are
formed, the charge
separation can extend
some tens of Debye
lengths.
The magnitude of the
potentials and electric
fields must be
determined by means
other than simply
finding the net charge
density. A common
example is to assume
that the electrons
satisfy the Boltzmann
relation:

Differentiating this
relation provides a
means to calculate
the electric field
from the density:

It is possible to
produce a
plasma that is
not
quasineutral.
An electron
beam, for
example, has
only negative
charges. The
density of a
non-neutral
plasma must
generally be
very low, or it
must be very
small.
Otherwise, the
repulsive electr
ostatic
force dissipate
s it.
In astrophysica
l plasmas, Deb
ye
screening prev
ents electric
fieldsfrom
directly
affecting the
plasma over
large
distances, i.e.,
greater than
the Debye
length.
However, the
existence of
charged
particles
causes the
plasma to
generate, and
be affected
by,magnetic
fields. This can
and does
cause
extremely
complex
behavior, such
as the
generation of
plasma double
layers, an
object that
separates
charge over a
few tens
of Debye
lengths. The
dynamics of
plasmas
interacting with
external and
self-
generated mag
netic fields are
studied in
discipline of m
agnetohydrody
namics.
Plasma is often
called
the fourth state
of matter after
solid, liquids
and
gases. It is
distinct from
these and
other lower-
energy states
of matter.
Although it is
closely related
to the gas
phase in that it
also has no
definite form or
volume, it
differs in a
number of
ways, including
the following:

Propert
Gas Plasma
y

Very
Electric low: Air Usually very high: For
al is an many purposes, the
conduc excellent conductivity of a plasma
tivity insulator may be treated as infinite.
until it
breaks
down
into
plasma at
electric
field
strengths
above 30
kilovolts
per
centimet
er.

One: All
Two or
gas
three: Electrons, ions, pr
particles
otons and neutrons can be
behave
distinguished by the sign
in a
and value of
similar
Indepe their charge so that they
way,
ndently behave independently in
influence
acting many circumstances,
d
species with different bulk
bygravity
velocities and
and
temperatures, allowing
by collisi
phenomena such as new
ons with
types
one
of waves and instabilities.
another.

Maxwell
ian:
Collision
s usually
lead to a Often non-Maxwellian:
Maxwelli Collisional interactions
an are often weak in hot
Velocit
velocity plasmas and external
y
distributi forcing can drive the
distrib
on of all plasma far from local
ution
gas equilibrium and lead to a
particles, significant population of
with very unusually fast particles.
few
relatively
fast
particles.

Binary: Collective: Waves, or

Two- organized motion of
Interac particle plasma, are very
tions collisions important because the
are the particles can interact at
rule, long ranges through the
three- electric and magnetic
body forces.
collisions
extremel
y rare.

Resistivit
y and
conductiv
ity of
various
materials[
edit]
Main
article: Electric
al resistivities
of the elements
(data page)

 A conducto
r such as
a metal ha
s high
conductivit
y and a
low
resistivity.
 An insulato
r like glass
has low
conductivit
y and a
high
resistivity.
 The
conductivit
y of
a semicon
ductor is
generally
intermediat
e, but
varies
widely
under
different
conditions,
such as
exposure
of the
material to
electric
fields or
specific
frequencie
s of light,
and, most
important,
with tempe
rature and
compositio
n of the
semicondu
ctor
material.
The degree
of doping in
semiconductor
s makes a
large
difference in
conductivity.
To a point,
more doping
conductivity.
The
conductivity of
a solution of w
ater is highly
dependent on
its concentratio
n of
dissolved salts,
and other
chemical
species
that ionize in
the solution.
Electrical
conductivity of
water samples
is used as an
indicator of
how salt-free,
ion-free, or
impurity-free
the sample is;
the purer the
water, the
lower the
conductivity
(the higher the
resistivity).
Conductivity
measurements
in water are
often reported
as specific
conductance,
relative to the
conductivity of
pure water
at 25 °C.
An EC meter is
normally used
to measure
conductivity in
a solution. A
rough
summary is as
follows:

Resistivity
Material
ρ (Ω·m)

Superconductors 0

Metals 10−8

Semiconductors variable

Electrolytes variable

Insulators 1016

This table
shows the
resistivity,
conductivity
and temperatur
e coefficient of
various
materials at
20 °C (68 °F,
293 K)

Te
mpe
ratu
re Re
σ (S/m)
Mate ρ (Ω·m) coef fer
at 20 °
rial at 20 °C ficie enc
C
nt[not e
e 1]

(K−1
)
Te
mpe
ratu
re Re
σ (S/m)
Mate ρ (Ω·m) coef fer
at 20 °
rial at 20 °C ficie enc
C
nt[not e
e 1]

(K−1
)

Carbon -
(graphe 1.00×10−8 1.00×108 0.00 

ne) 02

0.00 [1
Silver 1.59×10−8 6.30×107 7]
38

0.00
Copper 1.68×10−8 5.96×107 386 

Anneale
0.00
d coppe 1.72×10−8 5.80×107 
393
r[note 2]

Gold[note 0.00
3] 2.44×10−8 4.10×107 
34

Alumini 0.00
2.82×10−8 3.50×107 
um[note 4] 39

Calciu 0.00
3.36×10−8 2.98×107
m 41

Tungste 0.00
5.60×10−8 1.79×107 
n 45

0.00
Zinc 5.90×10−8 1.69×107 
37
Te
mpe
ratu
re Re
σ (S/m)
Mate ρ (Ω·m) coef fer
at 20 °
rial at 20 °C ficie enc
C
nt[not e
e 1]

(K−1
)

0.00
Nickel 6.99×10−8 1.43×107
6

0.00
Lithium 9.28×10−8 1.08×107
6

0.00
Iron 1.00×10−7 1.00×107 
5

Platinu 0.00
1.06×10−7 9.43×106 
m 392

0.00
Tin 1.09×10−7 9.17×106
45

Carbon
steel (1 1.43×10−7 6.99×106 

010)

0.00
Lead 2.20×10−7 4.55×106 
39

Titaniu
4.20×10−7 2.38×106 X
m

Grain
oriented
4.60×10−7 2.17×106 
electric
al steel
Te
mpe
ratu
re Re
σ (S/m)
Mate ρ (Ω·m) coef fer
at 20 °
rial at 20 °C ficie enc
C
nt[not e
e 1]

(K−1
)

0.00
Mangan
4.82×10−7 2.07×106 000 
in
2

0.00
Constan
4.90×10−7 2.04×106 000 
tan
8

Stainles
s 6.90×10−7 1.45×106 
steel[note
5]

Mercur 0.00
9.80×10−7 1.02×106 
y 09

Nichro 0.00
1.10×10−6 6.7×105 
me[note 6] 04

1.00×10−3 t 1.00×10−8 t 

GaAs
o 1.00×108 o 103

Carbon
5.00×10−4 t 1.25×103 t −0.0 [2
(amorp 7]
o 8.00×10−4 o 2×103 005
hous)

2.50×10−6 t 2.00×105 t
o 5.00×10−6 o 3.00×105
Carbon //basal //basal

(graphit plane plane
e)[note 7] 3.00×10−3 3.30×102
⊥basal ⊥basal
plane plane
Te
mpe
ratu
re Re
σ (S/m)
Mate ρ (Ω·m) coef fer
at 20 °
rial at 20 °C ficie enc
C
nt[not e
e 1]

(K−1
)

Carbon
(diamon 1.00×1012 ~10−13 

d)

German −0.0 [1

4.60×10−1 2.17 7]
ium[note 8] 48

Sea
water[note 2.00×10−1 4.80 

9]

Swimm
ing pool 0.25 to 0.3 
water[note
10]

Drinkin −4
[citati

g 2.00×101 to 5.00×10 −t on
o 5.00×10 neede
water[note 2.00×103 2 d]
11]

Silicon[n −0.0
ote 8] 6.40×102 1.56×10−3 
75

Wood 1.00×103 to
10−4 to 10−3 
(damp) 1.00×104

Deioniz
ed 1.80×105 5.50×10−6 
water[note
12]
Te
mpe
ratu
re Re
σ (S/m)
Mate ρ (Ω·m) coef fer
at 20 °
rial at 20 °C ficie enc
C
nt[not e
e 1]

(K−1
)

10.0×1010 t 10−11 to 10− [1

Glass ? 7]
o 10.0×1014 15

Hard
1.00×1013 10−14 ? 
rubber

Wood
1.00×1014 t 10−16 to 10− 
(oven
o 1.00×1016 14
dry)

1.30×1016 t 3×10−15 to 

Air
o 3.30×1016 8×10−15

PEDOT 1.00×10−3 t 1×101 to 1

?
:PSS o 1.00×10−1 ×103

Fused
7.50×1017 1.30×10−18 ? 
quartz

10.0×1022 t 10−25 to 10−

Teflon ?
o 10.0×1024 23

The effective
temperature
coefficient
varies with
temperature
and purity level
of the material.
The 20 °C
value is only
an
approximation
when used at
other
temperatures.
For example,
the coefficient
becomes lower
at higher
temperatures
for copper, and
the value
0.00427 is
commonly
specified
at 0 °C.
The extremely
low resistivity
(high
conductivity) of
silver is
characteristic
of
metals. George
Gamow tidily
summed up
the nature of
the metals'
dealings with
electrons in his
science-
popularizing
book, One,
Two,
Three...Infinity
(1947): "The
metallic
substances
differ from all
other materials
by the fact that
the outer shells
of their atoms
are bound
rather loosely,
and often let
one of their
electrons go
free. Thus the
interior of a
metal is filled
up with a large
number of
unattached
electrons that
travel aimlessly
around like a
crowd of
displaced
persons. When
a metal wire is
subjected to
electric force
applied on its
opposite ends,
these free
electrons rush
in the direction
of the force,
thus forming
what we call an
electric
current." More
technically,
the free
electron
model gives a
basic
description of
electron flow in
metals.
Wood is widely
regarded as an
extremely good
insulator, but
its resistivity is
sensitively
dependent on
moisture
content, with
damp wood
being a factor
of at
least 1010 wors
e insulator than
oven-dry. In
any case, a
sufficiently high
voltage – such
as that in
lightning
strikes or some
high-tension
powerlines –
insulation
breakdown and
electrocution
risk even with
apparently dry
wood.
Temperat
ure
dependen
ce
Linear
approximati
on
The electrical
resistivity of
most materials
changes with
temperature. If
the
temperature T
does not vary
too much,
a linear
approximation i
s typically
used:

where is
called
the temper
ature
coefficient
of
resistivity,
is a
fixed
reference
temperatur
e (usually
room
temperatur
e), and
is the
resistivity
at
temperatur
e . The
parameter
is an
empirical
parameter
fitted from
measurem
ent data.
Because
the linear
approximat
ion is only
an
approximat
ion, is
different
for
different
reference
temperatur
es. For this
reason it is
usual to
specify the
temperatur
e that
was
measured
at with a
suffix, such
as ,
and the
relationshi
p only
holds in a
range of
temperatur
es around
the
reference.[3
6]
When the
temperatur
e varies
over a
large
temperatur
e range,
the linear
approximat
ion is
and a
more
detailed
analysis
and
understand
ing should
be used.
Metals[e
dit]
In general,
electrical
resistivity
of metals i
ncreases
with tempe
rature.
Electron–
phonon int
eractions
can play a
key role. At
high
temperatur
es, the
resistance
of a metal
increases
linearly
with
temperatur
e. As the
temperatur
e of a
metal is
reduced,
the
temperatur
e
dependenc
e of
resistivity
follows a
power law
function of
temperatur
e.
Mathemati
cally the
temperatur
e
dependenc
e of the
resistivity ρ
of a metal
is given by
the Bloch–
Grüneisen
formula:

where

is the
residu
al
resistiv
ity due
to
defect
scatter
ing, A
is a
consta
nt that
depen
ds on
the
velocit
y of
electro
ns at
the Fer
mi
surfac
e,
the De
bye
and
the
numbe
r
density
of
electro
ns in
the
metal.
is
the De
bye
temper
ature a
s
obtain
ed
from
resistiv
ity
measu
rement
s and
match
es
very
closely
with
the
values
of
Debye
temper
ature
obtain
ed
from
specifi
c heat
measu
rement
s. n is
an
integer
that
depen
ds
upon
the
nature
of
interac
tion:

1. n
=
5

i
m
p
l
i
e
s

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

i
s

d
u
e

t
o
s
c
a
t
t
e
r
i
n
g

o
f

e
l
e
c
t
r
o
n
s

b
y

p
h
o
n
o
n
s

(
a
s

i
t

i
s

f
o
r

s
i
m
p
l
e

m
e
t
a
l
s
)
2. n
=
3

i
m
p
l
i
e
s

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

i
s

d
u
e

t
o

s
-
d

e
l
e
c
t
r
o
n

s
c
a
t
t
e
r
i
n
g

(
a
s

i
s

t
h
e

c
a
s
e

f
o
r

t
r
a
n
s
i
t
i
o
n

m
e
t
a
l
s
)
3. n
=
2
i
m
p
l
i
e
s

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

i
s

d
u
e

t
o

e
l
e
c
t
r
o
n

e
l
e
c
t
r
o
n

i
n
t
e
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
.
If more
than
one
source
of
scatter
ing is
simulta
neousl
y
presen
t,
Matthi
essen'
s Rule
(first
formul
ated
by Aug
ustus
Matthi
essen i
n the
1860s)

s
ays
that
the
total
resista
nce
can be
approx
imated
by
up
severa
l
differe
nt
terms,
each
with
the
approp
riate
value
of n.
As the
temper
ature
of the
metal
is
sufficie
ntly
reduce
d (so
as to
'freeze'
all the
phono
ns),
the
resistiv
ity
usually
reache
sa
consta
nt
value,
known
as
the res
idual
resisti
vity.
This
value
depen
ds not
only
on the
type of
metal,
but on
its
purity
and
therma
l
history
. The
value
of the
residu
al
resistiv
ity of a
metal
is
decide
d by its
impurit
y
conce
ntratio
n.
Some
materi
als
lose all
electric
al
resistiv
ity at
sufficie
ntly
low
temper
atures,
due to
an
effect
known
as sup
ercond
uctivity
.
An
investi
gation
of the
low-
temper
ature
resistiv
ity of
metals
was
the
motiva
tion
to Heik
e
Kamerl
ingh
Onnes'
s expe
riment
s that
led in
1911
to
discov
ery
of sup
ercond
uctivity
. For
details
see Hi
story
of
superc
onduct
ivity.
Semi
cond
uctor
s
Main
article:
Semic
onduct
or
In
genera
l, intrin
sic
semico
nducto
r resist
ivity
decrea
ses
with
increa
sing
temper
ature.
The
electro
ns are
bumpe
d to
thecon
ductio
n
energy
band b
y
therma
l
energy
,
where
they
flow
freely,
and in
doing
so
leave
behind
holes i
n
the val
ence
band,
which
also
flow
freely.
The
electric
resista
nce of
a
typical
intrinsi
c (non
doped)
semic
onduct
or decr
eases
expon
entially
with
temper
ature:

An
ev
en
be
tte
r
ap
pr
oxi
m
ati
on
of
th
e
te
m
pe
rat
ur
e
de
pe
nd
en
ce
of
th
e
re
sis
tivi
ty
of
a
se
mi
co
nd
uct
or
is
giv
en
by
th
eS
tei
nh
art

Ha
rt
eq
ua
tio
n:

w
h
e
r
e

A
,

a
n
d

a
r
e

t
h
e
s
o
-
c
a
l
l
e
d

S
t
e
i
n
h
a
r
t

H
a
r
t

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
s
.
T
h
i
s

e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

u
s
e
d

t
o

c
a
l
i
b
r
a
t
e

t
h
e
r
m
i
s
t
o
r
s
.
E
x
t
r
i
n
s
i
c

(
d
o
p
e
d
)

s
e
m
i
c
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r
s

h
a
v
e

f
a
r

m
o
r
e

c
o
m
p
l
i
c
a
t
e
d

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

p
r
o
f
i
l
e
.

A
s

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
s

s
t
a
r
t
i
n
g

f
r
o
m

a
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

z
e
r
o

t
h
e
y

f
i
r
s
t

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e

s
t
e
e
p
l
y

i
n

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

a
s

t
h
e

c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s

l
e
a
v
e

t
h
e

d
o
n
o
r
s

o
r

a
c
c
e
p
t
o
r
s
.

A
f
t
e
r

m
o
s
t

o
f

t
h
e

d
o
n
o
r
s

o
r

a
c
c
e
p
t
o
r
s

h
a
v
e

l
o
s
t

t
h
e
i
r

c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s

t
h
e

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

s
t
a
r
t
s

t
o

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

a
g
a
i
n

s
l
i
g
h
t
l
y

d
u
e

t
o

t
h
e

r
e
d
u
c
i
n
g

m
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s

(
m
u
c
h

a
s

i
n

m
e
t
a
l
)
.

A
t

h
i
g
h
e
r

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s

i
t

b
e
h
a
v
e
s

l
i
k
e

i
n
t
r
i
n
s
i
c

s
e
m
i
c
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r
s

a
s

t
h
e

c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

d
o
n
o
r
s
/
a
c
c
e
p
t
o
r
s

b
e
c
o
m
e

i
n
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
n
t

c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d

t
o

t
h
e
t
h
e
r
m
a
l
l
y

g
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
.
[
3
9
]

I
n

n
o
n
-
c
r
y
s
t
a
l
l
i
n
e

s
e
m
i
c
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r
s
,

c
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

c
a
n

o
c
c
u
r

b
y

c
h
a
r
g
e
s

q
u
a
n
t
u
m

t
u
n
n
e
l
l
i
n
g

f
r
o
m

o
n
e

l
o
c
a
l
i
s
e
d

s
i
t
e

t
o

a
n
o
t
h
e
r
.

T
h
i
s

i
s

k
n
o
w
n

a
s
v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e

r
a
n
g
e

h
o
p
p
i
n
g

a
n
d

h
a
s

t
h
e

c
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c

f
o
r
m
o
f

,
w
h
e
r
e

2
,

3
,

4
,

d
e
p
e
n
d
i
n
g

o
n

t
h
e

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l
i
t
y

o
f
t
h
e

s
y
s
t
e
m
.

C
o
m
p
l
e
x

r
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y

a
n
d

c
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
[
e
d
i
t
]
W
h
e
n

a
n
a
l
y
z
i
n
g

t
h
e

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

o
f

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s
t
o

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
n
g

e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

f
i
e
l
d
s

(
d
i
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

s
p
e
c
t
r
o
s
c
o
p
y
)
,

i
n

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

s
u
c
h

a
s
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l

i
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e

t
o
m
o
g
r
a
p
h
y
,
[
4
0
]

i
t

i
s

n
e
c
e
s
s
a
r
y

t
o

r
e
p
l
a
c
e

r
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y

w
i
t
h

c
o
m
p
l
e
x
q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

c
a
l
l
e
d

i
m
p
e
d
i
t
i
v
i
t
y

(
i
n

a
n
a
l
o
g
y

t
o

e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l

i
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
)
.

I
m
p
e
d
i
t
i
v
i
t
y

i
s

t
h
e

s
u
m

o
f

r
e
a
l

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
,

t
h
e

r
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y
,

a
n
d

a
n

i
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
,

t
h
e

r
e
a
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
(
i
n

a
n
a
l
o
g
y

t
o

r
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e
)
.

T
h
e

m
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

o
f

i
m
p
e
d
i
t
i
v
i
t
y
i
s

t
h
e

s
q
u
a
r
e

r
o
o
t

o
f

s
u
m

o
f

s
q
u
a
r
e
s

o
f

m
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
s

o
f

r
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y

a
n
d

r
e
a
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
.
C
o
n
v
e
r
s
e
l
y
,

i
n

s
u
c
h

c
a
s
e
s

t
h
e

c
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

m
u
s
t

b
e

e
x
p
r
e
s
s
e
d

a
s

c
o
m
p
l
e
x

n
u
m
b
e
r

(
o
r

e
v
e
n
a
s

m
a
t
r
i
x

o
f

c
o
m
p
l
e
x

n
u
m
b
e
r
s
,

i
n

t
h
e

c
a
s
e

o
f

a
n
i
s
o
t
r
o
p
i
c

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s
)

c
a
l
l
e
d

t
h
e

a
d
m
i
t
t
i
v
i
t
y
.

A
d
m
i
t
t
i
v
i
t
y

i
s

t
h
e
s
u
m

o
f

r
e
a
l

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

c
a
l
l
e
d

t
h
e

c
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

a
n
d

a
n

i
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

c
a
l
l
e
d

t
h
e

s
u
s
c
e
p
t
i
v
i
t
y
.
A
n

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e
d
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

t
o

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
n
g

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
s

u
s
e
s
a

r
e
a
l

(
b
u
t

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
-
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t
)

c
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
,

a
l
o
n
g

w
i
t
h
a

r
e
a
l

p
e
r
m
i
t
t
i
v
i
t
y
.

T
h
e

l
a
r
g
e
r

t
h
e

c
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

i
s
,

t
h
e
m
o
r
e

q
u
i
c
k
l
y

t
h
e

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
n
g
-
c
u
r
r
e
n
t

s
i
g
n
a
l

i
s

a
b
s
o
r
b
e
d
b
y

t
h
e

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

(
i
.
e
.
,

t
h
e

m
o
r
e

o
p
a
q
u
e

t
h
e

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

i
s
)
.
F
o
r

d
e
t
a
i
l
s
,

s
e
e

M
a
t
h
e
m
a
t
i
c
a
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