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Abstract:

In many industries various types of machines and equipment have been used for

various operations such as forging, hammering, cutting etc. But different

problems such as low power supply, less man power and also heavy laborious

work force, safety etc.

This projects relates to operation performed by this can be achieved by either

using electric motor power or by manually by means of simply rotating a hand

lever attached to the shaft and hammering action can be provided. If there is

good power supply it can be run automatically.

For automatic operation A.C. motor is provided. Chain drive, belt drive,

governor are also provided for speed control purposes so that the suitable speed

can be achieved. When no electric power supply is there the advance cam

operated hammer can be used manually by simply rotating the hand lever. Also

the handling is simple and maintenance is easy of the project.

A framing hammer including an automatic feeding magazine supported within

the hammerhead by guide rails with a self-loading magazine. Through the

center of the upper portion of the hammer handle lies the self-loading

reciprocating magazine. The top end of the magazine actuates due to the force

of the impact of the tool through its natural operation. The magazine is inclined

at 21° relative to the handle and is spaced in the center of the handle from the

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rear of the nail driving face. Structure is provided for individually driving a nail

from a magazine contained row of commercially available 21° collated nails

toward the rearward facing end of the hammerhead. Upon impact the tool

dispenses and sets a nail up to a 1½″ into the work surface, upon disengagement

the tool reciprocates to resets to its resting position whereupon the tool is ready

to repeat the action.

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CHAPTER -1
INTRODUCTION

Tread Hammering hammering machine can be considered as the backbone of

any hammering operation in mass production its principle function is to safely

and preciously hammering work like to perform the punching operation,

filleting operation, riveting operation and smithy operation i.e. upset forging etc

for all designed operating conditions.

This paper describes cad modeling, design and analysis of automatic portable

hammering machine. A programmed hammering machine self-working machine

going to assume an imperative part in the assembling procedure (hammering

process). Hammering machine utilized as a part of the generation of material

extending from instruments, to pivots, car frame forming, molding of metal and

so forth. The present development identified with metal squeezing machine and

forming machine included certain outstanding challenges in regard of to drive

nail, fit parts, forge metal and break separated question. The innovation has for

its question cure this downside and to empower, by including helper implies, to

drive nail, fit parts, manufacture metal and break separated protest the like.

Hammering is the most generally utilized in mechanical operation and also

development action. The suitability of such an idea was explored as far as

delivering reasonable and compacted plan for specialist which can be exchange

anyplace of this machine by any laborers.


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HAMMER TOOL

Howard Terhune, Cleveland, Ohio, United States Patent office journals,

Application – September 27, 1944, Serial no. 555977, Patented Oct. 28, 1947,

Published no. US2429780 This invention relates to portable motor operated and

manually controlled machine tools or implements, and more

specifically to an improved hammer tool and operating mechanis ms of the

reciprocating, rotary cam actuated type, and designed for interchangeable use as

a portable power operated hammer, wood chisel, scaling chisel, piercing punch,

rock drill, and other similar power tools. The novel operating mechanism of the

project is an attachment, is adapted for combination with and receives power

from a motor, as an electric motor, which is manually controlled to supply

rotary power and motion that is translated, or converted by the operating

mechanism into reciprocating motion and power for a tool holder having

selective interchangeable tools.

COMPOUND HAMMER

Harold S. Sheldon, Tekoa, Washington DC, United States Patent office

journals, Application – October 15, 1947, Serial no. 779931, Patented – March

21, 1950, Published no. US2501542 The invention herein disclosed relates to

steam and air hammers of the pile driver type and in which, usually the motive

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fluid is just admitted to lift and then released to drop the ram to achieve a strong

downward force to executing any hammering operations. The another objective

of this invention is also taking less time and reducing the breaking probability

of the load or other parts attached to the ram providing hammering action down

the line.

FORGING HAMMER (FLUID OPERATED)

J.J. Kupta Et Al, United States Patent office journals, Application – December

2, 1955, Serial no. 550718, Patented Oct. 23, 1957, Published no. US2789540

This project found very useful when finding out during the literature survey.

This project is simply is an improvement of forging hammers used for industrial

purposes. As we aware that in forging operation the temperature of the metal

part is so high that manual hammering operation is quite difficult for this

purpose. So in this project they provided control valves which directing the ram

up or down by the steam power. So that ram is moved up and down with

attached hammer automatically. So we can provide automatic control over

hammer for the purpose of vital operation like forging.

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SLIDER CRANK MECHANISM

In this prototype model we used slider crank mechanism to convert rotary

motion into linear motion. A crank is an arm attached at a right angle to a

rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the

shaft. It is used to convert circular motion into reciprocating motion, or vice

versa. The arm may be a bent portion of the shaft, or a separate arm or disk

attached to it. Attached to the end of the crank by a pivot is a rod, usually called

a connecting rod (con rod). The end of the rod attached to the crank moves in a

circular motion, while the other end is usually constrained to move in a linear

sliding motion. The term often refers to a human-powered crank which is used

to manually turn an axle, as in a bicycle crank set or a brace and bit drill. In this

case a person's arm or leg serves as the connecting rod, applying reciprocating

force to the crank. There is usually a bar perpendicular to the other end of the

arm, often with a freely rotatable handle or pedal attached.

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Fig 1: SLIDER CRANK MECHANISM

Many applications require a machine with reciprocating, linear sliding motion

of a component. Engines and compressors require a piston to move through a

precise distance, called the stroke, as a crank continuously rotates. Other

applications such as sewing machines and power hacksaws require a similar,

linear, reciprocating motion. A form of the slider-crank mechanism is used in

virtually all these applications.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF PROJECTS

 Determination of impact velocity and torque force of hammer.

 To determine the time required for the various operations.

 Prepare the modeling of project on CATIA V5R20.

 Automation with minimum man power.

 Low initial and operating cost.

 As time required in less useful in mass production

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 The main objective of our project work is to reduce or neglect the defined

problem and provide an idea to overcome various problems by fabricating

the concept as well as working model which represents a solution given

to the existing problem.

 So our objective is to provide an electric motor driven mechanism so that

the machine can perform operations with the help of electricity and

automatically. The another objective is to give manual handling

attachment by means of hand lever in the same model so that without

power supply the operator can perform the various hammering operations

without disrupting or stopping the machine.

 Another objective of our project is to get an impact from the hammer to

the work piece by using the effective way by Snail cam. So that the

complicated mechanisms get neglected and cost of the system can be

reduced very much.

1.3 INVENTIONS

This is the next generation of the hammer. This is an auto-feed system of

installing nails or modern fasteners used in any common facet in general

construction ranging from but not limited to from rough carpentry, finish

carpentry, and all other practical uses where a fastener is utilized. The system is

designed to have an interchangeable magazine and nail driver to accommodate

any nail size lending itself to the diversity of this product. This system will

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eliminate the need to manually hold a fastener during the act of installing said

fastener as the entire operation can be done with one hand as opposed to modern

techniques which includes the use of employing two hands; one hand to hold

the fastener and the other hand to operate the hammer. This entire single

operation is accomplished through the act of manually swinging the hammer

system with enough force to actuate the magazines' lateral movement upon

impact with the work surface, thereby driving the fastener into the intended

position. Upon impact and installation of said fastener into the work surface, the

subsequent nail from contained clip of nails will lift to position from a spring

pressured spring follower resulting in a fully prepared ready for actuated impact

of the Automatic Hammer.

Upon installation of fasteners into the work surface, the advantage and intended

use of the device is rotated 180° within the workhand. Once the hammer is

rotated, the Automatic Hammer system is used to complete the installation of

fastener through manual swinging and impact of the hammer head to fastener.

The resulting installation of fastener does not release an additional nail on the

opposite side of the hammer, due to the inertia device system. The inertia device

system restrains all lateral movement of the nail magazine. The prevention of

the nail magazine from lateral movement upon impact is due to the inertia

device plunger extending into the inertia device notch contained within the

hammer body. Once impact is complete, the inertia device plunger is reset to its

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natural position by the force of the inertia device spring into the inertia device

housing.

This Automatic Hammer solves the inherent problem of utilizing two hands as

opposed to the one-handed operation with this device. Secondly, the safety

implications of one handed use resolves the issue of impact to user; from

holding fastener with one hand and possible injury with hammer from other

hand.

The object of this invention is to more efficiently install a fastener into a work

surface with minimal effort as compared to currently used techniques due to the

limited technologies of the basic hammer.

1. A hammer body comprised of a portion divided at the rearward of the

length of said body creating a separation, this separation comes together

near the neck of the hammer body, which brings together a solid neck

connected to a waffle faced hammer head at the frontward portion of the

hammer body; extending from the hammer body towards the lower portion

of the tool; the divided hammer handles continues the separation of said

body, for clarity this creates a continuous separation starting from the

hammer handle and ending at the neck of the hammer body.

2. The hammer body as in claim 1 wherein the guide rail channel is imbedded

on each side of the rearward portion of the divided hammer body.

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3. The hammer body as in claim 1 wherein the guide rail channel houses a

guide rail channel spring.

4. The hammer body as in claim 1 wherein includes an inertia device notch in

the divided body portion of said body.

5. The hammer body as in claim 1 wherein connects to a hammer handle,

which will be made of fiberglass, composite, or metal wrapped by rubber

as to yet be determined through research and development.

6. The hammer body as in claim 1 wherein a hammer hanger is placed at the

base of the hammer handle in a circular design to hang on a tool belt.

7. A nail driver is the primary impact point between fastener and the

Automatic Hammer for setting fasteners into work surfaces and is

essentially a solid milled hardened rod with a groove milled into the lower

portion of the rod to accommodate the next fastener contained within the

collated nails; the nail driver is directly attached to the inner separation of

the hammer body.

1.3 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES.

Analytical methods can also be used to achieve precise results. Advanced

analytical techniques often involve intense mathematical CALCULATION. In

addition, the significance of the calculations is often difficult to visualize.


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The analytical techniques incorporated in this text couple the theories of

geometry, CAD Modeling and graphical mechanism analysis. This approach

will achieve accurate solutions, yet the CAD modeling of automatic hammering

machine graphical theories allow the solutions to be visualized. A significant of

automatic hammering machine dedicated to these analytical techniques.

1.4 FEATURES

 Instant Hammering.

 Fast Hammering Process.

 No Manual Effort.

 Portable System.

 Low Initial Cost.

 Low Tooling Cost.

 Accurate Repetition and Impact.

 User Friendly.

 Easy Maintenance.

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CHAPTER -2

METHODOLOGY AND MATERIALS

This project has various different design paths to complete our products while

matting the objectives. these means we will have to implement and compare our

different design to insure the best product on our sat of objectives .this paths

have changed as we progressed through our project, and there were few fore

seen methods that we expand upon in the design section.

The basic design for automatic hammering machine is to have motor fixed on

stand, and then motor shaft is inserted in center hole of the disc. Disc is

connected to the hammer rod with the link rod when we supply the dc current to

the dc motor by using adopter then the motor shaft start rotating further transmit

the spinning motion to the disc by using shaft the first decision is to create an

impact force for the respective operation this will help to determine product

affordability. A more efficient yet expensive design would be to have battery

instead of adopter. There is bound to be various obstacles and design method to

be implemented as projected progressives and will be observed and recorded as

they occur.

During literature survey we found various research papers in which we found

various methods which are been used to provide strong impact force to the work

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piece and our aim is to take that review for using as a guidance to make

"Advance cam operated hammer”.

2.1 COMPONENT STEEL PIPE

Steel casing pipe protects one or many of various types of utilities such as water
mains, gas pipes, electrical power cables, fiber optic cables, etc. The utility lines
that are run through the steel casing pipe are most commonly mounted and
spaced within the steel casing pipe by using "casing spacers" that are made of
various materials, including stainless steel or carbon steel and the more
economical plastic versions. The ends of a steel casing pipe "run" are normally
sealed with "casing end seals", which can be of the "pull-on" or "wrap-around"
rubber varieties. Steel casing pipe is also used in the construction of deep
foundations.

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2.2 HAMMER

In this project we have used hammer having weight 1.5kg for various operations

such as punching, upset forging, riveting, etc. these types of manufacturing

operations in manufacturing industries.

2.3 SPRIING
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
Springs are typically made of spring steel. There are many spring
designs. In everyday use, the term often refers to coil springs. The
rate or spring constant of a spring is the change in the force it
exerts, divided by the change in deflection of the spring.

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2.4 STEEL PLATE

Steel derives its mechanical properties from a combination of


chemical composition, heat treatment and manufacturing processes.
While the major constituent of steel is iron, the addition of very small
quantities of other elements can have a marked effect upon the
properties of the steel. The strength of steel can be increased by the
addition of alloys such as manganese, niobium and vanadium.
However, these alloy additions can also adversely affect other
properties, such as ductility , toughness and weldability .
Mechanical working takes place as the steel is being rolled or formed.
The more steel is rolled, the stronger it becomes. This effect is
apparent in the material standards, which tend to specify reducing
levels of yield strength with increasing material thickness.
The effect of heat treatment is best explained by reference to the
various production process routes that can be used in steel
manufacturing, the principal ones being:

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2.5 NUT AND BOLT

Bolts are often used to make a bolted joint. This is a combination of


the nut applying an axial clamping force and also the shank of the bolt
acting as a dowel, pinning the joint against sideways shear forces. For
this reason, many bolts have a plain unthreaded shank (called the grip
length) as this makes for a better, stronger dowel. The presence of the
unthreaded shank has often been given as characteristic of bolts vs.
screws,[3] but this is incidental to its use, rather than defining. The
grip length should be chosen carefully, to be around the same length
as the thickness of the materials, and any washers, bolted together.[4]
Too short places the dowel shear load onto the threads, which may
cause fretting wear on the hole.

A screw must always be turned to assemble the joint. Many bolts are

held fixed in place during assembly, either by a tool or by a design of

non-rotating bolt, such as a carriage bolt, and only the corresponding

nut is turned

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2.3 ANALYSIS OF SOME EXISTING DESIGN

Fig 3: PROTOTYPE AUTOMATIC HAMMERING MACHINE

The most reliable design of automatic hammering machine are described below

along with their specification in order to show the different existing approaches

to the small and portable automatic hammering concept. These data could be
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useful when performing the initial sizing in the design stage of automatic

hammering machine project. Following are 13 designs for initial data collection:

Total weight =6 kg.

 Hammer weight = 1.5 kg.

 Hammer length =460mm.

 Hammer stroke height = 186 mm.

 Width = 355 mm.

 Height = 450 mm.

 Length = 580 mm.

 Typical operation = Common Riveting for 2 mm rivet.

 Steel Plate = 450mm.× 750 mm.

 Spring = 100 gm And 25mm.

 Bolt = .5 inch Dia 10mm. Lenth 8. Number of Bolt Used.

2.4 BACKGROUND

The Automatic Hammer is a combination of the common use hammer and

pneumatic nail gun. A nail gun, nailgun, or nailer is a type of tool used to drive

nails into wood or some other kind of material. The first nail gun used air

pressure and was introduced to the market in 1950 to speed the construction of

housing (Unknown, Nail Gun, n.d.).

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A nail gun uses the most popular sort of nail-loading mechanism. The nails are

connected together in a long strip. This nail strip loads into the gun's magazine,

which feeds into the “barrel” of the gun. Springs in the base of the magazine

push the nail strip into the barrel. When the hammer comes down, it separates

the first nail from the strip, driving it out of the gun and into the wood. When

the hammer is cocked back, the springs push the next nail into position (Harris,

2001).

Framing hammers, used for framing wooden houses, are heavy duty rip

hammers with a straight claw. The hammer heads typically weigh from 20 to 32

ounces (567 to 907 grams) for steel heads, and 12 to 16 ounces (340 to 454

grams) for titanium heads. Heavy heads, longer handles, and milled faces allow

for driving large nails quickly into dimensional lumber.

Framing hammers have increasingly been replaced by nail guns for the majority

of nails driven on a wood framed house. A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an

impact to an object. The most common uses are for driving nails, fitting parts,

forging metal and breaking up objects. Hammers are often designed for a

specific purpose, and vary widely in their shape and structure. The usual

features are a handle and a head, with most of the weight in the head. The basic

design is hand-operated, but there are also many mechanically operated models

for heavier uses, such as steam hammers.

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The hammer may be the oldest tool for which definite evidence exists. Stone

hammers are known to be dated to 2,600,000 BCE. The hammer is a basic tool

of many professions. By analogy, the name hammer has also been used for

devices that are designed to deliver blows. The essential part of a hammer is the

head, a compact solid mass that is able to deliver the blow to the intended target

without itself deforming.

In recent years the handles have been made of durable plastic or rubber. The

hammer varies at the top; some are larger than others giving a larger surface

area to hit different sized nails and such (Unknown, n.d.).

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CHAPTER -3

DESIGN OF HAMMERING MACHINE

3.1. Calculations

A) To calculate maximum torque by Foot

Given Data:-

Force Appied

F = 30 N

D = 1. Meter

Workdane =30 N-M

Power Transmitted by Foot,

P=F×D

= 96 × 1

P= 96 W

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Distance of rod BA,

Fig 4: FREE BODY DIAGRAM

To find the distance of BA,

By Pythagoras theorem

(AB) 2 + (BC) 2 = (CA) 2

(AB) 2 + (153) 2 = (420)2

(AB) = 391.14 mm

B) To find torque force transmitted we have two cases

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CASE 1: When Hammer Moves Downward.

Given:

(BC) = h = 153 mm = 0.153 mm

Maximum torque = 30.55 N-m

= 30.55 × 103 N-mm

Length of hammer rod = 420 mm

= 0.42 m

CASE 2: WHEN HAMMER GOES UPWARD, TORQUE FORCE WILL

BE DECREASED

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C) TO FIND IMPACT VELOCITY OF HAMMER,

Given:-

H =153 mm = 0.153 m

T (time required for one re revolution of Disc) = 2 sec.

So,

V=h×T

V = 0.15 × 2

So the impact velocity of hammer is 0.306 m /sec.

RESULT

Thus for riveting of 2mm rivet calculated the impact velocity

is 0.306 m/sec with a torque force of 83.86 N-m is sufficient

and it is calculated successfully.

D) TO CALCULATE SHEAR STRESS IN BOLTED JOINT

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We have bolted joints so there is torsional shear stress in

joints,

We have,

T = 30.55 N-m.

d = Diameter of bolt 10 mm.

J = polar moment of inertia.

RESULT

As the standard permissible value of shear stress for M10 bolt is 396.8 × 103

N/mm2 and the calculated value of shear stresses is 311.73 × 103 N/m2 so

Therefore the value of shear stress is less than permissible shear stress the

design is safe.

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CHAPTER -3

COMPUTER AIDED MODELLING

4.1 INTRODUCTION

CAD modelling is used by many designers to create elaborate computerized

model of objects. CAD is computer-aided design. Engineers, architects, and

even stands artists utilize computers to assist their design projects. Computers

allow them to in visualize their designs and confront problems before they have

expended any of the resources necessary to put them into physical form CAD

modelling takes many different forms depending on the type of project. Some

models are simple two dimensional representations of various views of an

object. Others are elaborate threedimensional cross-sections that show every

detail in great depth. It is an important industrial art involved in automotive,

aerospace, prosthetic, and artistic designs. The use of CAD modelling is

massively widespread; anything from chairs to rockets can be designed with the

aid of computer programs. CAD modelling has had a profound effect on the

process's development. First, a general idea must be made to solve a specific

problem. Next, CAD modelling is used to work out the specifics of the model's

design.

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4.2 TYPE OF CAD MODELING

4.2.1 WIREFRAME MODELS

Wireframe systems were developed in the early 1960s to automate design

drafting of the early 3 CAD Systems used wireframe models. The very first

systems were only 2D and the user had to construct a model point by point and

line by line. A wireframe model is represented by tables defining edges and

points. The start point and the end point of each edge are stored in the edge

table. An edge may be a line or a curve. The coordinates of each point are stored

in the point table. This representation is natural for a designer who is familiar

with mechanical drawing" since is the lines and curves in a drawing which

define 3D shape a wireframe it simply in a computer as a data structure. The

storage space is Del stored very is l and the access time very short.

4.2.2 SURFACE MODELS

Surface models a surface model is represented by tables of edges and points, as

is a wireframe model, but additional to wireframe. A surface model is

represented by tables of faces. The face table stores information on which edges

are attached to each face, In most conventional CAD systems for free-form

surfaces, surface models have been used as internal representations. However, a

surface model is a set of faces, and as such can be ambiguous when determining

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the volume of an object. Surface models play an important role in industry,

because they give an accurate description of the surface of an object. An

example of a very simple surface models shown in Figure.

4.2.3 SOLID MODELS

Because there is no ambiguity in using a solid s 3D object, the importance of

using solid modelling has been widely recognized. Solid models can support a

wide range of activities, like interference check computation of volume and

surface area, finite element analysis etc. In general, most solid modelling

systems have adopted either constructive solid geometry CSG) or boundary

representation (B-Rep) as representations of solid Solids. Solid models may be

divided in three basic classes as follows:

l. Decomposition models represent a solid as a collection of simple object

from a fixed collection of primitive object types, combined with a single

gluing operation;

2. Constructive models represent a solid as a combination of primitive solids

each of the primitives is represented as an instance of a primitive solid

type. Different types of constructive modelling representations are half

pace representation and CSG;

3. Boundary models represent a solid in terms of its boundary. The boundary

of a solid is a surface that is usually represented as a collection of faces.

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Faces again, are often represented as a bounded region of the surfaces. B-

Rep represents a solid boundary as a "skin" around the object. Following

showing the 3D solid models of various components of project by using

modelling software CATIA V5R20

4.3 CAD DRAWINGS OF HAMMERING MACHINE

FIG 5: 3D VIEW OF AUTOMATIC HAMMERING MACHINE

FIG 6: SIDE VIEW OF AUTOMATIC HAMMERING MACHINE

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CHAPTER - 5

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES AND

APPLICATIONS

5.1 ADVANTAGES

The Advance Cam operated Hammer has many advantages for industrial

purposes. These are as follows:

 Available in wide variety of sizes.

 Maintain good control and required force.

 Low cost.

 Save man power.

 Saves time.

 Time delay can be achieved easily.

 Mass production.

 Compact in size.

 Easy to operate.

 Skilled labor may or may not be required.

 Simple in construction.

 Maintenance cost low and easy.

 Electrical power may or may not be required.

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 Time consumption during operation is less.

 Different operation can performed in this machine.

 Heavy laborious effort is not required while operate by manually.

 The operation can be performed in the both way i.e. a

5.2 DISADVANTAGES

 This mechanism is only suitable for few operations.

 As torque force required is more there is difficult to

 find the motor to achieve the required torque.

 Having little wear.

5.3 APPLICATION

In manufacturing industries to perform different operations as follows.

 To perform smithy operation i.e. upset forging.

 To perform the punching operation.

 To perform filleting operation as torque force produce is sufficient for the

operation.

 To perform riveting operation etc.

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CHAPTER - 6

CONCLUSIONS & FUTURE WORK

We have successfully calculated the torque force of the motor. For the design

the impact velocity and torque force for riveting of 2 mm rivet is calculated

accurately. The entire modelling of the project is done with the help of CATIA

V5R20. In this addition to this. The project work has provided us an excellent

opportunity and experience, to use our limited knowledge. We gained a lot of

practical knowledge regarding. Planning, Perching, assembling and machining

while doing this feel that the project work is good solution to bridge the gates

project work. We between institutions and industries. We are proud that we

have completed the work with limited time successfully Automatic hammering

machine is working with satisfactory condition. We have done to our ability and

skill making ma work

FUTURE SCOPE

The concept of an automatic hammering machine in this paper has been shown

to have a place in the actual market and to fill a need demanded by potential

customer. IN this paper, the concept of automatic hammering machine

prototype will have to fulfill the basic design requirement, let us add the

proposed concept will a few more lines about our impression project work. Help
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in production line where many workers are used for the material handling

purpose it also reduce the cost and threshing time requirement of more number

of worker will completely eliminated as only two workers can carried out the be

complete operation. The project objective originally is to reduce human efforts

in manufacturing industries. The in future the complete stress analysis of the

project model could be done. This analysis could be done by us. Moreover, for

the automatic hammering machine to achieve fully success in the future, many

collateral improvement must be done in terms of systems (autopilot technology,

for instant) and time delay management (pedal operated control will be

required) and some modification can will be done in this project

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CHAPTER - 7

REFERENCES

1) David H. Myaszk, Mechanisms and machine analysis – 4th edition.

2) www.hotelkishanpalaceheritage.com.

3) www.nevoprojects.com/automated-portablehammering-machine.

4) Machine design book RS khurmi & JK gupta for calculation.

5) Howard Terhune, Cleveland, Ohio, United States Patent office journals,

Application – September 27, 1944, Serial no. 555977, Patented Oct. 28,

1947, Published no. US2429780

6) Harold S. Sheldon, Tekoa, Washington DC, United States Patent office

journals, Application – October 15, 1947, Serial no. 779931, Patented –

March 21, 1950, Published no. US2501542

7) J.J. Kupta Et Al, United States Patent office journals, Application –

December 2, 1955, Serial no. 550718, Patented Oct. 23, 1957, Published

no. US2789540

8) James Kepnar, Lawrenceville, GA (US), United States Patent office

journals, Application filled – March 23, 2001, Serial no. 09/815,677,

Patented September. 26, 2002, Published no. US 2002/0133997 A1

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4th edition

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509 to 557, Chapter 14. Shaft, pg. no.759 to 775, Chapter21. Chain Drive,

pg. no.996 to 1020, Chapter 27. Bearings, pg. no.1021 to 1124,

Chapter28, 29, 30, 31)

13) Design Data for Machine Elements by B.D. Shiwalkar (pg. 109 to 124,

pg. 125 to 131, pg. 150 to 154. pg. 155 to 160, pg. 39

36