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09-Mar-18

Correlation

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Correlations: Measuring and Describing Relationships

• A correlation is a statistical method used to


measure and describe the relationship
between two variables.
• A relationship exists when changes in one
variable tend to be accompanied by consistent
and predictable changes in the other variable.

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Correlations: Measuring and Describing


Relationships

• A correlation typically evaluates three aspects


of the relationship:
– the direction
– the form
– the degree

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Correlations: Measuring and Describing


Relationships

• The direction of the relationship is measured


by the sign of the correlation (+ or -). A
positive correlation means that the two
variables tend to change in the same
direction; as one increases, the other also
tends to increase.

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Correlations: Measuring and Describing


Relationships

• The most common form of relationship is a


straight line or linear relationship which is
measured by the Pearson correlation.

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Correlations: Measuring and Describing


Relationships

• The degree of relationship (the strength or


consistency of the relationship) is measured
by the numerical value of the correlation. A
value of 1.00 indicates a perfect relationship
and a value of zero indicates no relationship.

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Correlations: Measuring and Describing


Relationships

• To compute a correlation you need two


scores, X and Y, for each individual in the
sample.
• The Pearson correlation requires that the
scores be numerical values from an interval or
ratio scale of measurement.

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The Pearson Correlation

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Example

Student X Y
A 0 4
B 2 1
C 8 10
D 6 9
E 4 6

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Scatter plot

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HIPOTESIS

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Reporting

• A correlation for the data revealed that score


subject X and score subject Y were not
significantly related, r=0.86, n=5 , α = 0.05 two
tails.

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SPSS
Correlations

X Y
X Pearson Correlation 1 .861
Sig. (2-tailed)
.061
N 5 5
Y Pearson Correlation .861 1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.061
N 5 5

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r=0.861
Strong correlation but not significant
(α = 0.061)

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EXAMPLE 2: Question 14 pg#559

Student X Y

A 11 14
B 6 7
C 16 15
D 4 7
E 1 3
F 10 9
G 5 9
H 3 8

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Scatter Plot

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SPSS
Correlations

XX YY
XX Pearson Correlation
1 .904**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.002
N
8 8
YY Pearson Correlation
.904** 1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.002
N
8 8
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

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r=0.904
Strong correlation and significant
(α = 0.002)

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SPSS
CORRELATION
Pearson correlation
For interval or ratio scale

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DATA STRUCTURE

What is the correlation on Math test


score for Jan and Dec?

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scatterplot

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r=0.791

Strong correlation
and significant

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SPSS
CORRELATION
Spearman correlation
For ordinal data

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• Likert Scale
Data
• Convert to
ordinal
data

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Original data

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Converted to ordinal data

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Correlations

AFTER BEFORE
AFTER Pearson Correlation 1 .830**

Sig. (2-tailed) .001

N 12 12

BEFORE Pearson Correlation .830** 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .001

N 12 12

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

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r=0.830 ( strong correlation)


And significant

BUT
Illegal
Why?
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Correlations

AFTER BEFORE
Spearman's rho AFTER Correlation 1.000 1.000**
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) . .

N 12 12

BEFORE Correlation 1.000** 1.000


Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) . .

N 12 12

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

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r=1 ( strong correlation)


And significant

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What is the correlation on favourite


teacher for Jan and June?

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r=0.838

Strong correlation
and significant

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The Point-Biserial Correlation and the Phi Coefficient


• The Pearson correlation formula can also be used to
measure the relationship between two variables
when one or both of the variables is dichotomous.
• A dichotomous variable is one for which there are
exactly two categories: for example, men/women or
succeed/fail or Yes/No
• Assign numerical values to the two categories of the
dichotomous variable(s). Traditionally, one category
is assigned a value of 0 and the other is assigned a
value of 1.

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The Point-Biserial Correlation

• In situations where one variable is


dichotomous (nominal or ordinal)and the
other consists of regular numerical scores
(interval or ratio scale).
– Example:
• Yes/No vs Income
• Gender(Male/Female) vs Math Score

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Phi Coefficient correlation

• When both variables are dichotomous.


– Example:
• Gender(male/female) vs agreed/disagree
• Yes/no vs men/women
• Like/dislike vs gender(male/female)

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SPSS
CORRELATION
The Point-Biserial Correlation
For dichotomous vs interval/ratio

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DATA STRUCTURE

What is the correlation between


Gender and Math Jan test score?

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r=0.212

weak correlation
and not significant

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SPSS
CORRELATION
Phi (ф) -coefficient
For dichotomous vs dichotomous

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What is the correlation between


Gender and like Math teacher?

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r=-0.287

weak correlation
and not significant

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Partial Correlation

• A partial correlation measures the relationship


between two variables (X and Y) while
eliminating the influence of a third variable
(Z).
• Partial correlations are used to reveal the real,
underlying relationship between two variables
when researchers suspect that the apparent
relation may be distorted by a third variable.

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Partial Correlation (cont.)

• For example, there probably is no underlying


relationship between weight and mathematics
skill for elementary school children.
• However, both of these variables are positively
related to age: Older children weigh more
and, because they have spent more years in
school, have higher mathematics skills.

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Partial Correlation (cont.)

• As a result, weight and mathematics skill will


show a positive correlation for a sample of
children that includes several different ages.
• A partial correlation between weight and
mathematics skill, holding age constant,
would eliminate the influence of age and
show the true correlation which is near zero.

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X= Mathematics Skills
Y= Weight
Z=Age

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Not Appropriate

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Z=1

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Z=2

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Z=3

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Without control With control variable


variable

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Introduction to Regression

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Introduction to Linear Regression

• The Pearson correlation measures the degree


to which a set of data points form a straight
line relationship.
• Regression is a statistical procedure that
determines the equation for the straight line
that best fits a specific set of data.

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Introduction to Linear Regression (cont.)

• Any straight line can be represented by an


equation of the form Y = bX + a, where b and a
are constants.
• The value of b is called the slope constant and
determines the direction and degree to which
the line is tilted.
• The value of a is called the Y-intercept and
determines the point where the line crosses
the Y-axis.

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Introduction to Linear Regression (cont.)

The equation for the regression line is

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Example

X Y
2 3
6 11
0 6
4 6
5 7
7 12
5 10
3 9

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SPSS
Regression

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DATA STRUCTURE

What is the equation for the regression


line of Math test score for Jan and Dec?

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SPSS

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Y=0.568X + 43.087

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Multiple Regression

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Introduction to Multiple Regression with Two


Predictor Variables

• In the same way that linear regression


produces an equation that uses values of X to
predict values of Y, multiple regression
produces an equation that uses two different
variables (X1 and X2) to predict values of Y.

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Introduction to Multiple Regression with Two


Predictor Variables (cont.)

• For two predictor variables, the general form of the


multiple regression equation is:
Ŷ= b1X1 + b2X2 + a

• The ability of the multiple regression equation to


accurately predict the Y values is measured by first
computing the proportion of the Y-score variability
that is predicted by the regression equation and the
proportion that is not predicted.

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Example (pg#582)
Person Y(dependent) X1(independent) X2(independent)
A 11 4 10
B 5 5 6
C 7 3 7
D 3 2 4
E 4 1 3
F 12 7 5
G 10 8 8
H 4 2 4
J 8 6 10
J 6 2 3

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Example
Person Y(dependent) X1(independent) X2(independent)
A 11 4 10
B 5 5 6
C 7 3 7 SPx1y=52
D 3 2 4
E 4 1 3 SPx2y=47
F 12 7 5
G 10 8 8 SPx1x2=35
H 4 2 4
J 8 6 10
J 6 2 3
My=7 Mx1=4 Mx2=6
SSy=90 SSx1=52 SSx2=64

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SPSS
Multiple Regression

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DATA STRUCTURE

What is the equation for the regression line


of Math test score for Jan, Jun and Dec?

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SPSS

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SPSS

Z=-0.037X + 0.775Y + 26.596


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