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Cambridge International AS Level Physics Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Answers to EOC questions

Chapter 11 b i Current = 0.72 – 0.48 = 0.24 A 
ii 0.24 A 
1 a i When p.d. = 2.0 V, current I = 0.25 A  c Resistance of the thermistor decreases 
2.0 = 8 Ω
so resistance R = 0.25  so circuit resistance decreases 
ii resistance = 5.0
0.5 = 10 Ω  so ammeter reading increases. 
b A filament lamp 
6 a The atoms vibrate more 
2 a Graph showing a current greater than zero at so their effective cross-sectional area
0 °C, with a positive gradient; it may or may increases and there are more collisions. 
not be linear.  b Cross-sectional area 
b Use the graph as a calibration graph. Keeping Material of which the wire is made 
the voltage across the thermistor constant, 1.5 
c i R = VI = 0.24 
place the thermistor at the point where the = 6.25 Ω 
temperature is to be measured.  ρl –8
1.69 × 10  × 5
Read the current and convert to a ii R = A so A = 6.25 
–8 2
temperature using the calibration graph.  A = 1.35 × 10  m 
d =   4A –4
π = 1.3 × 10  m
3 a The number density of free electrons is very
high in copper.  d Less area open to air 
In silicon the number density of free Less cooling, therefore temperature rises. 
electrons is very much less (a million times). Current decreases. 
 ρl ρl
7 a
R = A and A = thickness × width, so t = Rw  
b In a metallic conductor such as copper, the 3 –3

vibration of the ions increases their effective t =  2.3 × 106 × 36 × 10–3  

1.1 × 10  × 32 × 10
cross-section to the migrating electrons.  = 0.0023 m (2.3 mm) 
The higher the temperature, the more b I = RV = 12 6  
vibration, hence the greater the effective 1.1 × 10
cross-section and the more collisions there = 1.1 × 10–5 A 
are between the electrons and the ions. This c Resistance would decrease. 
reduces the mean drift velocity.  Current would increase. 
In semiconductors, thermal energy gives Silicon wafer would get even hotter, with
electrons sufficient energy to escape from avalanche effect creating more and more
their parent atoms.  charge carriers. 
The greater the temperature, the greater the
number of electrons that can escape, so the 8 a i

more charge carriers there are and the lower

the resistance. 
ρl –8
4 a Resistance = A = 1.3 × 10  × 1.5 –6  
0.008 × 10 ii
= 2.4 Ω 
A –9
b l = R ρ = 30 × 8.0 × 10
–8   b Diode has very low resistance (in forward
1.3 × 10 direction), so large current. 
= 18.5 ≈ 18 m 
Heating would lead to damage to diode /
5 a
V = IR = 0.48 × 5  supply.
= 2.4 V  c R = VI = 1.4 –3  
20 × 10
= 70 Ω 

Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics © Cambridge University Press 2014

Cambridge International AS Level Physics Answers to end-of-chapter questions

9 a The current through the resistor is

proportional to the p.d. across it 
at constant temperature. 
b i Straight horizontal line (assuming V is on
x-axis)
ii As above, but at a higher resistance. 
iii Both at a (slightly) higher level. 
c R ∝ length:
2 × length → 2 × resistance 
1
R ∝ cross-sectional area:
2 × diameter → 4 × area → 14  × resistance 
1 1
new resistance = 2 × 4  = 2  × old resistance