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# ANALYSIS

## Heat is form of energy that may be transferred if there is a difference in the

temperature. Temperature is a quantitiy that means hotness or coldness of a
material. The term heat is used to describe the flow of energy; in absence of work
interactions, the heat that is transferred to an object ends up getting stored in the
object in form of internal energy. Calorimetry, on the other hand, is a method of
determing the amount of heat quantitatively. It utilizes the las of heat exchange
which states that in an isolated system, the amount of heat given up by the hot body
is equal to the about of heat absorbed by the cold body.

## In this experiment, entitled, E302: Heat and Calorimetry, we are required to

determine the specific heat of metals and the latent heat of fusion of ice using a
common insulating material, the calorimeter. The law of heat exchange is helpful in
achieving the objectives in this experiment. 𝑄𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑡 = 𝑄𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 is the relationship that
states that whatever hear is lost by the body having initial higher temperature shall
be equal to the heat gained by the body having initially a lower temperature. The
amount of hear needed to raise the temperature of a body depends on the mass, the
change in temperature, and the constant for a body known as the specific heat or to
simplify: 𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐∆𝑡. Latent heat of fusion, which is part of the objective of this
experiment, is the heat required per unit mass. It is also known as the amount of
heat needed to change the phase of uit mass without any change in temperature. It
is important to take note that Latent heat of fusion is a constant property.

In order to completely utilize this equation, we gathered our data and simply
input these data into our equation. It is also important to consider that immersion of
the metal in boiling water for a long time is important so that we can be sure that
the system attains thermal equilibrium as the heat flows from the boiling water to
the metal through convection.
APPLICATIONS

## Heat transfer is an important knowledge in Civil Engineering with

association with the ever more demanding energy efficiency requirements of today
are driving engineers to continuously improve the efficiency of heat transfer
processes.

## In Steel Structures, knowledge in Heat Transfer is crucial in order to design a

steel structure as well as maintaining it. Steel is a metal alloy whose major
component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. The behavior of
steel when exposed to high temperatures is of critical importance for the safety and
stability of the building. The temperature rise for a steel member is a function of the
materials, thermal conductivity and specific heat. Thermal conductivity which is the
rate at which heat passes through a specified material, tends to decrease with the
increase in temperature while specific heat tends to increase with the increase in
temperature.

## In Concrete Structures, In construction, concrete is a composite building material

made from a combination of aggregate, cement binder and water. After mixing, the
cement hydrates and hardens into a stonelike material. Since concrete tends to
absorb moisture from the air, the heat transfer process is affected by the migration
of water. Due to the properties of concrete it can absorb a large amount of heat. In
most methods, constant thermal values are assumed for design purposes.
CONCLUSION

The concept of the experiment shows how heat of the surrounding can affect
the temperature of an object. I can conclude that heat absorb by the metal depends
on the property of the metal to absorb heat. The more heat it absorb the lesser the
specific heat of that metal. They are inversely proportional to each other. Specific
heat, depends on most of the metals like the Aluminum and Copper. Also, the
specific heat of each metal can only be measured in such temperature-sensitive
materials because of its very small actual values that cannot be easily measured on
other metals.

In determining the latent heat of fusion of the ice, it can be observed that the
greater the mass of ice, the lesser its latent heat of fusion. The law of heat exchange
were helpful in observing the relationship of heat to mass and temperature. Heat is
directly proportional to mass and change in temperature. The object needs more
heat, which means greater final temperature, if there is greater mass, and vice versa.
First is the knowledge that Aluminum conducts more heat than Copper. Secondly,
Copper metals and other metals with low specific heat are usually the ones that
dissipate or emit more heat. However, mass of ice is not inversely proportional to
the latent heat because latent heat of fusion is a constant property.
Error Analysis

The possible sources of error are: The room temperature inside the
laboratory, since it is air-conditioned, it can affect the temperature of the materials;
it can be minimized by performing the experiment fast and consistent. The
temperature of the given material, from initial to the final temperature of that
specific material must also be given considerations. The mass of ice before and after
putting it in the calorimeter, a sudden change in the mass of ice will result to an
error. In able to minimize the error, we must wipe off the excess water or the moist
in the ice before putting it in the calorimeter. The measurement of temperature, it
can be minimize be measuring it near. The boiling water to avoid the cold air that
also affect the experiment.