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Analysis of the Futhorc-Header

Joannes Richter

Abstract
The initial section of the various ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (“Futhorc”- and “Futharc”) -alphabets consists of a leading
header ᚠᚢᚦ (“futh”), which seems to be an important philosophical keyword. This keyword is
followed by the alphabetic section A....I.....Ω.
The keyword ᚠᚢᚦ starts with a digamma, which may be interpreted as wildcard for several
characters such as F, V, U, UU, Y, J, I,....
Therefore the keyword ᚠᚢᚦ may symbolize the personal pronoun for the 1 st person dual “wut” or
“wit”, the divine name “Vut” (a core for “Woden”) and in a reversed reading mode the deity “Tuw”
or “Tiw”.
The word at the third, fourth and fifth letters ᚦᚩᚱ (in forward reading → Thor, honored in Thursday
and the planet Jupiter), respectively ᚱᚩᚦ (in backward reading → Rod, honored as the planet Saturn
in Saturday) also symbolizes 2 deities.
The ᚠᚦᚩᚱᚳ (“Futhorc”- and “Futharc”)-alphabets therefore contains the shortcuts for the names of
the gods ᚠᚢᚦ (“Vut”), ᚦᚢᚠ (“Tuw”), ᚦᚩᚱ (“Thor”), ᚱᚩᚦ (“Rod”).
Jacob Grimm claims that the letter “T” in “ƿit” (“Wit” → “We two”) as the dual for for the personal
pronoun for the first person) refers to the duality of the word “we” (wir).
The first letter ƿ in “ƿit” may be the digamma, which is a universal letter to symbolize F, V, U, W, Y,
J, G, ...In “ƿit” the ƿ obviously symbolizes “W”.
Usually the Kylver inscription is interpreted as [ᚠ] ᚢ ᚦ ᚨ ᚱ ᚲ ᚷ [ᚹ] ᚺ ᚾ ᛁ ᛃ ᛈ ᛇ ᛉ ᛊ ᛏ ᛒ ᛖ ᛗ ᛚ ᛜ ᛞ ᛟ in
which the first letter “I” (a vertical stroke) is interpreted as an error, but in this case I think the
digamma simply had been translated into a vowel “I”.
This concept transforms both initial runic letters I” (a vertical stroke) and “ ᚢ” (the rune for “u”) to
the Roman initial letters I and U of IU-piter.
Therefore the leading header ᚠᚢᚦ (“futh”) in the Kylver inscription may be interpreted as “Iuᚦ”
(“Iuth”).
The gods ᚠᚢᚦ (“Vut”), ᚦᚢᚠ (“Tuw”), ᚦᚩᚱ (“Thor”), ᚱᚩᚦ (“Rod”)
The 5-6- characters long Futhorc Header is the only more or less permanent section of the runic
alphabet. The name alphabet is somewhat blurred by the fact that the ABC-fraction is delayed by 3
characters, which may be seen as the main header ᚠᚢᚦ .
In fact the first three characters ᚠᚢᚦ refer to “Vut” (“Woden”, honored as the planet Mercury in
Wednesday) and to “Wit” (“We two” as the dual for for the personal pronoun for the first person).
In a backward reading mode ᚠᚢᚦ also refers to ᚦᚢᚠ “Tuw” - another way of expressing the main
creator god (Ziu or Tyr), honored as the planet Mars and “Tue” in Tuesday.
These deities may be older or younger than both other deities ᚦᚩᚱ (in forward reading → Thor,
honored in Thursday and the planet Jupiter), respectively ᚱᚩᚦ (in backward reading → Rod, honored
as the planet Saturn in Saturday).
The sixth character ᚳ may be identified as the first letter in ᚳᚱᚩᚦ → Kroth, which is described in The
Gods in the Days of the Week and Inside the Futhorc-Alphabet or in the blog -version The Gods in
the Days of the Week and Inside the Futhorc-Alphabet.
These divine names had been arranged in a table composed in The Gods in the Days of the Week
and inside the Futhor-alphabet:

Reading Divine
Divine name Day of the week Planet Village
Direction Name
123 4 5 6
ᚠ ᚢ ᚦ ᚨ or ᚩ ᚱ ᚲ or ᚳ
f u þ a or o r k
ᚠᚢᚦ → fuþ (Futh)
→ Vut (Woden)
Wednesday Mercury Woensel → Futh f uþ
ᚠᚢᚦᚨ → fuþa Wednesday Mercury Woensel → Wêda1 f u þ a
ᚦᚢᚠ → þuf (Thuw)
→ (Tiw or Tuw)
Tuesday Mars Duizel2 ← Tuw f uþ
ᚦᚩᚱ → Thor Thursday Jupiter → Thor þ ᚩ ᚱ
ᚦᚩᚱ → Týr Tuesday Mars → Týr þ ᚩ ᚱ
ᚩᚱᚳ (arc) → Erch Er(ch)-day Mars Eersel → Eor ᚩ ᚱ ᚳ
Reusel
ᚱᚩᚦ → Rod Saturday Saturn
(Roysel)
← Rod þ ᚩ ᚱ
Reusel
ᚳᚱᚩᚦ → Kroth Saturday Saturn
(Roysel)
← Chrodo þ ᚩ ᚱ ᚳ

Table 1 The names of five Germanic gods Woden (→ Mercury), Tiw or Tuw3 (→ Mars),
Thor (→ Jupiter), Eor and (K)Rod (→ Saturn) in the word “Futhorc”
These concepts may have grown in the course of time. I suppose the planets may have been
identified in some particular order, which does not really follow the rotation speed of the planets.
Saturn is the slowest and Mars the fastest in the pedigree Saturn → Jupiter → Mars, but Saturn may
be the last or even the first planet the astronomic observing priests might have recorded. There is no
real priority in the naming convention.
1 the Frisian word Wêda for Woden, which from the propensity of the dialect is to drop a final n, and to modify ô even
when not followed by an i
2 originally: Duisel
3 Tuesday is "Tīw's Day", the day of Tiw
Woden's name even had been suppressed in the German naming convention for the days of the
week. This suppression may have been caused by the Church, but the equivalent for Saturn has been
suppressed in the word for Saturday in all surrounding languages...
The Suthernland (Sauerland in Noordrijn-Westfalen) is dominated by a 390m tall Marsberg
(Eresberg), at which a castle Eresburg and probably also the Irminsul had been located. Therefore
the list Woensel, Duizel, Reusel (earlier name: Roysel) may be extended by Eersel (Eresloch)4,
which (in analogy to the Eresberg) had been devoted to Eor (Latin: Mars, Greek: Ares). Jacob
Grimm lists a few variants for the Austrian and Bavarian translations (“ertag”) Tuesday, which will
be quoted in a later chapter of this paper.

Týr
Etymologically the name Týr seems to be related to Thor.
The deity Týr is portrayed as a one-handed god. Corresponding names in other Germanic languages
are Gothic Teiws, Old English Tīw and Old High German Ziu and Cyo, all from Proto-Germanic
*Tīwaz. The Latinised name is rendered as Tius or Tio and also formally as Mars Thincsus.[2]
In the late Icelandic Eddas, Týr is portrayed, alternately, as the son of Odin (Prose Edda) or of
Hymir (Poetic Edda), while the origins of his name and his possible relationship to Tuisto (see
Tacitus' Germania) suggest he was once considered the father of the gods and head of the pantheon,
since his name is ultimately cognate to that of *Dyeus (cf. Dyaus), the reconstructed chief deity in
Indo-European religion.
It is assumed that Tîwaz was overtaken in popularity and in authority by both Odin and Thor at
some point during the Migration Age, as Odin shares his role as God of war.

The pedigree of Germanic deities


In the Family tree of the Norse gods Ymir is the first being.
If *Dyeus → Tuisto is the chief deity in Indo-European religion the name Tīw / Týr had been the
original father of the gods and creator of the human beings.
Odin and Thor followed in the descending pedigree.
In Old Norse texts, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded, frequently wielding a spear
named Gungnir, and wearing a cloak and a broad hat.

4 27.2.2018 De godennamen in de weekdagen en in het Futhorc-alf


The symbolism of individual Futhorc-characters
The letter “T” in the dual form “Wit” (“We two”)
Historically the symbolism of individual Futhorc-characters remains a mystery, which may be
solved by analysis.
Some of individual Futhorc-characters are explained by Jacob Grimm, who claims that the letter
“T” in “Wit” (“We two”) as the dual for for the personal pronoun for the first person) refers to the
duality of the word “we” (wir as the plural form for the personal pronoun for the first person).
Grimm's entry is found in the plural “wir” (“we”-section). The dual form for this word “wit” is
obsolete and (unfortunately) only recently be abandoned in the northern Frisian language. In the
quotation Grimm's duality claim has been marked yellow (by myself):
Neben der pluralform steht im älteren germ. der dual wit (t ist angehängte zweizahl) 'wir
beide', vgl. got. ags. asächs. wit, anord. vit (viþ), der sich auf deutschem boden nur im
nordfries. erhalten hat, sonst durch den plural ersetzt und schon ahd. nicht mehr bezeugt
ist; vgl. lit. vèd5.

The first letter ƿ in “ƿit” (“wit”)


The Old English pronouns preserve the dual form “ƿit” (which is specifically for talking about
groups of two things, for example "we two" or "you two" or "they two"). These were uncommon
even then, but remained in use throughout the period6.
The first letter ƿ in “ƿit”may be the digamma, which is a universal letter to symbolize F, V, U, W, Y,
J, G, ...In “ƿit” the ƿ obviously symbolizes “W”.
This may be the first step in unveiling the symbolism of individual Futhorc-characters. The first
three characters of the Futhorc Header may represent
1. the digamma as two vowels ƿ (uu),
2. the vowel I (in “wit” or “vit”)
3. the letter “t”, which according to Grimm also symbolizes the duality (“2”).
The letter “T” is the symbol, which transforms Tyr to a dual deity. Probably the “T” also refers to
the androgyny in (most?) ancient religions.

5 wir
6 Old English pronouns → . "Pronouns"
The initial vowels of an IU-concept
Also the initial couple of vowels UI also may be inverted to IU, which also may be identified in the
Roman sky-god “IU”-piter (father IU or father UI).
This concept is confirmed by the initial letters “Iuᚦarc” (“Iutharc”) at inscription of the Kylver
Stone in Elder Futhark (around 150–800 AD):

1: The word “Iutharc” in Kylver


Stone in Elder Futhark
(public domain)

Usually the Kylver inscription is interpreted as [ᚠ] ᚢ ᚦ ᚨ ᚱ ᚲ ᚷ [ᚹ] ᚺ ᚾ ᛁ ᛃ ᛈ ᛇ ᛉ ᛊ ᛏ ᛒ ᛖ ᛗ ᛚ ᛜ ᛞ ᛟ in which


the first letter “I” (a vertical stroke) is interpreted as an error, but in this case I think the digamma
simply had been translated into a vowel “I”.
The runic interpreters claim the first letter is an ᚠ, which as a digamma also symbolizes a Y or I.
Usually the ᚠ is interpreted an “F” or “V”.
This concept transforms both initial runic letters I” (a vertical stroke) and “ᚢ” (the rune for “u”) to
the Roman initial letters I and U of IU-piter.
The form of the second runic letter ᚢ (in the runes ᚠᚢᚦ) also matches the vertically flipped Roman
letter U.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4
Elder Futhark ᚠᚢᚦ ᚨ ᚱ ᚲ ᚷ ᚹ ᚺᚾ ᛁ ᛃᛇᛈᛉᛊ ᛏᛒᛖ ᛗ ᛚ ᛜ ᛟ ᛞ
Transliteration f u þ a r k g w h n i j ï p z s t b e m l ŋ o d
Kylver Stone
concept
i u þa r kgw h n i j ï p z s t b e m l ŋ o d

Table 1: Elder Futhark

I do not believe the Kylver inscription does contain an error in the first letter, which could have
been repaired without any substantial extra efforts.
As a digamma the first letter “I” in the Kylver alphabet may have been precised as I, W (double-U),
F, Y or V or even other letters.
Thou
Both phrases ᛁᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (“Iutharc”) at the inscription of the Kylver Stone and ᚠᚢᚦ in the Elder Futhark
also contain the “reversed” word “ᚦᚢ” (“Thu”) or “Thou”, which is the ancient form of the
individual partner “you” in the dual couple.
In Old English pronouns the word þū is the singular form “thou” for the second personal pronoun in
old English. This word had been spread all over Europe and even beyond the PIE-borders.
Subtracting the “ᚦᚢ” (“Thu” or “Thou”) from the divine name ᚦᚢᚠ (“Tuw”) results in a digamma as
the singular letter ᚠ (f, v, u, i, ...) for the ego-pronoun, which may be define as:

“we two” (the dual form) = “you” & “I”

If we inspect the “ᛁᚢᚦ”-section from the “ᛁᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ” (“Iutharc”)-phrase at inscription of the Kylver
Stone we even may identify the genuine English ego-pronoun “I” by subtracting the “ᚦ” and “ᚢ”
from ᛁᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (“Iutharc”) .

You
Subtracting the consonant ᚦ from “ᚦᚢ” (“Thu” or “Thou”) results in the letter “ᚢ”, which may be
interpreted as the English plural “you”, but this result cannot be confirmed in Old English pronouns.

The ego-pronouns ranging from “I” to “DE”


The personal pronoun of the first person singular however is a more complicated concept which is
related tot the Creator's name7. As an example the Provencal ego-pronoun ieu is not a simple vowel,
but a series of vowels which also is encapsulated in the corresponding divine name Dieu.
This rule may be observed in many languages which have been influenced by the Roman
occupation.
However sometimes the consonant (mostly “D” in Savoy and Sardine dialects) even is found inside
the ego-pronoun “De”:
In the central area of Savoy the ego-pronoun is “DE”, whereas God is named DYU or
dejeû, dezyeû in which the ego-pronoun seems to be a sort of preposition for the divine
name8.

In a singular case (the Sardinian dialect Campidanese) the Ego-pronoun dèu is identical
to the divine name Deu9.

7 Described in The Ego-Pronouns in the Divine Names - Published: 11/17/2012 and other manuscripts in Proceedings
in the Ego-pronouns' Etymology
8 The Ego-pronouns and Divine Names in Savoy French Dialects - Published: 11/16/2012
9 Decoding the Ego-Pronoun („I“) Published: 11 / 26 / 2010
The letters “D” and “T” in divine names
Even in these languages in which the dual form already had been abandoned the consonant “D”,
“Th” or “T” of the divine names such as Dieu, Dios, Theos,.... and the associated ego-pronouns
such as “De” and “dèu” may still refer to the duality-marker “D” or “T” which had been identified
in “Wit” (“we two”) by Grimm:
“D” or “T” is the appended duality-marker (German: t ist angehängte zweizahl)10

10 Grimm's entry is found in the plural “wir” (“we”-section)


Correlating the names “Ziu”, “Mars”, “Ares”, “Erc” (Eor)
The most complicated naming correlations in Germanic deities (especially the structure of the
Names “Zîu”, “Mars”, “Ares”, “Erc”) seems to be identifiable in the “Futharc”-structure.
The ᚠᚢᚦ-ᚩᚱᚳ (“Futh-orc” / “Futh-arc”)-phrase already contains an “ar-” and “arc”-structure, which
matches some of the spelling for Iertag, Irtag, Eritag, Erchtag, Erichtag.
The deity “Er” already had been available in the “Futharc”-structure. Inserting an “e” in “Ars” leads
us to Eor, respectively (in Greek ?:) “Ares”.
The “c” may also be interpreted as an “s”, which allows us to assume the availability of “ars”. In
fact the name “Mars” is “M” + “ars”.
The letter ᚦ is a central consonant element, which may be added to other names. The transformation
of ᚦ (“th”) into “Z” or “D” is a common practice, which correlates Ziu to Tiu, Tio or Tiw and Zeus
to Ziu or Zio, respectively Cyo:
Týr (/tɪər/;[1] Old Norse: Týr [tyːr]) is a Germanic god associated with law and heroic
glory in Norse mythology, portrayed as one-handed. Corresponding names in other
Germanic languages are Gothic Teiws, Old English Tīw and Old High German Ziu and
Cyo, all from Proto-Germanic *Tīwaz. The Latinised name is rendered as Tius or Tio
and also formally as Mars Thincsus.[2]11

The most striking assimilation is the transformation from the Eor-worship to the Zio-worship,
which may be traced back in the ᚠᚢᚦ-ᚩᚱᚳ -pattern. Jacob Grimm suggests to search the missing link
in the rune Eor, but there also seems to e a link in the ᚠᚢᚦ-ᚩᚱᚳ-structure, which in the Kylver-
interpretation may be interpreted as “uith-arc”. As a digamma the first character may be interpreted
as a “U”, to be followed by an “I” and the consonant ᚦ. This construct in the first three ᚠᚢᚦ-ᚩᚱᚳ-
characters ᚠᚢᚦ represents “Thiu” or “Ziu”:
Traces of the god “Thiu” or “Ziu” remain in Tuesday (Old English tíwesdæg "Tiw's
day"; Old Frisian tîesdei, Old High German zîestag, modern Alemannic and Swabian
dialect in south west Germany Zieschdig/Zeischdig, Old Norse týsdagr, as well as
modern Swedish tisdag), named after Týr in both the North and the West Germanic
languages (corresponding to Martis dies, dedicated to the Roman god of war and the
father-god of Rome, Mars) and also in the names of some plants: Old Norse Týsfiola
(after the Latin Viola Martis), Týrhialm (Aconitum, one of the most poisonous plants in
Europe whose helmet-like shape might suggest a warlike connection) and Týviðr, "Tý's
wood", Tiveden may also be named after Týr, or reflecting Týr as a generic word for
"god" (i.e., the forest of the gods). In Norway the parish and municipality of Tysnes are
named after the god. 12

Now Tuesday is also Iertag, Irtag, Eritag, Erchtag, Erichtag, which answers to the rune Eor, and
up to this moment lives to part off the Bavarians, Austrians and and Tyrolese from the Swabians and
Swiss (who, as former Ziowari, stick to Ziestag). 13
This Erch may be identified in the second section ᚩᚱᚳ of the ᚠᚢᚦ-ᚩᚱᚳ- (Futharc)-structure.
The first section ᚠᚢᚦ (“Wut” and an inverted “thuw”) represents Woden, respectively Tiw and the
second section ᚩᚱᚳ (“arc”) represents “Er” or “Erch”.
I checked Grimm's explanations for the transitions between Eor-worship and Zio-worship.

11 Týr
12 Lexical traces
13 Grimm's Teutonic Mythology - The Apricity
Obviously there is a borderline of these races between Eor-worship and Zio-worship. Jacob Grimm
digs further into the correlations between the derivations Eersel (Eresloch):
To bear this Ertag company, there is that name of a place Eersel, quoted p. 154 from
Gramaye, in which neither era honor, nor its personification Era (ch. XVI, XXIX) is to
be thought of, but solely a god of the week. It is worth noticing, that Ertac and Erdag
occur as men's names; also, that the Taxandrian Eersel was but a little way off the
Tisberg or Fanmars in Hainault (see Suppl.).

The next topic is the correlation between Zio – Zeus and Tyr (as Odin's son) – Ares (as Zeus' son)
Now comes something far more important. As Zio is identical with Zeus as directors of
wars, we see at a glance that Eor, Er, Ear, is one with "Αρης the son of Zeus; and as
the Germans had given the rank of Zeus to their Wuotan, Tyr and consequently Eor
appears as the son of the highest god. Have we any means now left of getting at the
sense of this obscure root Eor?

The AS. genealogies preserve the name of Saxneat as the son of Woden, and it is in
perfect accordance with it, that Tyr was the son of Odinn, and Ares the son of Zeus (see
Suppl.).14

The Slav Gods


The root “vit” in the Slav deity Svatovit and “Rad” in Radigast may correlate to ᚠᚢᚦ (“vut”)
respectively ᚩᚱ (“ar”) in the ᚠᚢᚦ-ᚩᚱᚳ- (Futharc)-structure.
I felt somewhat surprised that Grimm suggested to correlate the Roman god Saturn to Sitivrat,
although other sources suggest a relation to the deity Krod, Chrod or Rod, which is honored as the
planet Saturn in Saturday.
Grimm claims:
2 It is striking, that in 0. Bohem. glossaries (Hanka 54. 165) Mercury, Venus and
Saturn are quoted in the order of their days of the week ; and that any Slav deities that
have been identified with Latin ones are almost sure to be of the number of those that
preside over the week.

And whilst of the Slav gods, Svatovit answers to Mars (Ziu), Radigast to Mercury
(Wuotan), Perun to Jupiter (Donar), Lada (golden dame, zolotababa, in Hanusch 241,
35b) to Venus (Fria), and perhaps Sitivrat to Saturn.15

14 12106034 Grimm Teutonic Mythology Vol 1 1882 Complete


15 Footnote in 12106034 Grimm Teutonic Mythology Vol 1 1882 Complete
Overview of the symbolism in the ᛁᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (“Iutharc”) alphabet
The concept of the symbolism in the ᛁᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (“Iutharc”) alphabet.

“ᛁᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ” or “ᚠᚦᚩᚱᚳ” Transliteration Explanation


alphabet Roman alphabet

ᚠ digamma Initial runic letter “W” corresponding to the initial letter W


F, V, W, Y, I, ... in “Wit” or “Wut” and “Woden”.

ᛁ I Initial runic letter “I” in the Kylver Stone inscription


corresponding to the Roman initial letter I in IU-piter.
Number #1 in the dual IU-concept.

ᚢ U “ᚢ” (the rune for “u”) corresponding to the Roman letter U


in IU-piter. Number #2 in the dual IU-concept.
ᚦ Th “D” or “T” is the appended duality-marker

ᚩ A or O

ᚱ R

ᚳ C or K
Table 2 Concept of the symbolism in the ᛁᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (“Iutharc”) alphabet
Appendix 1 – Teutonic Mythology (Jacob Grimm)
Derivation of the name EOR
Note to Wikipedia: Seaxnēat
Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie (1935), trans. Stallybrass (1888), chapter 9: "As Zio is
identical with Zeus as directors of wars, we see at a glance that Eor, Er, Ear, is one with
Ares the son of Zeus; and as the Germans had given the rank of Zeus to their Wuotan,
Týr and consequently Eor appears as the son of the highest god. [...]

Then again the famous Abrenuntiatio names three heathen gods, Thunar, Wôden,
Saxnôt, of whom the third can have been but little inferior to the other two in power and
holiness. Sahsnôt is word for word gladii consors, ensifer, who else but Zio or Eor and
the Greek Ares? The AS. genealogies preserve the name of Saxneát as the son of
Wôden, and it is in perfect accordance with it, that Týr was the son of Oðinn, and Ares
the son of Zeus.

But further, as the Saxons were so called, either because they wielded the sword of
stone (saxum), or placed this god at the head of their race, so I think the Cheruscans of
Tacitus, a people synonymous, nay identical with them, were named after Cheru, Heru
= Eor, from whom their name can be derived."

16
Relevant extract from the chapter “EOR”
Still more plainly are High German races, especially the Bavarian (Marcomannic)
pointed to by that singular name for the third day of the week, Ertag, Iertag, Iertag,
Irtag, Eritag, Erchtag, Erichtag, which answers to the rune Eor, and up to this moment
lives to part off the Bavarians, Austrians and Tyrolese from the Swabians and Swiss
(who, as former Ziowari, stick to Ziestag); along the boundaryline of these races must
also have run formerly the frontier between Eorworship and Zio-worship. True, the
compound Ertac lacks the genitive ending -s which is preserved in Ziestac, and I have
not been so fortunate as to hunt up an Erestac (18) in the older records of the 13-14
centuries; nevertheless the coincidence of the double names for the day and for the rune
should be conclusive here, and we must suppose an OHG. Erestac, to match the
Eresberg.

One might be led to imagine that in Ertag the Earth (Erde according to the forms given
at the beginning of ch. XIII) was meant. But the ancient way of thinking placed the
earth in the centre of the world, not among the planets; she cannot therefore have given
name to a day of the week, and there is no such day found in any nation, unless we turn
Venus and Freyja into the earth.---

To bear this Ertag company, there is that name of a place Eersel, quoted p. 154 from
Gramaye, in which neither era honor, nor its personification Era (ch. XVI, XXIX) is to
be thought of, but solely a god of the week. It is worth noticing, that Ertac and Erdag
occur as men's names; also, that the Taxandrian Eersel was but a little way off the
Tisberg or Fanmars in Hainault (see Suppl.).---

16 From the Chapter EOR at page 201 in 12106034 Grimm Teutonic Mythology Vol 1 1882 (Complete)
Now comes something far more important. As Zio is identical with Zeus as directors of
wars, we see at a glance that Eor, Er, Ear, is one with "Arhj the son of Zeus; and as the
Germans had given the rank of Zeus to their Wuotan, Tyr and consequently Eor appears
as the son of the highest god. Have we any means now left of getting at the sense of this
obscure root Eor? The description of the rune in the AS. poem gives only a slight hint, it
runs thus:

Ear bid egle eorla gehwilcum,


tonne fastlice flasc onginned
hraw colian, hrusan ceosan
blac to gebeddan. blada gedreosad,
wynna gewitad, wera geswicad;
i.e., Ear fit importunus hominum cuicumque, quum caro incipit refrigescere,
pallidumque corpus terram eligere conjugem. tunc enim gloriae dilabuntur, gaudia
evanescunt, foedera cessant.

The description is of death coming on, and earthly joys dropping off; but who can that
be, that at such a time is burdensome (egle, ail-some) to men? The ordinary meaning of
ear, spica, arista, can be of no use here; I suppose that approaching dissolution, a
personified death is to be understood, from which a transition to the destructive god of
battles, the βροτολοιγος μιαιφονος "Αρης is easy to conceive. (19) "Αρης itself is used
abstractly by the Greeks for destruction, murder, pestilence, just as our Wuotan is for
furor and belli impetus, (20) and the Latin Mars for bellum, exitus pugnae, furor
bellicus, conf. 'Mars = cafeht,' gefecht, fight, in Gl. Hrab. 969a; as conversely the OHG.
Wig pugna, bellum (Graff 1, 740) seems occasionally to denote the personal god of war.

'Wicgch quoque Mars est' says Ermoldus Nigellus (Pertz 2, 468), and he is said to
farneman, AS. forniman, carry off, as Hild (Bellona) does elsewhere: dat inan wic
fornam, Hildebr. lied; in AS.: wig ealle fornam, Beow. 2155; wig fornom, Cod. Exon.
291, 11.

Do we not still say, war or battle snatched them all away? A remarkable gloss in the old
Cod. sangall. 913, p. 193, has 'turbines = ziu' (we have no business to write zui), which
may mean the storm of war, the Mars trux, saevus, or possibly the literal whirlwind, on
which mythical names are sometimes bestowed; so it is either Zio himself, or a
synonymous female personification Ziu, bearing the same relation to Zio as diu (ancilla)
to dio (servus).

Here comes in another string of explanations, overbold as some of them may seem. As
Eresburg is just as often spelled Heresburg by the Frankish annalists, we may fairly
bring in the Goth. hairus, AS. heor, OS. heru, ON. hiörr [[sword]], ensis, cardo,
although the names of the rune and the day of the week always appear without the
aspirate. For in Greek we already have the two unaspirated words "Αρης and ''Αoρ,
sword, weapon, to compare with one another, and these point to a god of the sword.

Then again the famous Abrenuntiatio names three heathen gods, Thunar, Woden, Saxnot,
of whom the third can have been but little inferior to the other two in power and
holiness. Sahsnot is word for word gladii consors, ensifer [Germ. genoss, sharer]; who
else but Zio or Eor and the Greek Ares? (21)
The AS. genealogies preserve the name of Saxneat as the son of Woden, and it is in
perfect accordance with it, that Tyr was the son of Odinn, and Ares the son of Zeus (see
Suppl.).

But further, as the Saxons were so called, either because they wielded the sword of stone
(saxum), or placed this god at the head of their race, so I think the Cheruscans of
Tacitus, a people synonymous, nay identical with them, were named after Cheru, Heru
= Eor, from whom their name can be derived. (22)

After this weighty consonance of facts, which opens to us the meaning of the old
national name, and at the same time teaches that 'heru' was first of all pronounced
'cheru,' and last of all 'eru, er,' I think we may also bring in the Gallic war-god Hesus or
Esus (Lucan 1, 440), and state, that the metal iron is indicated by the planetary sign of
Mars, the AS. 'tires tacen,' and consequently that the rune of Zio and Eor may be the
picture of a sword with its handle , or of a spear. (23) The Scythian and Alanic legends
dwell still more emphatically on the god's sword, and their agreement with Teutonic
ways of thinking may safely be assumed, as Mars was equally prominent in the faith of
the Scythians and that of the Goths.

The impressive personification of the sword matches well with that of the hammer, and
to my thinking each confirms the other. Both idea and name of two of the greatest gods
pass over into the instrument by which they display their might.
Contents
Abstract............................................................................................................................................1
The gods ᚠᚢᚦ (“Vut”), ᚦᚢᚠ (“Tuw”), ᚦᚩᚱ (“Thor”), ᚱᚩᚦ (“Rod”)....................................................2
Týr...............................................................................................................................................3
The pedigree of Germanic deities...............................................................................................3
The symbolism of individual Futhorc-characters............................................................................4
The letter “T” in the dual form “Wit” (“We two”)......................................................................4
The first letter ƿ in “ƿit” (“wit”)..................................................................................................4
The initial vowels of an IU-concept............................................................................................5
Thou ................................................................................................................................................6
You ..................................................................................................................................................6
The ego-pronouns ranging from “I” to “DE”..................................................................................6
The letters “D” and “T” in divine names.........................................................................................7
Correlating the names “Ziu”, “Mars”, “Ares”, “Erc” (Eor).............................................................8
The Slav Gods.............................................................................................................................9
Overview of the symbolism in the ᛁᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (“Iutharc”) alphabet.....................................................10
Appendix 1 – Teutonic Mythology (Jacob Grimm).......................................................................11
Derivation of the name EOR.....................................................................................................11
Relevant extract from the chapter “EOR” ................................................................................11

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