The First Day The Second Day The Third Day

Universal Religion:
universal scientific theism





Cosmic Code Ape Evolution Postmodern Kingdom of God



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Universal Religion: universal scientific theism

Contents

Abstract 5
Introduction 6
1. The Four-Generation Religion 8
Part 1 Genesis Cosmology: the unified theory of physics 14
2. The First Day: the light universe and the dark universe 16
Scripture 16
Introduction 17
2.1.The Strong Pre-Universe 17
2.2.The Gravitational Pre-Universe 23
2.3. The Charged Pre-Universe 24
2.4.The Current Universe 26
2.4.1 Cosmology 26
2.4.2 The Periodic Table of Elementary Particles 36
2.5 Summary 42
3. The Second Day: baryonic matter and dark matter 44
Scripture 44
Introduction 44
3.1.The Separation between Baryonic Matter and Dark Matter 44
3.2.The Formation of the Inhomogeneous Structures 48
3.3.Summary 53
4. The Third Day: the star formation 55
Scripture 55
Introduction 55
4.1 The Star Formation under the Normal Force Fields 56
4.2 The Extreme Force Fields 56
4.2.1. The quantum space phase transitions for force fields 56
4.2.2. Superconductor and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect 57
4.3.3. Gravastar, Supernova, Neutron Star, and GRB 62
4.3.4. Summary 70
4.3.5. Summary for Part 1 71
Part 2: The Kingdom of God: human evolution 73
Introduction 77
5. The Original Humans 78
5.1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System 78
5.1.1. The Social Relation Type 79
5.1.2. The Information Process Type 80
5.1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness 80
5.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network 82
5.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context 84
5.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating 86
5.1.3. The Big Five 87
3
5.2. Social Lives 88
5.2.1. The Social lives for the Primate Social Structures 88
5.2.2. The Human Instincts and Social Lives 92
5.2.3. The Harmonious Social Life 96
5.2.3.1. Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct 98
5.2.3.2. Detection – The Detective instinct 98
5.2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct 101
5.3. Ape Evolution 103
5.3.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape 103
5.3.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape 104
5.3.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape 104
5.3.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape 105
5.3.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape 107
5.4. Hominid Evolution of the Conscience Instinct 109
5.5. The Interaction of the Social Lives 113
5.5.1. The Properties of the Social Lives 114
5.5.2. The Enforcement of the Social Life 115
5.5.3. The Interaction of the Social Lives 117
6. The Prehistoric Kingdom of God 119
6.1. Supernatural Selection 119
6.2. The Prehistoric Kingdom of God: The Garden of Eden 121
7. The Early Kingdom of God 124
7.1. The Fall of the Prehistoric Kingdom of God 124
7.2. The Early Transitional Kingdom of God 127
7.3. The Early Individualistic Society 129
7.4. The Early Kingdom of God 130
7.4.1. The Transformation Principle 132
7.4.2. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life 133
7.5. The Early Church as the Kingdom of God 146
7.6. The Church as the State Religion in the Collective Society 148
8. The Modern Kingdom of God 148
8.1. The Reformation: the breakdown of the intermediary 149
8.2. The Puritan Movement: the breakdown of the collective society 149
8.3. The Decline of the State Religion 150
8.4. The Three-Branch Unified Society of America 151
8.4.1. General Description 151
8.4.2. The Requirements for the Unified Society 152
8.5. The Christian Nation and the Kingdom of God 155
8.6. The Harmonious Moral Religions 155
9. The Postmodern Kingdom of God as the Harmonious Society of God 157
9.1. The Harmonious Society of God 157
9.2. Human 157
9.3. The Interaction 158
9.4. The Organism Structure of the Harmonious Society of God 158
9.5. The Harmonist Manifesto for the Harmonious Society of God 161
9.6. The End Time 162
4
9.7. This Life and Afterlife 162
9.8. Summary for Part 2 164
10. Summary 166
11. Reference 167

Cover:
• The pictures are for the first three days in Genesis Chapter 1 from the Sistine
Chapel and Butynski-Expanse-lg.

Email address: einsnewt@yahoo.com
Website (download all books): http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/
Books list: http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt
5
Abstract

The four-generation religion from the prehistoric society to the postmodern society
consists of the band religion, the tribal religion, the global religion, and the universal
religion for egalitarian immanent theism, elite revealed theism, common rational theism, and
universal scientific theism, respectively. The fourth generation religion is the universal
religion as universal scientific theism in the postmodern religious universal society. Science
based on rationalism and empiricism is the universal language for observable phenomena.
The method of universal scientific theism is the universal scientific revelation of the God’s
scientific plan for our universe and society. The God’s scientific plan for our universe is
Genesis Cosmology based on Genesis and the unified theory of physics. The God’s
scientific plan for our society is the kingdom of God based on Jesus’ teaching, the Bible,
Dao De Jing, and human biological and social evolutions. The universal scientific
revelation based on rationalism and empiricism is verifiable. Science involved includes
physics, cosmology, astronomy, the human biological and social evolutions, neuroscience,
and psychology.
The God’s scientific plan for our universe is Genesis Cosmology that is the
cosmology model in agreement with the interpretive description of the first three days in
Genesis. Genesis Cosmology is derived from the unified theory that unifies all physical
phenomena in our universe. Genesis Cosmology is verifiable.
The God’s scientific plan for our society is the kingdom of God as taught by Jesus,
the Bible, Dao De Jing, and human evolution. Jesus said that the kingdom of God is
within you. The kingdom of God is within the harmonious society and social life (social
interaction). The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine
collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation,
respectively. The harmonious social life exists only in humans. Human social lives were
derived from human biological evolution. The harmonious social life was evolved to
adapt to the small social group (band). The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the
harmonious society. In the Bible, the human in the image of God is the human of the
harmonious social life that is different from all other animals. As the Garden of Eden, the
prehistoric kingdom of God was the band (small-group) religion where many isolated
bands were bonded together by religion to overcome the harsh environment during the
Upper Paleolithic Revolution. Starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitably
large civilized social group destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group as
the prehistoric kingdom of God, resulting in the fall in the Garden of Eden. The early
transitional kingdom of God was the moral religion as Judaism that was the tribal religion,
and then became the global religion. Jesus Christ initiated the early kingdom of God that
allowed the civilized people to return to the harmonious social life and society. In the
postmodern world, the postmodern kingdom of God scientifically becomes the harmonious
society of God in the three-branch Unified Society. The Postmodern Unified Society
fulfills the end time prophecy for the end of the old divided society and the beginning of
the new unified society. The followers of harmony continue to exist in afterlife.

6
Introduction

The four-generation religion from the prehistoric society to the postmodern society
consists of the band religion, the tribal religion, the global religion, and the universal
religion for egalitarian immanent theism, elite revealed theism, common rational theism, and
universal scientific theism, respectively. The fourth generation religion is the universal
religion as universal scientific theism in the postmodern religious universal society. Science
based on rationalism and empiricism is the universal language for observable phenomena.
The method of universal scientific theism is the universal scientific revelation of the God’s
scientific plan for our universe and society. The God’s scientific plan for our universe is
Genesis Cosmology based on Genesis and the unified theory of physics. The God’s
scientific plan for our society is the kingdom of God based on Jesus’ teaching, the Bible,
Dao De Jing, and human biological and social evolutions. The universal scientific
revelation based on rationalism and empiricism is verifiable. Science involved includes
physics, cosmology, astronomy, the human biological and social evolutions, neuroscience,
and psychology.
Chapter 1 describes the four-generation religion. Part 1 describes Genesis
Cosmology. Genesis Cosmology is the cosmology model in agreement with the interpretive
description of the first three days in Genesis. Genesis Cosmology is derived from the
unified theory that unifies various phenomena in our universe. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 describe
the first, the second, and the third days in Genesis, respectively. Genesis Cosmology is
based on the cosmic code consisting of the space structure and the objective structure.
Different universes in different developmental stages are the different expressions of the
cosmic code.
Part 2 describes the kingdom of God. Jesus said that the kingdom of God is
within you. The kingdom of God is within the harmonious society and social life (social
interaction). The Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 describe the original humans, the prehistoric
kingdom of God (the Garden of Eden), the early kingdom of God, the modern kingdom
of God, and the postmodern kingdom of God, respectively. The three basic human social
lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine
individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The harmonious
social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. Human social lives were
derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During
ape evolution and hominid, the harmonious social life started to emerge. The harmonious
social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer
society was the harmonious society.
The supernatural interaction between the supernatural and human is expressed as
the kingdom of God that is the harmonious society. The kingdom of God evolves
through supernatural selection. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation
of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the harmonious society as the
chosen society by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the
expression of the natural human mind) including abstract social bond, abstract morality,
and abstract rebirth. The human in the image of God is the human of the harmonious
social life that is different from all other animals.
As the Garden of Eden, the prehistoric kingdom of God expressed as Symbolic
Religion (female figurines and cave paintings) provided the abstract social bond to bond
7
the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. In the Early Period starting
from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitably large civilized social group destroyed the
prehistoric harmonious small social group as the prehistoric kingdom of God, resulting in
the fall in the Garden of Eden. The early transitional kingdom of God was the moral
religion as Judaism, and provided the abstract morality to prevent the activated
dehumanized prey-predator instinct. Jesus Christ initiated the early kingdom of God that
provided the abstract rebirth for the civilized people to return to the harmonious social
life and society. In the postmodern world, the postmodern kingdom of God scientifically
becomes the harmonious society of God in the three-branch Unified Society.

8
1. The Four-Generation Religion

The evolution of human religion can be divided into four generations starting from
the prehistoric formal religion to the postmodern religion. The four-generation religion
from the prehistoric society to the postmodern society consists of the band religion, the tribal
religion, the global religion, and the universal religion for egalitarian immanent theism, elite
revealed theism, common rational theism, and universal scientific theism, respectively. The
change in human social structure causes the change in the generation of religion. The
breakdown of the old social structure causes the demise of the old generation religion, and
the new generation religion is adaptable to the new social structure. The change in the social
structure is typically derived from the technological revolution which occurs rapidly, so the
change in the social structure is also fairly rapid. Consequently, the evolution of human
religion by the change of social structure is punctuated equilibrium rather than smooth
gradual process. Punctuated equilibrium makes one drastic change, and then remains fairly
unchanged for a long time until the next drastic change.
The social structure of the prehistoric society before the formal religion is the band
(small social group) society that is the egalitarian small group society as described later in
Chapter 5. The first prehistoric religious-social-technological revolution is the Upper
Paleolithic Revolution. Similarly to the Industrial and Neolithic Revolutions, the Upper
Paleolithic Revolution represents a short time span when numerous inventions appeared and
cultural changes occurred. The Upper Paleolithic period extended from about 40,000 to
between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago.
The reason for the Revolution was the potential breakdown of human society due the
harsh fluctuating climates. The increasing sharing of technology and religion among small
social groups allowed them to work together to overcome such harsh fluctuating climates.
The social structure changed from the band society to the religious band society where many
small social groups were bonded by the formal religion, resulting in the rapid development
of shared technology and religion. The religion was the first generation religion as the band
religion. The believers were common people in the religious band society.
The band religion was the Symbolic Religion in terms of female figurines and cave
painting, which quickly spread among large region. The band religion is egalitarian
immanent theism. Egalitarian theism has no religious hierarchy. The method of the band
religion was immanent symbol. At the time of the Upper Paleolithic Period, the
supernatural was immanent supernatural that appeared everywhere as a part of all objects in
the world. Anything unexplained or unusual was attributed to the supernatural. The society
was egalitarian, so there was no authoritative transcendental gods to be worshiped.
Everyone and everything was equally an avatar, the incarnation of the supernatural. Such
concept of immanent supernatural was prevalent. The symbols for the immanent
supernatural were typically the exaggerated and distorted representation of the real natural
objects to represent the unexplained and unusual characteristics of the immanent
supernatural, so the symbols represented partly the natural and partly the supernatural.
(Symbol is the result of the exaggeration of a specific feature of a real object.) Such
symbols brought the immanent supernatural to help people. They did not worship such
symbols, because there was no concept of worshipping anything authoritative. The
symbols were female figurine and cave painting.
9
The first generation religion, egalitarian immanent theism, remained relatively
unchanged until the next technological revolution, the Neolithic Revolution. The Neolithic
Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to the cultivated crops
and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by various independent
prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The first society resulted from the
Neolithic Revolution is the horticultural-pastoral society. Horticulture is agriculture
before the invention of the plow. The increase in population in the horticultural society
forced people to use more productive method for the cultivation of crops. The method
involved plow and draft animals, resulting in the agricultural-nomad society. Plowing
maintained the fertility of the soil by turning topsoil. Agriculture could support
population increases by more intensive use of the same piece of land. Agriculture could
support a much larger population than horticulture. Farmers grew crops for sale rather
than crops grown only for household use. Market became an important part of society.
Surplus food production brought about non-food-producing professionals, such as
religious or ruling elites. Large cities emerged. It is the start of civilization whose
original meaning relates to being a citizen, who is governed by the law of one’s city,
town or community.
The social structure changed from the religious band society to the religious tribal
society that is the hierarchical religious tribal large-group society. The result is the
second generation religion, the tribal religion as elite revealed theism. The believers in
elite revealed theism were ruling elites, including priests and political leaders. The
method is God’s revelation in terms of ritual, myth, and the way of ruling. Ritual is an
established or prescribed procedure connecting tribal people with God. Myth is a
traditional or legendary story connecting tribal people with God. The way of ruling
relates to the specific way of governing including benevolence, justice, morality, law, and
power structure.
Common people could have their folk religions as long as they did not
outlandishly contradict elite revealed theism. Elite revealed theism was the religion for
ruling elites in Israel before the fall of Jerusalem (the 6
th
century BC), in India before the
social breakdown at the beginning of the Upanishads (the 6
th
century BC), in China
before the social breakdown of Zhou dynasty (the 7
th
century BC), and in Athens Greece
before the frequent wars (the 5
th
century BC). During the tribal religion, the tribal and
territorial borderlines changed, but their borderlines were fairly distinct. Ruling elites
changed, but they could still maintain social coherence within distinct tribal and
territorial borderlines.
Increasing internal and external large-scale warfare gradually destroyed
traditional tribal and territorial borderlines. The emergence of the Iron Age finally
shifted the power structure irreversibly that made traditional tribal and territorial
borderline indistinct. The Iron Age is the final technological and cultural stage in the
Stone–Bronze–Iron-Age sequence. The date of the full Iron Age varied geographically,
beginning in the Middle East and southeastern Europe about 1200 BC but in China not
until about 600 BC. Without distinct tribal and territorial borderlines, the ruling elites
could no longer keep social coherence, resulting in the collapse of elite revealed theism.
The social structure changed from the religious tribal society to the religious global
society without distinct permanent tribal and territorial borderlines. The responsibility to
keep social coherence shifted from ruling elites to common people. The folk religion for
10
common people was too primitive to keep social coherence. The prophets in and outside of
Israel and the philosophers in China, India, and Greece were familiar with elite revealed
theism. They converted ritual, myth, and the way of ruling in elite revealed theism into the
rational way of social life (social interaction) for common people. The result was common
rational theism as the third generation religion, the global religion. The believers are
common people in the religious global society. The method is the rational way of social life.
The prophets in and outside of Israel shifted the responsibility to continue Judaism
from ruling elites to common people who became the “remnants” after the fall of Jerusalem.
They wanted common people to live in the rational moral large-group way of social life as
expressed in moral monotheism. The conspicuous consequence of moral monotheism was
the disappearance of the folk religion as polytheism for common people after the “remnants”
returned to Jerusalem. Archeologists found many idols in the houses of Israelites before the
fall of Jerusalem, and they found no idols in the houses after the return. All common people
followed common rational theism as moral monotheism that has kept social coherence for
Jews for thousands of years.
In China, Confucius (551BC to 479BC) converted basically religious rituals and
religious terms into the proprieties and the definitions for human relationship in the rational
moral large-group way of social life for common people. Laozi (possibly 571BC to 471BC)
moved elite revealed theism back to the prehistoric natural society in the rational
harmonious small-group way of social life for common people. In India, Buddha (563BC to
483BC) converted the religious cyclic life and liberation into the psychological cyclic life
and liberation in the rational harmonious small-group way of life. Hinduism added the
reincarnation to unify all gods and enforce morality in the rational moral large-group way of
life, and also added yoga for the rational harmonious small-group way of life. In Greece,
the philosophers, such as Socrates (470BC to 399BC), Plato, and Aristotle, converted
individualistic Greek mythology into the rational individualistic large-group way of social
life. Each individual is in pursuit of individualistic achievement in science, mathematics,
philosophy, and art. Later, Jesus (5BC to. 30AD) converted the nation of Israel into the
kingdom of God as the rational harmonious small-group way of social life for common
people. Muhammad (570AD to 632AD) initiated the rational moral large-group way of
social life for common people.
As discussed in details later, we are currently in the third generation religion
consisting of three different types of social life: the collective (moral) large-group way of
social life for collective wellbeing (morality), the individualistic large-group way of social
life for individualistic achievement, and the harmonious small-group way of social life for
harmonious cooperation. The collective social life religion includes Judaism, Hinduism,
Confucianism, and Islam. The individualistic social life religion includes the Greek
individualism philosophy. The harmonious social life religion includes Daoism, Buddhism,
and Christianity.
In the current postmodern world, the rapid development of science and global
communication in the postmodern world push the religion in the brink of the fourth
generation religion: the universal religion as universal scientific theism. The society for
universal scientific theism is the religious universal society greater than the religious global
society on earth. The believers are the all human-like universal humanity in the universe.
The method is the universal scientific revelation of the God’s scientific plan for our universe
and society.
11
The brief description of the four-generation religion is as follows.

The Four-Generation Religion

Generation First Second Third Fourth
Religion Band Tribal Global Universal
Theism Egalitarian
immanent theism
Elite revealed theism Common rational
theism
Universal scientific
theism
Society Religious band
society
Religious tribal society Religious global
society
Religious universal
society
Believers Common people Ruling elites Common people Universal humanity
Method Immanent symbol Revelation (ritual, myth,
the way of ruling)
Rational way of
social life
Universal scientific
revelation

Science is the universal language for all observable phenomena, and can be used to
unify the observable phenomena in all religions. Science is based on rationalism and
empiricism. Rationalism is the system of knowledge based on self-evident propositions and
the logical consequences of propositions. Empiricism is based on observable phenomena.
A viable scientific model based on rationalism and empiricism is verifiable.
A self-evidence proposition of the universal scientific revelation is that the God’s
scientific plan for our universe and society has been revealed symbolically to humans. The
God’s scientific plan for our universe is shown in Genesis that shows the process for the
emergence of our universe. The process is Genesis Cosmology. The scientific theory for
Genesis Cosmology is the unified theory of physics that unifies all observable phenomena in
our universe. Genesis Cosmology is verifiable.
The God’s scientific plan for our society is the kingdom of God as taught by Jesus,
the Bible, and Dao De Jing. The Bible and Dao De Jing are the two most widespread sacred
texts in the world. The scientific theory for the kingdom of God is human evolution
including human biological and social evolutions. The kingdom of God is verifiable.
Science contains many areas of knowledge. The universal scientific revelation
includes the science in physics, cosmology, astronomy, neuroscience, human biological and
social evolutions, and psychology. Science deals with observable phenomena, so the
unobservable phenomena such as the God’s physical creation and heaven and hell, are
incomprehensible and outside of the scientific models in the scientific theories in universal
scientific revelation.
12
The Universal Scientific Revelation

Genesis Cosmology The kingdom of God
God’s scientific
plan
For our universe For our society
Sacred texts Genesis The Bible and Dao De Jing
Scientific
theory
The unified theory of physics Human biological and social evolutions
Science Physics, astronomy, and cosmology Human biological and social evolutions,
neuroscience, and psychology

The following describes briefly Genesis Cosmology and the kingdom of God.

Genesis Cosmology: the unified theory of physics

The model of cosmology is Genesis Cosmology as described in Part 1. Genesis
Cosmology is the cosmology model in agreement with the interpretive description of the
first three days in Genesis. Genesis Cosmology is derived from the unified theory that
unifies all phenomena in our universe. In Genesis, the first day involves the emergence of
the separation of light and darkness from the formless, empty, and dark pre-universe,
corresponding to the emergence of the current asymmetrical dual universe of the light
universe with light and the dark universe without light from the simple and dark pre-
universe in Genesis Cosmology. The light universe is the current observable universe, while
the dark universe coexisting with the light universe is first separated from the light universe
and later connected with the light universe as dark energy. In Genesis, the second day
involves the separation of waters from above and below the expanse, corresponding to the
separation of dark matter and baryonic matter from above and below the interface between
dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies in Genesis Cosmology. In
Genesis, the third day involves the separation of sea and land where organisms appeared,
corresponding to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet where organisms
were developed in Genesis Cosmology.

The Kingdom of God: human evolution

The model of our society is the kingdom of God as described in Part 2. The society
God want us to have is the kingdom of God which is the harmonious society.
Jesus said that the kingdom of God is within you. The kingdom of God is within
the harmonious society and social life (social interaction). The three basic human social
lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine
individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The harmonious
social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. Human social lives were
derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During
13
ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the
harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was fully developed. The
harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group. The prehistoric
hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society. In the Bible, the human in the image
of God is the human of the harmonious social life that is different from all other animals.
The supernatural interaction between the supernatural and human is expressed as
the kingdom of God that is the harmonious society. The kingdom of God evolves
through supernatural selection. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation
of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the harmonious society as the
chosen society by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the
expression of the natural human mind) including abstract social bond, abstract morality,
and abstract rebirth.
The prehistoric kingdom of God expressed as Symbolic Religion (female
figurines and cave paintings) provided the abstract social bond to bond the isolated social
groups to survive the harsh environment. The prehistoric kingdom of God is the Garden
of Eden. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitably large
civilized social group destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group as the
prehistoric kingdom of God. The Neolithic Revolution that resulted in civilization is the
fall in the Garden of Eden.
The early transitional kingdom of God was the moral religion as Judaism, and
provided the abstract morality to prevent the activated dehumanized prey-predator
instinct. Jesus Christ initiated the early kingdom of God that provided the abstract rebirth
for the civilized people to return to the harmonious social life and society. It was
manifested in the early church based on the harmonious society and social life.
The decline of the kingdom of God later resulted from the conversion of the
church to the state religion. In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the
Modern Revolution, the decline of the state religion resulted in the modern kingdom of
God in the three-branch Unified Society consisting of the collective society, the
individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collective wellbeing,
individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The typical
example of the Unified Society is America that has the collective political party, the
individualistic political party, and the modern kingdom of God separated from the state.
In the Postmodern Period starting from the global mass telecommunication for the
Postmodern Revolution, the global and universal perspective involves the whole human
society, so the postmodern kingdom of God is the harmonious society of God in the
three-branch Unified Society.

14

Part 1: Genesis Cosmology: the unified theory of
physics

Genesis Cosmology is the cosmology model in agreement with the interpretive
description of the first three days in Genesis. Genesis Cosmology is derived from the
unified theory that unifies various phenomena in our universe. In Genesis, the first day
involves the emergence of the separation of light and darkness from the formless, empty,
and dark pre-universe, corresponding to the emergence of the current asymmetrical dual
universe of the light universe with light and the dark universe without light from the simple
and dark pre-universe in Genesis Cosmology. The light universe is the current observable
universe, while the dark universe coexisting with the light universe is first separated from
the light universe and later connected with the light universe as dark energy. In Genesis, the
second day involves the separation of waters from above and below the expanse,
corresponding to the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter from above and below
the interface between dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies in
Genesis Cosmology. In Genesis, the third day involves the separation of sea and land where
organisms appeared, corresponding to the separation of interstellar medium and star with
planet where organisms were developed in Genesis Cosmology.
The unified theory for Genesis Cosmology unifies various phenomena in our
observable universe and other universes. In terms of cosmology, our universe starts with the
11-dimensional membrane universe followed by the 10-dimensional string universe and
then by the 10-dimensional particle universe, and ends with the asymmetrical dual universe
with variable dimensional particle and 4-dimensional particles. This 4-stage process goes
on in repetitive cycles as the figure below. Such 4-stage cosmology accounts for the origin
of the four force fields. The unified theory clarifies the old mystery of quantum mechanics
by using binary lattice space as its space structure. It describes the inflation, the big bang,
and the formation of various shapes of galaxies in a clear sequence. It illuminates dark
matter and dark energy with the calculated percentages in good agreement with the observed
values. It places all elementary particles in the periodic table of elementary particles with
the calculated masses in good agreement with the observed values. It gives the structure for
the extreme force fields, which explain many odd phenomena, including superconductivity,
the fractional quantum Hall effect, gravastar (the alternative for black hole), supernova,
neutron stars, and gamma ray bursts.
Genesis Cosmology is based on the cosmic code consisting of the space structure
and the objective structure. Different universes in different developmental stages are the
different expressions of the cosmic code. The space structure includes attachment space
and detachment space. Relating to rest mass, attachment space attaches to object
permanently with zero speed or reversibly at the speed of light. Relating to kinetic
energy, detachment space irreversibly detaches from the object at the speed of light. The
combination of attachment space and detachment space brings about three different space
structures: miscible space, binary lattice space, and binary partition space for special
relativity, quantum mechanics, and the extreme force fields, respectively. The object
structure consists of 11D membrane (3
11
), 10D string (2
10
), variable D particle (1
4 to 10
),
and empty object (0
4 to 11
). The transformation among the objects is through the
15
dimensional oscillation that involves the oscillation between high dimensional space-time
with high vacuum energy and low dimensional space-time with low vacuum energy. Our
observable universe with 4D space-time has zero vacuum energy.
All universes are cyclic universes that always exist without beginning and end. The
scientific model of cyclic universe contains no scientifically comprehensible creation.
God’s revelation about creation is beyond our universe and beyond our scientific
comprehension. Genesis Cosmology is verifiable.



the 10D string universe
quick transformation
the inflation
the expanding observable 4D
universe
the expanding hidden
> 4D universe

the accelerated expanding
observable 4D universe with dark
energy
the contracting
observable 4D universe
the contracting hidden
> 4D universe

the10D antistring universe

slow stepwise
transformation
the positive energy 10D particle-antiparticle universe The negative energy 10D particle-antiparticle universe
the deflation
quick transformation
slow stepwise
transformation
the 11D membrane universe (the multiverse background)
16
2. The First Day: the light universe and the dark
universe



Scripture

In Genesis, the first day involves the emergence of the separation of light and
darkness from the formless, empty, and dark pre-universe, corresponding to the emergence
of the current asymmetrical dual universe of the observable light universe with light and the
hidden dark universe without light from the simple and dark pre-universe in Genesis
Cosmology. The light universe is the current observable universe, while the dark universe
coexisting with the light universe is first separated from the light universe and later
connected with the light universe as dark energy.
The original Genesis 1 In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. 2 Now
the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the
Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. 3 And God said, "Let there be light," and
there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the
darkness. 5 God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night." And there was
evening, and there was morning—the first day.
The interpretative Genesis 1 At the beginning of the creation of heaven and earth
a
, 2
when the pre-universe was simple, darkness
b
was over the surface of the deep vacuum
energy
c
, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the cosmic fluids
d
. 3 And God said,
"Let there be light," and there was light in the light universe
e
. 4 God saw that the light
was good, and He separated the light universe from the dark universe
f
. 5 God called the
light "day," and the darkness he called "night." And there was the first period.
a. The ambiguity of the Hebrew grammar brings about the alternative translation, in which "heaven
and earth" already existed as in the New JPS Translation of the Torah.
b. The pre-universe does not have light and kinetic energy, while our observable universe has light
and kinetic energy.
c. Vacuum energy is the energy below the detectable energy. Our observable universe has zero
vacuum energy, while the pre-universe has high vacuum energy.
d. The cosmic fluids are various different pre-universes.
e. The light universe is the observable universe with light and kinetic energy.
f. Coexisting with the light universe, the dark universe without light and kinetic is first separated
from the light universe and later connected with the light universe as dark energy.

Introduction

17
Our observable universe is a complex universe. It has at least four force fields; the
strong, the gravitational, the electromagnetic (charged), and the weak force fields. It has at
least four different materials and energies: cosmic radiation, dark energy, dark matter, and
baryonic matter. It has numerous elementary particles, including six leptons, six quarks, and
gauge bosons. So far, there is no viable unified theory in physics to unify specifically all
these different phenomena. The cosmology model from Genesis can point out the direction
for the unified theory. The cosmology model in agreement with the interpretive description
of the first three days in Genesis is called “Genesis Cosmology”.
This chapter compares the first day in Genesis with the first period in Genesis
Cosmology. The ambiguity of the Hebrew grammar brings about the alternative translation
in which "heaven and earth" already existed in a "formless and empty" state, to which God
brings form and order
1
. The existing universe before the form and order is called the “pre-
universe”. Therefore, the first day involves the emergence of the current universe from the
pre-universe that was simple as described in Genesis 1:2 as formless, empty, and dark with
the surface of the deep.
According to Genesis Cosmology as discussed later, the pre-universe
2 , 3
is simple,
dark without light and kinetic energy, and deep with high vacuum energy. Vacuum energy
is the energy below the surface of detectable energy. The pre-universe has high vacuum
energy, while our observable universe has zero vacuum energy. Therefore, the description
of the pre-universe in Genesis is in agreement with the description of the pre-universe in
Genesis Cosmology.
In Genesis, the first day involves the appearance of light and the separation of light
and darkness from the formless, empty, and dark pre-universe. According to Genesis
Cosmology, the starting of our current universe is the separation of light universe with light
and the dark universe without light. The light universe is our observable universe. The dark
universe coexisting with the light universe is first separated from the light universe and later
connected with the light universe as dark energy. Therefore, the description of the start of
the current universe in Genesis is in agreement with the description of the start of the current
universe in Genesis Cosmology.
The following sections describe the first day Genesis Cosmology. Before the
current universe, the pre-universe is in the three different stages in chronological order: the
strong pre-universe, the gravitational pre-universe, and the charged pre-universe. The strong
pre-universe has only one force: the strong force. The gravitational pre-universe has two
forces: the strong and the gravitational forces. The charged pre-universe has three forces:
the strong, the gravitational, and the electromagnetic forces. All three forces in the pre-
universes are in their primitive forms unlike the finished forms in our observable universe.
The asymmetrical weak interaction comes from the formation of the current asymmetrical
dual universe. Such 4-stage cosmology for our universe explains the origin of the four force
fields in our observable universe.


2.1. The Strong Pre-Universe

Dual universe Object structure Space structure Force
no 11D membrane attachment space pre-strong

18
Many different universes can emerge from the multiverse background, which has
the simplest and most primitive structure
2, 3
. As in Einstein’s static universe, the time in
the multiverse background has no beginning. Different parts of the background have
potential to undergo local inhomogeneity to develop different universes with different
object structures, space structures, and vacuum energies. The multiverse background is
the strong pre-universe. It is the homogeneous static universe, consisting of 11D (space-
time dimensional) positive energy membrane and negative energy anti-membrane,
denoted as 3
11
3
-11
, as proposed by Mongan
4
. The only force among the membranes is
the pre-strong force, s, as the predecessor of the strong force. It is from the quantized
vibration of the membranes to generate the reversible process of the absorption-emission
of the massless particles among the membranes. The pre-strong force mediates the
reversible absorption-emission in the flat space. The pre-strong force is the same for all
membranes, so it is not defined by positive or negative sign. It does not have gravity that
causes instability and singularity
5
, so the initial universe remains homogeneous, flat, and
static. This initial universe provides the globally stable static background state for an
inhomogeneous eternal universe in which local regions undergo expansion-contraction
5
.
All universes are governed by the cosmic code consisting of the two basic
physical structures
2, 3
: the space structure and the object structure. Different universes are
the different genetic expressions of the same cosmic code.
The first structure of the two physical structures is the space structure. The space
structure
3, 6, 7
consists of attachment space (denoted as 1) and detachment space (denoted
as 0). Attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed or reversibly at
the speed of light. Detachment space irreversibly detaches from the object at the speed of
light. Attachment space relates to rest mass, while detachment space relates to kinetic
energy. Different stages of our universe have different space structures.
All three pre-universes and the dark universe of the cosmic evolution of our universe
do not have detachment space. The cosmic origin of detachment space is the cosmic
radiation from the particle-antiparticle annihilation that is a part of the inflation as shown
later. Some objects in 4D-attachment space, denoted as 1
4
, convert into the cosmic
radiation in 4D-detachment space, denoted as 0
4
. Cosmic radiation cannot permanently
attach to a space.

4 4
0 1 in radiation cosmic the in objects some ÷→ ÷ (1)

The combination of attachment space (1) and detachment space (0) brings about
three different space structures: miscible space, binary partition space, and binary lattice
space for four-dimensional space-time as below.

space partition binary
n n
or space miscible space lattice binary
n
n combinatio
space achment
n
space attachment
n
) 0 ( ) 1 ( , , ) 0 1 (
det ) 0 ( ) 1 ( ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ +
(2)
Binary lattice space, (1 0)
n
, consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment
space and detachment space. Thus, binary lattice space consists of multiple quantized
19
units of attachment space separated from one another by detachment space. In miscible
space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is no separation of
attachment space and detachment space. Binary partition space, (1)
n
(0)
n
, consists of
separated continuous phases of attachment space and detachment space.
Binary lattice space consists of multiple quantized units of attachment space
separated from one another by detachment space. Binary lattice space slices an object
into multiple quantum states separated from one another by detachment space. Binary
lattice space is the space for wavefunction. In wavefunction,

i
n
i
i
c φ ∑
=
= Ψ
1
, (3)
Each individual basis element, |φ
i
〉, attaches to attachment space, and separates from the
adjacent basis element by detachment space. Detachment space detaches from object.
Binary lattice space with n units of four-dimensional, (0 1)
n
, contains n units of basis
elements.
Neither attachment space nor detachment space is zero in binary lattice space.
The measurement in the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics is essentially the
measurement of attachment space and momentum in binary lattice space: large
momentum has small non-zero attachment space, while large attachment space has low
non-zero momentum. In binary lattice space, an entity is both in constant motions as
wave for detachment space and in stationary state as a particle for attachment space,
resulting in the wave-particle duality.
Detachment space contains no object that carries information. Without
information, detachment space is outside of the realm of causality. Without causality,
distance (space) and time do not matter to detachment space, resulting in non-localizable
and non-countable space-time. The requirement for the system (binary lattice space)
containing non-localizable and non-countable detachment space is the absence of net
information by any change in the space-time of detachment space. All changes have to
be coordinated to result in zero net information. This coordinated non-localized binary
lattice space corresponds to nilpotent space. All changes in energy, momentum, mass,
time, space have to result in zero as defined by the generalized nilpotent Dirac equation
by B. M. Diaz and P. Rowlands
8
.

0 ) ( exp ) ( ) / ( . = + − + ± ± + ∇ ± ∂ ∂ r p j ip k j i k Et i m E i m t m , (4)

where E, p, m, t and r are respectively energy, momentum, mass, time, space and the
symbols ± 1, ± i, ± i, ± j, ± k, ± i, ± j, ± k, are used to represent the respective units
required by the scalar, pseudoscalar, quaternion and multivariate vector groups. The
changes involve the sequential iterative path from nothing (nilpotent) through
conjugation, complexification, and dimensionalization. The non-local property of binary
lattice space for wavefunction provides the violation of Bell inequalities
9
in quantum
mechanics in terms of faster-than-light influence and indefinite property before
measurement. The non-locality in Bell inequalities does not result in net new information.
20
In binary lattice space, for every detachment space, there is its corresponding
adjacent attachment space. Thus, no part of the object can be irreversibly separated from
binary lattice space, and no part of a different object can be incorporated in binary lattice
space. Binary lattice space represents coherence as wavefunction. Binary lattice space is
for coherent system. Any destruction of the coherence by the addition of a different
object to the object causes the collapse of binary lattice space into miscible space. The
collapse is a phase transition from binary lattice space to miscible space. Any destruction
of the coherence by the addition of a different object to the object causes the collapse of
binary lattice space into miscible space. The collapse is a phase transition from binary
lattice space to miscible space.


( ) ( ) ( )
space lattice binary
space miscible
collapse
n
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷
1 0
(5)

Another way to convert binary lattice space into miscible space is gravity.
Penrose
10
pointed out that the gravity of a small object is not strong enough to pull
different states into one location. On the other hand, the gravity of large object pulls
different quantum states into one location to become miscible space. Therefore, a small
object without outside interference is always in binary lattice space, while a large object
is never in binary lattice space.
The information in miscible space is contributed by the combination of both
attachment space and detachment space, so detachment space with information can no
longer be non-localize. Any value in miscible space is definite. All observations in terms
of measurements bring about the collapse of wavefunction, resulting in miscible space
that leads to eigenvalue as definite quantized value. Such collapse corresponds to the
appearance of eigenvalue, E, by a measurement operator, H, on a wavefunction,Ψ.

Ψ = Ψ E H , (6)
In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is
no separation of attachment space and detachment space. In miscible space, attachment
space contributes zero speed, while detachment space contributes the speed of light. A
massless particle, such as photon, is on detachment space continuously, and detaches from
its own space continuously. For a moving massive particle consisting of a rest massive part
and a massless part, the massive part with rest mass, m
0
, is in attachment space, and the
massless part with kinetic energy, K, is in detachment space. The combination of the
massive part in attachment space and massless part in detachment leads to the propagation
speed in between zero and the speed of light.
To maintain the speed of light constant for a moving particle, the time (t) in moving
particle has to be dilated, and the length (L) has to be contracted relative to the rest frame.

21
2
0
2
0
0
2 2
, /
, / 1
0
0
c m c m K E
L L
t c t t
γ
γ
γ υ
= + =
=
= − = =
(7)

where
2 2
/ 1 / 1 c υ γ − = is the Lorentz factor for time dilation and length contraction, E is
the total energy and K is the kinetic energy.
Binary partition space, (1)
n
(0)
n
, consists of separated continuous phases of
attachment space and detachment space. It is for extreme force fields under extreme
conditions such as near the absolute zero temperature or extremely high pressure. It will
be discussed later to explain extreme phenomena such as superconductivity and black
hole.
The second part of the two physical structures is the object structure. The object
structure consists of 11D membrane (3
11
), 10D string (2
10
), variable D particle (1
4 to 10
),
and empty object (0
4 to 11
). Different universes and different stages of a universe can have
different expressions of the object structure. For an example, the four stages in the
evolution of our universe are the 11D membrane universe (the strong universe), the dual
10D string universe (the gravitational pre-universe), the dual 10D particle universe (the
charged pre-universe), and the dual 4D/variable D particle universe (the current universe),
involving 11D membrane, 10D string, 10D particle, and 4D/variable ≤ 10 D particle,
respectively.
The transformation among different objects is through the dimensional
oscillation
3
. The dimensional oscillation involves the oscillation between high
dimensional space-time and low dimensional space-time. The vacuum energy of the
multiverse background is about the Planck energy. Vacuum energy decreases with
decreasing dimension number. The vacuum energy of 4D space-time is zero. With such
vacuum energy differences, the local dimensional oscillation between high and low
space-time dimensions results in local eternal expansion-contraction
11 ,12, 13
. Eternal
expansion-contraction is like harmonic oscillator, oscillating between the Planck vacuum
energy and the lower vacuum energy.
For the dimensional oscillation, contraction occurs at the end of expansion. Each
local region in the universe follows a particular path of the dimensional oscillation. Each
path is marked by particular set of force fields. The path for our universe is marked by
the strong force, gravity-antigravity, charged electromagnetism, and asymmetrical weak
force, corresponding to the four stages of the cosmic evolution.
The vacuum energy differences among space-time dimensions are based on the
varying speed of light. Varying speed of light has been proposed to explain the horizon
problem of cosmology
14,15
. The proposal is that light traveled much faster in the distant
past to allow distant regions of the expanding universe to interact since the beginning of
the universe. Therefore, it was proposed as an alternative to cosmic inflation. J. D.
Barrow
16
proposes that the time dependent speed of light varies as some power of the
expansion scale factor a in such way that


n
a c t c
0
) ( = (8)
22
where 0
0
> c and n are constants. The increase of speed of light is continuous.
In this paper, varying dimension number (VDN) relates to quantized varying
speed of light (QVSL), where the speed of light is invariant in a constant space-time
dimension number, and the speed of light varies with varying space-time dimension
number from 4 to 11.
,
4 D
D
/

= α c c (9)

where c is the observed speed of light in the 4D space-time,
D
c is the quantized varying
speed of light in space-time dimension number, D, from 4 to 11, and α is the fine structure
constant for electromagnetism. Each dimensional space-time has a specific speed of light.
(Since from the beginning of our observable universe, the space-time dimension has always
been four, there is no observable varying speed of light in our observable universe.) The
speed of light increases with the increasing space-time dimension number D.
In special relativity,
2
0
c M E =

modified by Eq. (9) is expressed as

) / (
) 4 D ( 2 2
0

⋅ = α c M E (10a)

2 ) 4 d ( 2
0
) / ( c M ⋅ =

α . (10b)

Eq. (10a) means that a particle in the D dimensional space-time can have the
superluminal speed
4 D
/

α c , which is higher than the observed speed of light c, and has the
rest mass
0
M . Eq. (10b) means that the same particle in the 4D space-time with the
observed speed of light acquires
) 4 d ( 2
0
/

α M as the rest mass, where d = D. D in Eq. (10a)
is the space-time dimension number defining the varying speed of light. In Eq. (10b), d from
4 to 11 is “mass dimension number” defining varying mass. For example, for D = 11, Eq.
(10a) shows a superluminal particle in eleven-dimensional space-time, while Eq. (10b)
shows that the speed of light of the same particle is the observed speed of light with the
4D space-time, and the mass dimension is eleven. In other words, 11D space-time can
transform into 4D space-time with 11d mass dimension. 11D4d in Eq. (10a) becomes
4D11d in Eq. (10b) through QVSL. QVSL in terms of varying space-time dimension
number, D, brings about varying mass in terms of varying mass dimension number, d.
The QVSL transformation transforms both space-time dimension number and mass
dimension number. In the QVSL transformation, the decrease in the speed of light leads to
the decrease in space-time dimension number and the increase of mass in terms of
increasing mass dimension number from 4 to 11,

, /
2
D D
n
n
c c α

= (11a)
,
2
d , D , 0 d , D , 0
n
n n
M M α
+ −
= (11b)
) d ( ), D ( d , D n n
QVSL
± ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ m (11c)

where D is the space-time dimension number from 4 to 11 and d is the mass dimension
number from 4 to 11. For example, in the QVSL transformation, a particle with 11D4d is
23
transformed to a particle with 4D11d. In terms of rest mass, 11D space-time has 4d with the
lowest rest mass, and 4D space-time has 11d with the highest rest mass.
Rest mass decreases with increasing space-time dimension number. The decrease
in rest mass means the increase in vacuum energy, so vacuum energy increases with
increasing space-time dimension number. The vacuum energy of 4D particle is zero,
while 11D membrane has the Planck vacuum energy. Such vacuum energies are the
alternatives for the Higgs bosons, which have not been found. The decrease in vacuum
energy is equivalent to the absorption of the Higgs boson, while the increase in vacuum
energy is equivalent to the emission of the Higgs boson.
Since the speed of light for > 4D particle is greater than the speed of light for 4D
particle, the observation of > 4D particles by 4D particles violates casualty. Thus, > 4D
particles are hidden particles with respect to 4D particles. Particles with different space-
time dimensions are transparent and oblivious to one another, and separate from one
another if possible.

2.2. The Gravitational Pre-Universe

Dual universe Object structure Space structure Forces
dual 10D string attachment space pre-strong, pre-gravity

In certain regions of the 11D membrane universe, the local expansion takes place
by the transformation from 11D-membrane into 10D-string. The expansion is the result
of the vacuum energy difference between 11D membrane and 10D string. With the
emergence of empty object (0
11
), 11D membrane transforms into 10D brane (string)
warped with virtue particle as pregravity.

+
= ÷ ÷ → ← + g s s s
10 1 10 11 11
2 1 2 0 3 (12)

where 3
11
is the 11D membrane, s is the pre-strong force, 0
11
is the 11D empty object, 2
10
is 10D string, 1
1
is one dimensional virtue particle as g, pre-gravity. Empty object
corresponds to the anti-De Sitter bulk space in the Randall-Sundrum model
17
. In the
same way, the surrounding object can extend into empty object by the decomposition of
space dimension as described by Bounias and Krasnoholovets
18
, equivalent to the
Randall-Sundrum model. The g is in the bulk space, which is the warped space
(transverse radial space) around 2
10
. As in the AdS/CFT duality
19, 20, 21
, the pre-strong
force has 10D dimension, one dimension lower than the 11D membrane, and is the
conformal force defined on the conformal boundary of the bulk space. The pre-strong
force mediates the reversible absorption-emission process of membrane (string) units in
the flat space, while pregravity mediates the reversible condensation-decomposition
process of mass-energy in the bulk space.
Through symmetry, antistrings form 10D antibranes with anti-pregravity as
10
2


g
-
, where g
-
is anti-pregravity.


− − − − −
= ÷ ÷ → ← + g s s s
10 1 10 11 11
2 1 2 0 3 (13)

24
Pregravity can be attractive or repulsive to anti-pregravity. If it is attractive, the
universe remains homogeneous. If it is repulsive, n units of (2
10
)
n
and n units of (2
-10
)
n
are
separated from each other.
n
s g
n
g s ))
10
2 ( ( ) )
10
2 ( (

− +
(14)

The universe with pregravity and anti-pregravity is the dual 10D string universe, which
leads to the evolution of our observable universe. The dual 10D string universe consists of
two parallel universes with opposite energies: 10D branes (strings) with positive energy and
10D antibranes (antistrings) with negative energy. The two universes are separated by the
bulk space, consisting of pregravity and anti-pregravity. Such dual universe separated by
bulk space appears in the ekpyrotic universe model
22,23
.

2.3. The Charged Pre-Universe

Dual
universe
Object
structure
Space structure Forces
dual 10D particle attachment
space
pre-strong, pre-gravity, pre-
electromagnetic

When the local expansion stops, through the dimensional oscillation, the contraction
begins to force the dual 10D string universe to contract to the original state, resulting in the
coalescence of the two universes. The coalescence allows the two universes to mix. The
first path of such mixing is the brane-antibrane annihilation, resulting in disappearance of
the dual universe and the return to the multiverse background. The outcome is the
completion of one oscillating cycle.
The second path allows the continuation of the dual universe in another form
without the mixing of positive energy and negative energy. Such dual universe is
possible by the emergence of the pre-charge force, the predecessor of electromagnetism
with positive and negative charges. The mixing becomes the mixing of positive charge and
negative charge instead of positive energy and negative energy, resulting in the preservation
of the dual universe with the positive energy and the negative energy. Our universe follows
the second path as described below in details.
During the coalescence for the second path, the two universes coexist in the same
space-time, which is predicted by the Santilli isodual theory
24
. Antiparticle for our
positive energy universe is described by Santilli as follows, “this identity is at the foundation
of the perception that antiparticles “appear” to exist in our space, while in reality they belong
to a structurally different space coexisting within our own, thus setting the foundations of a
“multidimensional universe” coexisting in the same space of our sensory perception” (Ref.
24, p. 94). Antiparticles in the positive energy universe actually come from the coexisting
negative energy universe.
The mixing process follows the isodual hole theory that is the combination of the
Santilli isodual theory and the Dirac hole theory. In the Dirac hole theory that is not
symmetrical, the positive energy observable universe has an unobservable infinitive sea of
negative energy. A hole in the unobservable infinitive sea of negative energy is the
observable positive energy antiparticle.
25
In the dual 10D string universe, one universe has positive energy branes with
pregravity, and one universe has negative energy antibranes with anti-pregravity. For the
mixing of the two universes during the coalescence, a new force, the pre-charged force,
emerges to provide the additional distinction between brane and antibrane. The pre-
charged force is the predecessor of electromagnetism. Before the mixing, the positive
energy brane has positive pre-charge (e
+
), while the negative energy antibrane has negative
pre-charge (e
-
). During the mixing when two 10D string universes coexist, a half of positive
energy branes in the positive energy universe move to the negative energy universe, and
leave the Dirac holes in the positive energy universe. The negative energy antibranes that
move to fill the holes become positive energy antibranes with negative pre-charge in the
positive energy universe. In terms of the Dirac hole theory, the unobservable infinitive sea
of negative energy is in the negative energy universe from the perspective of the positive
energy universe before the mixing. The hole is due to the move of the negative energy
antibrane to the positive energy universe from the perspective of the positive energy
universe during the mixing, resulting in the positive energy antibrane with negative pre-
charge in the positive energy universe.
In the same way, a half of negative energy antibranes in the negative energy
universe moves to the positive energy universe, and leave the holes in the negative energy
universe. The positive energy branes that move to fill the holes become negative energy
branes with positive pre-charge in the negative energy universe. The result of the mixing is
that both positive energy universe and the negative energy universe have branes-antibranes.
The existence of the pre-charge provides the distinction between brane and antibrane in the
brane-antibrane.
At that time, the space (detachment space) for radiation has not appeared in the
universe, so the brane-antibrane annihilation does not result in radiation. The brane-
antibrane annihilation results in the replacement of the brane-antibrane as the 10D string-
antistring, (2
10
2
-10
) by the 10D particle-antiparticle (1
10
1
-10
). The 10D particles-
antiparticles have the multiple dimensional Kaluza-Klein structure with variable space
dimension number without the requirement for a fixed space dimension number for string-
antistring. After the mixing, the dual 10D particle-antiparticle universe separated by
pregravity and anti-pregravity appears as below.

,
n
) ) 1
_
1 ( ( ) ) 1
_
1 ((
10 10 10 10
s e e s g
n
g s e e s
− −
+ − + +
(15)

where s and e are the pre-strong force and the pre-charged force in the flat space, g is
pregravity in the bulk space, and 1
10
1
-10
is the particle-antiparticle. The dual 10D particle
universe has particles, while the multiverse background (11D- membrane universe) has
membranes, so the multiverse background and the dual 10D particle universe are completely
transparent and oblivious to each other. The result is the free charged dual 10D particle-
antiparticle universe.
The dual 10D particle universe consists of two parallel particle-antiparticle universes
with opposite energies and the bulk space separating the two universes. There are four
space regions: the positive energy particle-antiparticle space region, the pregravity bulk
space region, the negative energy particle-antiparticle space region, and the anti-pregravity
bulk space region.
26

2.4.The Current Universe

Object structure Space structure Forces
The light
universe
4D particle attachment space and
detachment space
strong, gravity,
electromagnetic, and weak
The dark
universe
variable D between
4 and 10 particle
attachment space Pre-strong, gravity, pre-
electromagnetic

2.4.1. Cosmology

The formation of our current universe follows immediately after the formation of
the charged pre-universe through the asymmetrical dimensional oscillations, leading to
the asymmetrical dual universe consisting of the light universe with kinetic energy and
light and the dark universe without kinetic energy and light. Our observable universe is
the light universe, whose formation involves the immediate transformation from 10D to
4D, resulting in the inflation as shown later. The formation of the dark universe involves
the slow dimensional oscillation between 10D and 4D. The asymmetrical dual universe
is manifested as the asymmetry in the weak interaction in our observable universe as
follows.
n 10 10 4 4
) ) 1
_
1 ( ( ) ) 1
_
1 (( s w e w e s g g s w e w e s
n − ≥ ≤ −
− + + − + − + +
(16)

where s, g, e, and w are the strong force, gravity, electromagnetism, and weak interaction,
respectively for the observable universe, and where 1
4
1
-4
and 1
≤10
1
≥-10
are 4D particle-
antiparticle for the light universe and variable D particle-antiparticle for the dark universe,
respectively.
In summary, the whole process of the local dimensional oscillations leading to our
observable universe is illustrated as follows.

where s, e, and w are in the flat space, and g is in the bulk space. Each stage generates
one force, so the four stages produce the four different forces: the strong force, gravity,
electromagnetism, and the weak interaction, sequentially. Gravity appears in the first
dimensional oscillation between the 11 dimensional membrane and the 10 dimensional
string. The asymmetrical weak force appears in the asymmetrical second dimensional
oscillation between the ten dimensional particle and the four dimensional particle.
Charged electromagnetism appears as the force in the transition between the first and the
second dimensional oscillations. The cosmology explains the origins of the four forces.
n 10 10 4 4 n 10 10 10 10
11 11
) ) 1
_
1 ( ( ) ) 1
_
1 (( ) ) 1
_
1 ( ( ) ) 1
_
1 ((
var / 4
4 10
10
3 3
e, coalescenc 10 11
))
10
2 ( ( ) )
10
2 ( (
s w e w e s g g s w e w e s s e e s g g s e e s
n n
universe particle D ible D dual
D and D between
universe particle D dual
s s
on annihilati
universe string dual
D and D betwwen
universe membrane
n
s g
n
g s
− ≥ ≤ − − −

− + + − + − + + + − + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ←
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ← ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ←

− +
27
To prevent the charged pre-universe to reverse back to the previous pre-universe, the
charge pre-universe and the current universe overlap to a certain degree as shown in the
overlapping between the electromagnetic interaction and the weak interaction to form the
electroweak interaction.
Four-Stage
Universe
Universe Object
Structure
Space
Structure
Force
Strong Pre-
Universe
single 11D membrane attachment
space
pre-strong
Gravitational
Pre-Universe
dual 10D string attachment
space
pre-strong, pre-
gravity
Charged Pre-
Universe
dual 10D particle attachment
space
pre-strong, pre-
gravity, pre-
electromagnetic
Current
Universe
dual
light universe 4D particle attachment
space and
detachment
space
strong, gravity,
electromagnetic, and
weak
dark universe variable D
between 4 and
10 particle
attachment
space
pre-strong, gravity,
pre-electromagnetic
The formation of the dark universe involves the slow dimensional oscillation
between 10D and 4D. The dimensional oscillation for the formation of the dark universe
involves the stepwise two-step transformation: the QVSL transformation and the varying
supersymmetry transformation. In the normal supersymmetry transformation, the
repeated application of the fermion-boson transformation carries over a boson (or
fermion) from one point to the same boson (or fermion) at another point at the same
mass. In the “varying supersymmetry transformation”, the repeated application of the
fermion-boson transformation carries over a boson from one point to the boson at another
point at different mass dimension number in the same space-time number. The repeated
varying supersymmetry transformation carries over a boson B
d
into a fermion F
d
and a
fermion F
d
to a boson B
d-1
, which can be expressed as follows

,
B d, B d, F d,
α M M = (17a)
,
F d, F d, B , 1 d
α M M =

(17b)

where M
d, B
and M
d, F
are the masses for a boson and a fermion, respectively, d is the mass
dimension number, and
B d,
α or
F d,
α is the fine structure constant that is the ratio between
the masses of a boson and its fermionic partner. Assuming
B d,
α or
F d,
α , the relation
between the bosons in the adjacent dimensions or n dimensions apart (assuming α’s are the
same) then can be expressed as

2
n d B , 1 d B d, + +
= α M M . (17c)
28

n
M M
2
n d B , n d B , d + +
= α . (17d)

Eq. (18) show that it is possible to describe mass dimensions > 4 in the following
way

11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5
B F B F B F B F B F B F B F , (18)

where the energy of B
11
is the Planck energy. Each mass dimension between 4d and 11d
consists of a boson and a fermion. Eq. (19) shows a stepwise transformation that converts
a particle with d mass dimension to d ± 1 mass dimension.

) 1 d ( , D d D, ± ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ←
try supersymme varying stepwise
(19)
The transformation from a higher mass dimensional particle to the adjacent lower mass
dimensional particle is the fractionalization of the higher dimensional particle to the
many lower dimensional particle in such way that the number of lower dimensional
particles becomes
2
d 1 d
/ α n n
-
= . The transformation from lower dimensional particles to
higher dimensional particle is a condensation. Both the fractionalization and the
condensation are stepwise. For example, a particle with 4D (space-time) 10d (mass
dimension) can transform stepwise into 4D9d particles. Since the supersymmetry
transformation involves translation, this stepwise varying supersymmetry transformation
leads to a translational fractionalization and translational condensation, resulting in
expansion and contraction.
For the formation of the dark universe from the charged pre-universe, the negative
energy universe has the 10D4d particles, which is converted eventually into 4D4d stepwise
and slowly. It involves the stepwise two-step varying transformation: first the QVSL
transformation, and then, the varying supersymmetry transformation as follows.


1) (d D,
try supersymme varying
d D, (2)
1) (d 1), (D
QVSL
d D, (1)
ation transform varying step - two stepwise
± ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ←
± ÷ ÷ ÷ → ← m
(20)

The repetitive stepwise two-step transformations from 10D4d to 4D4d are as follows.

The dark universe consists of two periods: the hidden dark universe and the dark
energy universe. The hidden dark universe composes of the > 4D particles. As mentioned
before, particles with different space-time dimensions are transparent and oblivious to
one another, and separate from one another if possible. Thus, > 4D particles are hidden
and separated particles with respect to 4D particles in the light universe (our observable
← ←
→ → → •• • • → → → → → →
energy dark universe dark hidden the
Energy Dark with Universe Dark Observable the and Universe Dark Hidden The
a a
4D4d 4D5d 5D4d 7D5d 8D4d 8D5d 9D4d 9D5d 10D4d
29
universe). The universe with > 4D particles is the hidden dark universe. The 4D particles
transformed from hidden > 4D particles in the dark universe are observable dark energy
for the light universe, resulting in the accelerated expanding universe. The accelerated
expanding universe consists of the positive energy 4D particles-antiparticles and dark
energy that includes the negative energy 4D particles-antiparticles and the antigravity.
Since the dark universe does not have detachment space, the presence of dark energy is
not different from the presence of the non-zero vacuum energy. In terms of quintessence,
such dark energy can be considered the tracking quintessence
25
from the dark universe with
the space-time dimension as the tracker. The tracking quintessence consists of the hidden
quintessence and the observable quintessence. The hidden quintessence is from the hidden
> 4D dark universe. The observable quintessence is from the observable 4D dark universe
with 4D space-time.
For the formation of the light universe, the dimensional oscillation for the positive
energy universe transforms 10D to 4D immediately. It involves the leaping two-step
varying transformation, resulting in the light universe with kinetic energy. The first step
is the space-time dimensional oscillation through QVSL. The second step is the mass
dimensional oscillation through slicing-fusion.

s ' DO ) d 11 ( ) d ( , D
fusion - slicing
d D, (2)
) d ( ), D (
QVSL
d D, (1)
n n
n n
tion transforma ying var step two leaping
+ − + ± ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ←
± ÷ ÷ ÷ → ←

m (21)

) (
d) 4 D 4 ( d) 5 D 4 d 6 D 4 d 7 D 4 d 8 D 4 d 9 D 4 10 4 (
inf , det
4D10d 10D4d
Universe Light The
bang big the ansion exp mic cos thermal
radiation cosmic matter baryonic d D matter dark
lation space achment with slicing tion transforma QVSL quick

+ + + + + + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷

In the charged pre-universe, the positive energy universe has 10D4d, which is
transformed into 4D10d in the first step through the QVSL transformation. The second
step of the leaping varying transformation involves the slicing-fusion of particle.
Bounias and Krasnoholovets
26
propose another explanation of the reduction of > 4 D space-
time into 4D space-time by slicing > 4D space-time into infinitely many 4D quantized units
surrounding the 4D core particle. Such slicing of > 4D space-time is like slicing 3-space D
object into 2-space D object in the way stated by Michel Bounias as follows: “You cannot
put a pot into a sheet without changing the shape of the 2-D sheet into a 3-D dimensional
packet. Only a 2-D slice of the pot could be a part of sheet”.
The slicing is by detachment space, as a part of the space structure, which consists
of attachment space (denoted as 1) and detachment space (denoted as 0) as described
earlier. Attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed or reversibly at
the speed of light. Detachment space irreversibly detaches from the object at the speed of
light. Attachment space relates to rest mass, while detachment space relates to kinetic
energy.
The slicing of dimensions is the slicing of mass dimensions. 4D10d particle is sliced
into seven particles: 4D10d, 4D9d, 4D8d, 4D7d, 4D6d, 4D5d, and 4D4d equally by mass.
30
Baryonic matter is 4D4d, while dark matter consists of the other six types of particles
(4D10d, 4D9d, 4D8d, 4D7d, 4D6d, and 4D5d) as described later. The mass ratio of dark
matter to baryonic matter is 6 to 1 in agreement with the observation
27
showing the
universe consists of 23% dark matter, 4% baryonic matter, and 73% dark energy.
Detachment space (0) involves in the slicing of mass dimensions. Attachment space
is denoted as 1. For example, the slicing of 4D10d particles into 4D4d particles is as
follows.

( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
units d of types space attachment core d space attachment d
j i i
slicing
4 6 4 4
6
1
6 ,
4 4 4 6 4
1 0 1 1
>
+
∑ +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷
(22)
The two products of the slicing are the 4d-core attachment space and 6 types of 4d
quantized units. The 4d core attachment space surrounded by 6 types of many (j) 4D4d
quantized units corresponds to the core particle surrounded by 6 types of many small 4d
particles.
Therefore, the transformation from d to d – n involves the slicing of a particle
with d mass dimension into two parts: the core particle with d – n dimension and the n
dimensions that are separable from the core particle. Such n dimensions are denoted as n
“dimensional orbitals”, which become gauge force fields as described later. The sum of
the number of mass dimensions for a particle and the number of dimensional orbitals
(DO’s) is equal to 11 (including gravity) for all particles with mass dimensions.
Therefore,
s ' DO ) d 11 (
d d
n F F
n
+ − + =

(23)

where 11 – d + n is the number of dimensional orbitals (DO’s) for F
d - n
. Thus, 4D10d
particles can transformed into 4D10d, 4D9d, 4D8d, 4D7d, 4D6d, 4D5d, and 4D4d core
particles, which have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 separable dimensional orbitals, respectively.
Dark matter particle, 4D10d, has only gravity, while baryonic matter particle, 4D4d, has
gravity and six other dimensional orbitals as gauge force fields as below.
The six > 4d mass dimensions (dimensional orbitals) for the gauge force fields and
the one mass dimension for gravity are as in Figure 1.






Figure 1. The seven force fields as > 4d mass dimensions (dimensional orbitals).

The dimensional orbitals of baryonic matter provide the base for the periodic table
of elementary particles to calculate accurately the masses of all 4D elementary particles,
including quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons as described later.
31
The lowest dimensional orbital is for electromagnetism. Baryonic matter is the
only one with the lowest dimensional orbital for electromagnetism. With higher
dimensional orbitals, dark matter does not have this lowest dimensional orbital. Without
electromagnetism, dark matter cannot emit light, and is incompatible to baryonic matter, like
the incompatibility between oil and water. The incompatibility between dark matter and
baryonic matter leads to the inhomogeneity (like emulsion), resulting in the formation of
galaxies, clusters, and superclusters as described later. Dark matter has not been found
by direct detection because of the incompatibility.
In the light universe, the inflation is the leaping varying transformation that is the
two-step inflation. The first step is to increase the rest mass as potential from higher
space-time dimension to lower space-time dimension as expressed by Eq. (24a) from Eq.
(11b).

0 6 0 ) (
'
) d ( ), D ( d D,
2
10 4
2
d , D d , D
to from V V
s n collective
V V
n n
QVSL
d D
n
n n
− ≤ =
=
=
± ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷

+ −
ϕ α ϕ
ϕ
α
ϕ
m
(24a)
where α is the fine structure constant for electromagnetism. The ratio of the potential
energies of 4D10d to that of 10D4d is 1/α
12
. ϕ is the scalar field for QVSL, and is equal
to collective n’s as the changes in space-time dimension number for many particles. The
increase in the change of space-time dimensions from 4D decreases the potential as the
rest mass. The region for QVSL is ϕ ≤ 0 from -6 to 0. The QVSL region is for the
conversion of the vacuum energy into the rest mass as the potential. The conversion of
vacuum energy into potential is equivalent to the absorption of the Higgs boson, while
the conversion of potential into vacuum energy is equivalent to the emission of the Higgs
boson.
The second step is the slicing that occurs simultaneously with the appearance of
detachment space that is the space for cosmic radiation (photon) as the particle-
antiparticle annihilation. Potential energy as massive 4D10d particles is converted into
kinetic energy as cosmic radiation and massive matter particles (from 10d to 4d). It
relates to the ratio between photon and matter in terms of the CP asymmetry between
particle and antiparticle. The slight excess particle over antiparticle results in matter
particle. The equation for the potential (V) and the scalar field (φ) is as Eq. (24b) from
Eq. (35) that expresses the ratio between photon and matter.

2 0 0 , ) (
) d ( , D
slicing
d D,
2
10 4
to from where V V
n
d D
≥ =
− ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷
φ α φ
φ
(24b)

The ratio is α
4
, according to Eq. (35). The region for the slicing is φ ≥ 0 from 0 to 2. The
slicing region is for the conversion of the potential energy into the kinetic energy.
The combination of Eq. (24a) and Eq. (24b) is as Eq. (24c).


0 0
), ( ) , (
2 2
10 4
≥ ≤
+ =

φ ϕ
α α φ ϕ
φ ϕ
and where
V V
d D
(24c)
32

The graph for the two-step inflation is as Figure 2.










At the transition (V
4D10d
) between the first step (QVSL) and the second step (slicing), the
scalar field reverses its sign and direction. In the first step, the universe inflates by the
decrease in vacuum energy. In the second step, the potential energy is converted into
kinetic energy as cosmic radiation. The resulting kinetic energy starts the big bang,
resulting in the expanding universe.
Toward the end of the cosmic contraction after the big crunch, the deflation
occurs as the opposite of the inflation. The kinetic energy from cosmic radiation
decreases, as the fusion occurs to eliminate detachment space, resulting in the increase of
potential energy. At the end of the fusion, the force fields except gravity disappear,
4D10d particles appear, and then the scalar field reverses its sign and direction. The
vacuum energy increases as the potential as the rest mass decreases for the appearance of
10D4d particles, resulting in the end of a dimensional oscillation as Figure 3 for the two-
step deflation.







The end of the two-step deflation is 10D4d, which is followed immediately by the
dimensional oscillation to return to 4D10d as the “dimensional bounce” as shown in Figure
4, which describes the dimensional oscillation from the left to the right: the beginning
(inflation as 10D4d through 4D10d to 4D4d), the cosmic expansion-contraction, the end
(deflation as 4D4d through 4D10d to 10D4d), the beginning (inflation), the cosmic
expansion-contraction, and the end (deflation).
.

Figure 2. the two-step inflation
ϕ

φ
V

V4D10d
V
Figure 4. the cyclic observable universe by the dimensional oscillation
time
inflation
inflation deflation deflation
expansion-
contraction
expansion-
contraction
dimensional bounce
Figure 3. the two-step deflation
ϕ

φ
V

V4D10d
33




The two-step inflation corresponds to the quintom inflation. The symmetry
breaking for the light universe can be described by quintom. Quintom
28, 29, 30
is the
combination of quintessence and phantom. Quintessence describes a time-varying
equation of state parameter, w, the ratio of its pressure to energy density and w > −1.
) ( ) (
2
1
2
int
φ φ
u
V L
essnec qu
− ∂ = (25)
1 1
) ( 2
) ( 2
2
.
2
.
+ ≤ ≤ −
+

=
w
V
V
w
φ φ
φ φ
(26)

Quintom includes phantom with w < −1. It has opposite sign of kinetic energy.

) ( ) (
2
1
2
ϕ ϕ
u
V L
phantom
− ∂

= (27)

w
V
V
w
≥ −
+ −
− −
=
1
) ( 2
) ( 2
2
.
2
.
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
(28)

As the combination of quintessence and phantom from Eqs. (24), (25), (26), and
(27), quintom is as follows.
) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2 2
int
ϕ φ ϕ φ
u u
V V L
essnec qu
− − ∂ − ∂ = (29)
) ( 2 ) ( 2
) ( 2 ) ( 2
2
.
2
.
2
.
2
.
ϕ φ ϕ φ
ϕ φ ϕ φ
V V
V V
w
+ + −
− − −
= (30)

Phantom represents the scalar field ϕ in the space-time dimensional oscillation in
QVSL, while quintessence represents the scalar field φ in the mass dimensional
oscillation in the slicing-fusion. Since QVSL does not involve kinetic energy, the
physical source of the negative kinetic energy for phantom is the increase in vacuum
energy or the emission of the Higgs boson, resulting in the decrease in energy density and
pressure with respect to the observable potential, V(ϕ). Combining Eqs. (24c) and (30),
quintom is as follows.
34

0 0
) ( 2
) ( 2
) ( 2 ) ( 2
) ( 2 ) ( 2
2 2
10 4
2
.
2
.
2 2
10 4
2
.
2
.
2
.
2
.
2
.
2
.
≥ ≤
+ + −
+ − −
=
+ + −
− − −
=


φ ϕ
α α ϕ φ
α α ϕ φ
ϕ φ ϕ φ
ϕ φ ϕ φ
φ ϕ
φ ϕ
and where
V
V
V V
V V
w
d D
d D
(31)
Figure 5 shows the plot of the evolution of the equation of state w for the quintom
inflation.







Figure 6 shows the plot of the evolution of the equation of state w for the cyclic
universe as Figure 4.










In the dimensional bounce in the middle of Figure 6, the equation of state crosses w = -1
twice as also shown in the recent development of the quintom model
31, 32
in which, for the
Quintom Bounce, the equation of state crosses the cosmological constant boundary twice
around the bounce point to start another cycle of the dual universe.
The hidden dark universe with D > 4 and the observable universe with D = 4 are
the “parallel universes” separated from each other by the bulk space. When the slow
QVSL transformation transforms gradually 5D hidden particles in the hidden universe
into observable 4D particles, the observable 4 D particles become the dark energy for the
observable universe starting from about 5 billion years ago. At a certain time, the hidden
universe disappears, and becomes completely observable as dark energy. The maximum
connection of the two universes includes the positive energy particle-antiparticle space
region, the gravity bulk space region, the negative energy particle-antiparticle space
region, and the anti-gravity bulk space region. Through the symmetry among the space
regions, all regions expand synchronically and equally. (The symmetry is necessary for
the ultimate reversibility of all cosmic processes.) The minimum observable universe has
only one of the four space regions before the emergence of dark energy, when the light
-1
w
t
Figure 5. the w of quintom for the quintom inflation
-1
w
t t
Figure 6. the cyclic universe by the dimensional oscillation as Figure 4
Quintom Bounce
35
universe and the dark universe are separated from each other by the bulk space. The
present observable universe about reaches the maximum (75%) at the observed 73% dark
energy
27
, about equal to the three additional space regions to the one original space
region. The calculated result from this model at the maximum dark energy gives the
universe made up of 75% dark energy, 21.4% dark matter, and 3.6% ordinary matter.
After the maximally connected universe, 4D dark energy transforms back to > 4D
particles that are not observable. The removal of dark energy in the observable universe
results in the stop of accelerated expansion and the start of contraction of the observable
universe.
The end of dark energy starts another “parallel universe period”. Both hidden
universe and observable universe contract synchronically and equally. Eventually,
gravity causes the observable universe to crush to lose all cosmic radiation, resulting in
the return to 4D10d particles under the deflation. The increase in vacuum energy allows
4D10d particles to become positive energy 10D4d particles-antiparticle. Meanwhile,
hidden > 4D particles-antiparticles in the hidden universe transform into negative energy
10D4d particles-antiparticles. The dual universe can undergo another cycle of the dual
universe with the dark and light universes. On the other hand, both universes can
undergo transformation by the reverse isodual hole theory to become dual 10D string
universe, which in turn can return to the 11D membrane universe as the multiverse
background as follows.
36







.
















Figure 7. Cosmology

2.4.2. The Periodic Table of Elementary Particles

In the light universe, cosmic radiation is the result of the annihilation of the CP
symmetrical particle-antiparticle. However, there is the CP asymmetry, resulting in excess
of matter. Matter results from the combination of the CP asymmetrical particle-antiparticle.
A baryonic matter particle (4d) has seven dimensional orbitals. The CP asymmetrical
particle-antiparticle particle means the combination of two asymmetrical sets of seven
from particle and antiparticle, resulting in the combination of the seven “principal
dimensional orbitals” and the seven “auxiliary dimensional orbitals”. The auxiliary
orbitals are dependent on the principal orbitals, so a baryonic matter particle appears to
have only one set of dimensional orbitals. For baryonic matter, the principal dimensional
orbitals are for leptons and gauge bosons, and the auxiliary dimensional orbitals are
mainly for individual quarks. Because of the dependence of the auxiliary dimensional
orbitals, individual quarks are hidden. In other words, there is asymmetry between lepton
and quark, resulting in the survival of matter without annihilation. The configuration of
dimensional orbitals and the periodical table of elementary particles
33
are shown in Fig. 8
and Table 1.


the 10D string universe
quick transformation
the inflation
the expanding
observable 4D light
universe
the hidden expanding
dark > 4D universe

the accelerated expanding
observable 4D universe
with dark energy
the contracting
observable 4D light
universe
the contracting hidden
dark > 4D universe
the10D antistring universe

slow stepwise
transformation
the positive energy 10D particle-
antiparticle light universe
The negative energy 10D particle-
antiparticle dark universe
the deflation
quick transformation
slow stepwise
transformation
the 11D membrane universe (the multiverse background)

The Genesis Cosmology
37
Lepton
ν
e
e ν
u
ν
τ
l
9
l
10

u
7
τ
7
u
8


d = 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
a = 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2

d
7
s
7
c
7
b
7
t
7
b
8
t
8

u
7

u
5
d
6
3u u′ q
9
q
10
Quark

Fig. 8: leptons and quarks in the principal and auxiliary dimensional orbitals d =
principal dimensional orbital (solid line) number, a = auxiliary dimensional orbital (dot
line) number
Table 1. The Periodic Table of Elementary Particles
d = principal dimensional orbital number, a = auxiliary dimensional orbital number
D a = 0 1 2 a = 0 1 2 3 4 5

Lepton Quark Boson
5 l
5
= ν
e
q
5
= u = 3ν
e
B
5
= A
6 l
6
= e q
6
= d = 3e B
6
= π
1/2

7 l
7
= ν
u
u
7
τ
7
q
7
= 3u u
7
/d
7
s
7
c
7
b
7
t
7
B
7
= Z
L
0

8 l
8
= ν
τ
u
8

(empty)
q
8
= u' b
8

(empty)
t
8
B
8
= X
R

9 l
9
q
9
B
9
= X
L

10 B
10
= Z
R
0

11 B
11

In Fig. 8 and Table 1, d is the principal dimensional orbital number, and a is the
auxiliary dimensional orbital number. (Note that F
d
has lower energy than B
d
.)
The principal dimensional orbitals are for gauge bosons of the force fields. For the
gauge bosons, the seven orbitals of principal dimensional orbital are arranged as F
5
B
5
F
6

B
6
F
7
B
7
F
8
B
8
F
9
B
9
F
10
B
10
F
11
B
11
, where B and F are boson and fermion in each orbital.
The mass dimension in Eq. (17) becomes the orbitals in dimensional orbital with the
same equations.
,
B d, B d, F d,
α M M = (32a)
,
F d, F d, B , 1 d
α M M =

(32b)

2
d B , d B 1, - d
α M M = . (32c)

where D is the dimensional orbital number from 6 to 11. E
5,B
and E
11,B
are the energies for
the 5d dimensional orbital and the 11d dimensional orbital, respectively. The lowest energy
is the Coulombic field,

e , 6 B , 5
M E E
F
α α = = . (33)

38
The bosons generated are the dimensional orbital bosons or B
D
. Using only α
e
, the
mass of electron (M
e
), the mass of Z

0
, and the number (seven) of dimensional orbitals, the
masses of B
D
as the gauge boson can be calculated as shown in Table 2.

Table 2. The Masses of the dimensional orbital bosons:
α = α
e
, d = dimensional orbital number
B
d
M
d
GeV
(calculated)
Gauge
boson
Interaction, symmetry Predecessor
B
5
M
e
α 3.7x10
-6
A Electromagnetic, U(1) Pre-charged
B
6
M
e
/α 7x10
-2
π
1/2
Strong, SU(3) Pre-strong
B
7
M
6

w
2
cos θ
w
91.177 (given) Z
L
0
weak (left), SU(2)
L
Fractionalization
(slicing)
B
8

M
7

2
1.7x10
6
X
R
CP (right) nonconservation

CP asymmetry
B
9
M
8

2
3.2x10
10
X
L
CP (left) nonconservation

CP asymmetry
B
10
M
9

2
6.0x10
14
Z
R
0
weak (right)

Fractionalization
(slicing)
B
11
M
10

2
1.1x10
19
G

Gravity Pregravity

In Table 2, α = α
e
(the fine structure constant for electromagnetic field), and α
w
=
α/sin
2
θ
w
. α
w
is not same as α of the rest, because as shown later, there is a mixing between
B
5
and B
7
as the symmetry mixing between U(1) and SU(2) in the standard theory of the
electroweak interaction, and sinθ
w
is not equal to 1. (The symmetrical charged dual pre-
universe overlaps with the current asymmetrical universe for the weak interaction as shown
earlier.) As shown later, B
5
, B
6
, B
7
, B
8
, B
9
, and B
10
are A (massless photon), π
1/2
(half of
pion), Z
L
0
, X
R
, X
L
, and Z
R
0
, respectively, responsible for the electromagnetic field, the
strong interaction, the weak (left handed) interaction, the CP (right handed) nonconservation,
the CP (left handed) nonconservation, and the P (right handed) nonconservation,
respectively. The calculated value for α
w
is 0.2973, and θ
w
is 29.69
0
in good agreement
with 29.31
0
for the observed value of θ
w
34
. The calculated energy for B
11
is 1.1x10
19
GeV
in good agreement with the Planck mass, 1.2x10
19
GeV. The strong interaction,
representing by π
1/2
(half of pion), is for the interactions among quarks, and for the hiding of
individual quarks in the auxiliary orbital. The weak interaction, representing by Z
L
0
, is for
the interaction involving changing flavors (decomposition and condensation) among quarks
and leptons.
There are dualities between dimensional orbitals and the cosmic evolution process.
The pre-charged force, the pre-strong force, the fractionalization, the CP asymmetry, and the
pregravity are the predecessors of electromagnetic force, the strong force, the weak
interaction, the CP nonconservation, and gravity, respectively. These forces are manifested
in the dimensional orbitals with various space-time symmetries and gauge symmetries. The
strengths of these forces are different than their predecessors, and are arranged according to
the dimensional orbitals. Only the 4d particle (baryonic matter) has the B
5
, so without B
5
,
dark matter consists of permanently neutral higher dimensional particles. It cannot emit
light, cannot form atoms, and exists as neutral gas.
39
The principal dimensional boson, B
8
, is a CP violating boson, because B
8
is assumed
to have the CP-violating U(1)
R
symmetry. The ratio of the force constants between the CP-
invariant W
L
in B
8
and the CP-violating X
R
in B
8
is


8
7
7
2 2
W
W 8
2
-10
G
G
=

E


E
= 5.3 X
10
,
α
α
cos Θ
(34)

which is in the same order as the ratio of the force constants between the CP-invariant weak
interaction and the CP-violating interaction with 1∆S1 = 2.
The principal dimensional boson, B
9
(X
L
), has the CP-violating U(1)
L
symmetry. B
9

generates matter. The ratio of force constants between X
R
with CP conservation and X
L

with CP-nonconservation is

,
10
X 2.8 =

E
E
=
G
G
9 -
2
9
2
8
8
9
4
α
α
α
= (35)

which is the ratio of the numbers between matter (dark and baryonic) and photons in the
universe. It is close to the ratio of the numbers between baryonic matter and photons about
5 x 10
–10
obtained by the big bang nucleosynthesis.
Auxiliary dimensional orbital is derived from principal dimensional orbital. It is for
high-mass leptons and individual quarks. Auxiliary dimensional orbital is the second set of
the three sets of seven orbitals. The combination of dimensional auxiliary dimensional
orbitals constitutes the periodic table for elementary particles as shown in Fig. 8 and Table 1.
There are two types of fermions in the periodic table of elementary particles: low-
mass leptons and high-mass leptons and quarks. Low-mass leptons include ν
e
, e, ν
u
, and ν
τ
,
which are in principal dimensional orbital, not in auxiliary dimensional orbital. l
d
is
denoted as lepton with principal dimension number, d. l
5
, l
6
, l
7
, and l
8
are ν
e
, e, ν
u
, and
ν
τ
, respectively. All neutrinos have zero mass because of chiral symmetry (permanent chiral
symmetry).
High-mass leptons and quarks include u
,
τ, u, d, s, c, b, and t, which are the
combinations of both principal dimensional fermions and auxiliary dimensional fermions.
Each fermion can be defined by principal dimensional orbital numbers (d's) and auxiliary
dimensional orbital numbers (a's) as d
a
in Table 3. For examples, e is 6
0
that means it has d
(principal dimensional orbital number) = 6 and a (auxiliary dimensional orbital number) = 0,
so e is a principal dimensional fermion.
High-mass leptons, u and τ,

are the combinations of principal dimensional fermions,
e and ν
u
,, and auxiliary dimensional fermions. For example, u is the combination of e, ν
u
,,
and u
7
, which is 7
1
that has d = 7 and a = 1 .
Quarks are the combination of principal dimensional quarks (q
d
) and auxiliary
dimensional quarks. The principal dimensional fermion for quark is derived from principal
dimensional lepton. To generate a principal dimensional quark in principal dimensional
orbital from a lepton in the same principal dimensional orbital is to add the lepton to the
40
boson from the combined lepton-antilepton. Thus, the mass of the quark is three times of
the mass of the corresponding lepton in the same dimension. The equation for the mass of
principal dimensional fermion for quark is



d d
l q
M M 3 = (36)

For principal dimensional quarks, q
5
(5
0
) and q
6
(6
0
) are 3ν
e
and 3e, respectively. Since l
7
is
massless ν
u
, ν
u
is replaced by u, and q
7
is 3u. Quarks are the combinations of principal
dimensional quarks, q
d
, and auxiliary dimensional quarks. For example, s quark is the
combination of q
6
(3e), q
7
(3u) and s
7
(auxiliary dimensional quark = 7
2
).
Each fermion can be defined by principal dimensional orbital numbers (d's) and
auxiliary dimensional orbital numbers (a's). All leptons and quarks with d’s, a’s and the
calculated masses are listed in Table 3.

Table 3. The Compositions and the Constituent Masses of Leptons and Quarks
d = principal dimensional orbital number and a = auxiliary dimensional orbital number

d
a

Composition Calculated Mass
Leptons
d
a
for leptons

ν
e
5
0 ν
e
0
E 6
0
e 0.51 MeV
(given)
ν
u

7
0 ν
u

0
ν
τ

8
0 ν
τ

0
u
6
0
+ 7
0
+ 7
1
e + ν
u
+ u
7
105.6 MeV
τ
6
0
+ 7
0
+ 7
2
e + ν
u
+ τ
7
1786 MeV
u' 6
0
+ 7
0
+ 7
2
+ 8
0
+ 8
1 e + ν
u
+ u
7
+ ν
τ
+ u
8
136.9 GeV
Quarks
d
a
for quarks

U 5
0
+ 7
0
+ 7
1
q
5
+ q
7
+ u
7
330.8 MeV
D 6
0
+ 7
0
+ 7
1
q
6
+ q
7
+ d
7
332.3 MeV
S 6
0
+ 7
0
+ 7
2
q
6
+ q
7
+ s
7
558 MeV
C 5
0
+ 7
0
+ 7
3
q
5
+ q
7
+ c
7
1701 MeV
B 6
0
+ 7
0
+ 7
4
q
6
+ q
7
+ b
7
5318 MeV
T 5
0
+ 7
0
+ 7
5
+ 8
0
+ 8
2
q
5
+ q
7
+ t
7
+ q
8
+ t
8
176.5 GeV

The principal dimensional fermion for heavy leptons (u and τ) is e and ν
e
. Auxiliary
dimensional fermion is derived from principal dimensional boson in the same way as Eq.
(32) to relate the energies for fermion and boson. For the mass of auxiliary dimensional
fermion (AF) from principal dimensional boson (B), the equation is Eq. (37).

,
0
4 0 , 1
,

=

=
a
a a
B
AF
a
M
M
d
a d
α
(37)

41
where α
a
= auxiliary dimensional fine structure constant, and a = auxiliary dimension
number = 0 or integer. The first term,
M
B
a
D−1 0 ,
α
, of the mass formula (Eq.(37)) for the
auxiliary dimensional fermions is derived from the mass equation, Eq. (32), for the principal
dimensional fermions and bosons. The second term, a
a
a
4
0 =

, of the mass formula is for
Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization for a charge - dipole interaction in a circular orbit as
described by A. Barut
35
. As in Barut lepton mass formula, 1/α
a
is 3/2. The coefficient, 3/2,
is to convert the principal dimensional boson mass to the mass of the auxiliary dimensional
fermion in the higher dimension by adding the boson mass to its fermion mass which is one-
half of the boson mass. Using Eq. (32), Eq. (37) becomes the formula for the mass of
auxiliary dimensional fermions (AF).




=

=
=


a
a
d F
4
a
0 = a d
F
4
a
0 = a
B
AF
a M

a
M
a
M
=
M
d
d
d
a d,
0
4
1
0 ,
0 , 1
0 , 1
2
3
2
3
2
3
α
α
(38)

The mass of this auxiliary dimensional fermion is added to the sum of masses from
the corresponding principal dimensional fermions (F’s) with the same electric charge or the
same dimension. The corresponding principal dimensional leptons for u (2/3 charge) and d
(-1/3 charge) are ν
e
(0 charge) and e (-1 charge), respectively, by adding –2/3 charge to the
charges of u and d
36
. The fermion mass formula for heavy leptons is derived as follows.


∑ ∑

=

+ =
+ =
a
a
B
F
AF F F
a
M
M
M M M
d
a d a d
0
4
2
3
0 , 1
, ,
(39a)
∑ ∑
= −

+ =
a
a d
F
F
a
M
M
d
0
4
1
2
3
0 , 1
α (39b)

∑ ∑
=
+ =
a
a
d F F
a M M
d
0
4
0 ,
2
3
α (39c)

Eq. (39b) is for the calculations of the masses of leptons. The principal dimensional fermion
in the first term is e. Eq. (39b) can be rewritten as Eq. (40).

42

=
+ =
a
a
a
e
M
e
M
a
M
0
4
2
3
α
, (40)

a = 0, 1, and 2 are for e, u, and τ, respectively. It is identical to the Barut lepton mass
formula.
The auxiliary dimensional quarks except a part of t quark are q
7
’s. Eq.(39c) is used to
calculate the masses of quarks. The principal dimensional quarks include 3ν
u
, 3e, and 3u., α
7
= α
w
,
and q
7
= 3u. Eq. (39c) can be rewritten as the quark mass formula.


=
+ =

a
a
a
M
w
M
q
M
F
0
4
2
3
3
u
α
, (41)

where a = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 for u/d, s, c, b, and a part of t, respectively.
To match l
8

τ
), quarks include q
8
as a part of t quark. In the same way that q
7
=
3u , q
8
involves u’. u‘ is the sum of e, u, and u
8
(auxiliary dimensional lepton). Using Eq.
(39a), the mass of u
8
is equal to 3/2 of the mass of B
7
, which is Z
0
. Because there are only
three families for leptons, u' is the extra lepton, which is "hidden". u' can appear only as u +
photon. The pairing of u + u from the hidden u' and regular u may account for the
occurrence of same sign dilepton in the high energy level
37
. The principal dimensional
quark q
8
= u' instead of 3u', because u' is hidden, and q
8
does not need to be 3u' to be
different. Using the equation similar to Eq.(41), the calculation for t quark involves α
8
= α ,
u' instead of 3u for principal fermion, and a = 1 and 2 for b
8
and t
8
, respectively. The hiding
of u' for leptons is balanced by the hiding of b
8
for quarks.
The calculated masses are in good agreement with the observed constituent masses
of leptons and quarks
38
. The mass of the top quark
39
is 174.3 ± 5.1 GeV in a good
agreement with the calculated value, 176.5 GeV.
With the masses of quarks calculated by the periodic table of elementary particles,
the masses of all hardrons can be calculated
33
as the composes of quarks, as molecules
are the composes of atoms. The calculated values are in good agreement with the
observed values. For examples, the calculated masses of neutron and pion are
939.54MeV, and 135.01MeV in excellent agreement with the observed masses, 939.57
MeV and 134.98 MeV, respectively. At different temperatures, the strong force (QCD)
among quarks in hadrons behaves differently to follow different dimensional orbitals
33
.


2.5. Summary

The first day involves the emergence of the separation of light and darkness from the
formless, empty, dark, and deep pre-universe, corresponding to the emergence of the light
universe and the dark universe from the simple and dark pre-universe with deep vacuum
energy in Genesis Cosmology.
Different universes are the different genetic expressions of the same two physical
structures. The two physical structures are the space structure and the object structure.
The space structure includes attachment space (1) and detachment space (0). The space
43
structure consists of the three different combinations of attachment space and detachment
space, describing three different phenomena: quantum mechanics, special relativity, and the
extreme force fields. The object structure consists of 11D membrane (3
11
), 10D string
(2
10
), variable D particle (1
4 to 10
), and empty object (0
4 to 11
). The transformation among
the objects is through the dimensional oscillation which involves the oscillation between
different space-time dimensional with different vacuum energies.
There are three stages of pre-universes in chronological order: the strong pre-
universe, the gravitational pre-universe, and the charged pre-universe. The multiverse
background is the strong pre-universe with the simplest expression of the two physical
structures. Its object structure is 11D membrane and its space structure is attachment
space only. The only force is the pre-strong force without gravity. The transformation
from 11D membrane to 10D string results in the gravitational pre-universe with both pre-
strong force and pre-gravity. The repulsive pre-gravity and pre-antigravity brings about
the dual 10D string universe. The coalescence and the separation of the dual universe
result in the dual charged universe as dual 10D particle universe with the pre-strong, pre-
gravity, and pre-electromagnetic force fields.
The asymmetrical dimensional oscillations result in the asymmetrical dual
universe: the light universe with light and kinetic energy and the dark universe without
light and kinetic energy. The asymmetrical dimensional oscillation is manifested as the
asymmetrical weak force field. The light universe is our observable universe. The dark
universe is sometimes hidden, and is sometimes observable as dark energy. The
dimensional oscillation for the dark universe is the slow dimensional oscillation from
10D and 4D. The dimensional oscillation for the light universe involves the immediate
transformation from 10D to 4D and the introduction of detachment space, resulting in
light and kinetic energy. For baryonic matter, the incorporation of detachment space for
baryonic matter brings about “the dimensional orbitals” as the base for the periodic table
of elementary particles for all leptons, quarks, and gauge bosons. The masses of gauge
bosons, leptons, quarks can be calculated using only four known constants: the number of
the extra spatial dimensions in the eleven-dimensional membrane, the mass of electron, the
mass of Z°, and the fine structure constant. The calculated values are in good agreement
with the observed values. The differences in dimensional orbitals result in incompatible
dark matter and baryonic matter.
44

3. The Second Day



Scripture

In Genesis, the second day involves the separation of waters from above and below the
expanse, corresponding to the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter from above and
below the interface between dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies in
Genesis Cosmology.
The original Genesis 6 And God said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters to
separate water from water." 7 So God made the expanse and separated the water under
the expanse from the water above it. And it was so. 8 God called the expanse "sky." And
there was evening, and there was morning—the second day.
The interpretative Genesis 6 And God said, "Let there be an interface between the
matters to separate matter from matter." 7 So God made the interface and separated
baryonic matter
g
under the interface from dark matter
h
above it. And it was so. 8 God
called the interface "sky." And there was the second period.
g. We live in the world of baryonic matter.
h. Dark matter is incompatible to baryonic matter. It exists predominately outside of galaxies.


Introduction

The current observable universe contains dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic
matter. As mentioned in the previous section, dark energy is from the dark universe to
accelerate the expansion of the observable universe. Dark matter have different mass
dimension from the baryonic matter. We live in the world of baryonic matter.
The following section will describe the separation of matters as the separation of
waters in Genesis. The first part will be the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter,
and the second part will be the formation of the inhomogeneous structures in our observable
universe.

3.1. The Separation of Baryonic Matter and Dark Matter

Dark matter has been detected only indirectly by means of its gravitational effects
astronomically. Dark matter as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) has not been
detected directly on the earth
40
. The previous section proposes that the absence of the direct
detection of dark matter on the earth is due to the incompatibility between baryonic matter
and dark matter, analogous to incompatible water and oil. The previous papers provide the
45
reasons for the incompatibility and the mass ratio (6 to 1) of dark matter to baryonic matter.
Basically, during the inflation before the big bang, dark matter, baryonic matter, cosmic
radiation, and the gauge force fields are generated. There are six types of dark matter with
the “mass dimensions’ from 5 to 10, while baryonic matter has the mass dimension of 4. As
a result, the mass ratio is 6 to 1 as observed. Without electromagnetism, dark matter
cannot emit light, and is incompatible to baryonic matter. Like oil, dark matter is
completely non-polar. The common link between baryonic matter and dark matter is the
cosmic radiation resulted from the annihilation of matter and antimatter from both baryonic
matter and dark matter. The cosmic radiation is coupled strongly to baryonic matter
through the electromagnetism, and weakly to dark matter without electromagnetism. With
the high concentration of cosmic radiation at the beginning of the big bang, baryonic matter
and dark matter are completely compatible. As the universe ages and expands, the
concentration of cosmic concentration decreases, resulting in the increasing incompatibility
between baryonic matter and dark matter until the incompatibility reaches to the maximum
value with low concentration of cosmic radiation.
The incompatibility is expressed in the form of the repulsive MOND (modified
Newtonian dynamics) force field. MOND
41
proposes the deviation from the Newtonian
dynamics in the low acceleration region in the outer region of a galaxy. This paper
proposes the MOND forces in the interface between the baryonic matter region and the
dark matter region
42
. In the interface, the same matter materials attract as the
conventional attractive MOND force, and the different matter materials repulse as the
repulsive MOND force between baryonic matter and dark matter.
















In Figure 9, the inner part is the baryonic matter region, the middle part is the
interface, and the outer part is the dark matter region. The MOND forces in the interface
are the interfacial attractive force (conventional MOND force), F
i-A
, among the same
matter materials and the interfacial repulsive force (repulsive MOND force), F
i-R
,
between baryonic matter material and dark matter material. The interfacial repulsive
force enhances the interfacial attractive force toward the center of gravity in terms of the
interfacial acceleration, a
i
.
Baryonic matter region (Newtonian
regime)
a >> a , a = a
Interface (MOND regime)
a
i
<< a
0
, a
i
= (a
N
a
0
)
1/2


Dark matter region (Newtonian regime)

Figure 9: the interfacial region between the baryonic and the dark matter regions
46
The border between the baryonic matter region and the interface is defined by the
acceleration constant, a
0
. The interfacial acceleration is less than a
0
. The enhancement
is expressed as the square root of the product of a
i
and a
0
. In the baryonic matter region,
a
b
is greater than a
0
, and is equal to normal Newtonian acceleration as Eq. (42).

region erfacial the in a a a a a
region matter baryonic the in a a a a
N i i
N b b
int ,
,
0 0
0
= >>
= <<
(42)
The interfacial attractive force in the interface with the baryonic matter region is
expressed as Eq. (43) where m is the mass of baryonic material in the interface.

,


i
N A i



ma F
=
=

(43)
The comparison of the interfacial attractive force, F
i-A
, and the non-existing
interfacial Newtonian attractive force, F
i-Newton
in the interface is as Eqs. (44), (45), and
(46), where G is the gravitation constant, M is the mass of the baryonic material, and r the
distance between the gravitational center and the material in the infacial region.
a m
r
GMm




r
GMm

Newton i


A i
=
=
=
=


2
2
,
(44)

,
2
0
r
GM
a
r
GMa
a
Newron i
i
=
=

(45)
,
2
0
r
mGM
F
r
GMa m
F
Newron i
A i
=
=


(46)
The interfacial attractive force decays with r, while the interfacial Newtonian
force decays with r
2
. Therefore, in the interface when a
0
>> a
i
, with sufficient dark matter,
47
the interfacial repulsive force, F
i-R
, is the difference between the interfacial attractive
force and the interfacial Newtonian force as Eq. (47).
) (
int ,
2
0
0
r
GM
r
GMa
m
F F F
region erfacial the in a a
Newton i A i R i
i
− =
− =
>>
− − −
(47)

The same interfacial attractive force and the interfacial repulsive force also occur
for dark matter in the opposite direction. Thus, the repulsive MOND force filed results
in the separation of baryonic matter and dark matter.
The acceleration constant, a
0
, represents the maximum acceleration constant for
the maximum incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The common
link between baryonic matter and dark matter is cosmic radiation resulted from the
annihilation of matter and antimatter from both baryonic matter and dark matter. With the
high concentration of cosmic radiation at the big bang, baryonic matter and dark matter are
completely compatible. As the universe ages and expands, the concentration of cosmic
concentration decreases, resulting in the increasing incompatibility between baryonic matter
and dark matter. The incompatibility reaches maximum when the concentration of cosmic
radiation becomes is too low for the compatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter.
Therefore, for the early universe before the formation of galaxy when the concentration of
cosmic radiation is still high, the time-dependent Eq. (42) is as Eq. (48).

,
0
0
0
t t for
t
t a a
a
N
i
≥ = (48)

where t is the age of the universe, and t
0
is the age of the universe to reach the maximum
incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter.
The distance, r
0
, from the center to the border of the interface is as Eq. (49).

0 0
GM/a r = (49)
In the early universe, r
0
decreases with the age of the universe as Eq. (50).
t
0
0
0
a
GMt
r = (50)
The decreases in r
0
leads to the increase in the interface where the interfacial forces exist.
The interfacial forces also increase with time.
48
)
/
(
int ,
2
0 0
0
r
GM
r
t t GMa
m
F F F
region erfacial the in a a
Newton i A i R i
i
− =
− =
>>
− − −
(51)

To minimize the interface and the interfacial forces, the same matter materials
increasingly come together to form the matter droplets separating from the different
matter materials. The increasing formation of the matter droplets with increasing
incompatibility is similar to the increasing formation of oil droplets with increasing
incompatibility between oil and water. Since there are more dark matter materials than
baryonic matter materials, most of the matter droplets are baryonic droplets surrounded
by dark matter materials. The early universe is characterized by the increases in the size
and the number of the matter droplets due to the increasing incompatibility between
baryonic matter and dark matter.


3.2 The Formation of the Inhomogeneous Structures

The Inflationary Universe scenario
43
provides possible solutions of the horizon,
flatness and formation of structure problems. In the standard inflation theory, quantum
fluctuations during the inflation are stretched exponentially so that they can become the
seeds for the formation of inhomogeneous structure such as galaxies and galaxy clusters.
This paper posits that the inhomogeneous structure comes from both quantum
fluctuation during the inflation and the repulsive MOND force between baryonic matter
and dark matter after the inflation. As mentioned in the previous section, the increasing
repulsive MOND force field with the increasing incompatibility in the early universe
results in the increase in the size and number of the matter droplets.
For the first few hundred thousand years after the Big Bang (which took place
about 13.7 billion years ago), the universe was a hot, murky mess, with no light radiating
out. Because there is no residual light from that early epoch, scientists can't observe any
traces of it. But about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, temperatures in the universe
cooled, electrons and protons joined to form neutral hydrogen as the recombination. The
inhomogeneous structure as the baryonic droplets by the incompatibility between
baryonic matter and dark matter is observed
44
as anisotropies in CMB (cosmic
microwave background).
As the universe expanded after the time of recombination, the density of cosmic
radiation decreases, and the size of the baryonic droplets increased with the increasing
incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The growth of the baryonic
droplet by the increasing incompatibility from the cosmic expansion coincided with the
growth of the baryonic droplet by gravitational instability from the cosmic expansion.
The formation of galaxies is through both gravitational instability and the incompatibility
between baryonic matter and dark matter.
The pre-galactic universe consisted of the growing baryonic droplets surrounded
by the dark matter halos, which connected among one another in the form of filaments
49
and voids. These dark matter domains later became the dark matter halos, and the
baryonic droplets became galaxies, clusters, and superclusters.
When there were many baryonic droplets, the merger among the baryonic droplets
became another mechanism to increase the droplet size and mass. When three or more
homogeneous baryonic droplets merged together, dark matter was likely trapped in the
merged droplet (C, D, E, and F in Fig. 10). The droplet with trapped dark matter inside is
the heterogeneous baryonic droplet, while the droplet without trapped dark matter inside
is the homogeneous baryonic droplet.








Fig. 10: the homogeneous baryonic droplets (A, and B), and the heterogeneous baryonic
droplets (C, D, E, and F)

In the heterogeneous droplets C, D, E, and F, dark matter was trapped in the cores of
the baryonic droplets. Because of the prevalence of dark matter, almost all baryonic
droplets were the heterogeneous droplets. There were the dark matter core, the baryonic
matter shell, and the dark matter halo around the baryonic droplet, resulting in two repulsive
forces as the pressures between the dark matter core and the baryonic matter shell and
between the baryonic shell and the dark matter halo. In the equilibrium state, the internal
pressure between the dark matter core and the baryonic matter shell was same as the
external pressure between the baryonic shell and the dark matter halo.
When the temperature dropped to ~ 1000°K, some hydrogen atoms in the droplet
paired up to create the primordial molecular layers. Molecular hydrogen cooled the
primordial molecular layers by emitting infrared radiation after collision with atomic
hydrogen. Eventually, the temperature of the molecular layers dropped to around 200 to
300°K, reducing the gas pressure and allowing the molecular layers to continue contracting
into gravitationally bound dense primordial molecular clouds. The diameters of the
primordial could be up to 100 light-years with the masses of up to 6 million solar masses.
Most of baryonic droplets contained thousands of the primordial molecular clouds.
The formation of the primordial molecular clouds created the gap in the baryonic
matter shell. The gap allowed the dark matter in the dark matter core to leak out,
resulting in a tunnel between the dark matter core and the external dark matter halo. The
continuous leaking of the dark matter expanded the tunnel. Consequently, the dark
matter in the dark matter core rushed out of the dark matter core, resulting in the “big
eruption”. The ejection of the dark matter from the dark matter core reduced the internal
pressure between the dark matter core and the baryonic matter shell. The external
pressure between the baryonic matter shell and the dark matter halo caused the collapse
of the baryonic droplet. The collapse of the baryonic droplet is like the collapse of a
balloon as the air (as dark matter) moves out the balloon.

D C E F B A
50
The collapse of the baryonic droplet forced the head-on collisions of the
primordial molecular clouds in the baryonic matter shell. In the center of the collapsed
baryonic droplet, the head-on collisions of the primordial molecular clouds generated the
shock wave as the turbulence in the collided primordial molecular clouds. The
turbulence triggered the collapse of the core of the primordial cloud. The core
fragmented into multiple stellar embryos, in each a protostar nucleated and pulled in gas.
Without the heavy elements to dissipate heat, the mass of the primordial protostar was
500 to 1,000 solar masses at about 200°K. The primordial protostar shrank in size,
increased in density, and became the primordial massive star when nuclear fusion began
in its core. The massive primordial star formation is as follows.
star primordial massive
fusion nuclear
protostar
collision and collapse eruption
shell matter baryonic in clouds molecular
cooling the
droplet baryonic
ous heterogene
n combinatio
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ÷→ ÷
, ,
droplets baryonic s homogeneou matter baryonic and matter dark le incompatib

The intense UV radiation from the high surface temperature of the massive
primordial stars started the reionization effectively, and also triggered further star
formation. The massive primordial stars were short-lived (few million years old). The
explosion of the massive primordial stars was the massive supernova that caused
reionization and triggered star formation. The heavy elements generated during the
primordial star formation scattered throughout the space. The dissipation of heat by
heavy elements allowed the normal rather than massive star formation. With many ways
to trigger star formation, the rate of star formation increased rapidly. The big eruption
that initiated the star formation started to occur about 400 million years after the big bang,
and the reionization started to occur soon after. The rate of star formation peaked about 2
billion years after the big bang
45
.
Since the head-on collision of the molecular clouds took place at the center of the
collapsed baryonic droplet, the star formation started in the center of the collapsed
baryonic droplet. With other ways to trigger star formation, the star formation
propagated away from the center. The star formation started from the center from which
the star formation propagated, so the primordial galaxies appeared to be small surrounded
by the large hydrogen blobs. The surrounding large hydrogen blobs corresponds to the
observed Lyman alpha blobs of Lyman alpha (Lya) emission by hydrogen, which have
been discovered in the vicinity of galaxies at early cosmic times. The amount of
hydrogen in the blobs was also increased by the incoming abundant intergalactic
hydrogen. The repulsive dark matter halos prevented the hydrogen gas inside from
escaping from the galaxies. Dijkstra and Loeb
46
posited that the early galaxies grew
quickly by the cold accretion mode from the observed Lyman alpha blobs. The growth
by the merger of galaxies was too slow for the observed fast growth of the early galaxies.
If there was small dark matter core as in the heterogeneous baryonic droplet (C in
Figure 10), the big eruption took relatively short time to cause the collapse of the
baryonic droplet. The change in the shape of the baryonic droplet after the collapse was
relatively minor. The collapse results in elliptical shape in E
0
to E
7
elliptical galaxies,
whose lengths of major axes are proportional to the relative sizes of the dark matter core.
Because of the short time for the collapse of the baryonic droplet, the star formation by
the collapse occurred quickly at the center.
51



Most of the primordial stars merged to form the supermassive center, resulting in
the quasar galaxies. Such first quasar galaxies that occurred as early as z = 6.28 were
observed to have about the same sizes as the Milky Way
47
. This formation of galaxy
follows the monolithic collapse model in which baryonic gas in galaxies collapses to
form stars within a very short period, so there are small numbers of observed young stars
in elliptical galaxies. Elliptical galaxies continue to grow slowly as the universe expands.
If the size of the dark matter core is medium (D in Fig. 10), the collapse of the
baryonic droplet caused a large change in shape, resulting in the rapidly rotating disk as
spiral galaxy. The rapidly rotating disk underwent differential rotation with the
increasing angular speeds toward the center. After few rotations, the structure consisted
of a bungle was formed and the attached spiral arms as spiral galaxy as Fig. 11.








Fig. 11: the formation of spiral galaxy

The spiral galaxy took longer time to erupt and collapse than the elliptical galaxy,
so the star formation was later than elliptical galaxy. Because of the large size of the dark
matter core, the density of the primordial molecular clouds was lower than elliptical
galaxy, so the rate of star formation in spiral galaxy is slower than elliptical galaxy.
During the collapse of the baryonic droplet, some primordial molecular clouds moved
away to form globular clusters near the main group of the primordial molecular clouds.
Most of the primordial massive stars merged to form the supermassive center. The merge
of spiral galaxies with comparable sizes destroys the disk shape, so most spiral galaxies
are not merged galaxies.
When two dark matter cores inside far apart from each other (E in Fig. 10)
generated two openings in opposite sides of the droplet, the dark matter could eject from
both openings. The two opening is equivalent to the overlapping of two ellipses,
resulting in the thick middle part, resulting in the star formation in the thick middle part
and the formation of barred spiral galaxy. The differential rotation is similar to that of
spiral galaxy as Fig. 12.








Fig. 12: the formation of barred spiral galaxy

ejection of dark matter collapse

ejection of dark matter collapse
differential rotation

ejection of dark matter collapse
differential rotation
52
As in normal spiral galaxy, the length of the spiral arm depends on the size of the
dark matter core. The smallest dark matter core for barred spiral galaxy brings about SBa,
and the largest dark matter core brings about SBd. The stars form in the low-density
spiral arms much later than in the nucleus, so they are many young stars in the spiral arms.
In barred spiral galaxy, because of the larger dark matter core area than normal spiral
galaxy, the star formation occurred later than normal spiral galaxy, and the rate of star
formation was slower than normal spiral galaxy.
If the size of the dark matter core was large (F in Fig. 10), the eruption of the dark
matter in the dark matter core occurred easily in multiple places. The baryonic matter
shell became fragmented, resulting in irregular galaxy. The turbulence from the collapse
of the baryonic droplet was weak, and the density of the primordial molecular clouds was
low, so the rate of star formation was slow. The star formation continues in a slow rate up
to the present time.
At the end of the big eruption, vast majority of baryonic matter was primordial
free baryonic matter resided in dark matter outside of the galaxies from the big eruption.
This free baryonic matter constituted the intergalactic medium (IGM). Stellar winds,
supernova winds, and quasars provide heat and heavy elements to the IGM as ionized
baryonic atoms. The heat prevented the formation of the baryonic droplet in the IGM.
Galaxies merged into new large galaxies, such as giant elliptical galaxy and cD
galaxy (z > 1-2). Similar to the transient molecular cloud formation from the ISM (inter-
stellar medium) through turbulence, the tidal debris and turbulence from the mergers
generated the numerous transient molecular regions, which located in a broad area
48
. The
incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter transformed these transient
molecular regions into the stable second-generation baryonic droplets surrounded by the
dark matter halos. The baryonic droplets had much higher fraction of hydrogen
molecules, much lower fraction of dark matter, higher density, and lower temperature,
and lower entropy than the surrounding.
During this period, the acceleration constant reached to the maximum value with
the maximum incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The growth of
the baryonic droplets did not depend on the increasing incompatibility. The growth of
the baryonic droplets depended on the turbulences that carried IGM to the baryonic
droplets. The rapid growth of the baryonic droplets drew large amount of the
surrounding IGM inward, generating the IGM flow shown as the cooling flow. The IGM
flow induced the galaxy flow. The IGM flow and the galaxy flow moved toward the
merged galaxies, resulting in the protocluster (z ~ 0.5) with the merged galaxies as the
cluster center.
Before the protocluster stage, spirals grew normally and passively by absorbing
gas from the IGM as the universe expanded. During the protoculster stage (z ~ 0.5), the
massive IGM flow injected a large amount of gas into the spirals that joined in the galaxy
flow. Most of the injected hot gas passed through the spiral arms and settled in the
bungle parts of the spirals. Such surges of gas absorption from the IGM flow resulted in
major starbursts (z ~ 0.4)
49
. Meanwhile, the nearby baryonic droplets continued to draw
the IGM, and the IGM flow and the galaxy flow continued. The results were the
formation of high-density region, where the galaxies and the baryonic droplets competed
for the IGM as the gas reservoir. Eventually, the maturity of the baryonic droplets caused
a decrease in drawing the IGM inward, resulting in the slow IGM flow. Subsequently,
53
the depleted gas reservoir could not support the major starbursts (z ~ 0.3). The galaxy
harassment and the mergers in this high-density region disrupted the spiral arms of
spirals, resulting in S0 galaxies with indistinct spiral arms (z ~ 0.1 – 0.25). The
transformation process of spirals into S0 galaxies started at the core first, and moved to
the outside of the core. Thus, the fraction of spirals decreases with decreasing distance
from the cluster center.
The static and slow-moving second-generation baryonic droplets turned into
dwarf elliptical galaxies and globular clusters. The fast moving second-generation
baryonic droplets formed the second-generation baryonic stream, which underwent a
differential rotation to minimize the interfacial area between the baryonic matter and dark
matter. The result is the formation of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCD), such as NGC
2915 with very extended spiral arms. Since the star formation is steady and slow, so the
stars formed in BCD are new.
The galaxies formed during z < 0.1-0.2 are mostly metal-rich tidal dwarf galaxies
(TDG) from tidal tails torn out from interacting galaxies. In some cases, the tidal tail and
the baryonic droplet merge to generate the starbursts with higher fraction of molecule
than the TDG formed by tidal tail alone
50
.
When the interactions among large galaxies were mild, the mild turbulence
caused the formation of few molecular regions, which located in narrow area close to the
large galaxies. Such few molecular regions resulted in few baryonic droplets, producing
weak IGM flow and galaxy flow. The result is the formation of galaxy group, such as the
Local Group, which has fewer dwarf galaxies and lower density environment than cluster.
Clusters merged to generate tidal debris and turbulence, producing the baryonic
droplets, the ICM (intra-cluster medium) flow, and the cluster flow. The ICM flow and
the cluster flow directed toward the merger areas among clusters and particularly the rich
clusters with high numbers of galaxies. The ICM flow is shown as the warm filaments
outside of cluster
51
. The dominant structural elements in superclusters are single or multi-
branching filaments
52
. The cluster flow is shown by the tendency of the major axes of
clusters to point toward neighboring clusters
53
. Eventually, the observable expanding
universe will consist of giant voids and superclusters surrounded by the dark matter halos.
In summary, the whole observable expanding universe is as one unit of emulsion
with incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The five periods of
baryonic structure development are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the
galaxy, cluster, and the supercluster periods as Fig. 13. The first-generation galaxies are
elliptical, normal spiral, barred spiral, irregular, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The
second-generation galaxies are giant ellipticals, cD, evolved S0, dwarf ellipticals, BCD,
and TDG. The universe now is in the early part of the supercluster period.









Fig. 13: the five levels of baryonic structure in the universe
baryonic
matter
baryonic
droplets
free
baryonic
matter
the first-
generation
galaxies superclusters
IGM
clusters with
the second-
generation
galaxies
ICM
big
eruption
merge
merge
r
cosmic
expansion
beginning pre-galactic
galaxy cluster
superclusters
54

3.3. Summary

The second day involves the separation of waters from above and below the expanse
in Genesis, corresponding to the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter from above
and below the interface between dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of
galaxies in Genesis Cosmology. The force involved is MOND (modified Newtonian
dynamics). It is proposed that the MOND forces in the interface between the baryonic
matter region and the dark matter region. In the interface, the same matter materials
attract as the conventional attractive MOND force, and the different matter materials
repulse as the repulsive MOND force between baryonic matter and dark matter. The
source of the repulsive MOND force field is the incompatibility between baryonic matter
and dark matter, like water and oil. The incompatibility does not allow the direct
detection of dark matter. Typically, dark matter halo surrounds baryonic galaxy. The
repulsive MOND force between baryonic matter and dark matter enhances the attractive
MOND force of baryonic matter in the interface toward the center of gravity of baryonic
matter. The enhancement of the low acceleration in the interface is by the acceleration
constant, a
0
, which defines the border of the interface and the factor of the enhancement.
The enhancement of the low gravity in the interface is by the decrease of gravity with the
distant rather than the square of distance as in the normal Newtonian gravity. The
repulsive MOND force is the difference between the attractive MOND force and the non-
existing interfacial Newtonian force. The repulsive MOND force field results in the
separation and the repulsive force between baryonic matter and dark matter.
The repulsive MOND force field explains the evolution of the inhomogeneous
baryonic structures in the universe. Both baryonic matter and dark matter are compatible
with cosmic radiation, so in the early universe, the incompatibility between baryonic
matter and dark matter increases with decreasing cosmic radiation and the increasing age
of the universe until reaching the maximum incompatibility. The repulsive MOND force
field with the increasing incompatibility results in the growth of the baryonic matter
droplets. The three periods for the baryonic structure development in the early universe
are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, and the galaxy. The transition to the
baryonic droplet generates density perturbation in the CMB. In the galaxy period, the
first-generation galaxies include elliptical, normal spiral, barred spiral, irregular, and
dwarf spheroidal galaxies.
After reaching the maximum incompatibility, the growth of the baryonic droplets
depends on the turbulence, resulting in the baryonic structure development of the cluster
and the supercluster. In the cluster period, the second-generation galaxies include
modified giant ellipticals, cD, evolved S0, dwarf elliptical, BCD, and tidal dwarf galaxies.
The whole observable expanding universe behaves as one unit of emulsion with
incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter through the repulsive MOND
force field.
55


4. The Third Day



Scripture
In Genesis, the third day involves the separation of sea and land where organisms
appeared, corresponding to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet where
organisms were developed in Genesis Cosmology.
The original Genesis 9 And God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one
place, and let dry ground appear." And it was so. 10 God called the dry ground "land,"
and the gathered waters he called "seas." And God saw that it was good. 11 Then God
said, "Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear
fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds." And it was so. 12 The land
produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit
with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was
evening, and there was morning—the third day.
The interpretative Genesis 9 And God said, "Let baryonic matter under the sky be
gathered to one place, and let the highly dense baryonic matter appear." And it was so. 10
God called the highly dense baryonic matter "star," and the dilute baryonic matter he
called "interstellar medium". And God saw that it was good. 11 Then God said, "Let the
star with planets produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear
fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds." And it was so. 12 The star with
planets produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees
bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13
And there was the third period.
Introduction

The third day involves the separation of sea and land where organisms appeared
in Genesis, corresponding to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet
where organisms were developed in Genesis Cosmology. The third day is for the
formation of stars with planets in general.
Under the normal condition, stars and planets are developed under the normal
force fields as discussed in the first section below. Under extreme condition such as near
zero absolute temperature or extremely high pressure, superconductivity and the alternative
for black hole appear under the extreme force field as discussed in the second section below.

4.1 The Star Formation under the Normal Force Fields
56

About 300,000 years after the Big Bang, the universe remained an enormous cloud
of hot expanding gas. When this gas had cooled to a critical threshold, neutral molecules by
the combination of electrons and hydrogen and helium nuclei started to form. It contained
slight irregularities. The pull of gravity exerted its influence to amplify the slight
irregularities, resulting in pockets of gas. As the universe expanded, pockets of gas became
more and more dense, forming proto-stars. During this period, the universe was quite dark
until about one billion years after the Big Bang, stars ignited within these pockets. Groups of
stars then became the earliest galaxies. Once the star-making machinery got going it seems
to have generated stars at a prodigious rate.
From one billion to three billion years after the big bang many galaxies resembling
spirals and elliptical galaxies started to form. Often black hole alternatives (gravastars) were
formed. The gas falling into these black hole alternatives (gravastars) became hot enough to
glow brightly before it disappeared. Such galaxies are quasars. The ultraviolet light from the
falling gas changed the gas (hydrogen and helium) from a neutral state to a nearly fully
ionized one. This was the era of reionization.
About three billion years after the big bang, the era of quasars ended. According to
current model of star formation, cores of molecular clouds become gravitationally unstable,
and begin to collapse through the influences of some turbulence. When the density and
temperature are high enough, deuterium fusion ignition occurs. This is the model for the
star formation under normal force fields.

4.2. The Extreme Force Fields

4.2.1. The quantum space phase transitions for force fields

Under extreme conditions such as the absolute zero temperature or extremely high
pressure, binary lattice space for a gauge force field undergoes a phase transition to
become binary partition space for the extreme force fields
3, 7
.
At zero temperature or extremely high pressure, binary lattice space for a gauge
force field undergoes a quantum space phase transition to become binary partition space.
In binary partition space, detachment space and attachment space are in two separate
continuous regions as follows.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
space partition binary in space lattice binary in
field boson hedge particle hedge field boson particle
k
k
m
k
k
k n m
k n k n
∑ + ∑ +
= =
÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷
1
4 4 4
1
,
4 4 4 , ,
1 0 1 1 0 1
(52)

The force field in binary lattice space is gauge boson force field, the force field in
binary partition space is denoted as “extreme boson force field”. The detachment space
in extreme boson field is the vacuum core, while extreme bosons attached to attachment
space form the extreme boson shell. Gauge boson force field has no boundary, while the
attachment space in the binary partition space acts as the boundary for extreme boson
57
force field. Extreme boson field is like a bubble with core vacuum surrounded by
membrane where extreme bosons locate.
The overlapping (connection) of two extreme bosons from two different sites
results in “extreme bond”. The product is “extreme molecule”. An example of extreme
molecule is Cooper pair, consisting of two electrons linked by extreme bond. Another
example is superfluid, consisting of molecules linked by extreme bonds. Extreme bonds
can be also formed among the sites in a lattice, resulting in extreme lattice. Extreme
lattice is superconductor. Extreme boson force is incompatible to gauge boson force
field. The incompatibility of extreme boson force field and gauge boson force field
manifests in the Meissner effect, where superconductor (extreme lattice) repels external
magnetism. The energy (stiffness) of extreme boson force field can be determined by the
penetration of boson force field into extreme boson force field as expressed by the
London equation for the Meissner effect.
H H
2 2 −
− = ∇ λ , (53)

where H is an external boson field and λ is the depth of the penetration of magnetism into
extreme boson shell. This equation indicates that the external boson field decays
exponentially as it penetrate into extreme boson force field.

4.2.2. Superconductor and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

Extreme boson exists only at the absolute zero temperature. However, quantum
fluctuation at a temperature close to zero temperature allows the formation of an extreme
boson. The temperature is the critical temperature (T
c
). Such temperature constitutes the
quantum critical point (QCP)
54
. Extreme boson at QCP is the base of superconductivity.
The standard theory for the conventional low temperature conductivity is the BCS
theory. According to the theory, as one negatively charged electron passes by the
positively charged ions in the lattice of the superconductor, the lattice distorts. This in
turn causes phonons to be emitted which forms a channel of positive charges around the
electron. The second electron is drawn into the channel. Two electrons link up to form
the "Cooper pair” without the normal repulsion.
In the extreme boson model of the BCS theory, an extreme boson instead of a
positive charged phonon is the link for the Cooper pair. According the extreme boson
model, as an electron passes the lattice of superconductor, lattice atom absorbs the energy
of the passing electron to cause a lattice bond to stretch or to contract. When the lattice
bond recoils to normal position, the lattice atom emits a phonon, which is absorbed by the
electron. The electron then emits the phonon, which is absorbed by the next lattice atom
to cause its bond to stretch. When the lattice bond recoils to normal position, the lattice
atom emits a phonon, which is absorbed by the electron. The result is the continuous
lattice vibration by the exchanges of phonons between the electrons in electric current
and the lattice atoms in lattice.
At the temperature close to the absolute zero temperature, the lattice vibration
continuously produces phonons, and through quantum fluctuation, a certain proportion of
phonons converts to extreme bosons. Extreme bonds are formed among extreme bosons,
resulting in extreme lattice. At the same time, the electrons involved in lattice vibration
form extreme molecules as Cooper pairs linked by extreme bonds. Such extreme bond
58
excludes electromagnetism, including the Coulomb repulsive force, between the two
electrons. When Cooper pairs travel along the uninterrupted extreme bonds of an
extreme lattice, Cooper pairs experience no resistance by electromagnetism, resulting in
zero electric resistance. Extreme lattice repels external magnetism as in the Meissner
effect.
The extreme bosons involved in the formation of the extreme lattice bonds and
the extreme molecular bonds have the energy, so the extreme bond energy (E
l
) for the
extreme lattice is same as the extreme bond energy (E
c
) for Cooper pair.


0
2∆ =
=
c l
E E
(54)

The extreme bond energy corresponds to two times the energy gap ∆
t
at zero temperature
in the BCS theory. The energy gap is the superconducting energy that an electron has. ∆
t

approaches to zero continuously as temperature approaches to T
c
. The elimination of
superconductivity is to break the extreme bonds of the extreme lattice and Cooper pairs.
Extreme boson force is a confined short distant force, so the neighboring extreme
bosons have to be close together. To have a continuous extreme lattice without gaps, it is
necessary to have sufficient density of the vibrating lattice atoms. Thus, there is critical
density, D
c
, of vibrating lattice atoms. Below D
c
, no extreme lattice can be formed. In a
good conductor, an electron hardly interacts with lattice atoms to generate lattice
vibration for extreme boson, so a good conductor whose density for vibrating lattice
atoms below D
c
does not become a superconductor. T
c
is directly proportional to the
density of vibrating lattice atoms and the frequency of the vibration (related to the isotope
mass).
The “gap” in extreme lattice is the area without vibrating lattice atoms. The gap
allows electric resistance. Superconductor has “perfect extreme lattice” without
significant gap, while “imperfect extreme lattice” has significant gap to prevent the
occurrence of superconductivity.
High temperature superconductor has a much higher T
c
than low temperature
superconductor described by the BCS theory. All high temperature superconductors
involve the particular type of insulator with various kinds of dopants. A typical insulator
is Mott insulator, such as copper oxides, CuO
2
. CuO
2
forms a two-dimensional layer,
with the Cu atoms forming a square lattice and O atoms between each nearest-neighbor
pair of Cu atoms. In the undoped CuO
2
, all of the planar coppers are in the Cu2+ state,
with one unpaired electron per site. Two neighboring unpaired electrons with antiparallel
spins have lower ground energy than two neighboring unpaired electrons with parallel
spins. Two neighboring unpaired electrons with antiparallel spins constitute the
antiparallel spin pair, which has lower ground state energy than the parallel spin pair.
Consequently, CuO
2
layer consists of the antiparallel spin pairs, resulting in
antiferromagnetism.
The insulating character of this state is thought to result, not from the
antiferromagnetism directly, but from the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion, which is the
energy cost of putting an extra electron on a Cu atom to make Cu
1+
. This Coulomb
energy for double occupancy suppresses conduction.
59
La
x
Sr
x
Cu
2
O
4
is an example of high temperature conductor. The key ingredient
consists of CuO
2
layers. The doping of Sr provides chemical environment to shift the
charge away from the CuO
2
layers, leaving “doping holes” in the CuO
2
layers. The
shifting of electrons allows the occurrence of electric current. In the t-J model of high
temperature superconductor, an electron in electric current is fractionalized into two
fractional electrons to carry spin quantum number in t and to carry charge in J
55
.




− • +
+
− =
ij
j
n
i
n
j
S
i
S J
ij
j i
t
ij
c c H
4
~ ~
r r
σ
σ σ
, (55)

In the extreme boson model, t corresponds to the spin current (spinon) to generate
spin fluctuation in the metal oxide layer, while J corresponds to the directional charge
current (phonon as in the BCS theory) along the metal oxide layers. Extreme boson force
field is a confined force field. As long as electrons are in the confined extreme boson
force field, it is possible to have fractioanlized electrons, similar to the fractionalized
charges of quarks in the gluon force field.
The spin fluctuation generated by the spin current in the layer comes from doping
holes in CuO
2
layer. When an antiparallel spin pair loses an electron by doping, a doping
hole is in the spin pair. The adjacent electron outside of the pair fills in the hole. The
filled-in electron has a parallel spin as the electron in the original pair. Parallel spin pair
has higher ground state energy than antiparallel pair, so the filled-in electron absorbs a
spinon to gain enough energy to undergo a spin change. The result is the formation of an
antiparallel spin pair. The antiparallel spin pair has lower ground state energy than an
antiparallel spin pair, so it emits a spinon. After the electron fills the hole, the hole passes
to the next adjacent pair. The next adjacent pair then becomes the next adjacent newly
formed parallel pair, which then absorbed the emitted spinon undergo spin change to
form an antiparallel spin pair. The continuous passing of holes constitutes the layer spin
current. The layer spin current throughout the CuO
2
layer generates the continuous spin
fluctuation
56
with continuous emission and absorption of spinons.
At a low temperature, the spin fluctuation continuously produces spinons, and
through quantum fluctuation, a certain proportion of spinons converts to extreme bosons.
Extreme bonds are formed among extreme bosons. The extreme bonds are the parallel
extreme bonds parallel to CuO
2
layer. The parallel extreme bond results from the spin
current.
The extreme bonds connecting CuO
2
layers are the perpendicular bonds
perpendicular to CuO
2
layers through d-wave by the lattice vibration, like the lattice
vibration in the low temperature superconductor. The perpendicular bond results from
the charge current. The perpendicular extreme bond energy (E

) is greater than the
parallel extreme bond energy (E
II
). Cooper pairs as the charge pairs travel along the
perpendicular bonds. Thus, Cooper pair has the same bond as the perpendicular extreme
bond. The extreme lattice consists of both parallel extreme bonds and perpendicular
extreme bonds.

60


=

=

<
, II
E
l
E
E
c
E
E
II
E
, (56)

Perfect extreme lattice without gap of extreme bonds consists of both perfect
parallel extreme lattice and perfect perpendicular extreme lattice without gaps for parallel
extreme bonds and perpendicular bonds, respectively. The T
c
of high temperature
superconductor the transition temperature to the perfect extreme lattice, consisting of the
perfect parallel extreme lattice and the perfect perpendicular lattice. Because many
extreme bosons are generated from many spin fluctuations, T
c
is high.
Having stronger extreme bond, the T
c ⊥
for the perpendicular extreme lattice is
higher than the T
c II
for the parallel extreme lattice. Thus, T
c
for the extreme lattice is
essentially the T
c II
for the parallel extreme lattice.


II c
T
c
T
c
T
II c
T
=

<
, (57)
There are five different phases of metal oxide related to the presence or the
absence of perfect parallel lattice, perfect perpendicular extreme lattice, and Cooper pairs
as follows.

Table 4. The Phases of Metal Oxides

Phase/structure perfect parallel
extreme lattice
perfect perpendicular
extreme lattice
Cooper pair
Insulator no no no
Pseudogap no yes yes
Superconductor yes yes yes
non-fermi liquid no no yes
normal conductor no no no
.
Without doping, metal oxide is an insulator. The pseudogap phase has a certain
amount of doping. With a certain amount of doping, the perfect perpendicular extreme
lattice can be established with the pseudogap transition temperature, T
p
, equal to T
c ⊥
.
However, the parallel lattice is imperfect with gaps, so it is not a superconductor. The
pseudogap phase can also be achieved by the increase in temperature above T
c
to create
gap in the parallel extreme lattice, resulting in imperfect parallel extreme lattice.
Different points in the pseudogap phase represent different degrees of the imperfect
parallel extreme lattice. With the optimal doping, the pseudogap phase becomes the
superconductor phase below T
c
. Superconductor has perfect parallel extreme lattice and
perfect perpendicular extreme lattice. With excessive doping, the superconductor phase
becomes the conductor phase without significant spin fluctuation and lattice vibration. In
61
the non-fermi liquid region, the extreme lattice is imperfect by the combination of the
moderate increase in temperature above T
c
and the moderate increase in doping.
However, non-fermi liquid phase still has Cooper pairs that do not require the presence of
perfect extreme lattice. In the non-fermi liquid phase, due to the breaking of Cooper
pairs with the increase in temperature, the transport properties are temperature dependent,
unlike normal conductor.
In summary, for a low-temperature superconductor, extreme bosons are generated
by the quantum fluctuation in lattice vibration by the absorption and the emission of
phonons between passing electrons and lattice atoms. The connection of extreme bosons
results in extreme lattice and Cooper pairs. For a high-temperature superconductor,
extreme bosons are generated by the quantum fluctuation in spin fluctuation and lattice
vibration by the absorption and the emission of spinons and phonons, respectively. The
extreme lattice consists of the parallel extreme bonds and the perpendicular extreme
bonds. Because many extreme bosons are generated from many spin fluctuations, T
c
is
high.
The extreme boson can also explain the fractional quantum Hall effect
(FQHE)
57 , 58
. In the FQHE, electrons travel on a two-dimensional plane. In two-
dimensional systems, the electrons in the direction of the Hall effect are completely
separate, so the extreme bond cannot be formed between the electrons. However, an
individual electron can have n extreme bosons from the quantum fluctuation of the
magnetic flux at a very low temperature, resulting in extreme atom that consists of an
electron and n extreme bosons with n extreme boson force fields.
Extreme boson force field consists of a core vacuum surrounded by only one
extreme boson shell. An electron can be in n ≥ 1 extreme boson force fields. If n = 1, an
electron in a extreme boson force field delocalizes to the extreme boson shell, resulting in
the probability distribution in both the center and the boson shell denoted as the extreme
atomic orbital. (Unlike extreme boson force field, gauge boson force field can have
infinitive number of orbitals.) The probability distribution factionalizes the electron into
one fractional electron at the center and the 2p fractional electron in the extreme atomic
orbital. Thus, the extreme atom (n = p = 1) has three fractional electrons, and each
fractional electron has –1/3 charge. For n > 1, the multiple extreme force fields are like
multiple separate bubbles with one fractional electron at the center. For p =1 and n = 3,
the total number of fractional electrons is 7, and each fractional electron has - 1/7 charge
as follows.








The formulas for the number of fractional electrons and fractional charge are as
follows.

) 1 2 ( / 1 arg
1 2
+ − =
+ =
pn e ch electric
pn electrons fractional of number
, (58)







62

where n = the extreme atomic orbital number and 2p = the number of extreme boson per
orbital. The wavefunction of the extreme atom is as follows.


n
n
p
k
Z
j
Z
k j
n

Φ Ψ
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|

<
=

2
) ( , (59)

where Φ is for the fractional electron at the center, z
j
= x
j
–iy
j
, n = number of extreme
atomic orbital, and 2p = number of fractional electrons per orbital. For the integer
quantum Hall effect, p = n = 0. Eq. (59) is an electron in one or multiple extreme boson
force fields. The probability distribution factionalizes the electrons into the k fractional
electron at the center (Φ) and the 2p j fractional electrons in the extreme atomic orbital.
In Eq. (59), the j fractional electron in the extreme atomic orbital takes a loop around the
k fractional electron at the center. One extreme boson force field can have only one
extreme atomic orbital. When the electron is in multiple n extreme boson force fields,
there are n separate extreme atomic orbitals with different sizes.
This wavefunction is same as same as the wavefunction of the composite fermion,
which consists of an electron and 2p flux quanta
59
. In the composite fermion, Φ is the
non-interacting electron and 2p is the number of flux quanta. The composite fermion is
the bound state of an electron and 2p quantum vortices. In the same way, the extreme
atom is the bound state of a fractional electron and 2pn fractional electrons in the extreme
atomic orbitals. The extreme atomic orbital can be also described by the Laughlin-
Jastrow factor by counting the centered fractional electron as a part of the extreme atomic
orbital electrons, resulting in odd number of quasiparticles.
The extreme atoms provide the ground state for the Laudau level. Within the
ground state, the extreme atom with higher n and p has higher energy and lower
probability. During the generation of the Landau levels, the fractional electrons come off
the extreme atomic orbitals. The most favorable way is to remove one fractional electron
per extreme atomic orbital to provide more room for the other fractional electron in the
same extreme atomic orbital. For n =1, one -1/3 charged electron comes off. For n = 2,
two -1/5 charged electrons come off. The formula is - n / (2n+ 1) electric charge as
observed: -1/3, -2/5, -3/7…
60
. The second series is the leftover of the first series: -2/3, -
3/5, -4/7…

4.2.3. Gravastar, Supernova, Neutron Star, and GRB

Black hole has been a standard model for the collapse of a supermassive star.
Two alternates for black hole are gravastar
61, 62
and dark energy star
63
. Gravastar is a
spherical void as Bose-Einstein condensate surrounded by an extremely durable form of
matter. For dark energy star, the mass-energy of the nucleons under gravitational
collapse can be converted to vacuum energy. The negative pressure associated with a
large vacuum energy prevents the formation of singularity and results in an explosion.
This paper proposes gravastar based on extreme boson field.
63
Before the gravitational collapse of large or supermassive star, the fusion process
in the core of the star to create the outward pressure counters the inward gravitational pull
of the star’s great mass. When the core contains heavy elements, mostly iron, the fusion
stops. Instantly, the gravitational collapse starts. The great pressure of the gravity
collapses atoms into neutrons. Further pressure collapses neutrons to quark matter and
heavy quark matter.
Eventually, the high gravitational pressure transforms the gauge gluon force field
into the extreme gluon force field, consisting of a vacuum core surrounded by an extreme
gluon shell, like a bubble. The exclusion of gravity by the extreme gluon force field as in
the Meissner effect prevents the gravitational collapse into singularity. In the Meissner
effect for superconductor, a very strong magnetism can collapse the extreme boson force
field, resulting in the disappearance of superconductivity. Superconductivity is based on
quantum fluctuation between the gauge boson force field and the extreme boson force
field, so it is possible to collapse the extreme boson force field. The formation of the
extreme gluon force field is not by quantum fluctuation, so the extreme gluon force field
cannot be collapsed. To keep the extreme gluon force field from collapsing, the vacuum
core in the extreme gluon force field acquires a non-zero vacuum energy whose density (ρ)
is equal to negative pressure (p). The space for the vacuum core becomes de Sitter space.
The vacuum energy of the vacuum core comes from the gravitons in the exterior region
surrounding the extreme gluon force field as in the Chapline’s dark energy star. The
external region surrounding the extreme gluon force field becomes the vacuum exterior
region. Thus, the core of gravastar can be divided into three regions: the vacuum core, the
extreme gluon shell, and the vacuum exterior region.


0 :
:
:
= =
+ =
− =
p region exterior vacuum
p region shell gluon extreme
p region core vacuum
ρ
ρ
ρ
, (60)

Quarks without the strong force field are transformed into the decayed products as
electron-positron and neutrino-antineutrino denoted as the “lepton composite”.


composite lepton the
e e
decay quark
quarks υ υ + +
+
+

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷
_
(61)

The result is that the core of the collapsed star consists of the lepton composite
surrounded by the extreme gluon field. This lepton composite-extreme gluon force field
core (LEC) constitutes the core for gravastar. The star consisting of the lepton composite-
extreme gluon field core (LEC) and the matter shell is “gravastar”. The matter shell
consists of different layers of matters: heavy quark matter layer, quark matter layer,
neutron layer, and heavy element layer one after the other.

64

layer element heavy
layer neutron
layer quark
layer quark heavy
p
p region exterior vacuum
p region shell gluon extreme
p region core vacuum
p region composite lepton
core field force gluon extreme composite lepton
+ =
= =
+ =
− =
+ =

ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
:
0 :
:
:
:
: ) (
Shell Matter
LHC
,
(62)
The standard theory for supernova is that neutrinos released from nuclear fusion
provide the energy needed to blow off the stellar mantle in a supernova, but details
calculation shows that the neutrinos are too few and too weakly interacting for the
required explosion
64
.
In the extreme boson model, supernova is the lepton composite-powered
exploding gravastar. The progenitor of supernova is a large star. The collapse of the star
forms a gravastar with the LEC and the matter shell. Immediately after the formation of
the gravastar, the matter shell derived from a large star does not have strong enough
gravity to prevent the cracking of the matter shell by the outward pressure of the LEC.
Through the cracks, the escaping lepton composite from the core becomes the
“relativistic lepton composite” by adding kinetic energy converted from the non-zero
vacuum energy of the extreme gluon force field. The relativistic lepton composite
through the cracks explodes the heavy element layer of the matter shell, where gravity is
weaker, and the crack is larger. The explosion is nearly symmetrical.
The inner part of the matter shell then collapses to form neutron star as the core
remnant of supernova. The collapse of star initiates the rotation for neuron star with
magnetic field. Pulsar is the rotational neutron star that contains a small remnant of the
LEC after supernova.
The LEC remnant is large enough to crack the pulsar slightly. Through the small
cracks, relativistic lepton composite leaks out continuously, and carries neutrons on the
wall of the cracks to the surface of the magnetized rotational pulsar. The neutrons
brought out by the relativistic lepton composite are highly energetic. These energetic
neutrons quickly decay into protons and electrons, which rotate in the magnetic field.
The energy that the particles carry by relativistic lepton composite accelerates the rotation
of the pulsar. The rotating particles accelerate to the speeds approaching to the speed of
light, resulting in synchrotron emission. The radiation is released as intense beams from
the magnetic poles of the pulsar. The emitted radiation beam is rotated and sweeps
regularly past the earth with precise period. The primary power source of the emitted
radiation from pulsar is the relativistic lepton composite, not the magnetic field.
Therefore, a slow-rotating pulsar with a weak magnetic field can still maintains the
emitted radiation.
The progenitor star of magnetar is much larger than the progenitor of an ordinary
pulsar. During the supernova explosion, the high gravity of the large remnant neutron
65
star attracts the debris to fall back on the remnant neutron star. The falling debris, mostly
heavy elements, penetrates the remnant neutron star to form embedded heavy elements.
The amount of embedded heavy elements increases with increasing mass with increasing
gravity of the progenitor star. Since the progenitor of magnetar is large, it has large
amount of embedded heavy elements, weakening its structure, and causing large
relativistic lepton composite-powered cracks in the matter shell. Large crack allows the
release of high amount of relativistic lepton composite, so the emitted radiation includes
high-energy X-ray from minor cracks and occasionally gamma ray burst from major
cracks. Because of larger cracks, the disappearance of emitted radiation due to the
disappearance of the relativistic lepton composite is quicker than ordinary pulsar.
The progenitor of GRB is a supermassive gravastar with millions sun masses. The
matter shell in supermassive gravastar has strong enough gravity to prevent the cracks to
disintegrate the matter shell by the outward pressure of the LEC. However, because of
the outward pressure from the LEC, the supermassive gravastar is susceptible to crack by
impact. The matter shell consists of the heavy quark matter layer, quark matter layer,
neutron layer, and heavy element layer. Because of its large size, it has a large heavy
element layer as the outer layer.
The GRB results from the volcano eruption initiated by the impact of a neutron
star on a supermassive gravastar. The falling of a neutron star through the gravitational
field of a gravastar generates high heat on the surface of the neutron star. Upon the
impact, the heat of the neutron star liquefies the heavy elements on the surface of the
gravastar into the “heavy element ocean”. The heat on the surface of the neutron star
dissipates by the liquefaction. Then, the momentum of the neutron star breaks the heavy
elements into large pieces, denoted as the “heavy element balls”. Finally, it reaches the
neutron layer of the gravastar. The impact breaks the neutron star into large pieces,
denoted as “the neutron balls”. The impact generates cracks into the LEC. Because of
the extremely high gravity of the supermassive gravastar, all balls and liquid heavy
elements are kept on the surface of the gravastar. Thus, the impact generates three layers
(the heavy element ocean, the heavy element balls, and the neutron balls) and the cracks
into the LEC.
Through the cracks generated by the impact, the escaping relativistic lepton
composite through the cracks provides the kinetic energy to start the gravastar volcano
eruption. First, the relativistic lepton composite carries the “heavy element material”
(HEM) in the heavy element ocean in the form of the HEM jets to escape the gravity of
the gravastar. There are many separated jets from many different cracks in a broad area,
so it is a widespread volcano eruption. Soon, the heavy element ocean is almost dry.
At the same time, the flow of the relativistic lepton composite enlarges the cracks,
resulting in increasing flow rate. The high flow rate of the relativistic lepton composite
provides enough kinetic energy to carry the heavy element balls to escape the gravity of
the gravastar. Each escaping ball has to have enough kinetic energy to escape from the
gravity, so each jet can eject one heavy element ball in the interval of few minutes. The
escaping HEM forms the HEM band outside of the gravastar, while the heavy element
balls form the heavy element ball band. At this time, the relativistic lepton composite is
not strong enough to accelerate them to relativistic velocity. They remain non-relativistic.
The HEM band eventually merges with the interstellar medium (ISM) to form a very
thick layer of the HEM-ISM band.
66
The flow of the relativistic lepton composite further enlarges the cracks to
increase the flow rate of the relativistic lepton composite. Eventually, the flow rate of the
relativistic lepton composite is high enough to provide the kinetic energy for the neutron
balls to escape the gravity of the gravastar. Each escaping ball has to have enough
kinetic energy to escape from the gravity, so each jet can eject one neutron ball in the
interval of few minutes. The neutron balls at this time are non-relativistic with the
distance of few minutes between the adjacent neutron balls from the same jet. The
escaping neutron balls form the neutron ball band.
Finally, the cracks are large enough to allow a huge amount of the relativistic
lepton composite to eject from the volcano as the relativistic lepton composite jets. The
relativistic lepton composite jets form the relativistic jet band. The initial ejecta
composition is as in Fig, 14.













Fig. 14: The initial ejecta consist of the HEM-ISM band, the heavy element ball
band, the neutron ball band, and the relativistic lepton composite jet band. The
merges of various bands produce the GRB, the X-ray afterglow, the prompt
afterglow, and the late afterglow in different regions.

The relativistic lepton composite jets sweep through all bands. The chance of
being hit by the relativistic lepton composite jets decreases with the distance from the
volcano. The majority of the relativistic jets accelerate the neutron balls to relativistic
velocity, resulting in the relativistic neutron balls. The synchrotron emission by the
acceleration from the relativistic neutron balls brings about the GRB. The acceleration of
each neutron ball represents one burst. In the terms of the fireball model
65 , 66
, the
relativistic lepton composite jet corresponds to the baryon-free fireball providing the
kinetic energy for the internal and external shocks.
The volcano eruption depletes the relativistic lepton composite in a gravastar.
Eventually, the pressure from the depleted source of the relativistic lepton composite
becomes too low to prevent the collapse of the cracks by the gravitational pressure in the
interior part of gravastar. The emission of the relativistic lepton composite through the
volcano starts to decline sharply. Finally, all interior cracks collapse, and the major
volcano eruption stops. The major volcano eruption lasts from 2 seconds to few minutes.
(The high gravitational pressure replenishes the lepton composite afterward.) However,
the volcano continues to eject the residual relativistic lepton composite as the weak
The Gravastar Volcano Eruption
gravastar volcano
eruption
relativistic
composite
jet band
HEM-ISM band heavy element
ball band
neutron ball
band
late
afterglow
GRB X-ray afterglow
prompt
afterglow
matter shell
LEC
67
residual relativistic lepton composite jets for few hours to few days. The weak residual
relativistic lepton composite jets are not strong enough to cause further GRB.
After the stop of the major volcano eruption, the relativistic neutron balls start to
collide with the non-relativistic neutron balls ahead. The closest non-relativistic neutron
ball is few minutes ahead as the interval for the ejection of neutron ball during the
volcano eruption. The collision between the relativistic neutron ball and the non-
relativistic neutron ball leads to the deceleration, resulting in the synchrotron emission for
the X-ray afterglow.
During the major volcano eruption, when the volcano ejects the neutron balls, the
relativistic lepton composite enlarges not only the cracks vertically to the LEC but also
the cracks in the heavy element layer on the shore of the heavy element ocean
horizontally. After while, the flow rate of the relativistic lepton composite is high enough
to eject large pieces of heavy element material on the shore of the ocean as the heavy
element balls. These ejected heavy element balls are off-centered from the center where
the neutron balls are ejected. Thus, the volcano ejects the off-centered heavy element
balls along with the centered neutron balls in the late stage of the neutron ball ejection.
The off-centered heavy element balls accelerated by the relativistic lepton composite jets
become the off-centered relativistic heavy element balls. The density and the mass of the
neutron ball are high, so the velocity of the relativistic neutron ball is lower than the
relativistic heavy element ball. The off-centered heavy element balls occur later than the
centered neutron balls, so the number of the heavy element balls is lower than the number
of the neutron balls, resulting in the lower number density of the off-centered heavy
element balls than the centered neutron balls.
As results, the centered relativistic neutron balls have lower velocity and higher
number density than the off-centered relativistic heavy element balls. After the stop of
the major volcano eruption, the low number density and off-centered heavy element balls
collide first with the non-relativistic balls in the off-centered area of the neutron ball band.
Because of the low number density, the slope for the number of collision is steep. Then,
the centered relativistic neutron balls collide with the non-relativistic balls in the centered
area of the neutron ball band. Because of the high number density, the slope for the
number of collision is shallow.
The remaining relativistic balls without collisions in the neutron ball band collide
with the non-relativistic balls in the heavy element ball band. These off-centered faster
relativistic heavy element balls collide before the centered slower relativistic neutron
balls. Therefore, there are four different types of collisions to produce X-ray afterglow in
the four different time periods as shown in Fig. 15.










The X-ray Afterglow
heavy element ball band neutron jet band
X-ray from
relativistic
heavy element
balls
X-ray from
relativistic
neutron balls
X-ray from
relativistic
neutron balls
X-ray from
relativistic
heavy element
balls
time
68

Fig. 15: There are the four types of the collisions to generate the X-ray afterglow
in the order of occurrences. The first one is the collisions between the off-
centered relativistic heavy element balls and the non-relativistic balls. The second
one is the collisions between the centered relativistic neutron balls and the non-
relativistic balls. The third one is the off-centered relativistic heavy element balls
and the non-relativistic balls. The fourth one is the centered relativistic neutron
balls and the non-relativistic balls.

The time periods overlap, but in a certain time period (especially the first and the
second periods), one type of collisions dominates. They are the four distinct regions for
the four different types of collisions as in the observed X-ray lightcurve
67
. A brief
renewing of the volcano eruption during the early part of the X-ray afterglow accelerates
the balls to bring about a sharp increase of X-ray emission (X-ray flare) from the
synchrotron emission.
The leftover relativistic lepton composite from the collisions with the balls is the
free relativistic lepton composite, which has considerable lower intensity than the
relativistic lepton composite in the origin relativistic lepton composite jets. It reaches
the HEM-ISM band slightly ahead the GRB that requires time for acceleration. The
thick HEM-ISM reflects considerable amount of relativistic lepton composite as the
“reverse shock” traveling backward. Soon after, the stop of the major volcano eruption
causes the steep decline in the intensity of the relativistic lepton composite, so for a short
time, the strong reverse shock traveling backward dominates the weak “forward shock”
from the relativistic lepton composite under steep decline in intensity, resulting in a net
reverse shock. The net reverse shock is followed by the weak forward shock from the
weak residual relativistic lepton composite jets for few hours to few days as shown in Fig.
16.














Fig. 16: The top curve is the intensity-time curve for the forward shock, and the
bottom curve is the identical curve with lower intensity and later time for the
reverse shock. t
1
= the start of the end of the eruption, t
2
= the start for the net
reverse shock, t
3
= the start of the residual relativistic lepton composite jet, t
4
=
reverse
shock
forward
shock
time
intensity
t
1

t
2

t
3

t
4

t
5

The Net Reverse Shock and the Net Forward Shock
t
6

69
the peak for the net reverse shock, t
5
= the end for net reverse shock and the start
for the net forward shock, and t
6
= the peak for the net forward shock

In Fig. 16, the top curve is the intensity-time curve for the forward shock, and the
bottom curve is the identical curve with lower intensity and later time for the reverse
shock. At t
1
, the eruption starts steep decline. At t
2
, the net reverse shock starts to appear.
At t
3
, the residual relativistic lepton composite jet starts. At t
4
, the net reverse shock
reaches the peak. At t
5
, the net reverse shock disappears, and the net forward shock starts
to appear. At t
6
, the net forward shock reaches the peak followed by the decline in
intensity from the continuously declining residual relativistic lepton composite jets.
Therefore, both the net reverse shock and the net forward shock have peaks in the
intensity-time curves.
The main emissions for the net reverse shock and the net forward shock are the
HEM-ISM emissions by the shocks. The emissions are the prompt afterglow by the net
reverse shock and the late afterglow by the net forward shock. They are mostly UV,
optical, IR, and radio wave. The net reverse shock has lower frequency than the net
forward shock due the reduction of frequency during the reflection, so the prompt
afterglow has lower frequency emissions than the late afterglow.
If the net reverse shock is in region of the HEM-ISM band far away from the
heavy element ball band, the net reverse shock sweeps the region in the HEM-ISM band
to generate emissions from the HEM-ISM. Then, the net forward shock sweeps the same
region to generate emissions from the HEM-ISM. In this case, the only factor involved
in the lightcurves is their intensity-time curves with two distinct peaks in agreement with
the observation
67
. It is categorized as the “re-brightening” type with two distinctive
peaks.
If the net reverse shock is in the region of the HEM-ISM band near the heavy
element ball band, the late part of the net reverse shock is in the heavy element ball band.
In the heavy element ball band, there is very few HEM-ISM. Thus, no detectable HEM-
ISM emission occurs in the late part of the net reverse shock. The peak of the net
forward shock is likely buried in the heavy element ball band as shown in the
observation
67
. It is categorized as the “flattening:” type without the peak for the net
forward shock. If the net reverse shock appears in the heavy element ball band, no HEM
emission by the net reverse shock occurs, resulting in the absence of the prompt
afterglow
67
.
The length of the ball bands and the length of the effective free relativistic lepton
composite jets determine the location of the reverse shock. They relate to Poynting flux
and the kinetic energy in the relativistic balls, respectively in the fireball model
67
. The
strong reverse shock emission requires the location of the reverse shock in the high-
density area of the HEM-ISM band and far away from the heavy element ball band.
When the neutron balls enter the HEM-ISM band, they decay, and leave trials of
hydrogen. The trial of hydrogen becomes the factory for amino acid. Hydrogen reacts
with carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen to form methane, ammonia, and water, respectively.
The combination of photon, hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water forms amino acids
as in the 1950 experiment by Stanley Miller. The highly polarized light during the GRB
provides the chirality for the formation of handed amino acids. The heavy element balls
70
trap and carry the amino acids. Many billion years after, one of them provides the source
of life on the earth.
A similar volcano eruption in a small scale can take place on a giant magnetar as
soft gamma ray repeaters (SGR)
68, 69
. It is the short GRB that lasts less than 2 seconds
with much less intrinsic brightness and total emission than the long GRB. A giant
magnetar has the LEC remnant and a significant amount of embedded heavy elements.
Before a major volcano eruption, the cracks develop under a large embedded heavy
element segment. The relativistic lepton composite fills the cracks. Eventually, the
relativistic lepton composite breaks the embedded heavy element segment into pieces,
and ejects them. The volcano ejects first the small pieces of heavy element as the HEM
jets, and then ejects the large pieces as the heavy element balls. A part of the neutron
body is also ejected as the neutron balls. Finally, the volcano ejects the accumulated
relativistic lepton composite as the relativistic lepton composite jets. After that, the
whole process of the GRB and the afterglow take place.
In summary, the impact of a neutron star on a supermassive gravastar causes
cracks, initiating the relativistic lepton composite-powered volcano eruption. The
volcano ejects the heavy element materials, the heavy element balls, the neutron balls,
and the relativistic lepton composite jets sequentially. The relativistic lepton composite
jets accelerate the neutron balls into the relativistic neutron balls, resulting in the GRB.
After the GRB, the collisions between the relativistic neutron balls and the non-
relativistic balls result in the X-ray afterglow. After the stop of the volcano eruption, the
volcano continues to eject the weak residual relativistic lepton composite jets for few
days. The combination of the original strong relativistic lepton composite jets during the
eruption and the weak residual relativistic lepton composite jets after the eruption brings
about the net reverse shock and the net forward shock for the prompt afterglow and the
late afterglow, respectively. The short GRB is the small-scale volcano eruption on a
giant magnetar.
The long GRB is a rare event. The collisions with the large objects other than
neutron stars do not lead to the GRB. They cause the minor volcano eruptions on the
gravastar, resulting in the supernova-like emissions, which are not observable from large
cosmological distances. The supermassive gravastar is likely at the center of galaxy. In
the early universe, the collision between the gravastar and a neutron star or other large
objects occurred often, resulting in high frequency of the gravastar volcano eruption.
Such high frequency of the gravastar volcano eruption is a major power source of
quasars. Quasars are believed to be the most remote objects in the universe. The earliest
quasars detected so far are about 700 millions years after the big bang. The closest
quasars detected so far are about 800 millions light years away. Despite their small size
they produce tremendous amounts of light and microwave radiation. The power source
of quasars is not much bigger than the solar system, but they pour out 100 to 1,000 times
as much light as a typical galaxy containing a hundred billion stars. A major power
source of quasars is from the repetitive gravastar volcano eruptions.

4.3 Summary

The third day involves the separation of sea and land where organisms appeared in
Genesis, corresponding to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet where
71
organisms were developed in Genesis Cosmology. Under the normal condition, stars and
planets are developed.
Under extreme conditions, such as the zero temperature and extremely high
pressure, the extreme force fields as extreme boson force fields form. The formation of
the extreme molecule (the Cooper pair) and the extreme lattice provides the mechanism
for the phase transition to superconductivity, while the formation of extreme atom with
electron-extreme boson provides the mechanism for the phase transition to the fractional
quantum Hall effect. The formation of the extreme gluon force field provides the
mechanism for the phase transition to gravastar from a collapsing star. Gravastar consists
of the lepton composite-extreme gluon force field core and the matter shell. Unlike black
holes, gravastars continue to appear as neutron stars and the sources for gamma ray bursts.
Neutron star is a remnant gravastar after the explosion (supernova) of a large gravastar.
A supermassive gravastar with cracks undergoes the “volcano eruption” as gamma ray
bursts.

4.4. Summary for Part 1

Genesis Cosmology is the cosmology model based on the interpretive description of
the first three days in Genesis. Genesis Cosmology is based on the unified theory that
unifies various phenomena in our universe. In Genesis, the first day involves the emergence
of the separation of light and darkness from the formless, empty, dark, and deep pre-
universe, corresponding to the emergence of the light universe and the dark universe from
the simple and dark pre-universe with deep vacuum energy in Genesis Cosmology.
Different universes are the different expressions of the cosmic code consisting of the
two physical structures: the space structure and the object structure. The space structure
includes attachment space (1) and detachment space (0). Relating to rest mass,
attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed or reversibly at the
speed of light. Relating to kinetic energy, detachment space irreversibly detaches from
the object at the speed of light. In our observable universe, the space structure consists of
three different combinations of attachment space and detachment space. The space
structure consists of the three different combinations of attachment space and detachment
space, describing three different phenomena: quantum mechanics, special relativity, and the
extreme force fields. The object structure consists of 11D membrane (3
11
), 10D string
(2
10
), variable D particle (1
4 to 10
), and empty object (0
4 to 11
). The transformation among
the objects is through the dimensional oscillation that involves the oscillation between
high dimensional space-time with high vacuum energy and low dimensional space-time
with low vacuum energy. Our observable universe with 4D space-time has zero vacuum
energy.
In the beginning, the static multiverse background consists of 11D membranes
with the Planck energy vacuum energy and only the strong force field. For our universe,
gravity appears in the first dimensional oscillation between the 11 D membrane and the
10 D string. The asymmetrical weak force appears in the asymmetrical second
dimensional oscillation between the 10D particle and the 4D particle. Electromagnetism
appears as the force in the transition between the first and the second dimensional
oscillations. The asymmetrical dimensional oscillations result in the asymmetrical dual
universe: the light universe with light and kinetic energy and the dark universe without
72
light and kinetic energy. The asymmetrical dimensional oscillation is manifested as the
asymmetrical weak force field. The formation of the observable light involves
detachment space that allows the immediate transformation from 10D to 4D, resulting in
the inflation described by the quintom model. The formation of the dark universe does
not involve detachment space. It is a gradual dimensional oscillation between 10D and
4D, resulting in sometimes hidden and sometimes observable as dark energy.
For baryonic matter, the incorporation of detachment space for baryonic matter
brings about “the dimensional orbitals” as the base for the periodic table of elementary
particles for all leptons, quarks, and gauge bosons. The masses of gauge bosons, leptons,
quarks can be calculated using only four known constants: the number of the extra spatial
dimensions in the eleven-dimensional membrane, the mass of electron, the mass of Z°, and
the fine structure constant α
e
. The calculated values are in good agreement with the
observed values. The differences in dimensional orbitals result in incompatible dark
matter and baryonic matter.
The second day involves the separation of waters from above and below the
expanse in Genesis, corresponding to the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter
from above and below the interface between dark matter and baryonic matter for the
formation of galaxies in Genesis Cosmology. The MOND force exists in the interface
between dark matter and baryonic matter to separate dark and baryonic matter, resulting
in the inhomogeneous structures in the observable universe.
The third day involves the separation of sea and land where organisms appeared
in Genesis, corresponding to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet
where organisms were developed in Genesis Cosmology. Under the normal condition,
stars and planets are developed. Under extreme conditions, such as the zero temperature
and extremely high pressure, the extreme force fields as extreme boson force fields form.
The formation of the extreme boson force fields explains superconductivity, the fractional
quantum Hall effect, gravastar, neutron stars, and the sources for gamma ray bursts.
The unified theory for Genesis Cosmology unifies various phenomena in our
observable universe and other universes. In terms of cosmology, our universe starts with the
11-dimensional membrane universe followed by the 10-dimensional string universe and
then by the 10-dimensional particle universe, and ends with the asymmetrical dual universe
with variable dimensional particle and 4-dimensional particles. This 4-stage process goes
on in repetitive cycles. Such 4-stage cosmology accounts for the origin of the four force
fields. The unified theory clarifies the old mystery of quantum mechanics by using binary
lattice space as its space structure. It describes the inflation, the big bang, and the formation
of various shapes of galaxies in a clear sequence. It illuminates dark matter and dark energy
with the calculated percentages in good agreement with the observed values. It places all
elementary particles in the periodic table of elementary particles with the calculated masses
in good agreement with the observed values. It gives the structure for the extreme force
fields, which explain many odd phenomena, including superconductivity, the fractional
quantum Hall effect, gravastar (the alternative for black hole), supernova, neutron stars, and
gamma ray bursts.
73

Part 2: The Kingdom of God: human evolution

Jesus said that the kingdom of God is within you. The kingdom of God is within
the harmonious society and social life. The kingdom of God is divided into five parts as
the original humans, the prehistoric kingdom of God, the early kingdom of God, the
modern kingdom of God, and the postmodern kingdom of God for the human evolution
period, the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, the Modern Period, and the Postmodern
Period.
The uniqueness of the original humans is explained by human social lives
(Chapter 5). The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine
collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation,
respectively. The social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure,
and the instincts. The social-life structural theory is the combination of the three popular
theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the
Merrill-Reid social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the
brain structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality
system and the instincts.
The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans.
Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and
hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge.
During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was
fully developed. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social
group. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society. In the Bible,
the human in the image of God is the human of the harmonious social life that is different
from all other animals.
The supernatural interaction between the supernatural and human is expressed as
the kingdom of God that is the harmonious society. The kingdom of God evolves
through supernatural selection. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation
of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the harmonious society as the
chosen society by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the
expression of the natural human mind) including abstract social bond, abstract morality,
and abstract rebirth.
In the Prehistoric Period (Chapter 6), as the Garden of Eden, the prehistoric
kingdom of God expressed as Symbolic Religion (female figurines and cave paintings)
provided the abstract social bond to bond the isolated social groups to survive the harsh
environment. In the Early Period (Chapter 7) starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the
inevitably large civilized social group destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social
group as the prehistoric kingdom of God, resulting in the fall in the Garden of Eden. The
early transitional kingdom of God was the moral religion as Judaism, and provided the
abstract morality to prevent the activated dehumanized prey-predator instinct. Jesus
Christ initiated the early kingdom of God that provided the abstract rebirth for the
civilized people to return to the harmonious social life and society. It was manifested in
the early church based on the harmonious society and social life. The decline of the
kingdom of God later resulted from the conversion of the church to the state religion. In
the Modern Period (Chapter 8) starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution,
74
the decline of the state religion resulted in the modern kingdom of God in the three-
branch Unified Society consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society,
and the harmonious society for collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and
harmonious cooperation, respectively. The typical example of the Unified Society is
America that has the collective political party, the individualistic political party, and the
modern kingdom of God separated from the state. In the Postmodern Period (Chapter 9)
starting from the global mass telecommunication for the Postmodern Revolution, the
global perspective involves the whole human society, so the postmodern kingdom of God
is the harmonious society of God in the three-branch Unified Society.
yin passive
social life
(amiable)
the loose
collective
society
the harmonious
society
the tight
individualistic
society
the tight collective
society
the loose
individualistic
society
SOCIAL LIFE
yang active
social life
(driver)
yang passive
social life
(analytical)
SOCIAL STRUCTURES
harmonious
social life
yin active
social life
(expressive)
bonding +
freezing
instincts
conscience instinct =
hyper friendly instinct
+ detective instinct
dominative +
predatory
instincts
nurturing +
manipulative
instincts
systemizing +
addictive
instinct
admission
(sensitivity-
assertiveness)
resolution
(distinctiveness–
network)
socialization
(bonding relation–
free relation)
action
(goal–
context)
openness
(persistence–
updating)
the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing
• yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang
(distinctiveness-free relation-goal = individualistic achievement)
• passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) intragroup interaction
• harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active
PSYCHOLOGY
PERSONALITY
PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the social instincts
75
bipedalism (6-2Ma)
manipulative hands and spoken voice for gestural/ spoken language and tool (Homo erectus)

hyper friendly instinct detective instinct = theory of mind
conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex (0.2Ma)
enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens)
Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct
walking hands
free hands for gestural language as the hyper friendly instinct
conscience intelligence conscience will
manipulative hands for gestural language and tool(Homo habilis)

1.8-1Ma
1.5-0.3Ma
bonobo (matriarch collective society) chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society)
Ape Evolution and Social Structures
human (harmonious society)
bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch collective)
gorilla (patriarch collective society)
7 Ma

6 Ma

2 Ma

orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society)
orangutan (loose society)
13 million years ago (Ma)
76

the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society
the Upper Paleolithic Revolution
the Neolithic Revolution
The Development of the Kingdom of God
the unified prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society the prehistoric kingdom of God

the Modern Revolution
the collective society:
the collective party
+ the partisan socialism
the individualistic society:
the individualistic party
+ the partisan capitalism
the harmonious society
the harmonious religion
the modern kingdom of God
the collective society:
the collective state +
the state religion
the early transitional
kingdom of God
the harmonious society
the harmonious religion
the early kingdom of God
the individualistic society:
the individualistic state +
the state individualism
the Postmodern Revolution
the global collective society:
the collective party
+ the partisan socialism
the global individualistic society:
the individualistic party
+ the partisan capitalism
the global harmonious society
the harmonious religion
the harmonious society of God
77
Introduction

The kingdom of God is the central theme of Jesus’ public proclamation. In the
New Testament of the Bible, the kingdom of God and its synonymy, the kingdom of
Heaven, appeared about 100 times with many different meanings. It is rarely used in the
Old Testament. The word “kingdom” in the kingdom of God is a translation of the Greek
word basileia which in turn is a translation of the words malkuth (Hebrew) and malkutha
(Aramaic). These words do not define kingdom by territory but by dominion. As
dominion, the kingdom of God
(1) is within people on earth, “Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the
kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, "The kingdom of God does not come
with your careful observation, nor will people say, 'Here it is,' or 'There it is,' because
the kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:20-21)
(2) is a small group of people, “Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been
pleased to give you the kingdom.” (Luke 12:32)
(3) is entered through acceptance like a child, “But Jesus called the children to him and
said, "Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of
God belongs to such as these.” (Luke 18:16)
(4) is rebirth, “In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of
God unless he is born again.” “How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus
asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!"
Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he
is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to
spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.' (John
3:3-7)
(5) is like mustard seed and bush, “Again he said, "What shall we say the kingdom of
God is like, or what parable shall we use to describe it? It is like a mustard seed,
which is the smallest seed you plant in the ground. Yet when planted, it grows and
becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds of the
air can perch in its shade." (Mark 4:30-32)
(6) is not this world, “Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world." If it were, my
servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from
another place." (John 18:36)
(7) will continue to expand in the future, “People will come from east and west and north
and south, and will take their places at the feast in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 13:29)
(8) and the people in the kingdom of God follow the will of God. “"Not everyone who
says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the
will of my Father who is in heaven.” (Matthew 7:21)

The meaning of the kingdom of God, according to Jesus Christ, is very broad. In
the following, the kingdom of God is interpreted by human evolution, human history,
theology, and psychology to describe the whole human society in the past, the present,
and the future.
Jesus said that the kingdom of God is within you. (Luke 17:21)
70
The kingdom of
God is within the harmonious society and social life as the prehistoric, the early, the
modern, and the postmodern kingdom of God.
78

5. The Original Humans

In the Bible, God created humans twice. The first time is in Chapter 1 of Genesis.
“So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and
female he created them. (Genesis 1:27)” The second time is in Chapter 2 of Genesis.
“The LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his
nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. Now the LORD God had
planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. (Genesis 2:
7-8)” The original humans that God created were the original humans. The way God
created the original human was like the way God created everything else. In the second
time, the way that God created humans was special. God directly interacted with the
human by breathing nostrils the breath of life, and placed the human in the Garden of
Eden. The original humans became the religious humans.
This chapter deals with the original humans, and the next chapter deals with the
religious humans. In the Bible, God created the original humans in God’s own image.
No other creatures were created in God’s own image, so the original humans obviously
were unique among all creatures. The original humans were unique for the harmonious
social life. The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine
collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation,
respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans.
The theory of human social lives is the combination of the three popular theories,
including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid
social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the brain
structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality system
and the instincts.
Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution
and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge.
During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was
fully developed. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social
group, The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society.

5.1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System

There are many personality theories. The two popular theories are the Big Five
71

and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
72
derived from Carl Jung's personality type
73
.
The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual
ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather
spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to
be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a
tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as
the OCEAN model of personality. MBTI includes four factors: Introvert-extrovert,
sense-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. The personality system
matches these two popular personality theories.
The proposed personality system is the social-information personality system.
The two general types of personality involve the social relation type and the information
79
process type. Human is a social animal, so the social relation type deals with the two
different types of social relation. The human brain also processes information, so the
information process type deals with how the human brain process information like a
computer. There are four different factors in the information process type. These four
factors correspond approximately to the four factors in MBTI. These four factors in
additional to the social type correspond the five factors in the Big Five.

5.1.1. The Social Relation Type

Social Relation Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five
Commitment High Bonding relation (B) Agreeable (A)
Low Free relation (F)

Sociability is a function of all social animals. Committed sociability is bonding
relation (denoted as B), while non-committed sociability is free relation (denoted as F).
The most famous experiment to distinguish bonding relation and free relation was done
by Insel and Winslow
74
. They looked at two closely related but have different social
organization: the prairie vole with strong male-female pair bonding and the montane vole,
which is promiscuous without strong bonding male-female pair bonding. They found that
oxytocin (a hormone) attaches to receptors in reward-related areas of the brain in the pair-
bonding prairie vole but not in the non-bonding montane vole. When prairie voles
intercourse, two hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, are released. If the release of these
hormones is blocked, prairie voles become like montane voles. An injection of the
hormones can invoke pair bonding without intercourse.
Oxytocin sometimes is called “cuddle chemical” that builds bonds between mates,
mother-child, and social members. Oxytocin and vasopressin are complementary in such
way that oxytocin processes reward and vasopressin processes focus attention to the
individuals for the bonding. Vasopressin is responsible for creating intense loving
memories during passionate situations. Edorphin is a social neurotransmitter that
response to touch and pleasing visual stimulus (such as smile).
According the study by Pollack
75
and his colleagues, infants raised in the uncaring
environment of some Eastern European orphanages ended up with a long-lasting deficit
in oxytocin and vasopressin. The deficits in oxytocin and vasopressin persisted even
after the children were removed from the orphanages and placed with loving and stable
families, resulting in the difficulties in forming social bonds.
Bonding relates to empathy and trust. Like bonding, empathy and trust increase
with oxytocin. Before committed social bonding, empathy is required to start social
bonding. It was found that oxytocin helps empathy
76
in terms of reading the mind of
others. The maintenance of bond requires trust. Trust has relaxed emotion and malleable
cognition. Thus, bonding relation (B) has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition.
Oxytocin was found by Kosfeld to increase trust
77
, and by Light to decrease blood
pressure
78
. Distrust, on the contrary, has heightened emotion and narrow cognition.
Thus, free relation (F) has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Committed and
non-committed relation can be pleasurable, but only committed relation has trust in terms
of relaxed emotion and malleable cognition.
80
A genetic example of free relation is autism, which has genetic impairment in
forming social bonding. The people with autism have heightened emotion and narrow
cognition. It was found that individuals with autism have lower level of oxytocin
79
. A
genetic example of bonding relation is Williams Syndrome, which has genetic
impairment to process visual–spatial information for independent living, but has
unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. Individuals with
Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter, and
poor performance in non-social information, such as drawing.
According to Simon Baron-Cohen
80
, the essential difference between the female
brain and the male brain is that the average female brain favors slightly empathy, and the
average male brain favors slightly in non-social information. Instead of social contact,
the average male brain finds pleasure in systematizing non-social information. The
overlapping of the male brain and the female brain is significant.

5.1.2. The Information Process Type

In the information process type, the human mind is like computer. The human
mind or computer is to process information, which can be compared with the personality
types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality
type. The combination of the information process type and the social information type
can be compared with the Big Five personality model.
Four important functions in the information process in human mind or computer
are admission (the selection of the input data), resolution (the details of data), action (the
format of the process program), and openness (the updating of the process program). In
each of the process functions, there are two levels: high and low. These the information
process types then are compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The following table lists the
information process type and its comparison with MBTI personality types.

The information process type

Information Process
Function
The information process type Personality Type

(MBTI)
Admission High Sensitivity (S) introvert (I)
Low assertiveness (A) extrovert (N)
Resolution High distinctness (D) sense (S)
Low Network (N) intuition (N)
Action High goal (G) thinking (T)
Low context (C) feeling (F)
Openness High Updating (U) perceiving (P)
Low Persistence (P) judging (J)

5.1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness

81

Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five
Admission High Sensitivity (S) introvert (I)
Low Assertiveness (A) extrovert (N) Extrovert (E)

The admission of each set of input data can be high or low. In computer, program
is written to recognize and admit a part of each set of input data. If every detail in a set of
input data is important, the admission of data is high. In this case, under limited
computer capacity, only few sets of data can be accepted. In the human mind, the
perceived degree of harm determines the degree of admission. The high perceived degree
of harm leads to the importance of every detail in a set of data, resulting in sensitivity
(represented by S). The low perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of only
few details, resulting in assertiveness (represented by A).
The person of assertiveness has a low dose of stimulus for each encounter of
stimulation source. The person of sensitivity has high dose of stimulus for each
encounter of stimulation source. To maintain an optimal level of stimulation, the person
of assertiveness requires numerous sources of stimulation sources. According to H. J.
Eysenck
81
, extroverts have persistently low cortical arousal and seek stimulation. The
personality of assertiveness therefore is the personality of extrovert as described in MBTI
and by Eysenck. On the other hand, the personality of sensitivity is introvert in MBTI.
Introverts have persistently high arousal and avoid stimulation.
Admission is like the gate for the entry of incoming information. It is the first
reaction to the incoming information by opening or closing the gate. It is also the last
reaction to the incoming information by closing the gate. Processing information
requires energy and space, so it is necessary to keep incoming information minimum, just
enough only for survival and reproduction. When survival and reproduction is secure,
the admission of information can be low that leads to assertive. On the other hand, when
survival and reproduction is insecure, the admission of information is high that leads to
sensitivity. Therefore, security is the condition for assertiveness, and insecurity is the
condition for sensitivity.
Personality type is an adaptation to certain conditions during evolution and during
personal development. Personality type that we were born with is an adaptation to
certain conditions by our ancestors. Personality type that we develop later in life is an
adaptation to certain condition we encounter. For human who is capable of the
integration of various events, condition can also be belief system, a central theme for the
past, the current, and the future events. In some cases, a new belief system can
completely replace an actual condition. Under different conditions (belief systems),
different behaviors appear. The behaviors resulted from normal and excessive conditions
are normal and excessive behaviors. .
Under the condition of insecurity for sensitivity, the normal behavior is association,
incorporating stimuli as a part of experience. Under extreme condition of insecurity, the
extreme behavior is freezing, a behavior of total avoidance. Under the condition of
security for assertiveness, the normal behavior is disregard, excluding input information.
Under condition of extreme security, the extreme behavior is inactivity, complete
disregard.
82
The personality in terms of social inhibition for a child older than 10 months can
be predicted by the behavior of the child before four months old
82
. Four-months-olds
who cry, fuss, or fret often in response to a novel stimulus, such as a brightly colored
mobile or a whiff of an alcohol swab, are more likely end up being socially inhibited.
This shows that a baby who has an especially low threshold for activation ends up being
introvert.
The behavior is facilitated by neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters facilitate
communication between neurons (nerve cells). Different neurotransmitters enhance
different personality types. Serotonin (5-HT) enhances the assertiveness type. The effect
of serotonin is aided by drugs such as SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).
This drug was popularized in the book, “Listening to Prozac” by Peter D. Kramer
83
. It
minimizes impulses and obsession, such as social fear shyness and eating disorders,
because it decouples association from previous association learning. If excessive amount
of serotonin is in the brain, the brain can become too selective, expressing as repetition or
inactivity. This excessive behavior of assertiveness is different from the normal behavior,
disregard.
Serotonin is the oldest neurotransmitter. It is the index for perceived social
security. In the study of crayfish
84
, the winner in a fight between two crayfishes appears
to have a higher amount of serotonin than the loser has. The winner perceives social
security, while the loser perceived social insecurity. The loser has a quick response from
the touch of tail, while the winner does not have this quick response. In social group of
monkey, the leaders have the highest levels of serotonin reflecting the perceived security,
while those on the bottom of have the lowest levels reflecting perceived insecurity.
Assertiveness is more suitable strategy in a perceived secure environment to preserve
energy, while sensitivity is more suitable strategy in a perceived insecure environment to
enhance vigilance.
Acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter to enhance sensitivity. Acetylcholine
provokes fear and withdrawal (freezing). Acetylcholine decreases in Alzheimer’s
dementia, so the patient with Alzheimer’s dementia has trouble in association in terms of
memory. During dream in the rapid eye movement period, there are large increase in
acetylcholine, and large decrease in serotonin. It is why there is virtually free association
during dream without inhibition. Such free association is necessary to reinforce the
learning of association during waking.
The source of Ach and 5-HT is the brain stem, the primitive part of the brain. Ach
has another source near amygdala, the center for fear. They distribute widely in the brain.

5.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network

Information
Process
Personality
system
Personality Type
(MBTI)
The Big Five
Resolution High Distinctness (D) sense (S) Consciousness (C)
Low Network (N) intuition (N)

When computer processes video pictures, it can have many pictures with coarse
details (low resolution) or few pictures with distinct details (high resolution). The human
brain has the same kind of trade-off. In some part of human brain such as the part for
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speech, there is distinctness with high resolution, but this part of the brain cannot cover
many different areas of information at the same time. In another part of the brain, many
areas of information can be covered at the same time, but distinctness is poor. The
information process type with the high resolution is Distinctness (represented by D),
while the information process type with low resolution and high connection is Network
(represented by N).
According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of sensing (represented by
S) is a specialist, concerning with concrete details, facts, precision, single idea in depth,
and step by step method. This sensing personality matches with the distinctness type in
the information process type. According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of
intuition (N) is a generalist, concerning with whole picture, speculation, many alternative
ideas, and inventive ideas. The intuition type matches with the network type.
Resolution is the detailed processing of information, which requires energy and
space. With the same energy and space, high-resolution process can process a small picture
with lots of distinctive details, while low-resolution process can process a large picture with
few distinctive details. High-resolution process results in distinctiveness, and low resolution
process leads to network. When the brain stores a number of pictures, Distinctiveness keeps
maximum adjacent connections in the same picture and minimum broad connections among
different pictures. Network keeps maximum broad connections among different pictures
and minimum adjacent connections in the same picture.
When the condition requires precision or single-minded approach, Distinctiveness is
needed. Some tasks, such as fine motor movement and speech, require a series of
distinctive space-time. When specific precise information is needed, the behavior is focus
by inhibiting or disconnecting all other possible interference from other sources. Focus
involves a specific task by a series of distinctive and small neural assembly. In multiple
tasks, Network is needed to connect various tasks at the same time.
The outer part of the brain is the cortex. The cortex consists of four lobes: the
frontal cortex (motor cortex), parietal cortex (somatosensory cortex), temporal cortex
(auditory cortex), and occipital cortex (visual cortex). The lobe other than the frontal
cortex is called posterior cortex. The primary zone of the cortex receives input from the
sense organs. The secondary zone receives input from the primary zone to integrate
information from different primary zones. The association area receives information
from the secondary zones, so it has the highest integration not only from the rest of the
cortex but also from the subcortex. The frontal cortex has the largest area for the
association area. It has the broadest connection to different parts of the brain. Therefore,
the frontal cortex is the area for the overall distinctiveness or the excessive network
involving the large areas, while the posterior cortex is the area for the specific distinctive
or the normal network involving small specific areas. Mood involves overall
distinctiveness and network, so the recognition of mood takes place in the frontal cortex.
The cortex is divided into the left cortex and the right cortex. The left cortex, which
expresses language, is the cortex for distinctness, while the right cortex, which is good in
orientation, is the cortex for network
85
. S. H. Woodward
86
proposed the left cortex and the
right cortex use different neuron connections. The cortical neurons are organized in
columns. Neurons are connected vertically and horizontally. Woodward proposed that left
cortex processing relies primarily on tight connections between vertical columns of neurons,
whereas right cortex processing depends on weaker and longer horizontal connections.
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Vertical cortical circuitry provides distinctness, and horizontal cortical circuitry provides
network. Woodward proposed that vertical circuitry carries inhibitory signals to the right
cortex by the corpus collosum (the part dividing the right cortex and the left cortex), so the
right cortex does not rely on vertical cortical circuitry. The left brain contains greater cell
density and more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages. The right
brain, in contrast, contains ore areas of "associative" with white myelinated fibers for long
distant neural messages (higher integrative level)
87
.
A number of neurotransmitters are unequally distributed in the right and left
hemispheres. Dopamine is distributed more extensively in the left hemisphere. It was
found that rather than signaling pleasure as previously thought, dopamine may be released
by brain neurons to highlight significant stimuli
88
. Significant stimuli are distinctive stimuli.
Dopamine has been implicated in the controlled of fine motor movement. The patient with
Parkinson’s disease, which is deficient in dopamine, cannot control fine motor movement.
Excessive dopamine, on the other hand, brings about unrealistically excessive focus.
The social relation affects the brain structure involving network.
The bonding relation type requires extensive social network resulting the brain structure
with extensive network. As discussed before by Simon Baron-Cohen, woman is more
social relation type than man, so the female brain has more network than the male brain.
It is shown in the thicker corpus collosum that connect the right brain and the left brain,
more dendritic connections between brain cells, and more evenly distributed language
centers in the brain for better communication. Therefore, for woman, the brain is wired
more for the bonding relation type and the network type, and for man, the brain is wired
more for the free relation type and the distinctiveness type.
The mental disorders involving Distinctiveness and Network deal with the
extreme presence or absence of Distinctiveness and Network. The extreme presence of
Distinctiveness involves Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)
characterized by perfectionism, orderliness, adherence to rules, exercise of control,
hoarding and problems with personal relationships. The extreme absence of
Distinctiveness involves diseases, such as in Parkinson’s disease.

5.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context

Information
Process
Personality
system
Personality Type
(MBTI)
The Big Five
Action High Goal (G) thinking (T)
Low Context (C) feeling (F) Neuroticism (N)

In a computer, each information process goes through an operating system that
control the flow of information processing in terms of priority and scheduling of different
information processes. A simple operating system put all information processes in a
context from which priority and scheduling are determined. Thus, each information
process has a specific goal to reach, while each simple operating system has a context to
arrange all information processes. In terms of action for actual information output,
information process has much higher action than operating system.
In the human mind, there is also Goal (represented by G) for information process
and Context (represented by C) for operation system. Goal is action-oriented resulting in
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the measurable intentional change. Context is option-oriented resulting in the context for
possible action. The evolutionary origin of Goal and Context is the first difference
between male and female animals. Male animal carries extremely high number of sperms,
while female animal carries limited number of eggs. During the mating session, the
presence of a female animal with eggs triggers the desire of action in a male animal. Such
action can result in a measurable intentional goal in terms of mating. On the other hand,
to a female animal, the presence of a male animal is merely an option for which a context
is set for possible action. Such context can be the show of strength, superiority, and
affection. The context is for possible action. A female animal has much less drive for
action, and much higher ability for the discernment for possible actions. Another
important action in Goal is problem solving in terms of removing obstacle during
courtship and mating, such as chasing off another male competitor. Context is emotion
with option, and Goal is emotion with action.
The free-bonding relation type is closely connected with the goal-context type
because the man-woman difference. For man, the combination of free relation type and
the goal type results in the thinking type (T) for MBTI. According to MBTI, The
thinking type (T) has characteristics of theoretical, rational, analytical, purposive, logic,
and unconcerned with people's feeling. In terms of Goal, the thinking type is essentially
the action of problem solving to remove an obstacle in terms of solving a problem. It has
a definitive goal to make a measurable intentional change. Since the goal is combined
with the free relation type, it does not concern with people’s feeling.
For woman, the combination of the context type and the bonding relation type
results in the feeling type in MBTI. According to MBTI, the feeling type (F) has
characteristics of passionate, warm, personal, artistic, and concerned with people's
feelings. In the Context, the feeling type does not have a particular propose to make a
measurable intentional change. It is merely to discern the situation. Since the context
type is combined with the bonding relation type, it concern with people’s feeling.
On average, the female human brains have a larger deep limbic system than males.
The larger deep limbic brain allows women more in touch with their feelings to prioritize
all possible options. When the brain at rest without consciously thinking of anything, men,
on average, had higher brain activity in the more ancient and primitive regions of the
limbic system, the parts that are more involved with action. Women, on average, had
more activity in the newer and more complex parts of the limbic system, which are
involved in feelings
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. The hypothalamus, which is a tiny structure at the base of the
brain, regulates many basic functions, such as eating, sleeping, temperature control, and
reproduction. One part of the hypothalamus responsible for sexual behavior is larger in
male brains than in female brains, in human and non-human animals.
In total Goal for nonhuman, the goals of life come from predominately biological
self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. It
includes hunger, thirst, and sex etc. For human, the goals of life come from not only
biological self but also autobiographic self in the form of life story. Autobiographic self
is self-knowledge as described by Nancy Cantor
90
and Hazel Markus
91
for cognition and
motivation. Autobiographic self is from episodic memory, which is different from
semantic memory. Semantic memory refers to one’s stored knowledge of facts, concepts,
and general principles of how the world operates. Semantic memory is the essential
memory used to live in the world. Episodic memory, on the other hand, is not essential,
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and more or less serves as the map for semantic memory. It is an autobiographic store of
life experiences. The prefrontal cortex in the human brain is large. The prefrontal cortex
has a high number of connections with different parts of the brain. Consequently, the
large prefrontal cortex in human is capable to integrate the autobiographic store of life
experiences into autobiographic self in the form of the life story. Other animals do not
have such autobiographic self. All animals have biological self, the integration of
biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. Only human has a strong
autobiographic self to determine the boundary of experiential self. Only human has both
biological self and autobiographic self.
Autobiographic self in the form of life story brings about path, meaning, and goal
of life. The path of life allows human to map the past, the present, and the future
experiences. The meaning of life lets human to know the experiential position in the
world. The goal of life permits human to prioritize life. Because of the changes in life
experiences and life expectation, the life story is in a continuous process of revision,
resulting in the continuous changes in path, meaning, and goal of life.
The mental disorders involved are the extreme Goal and the extreme Context The
extreme Goal is the extreme action-oriented without stopping, resulting in manic. Manic
can lead to psychopath, seeking the unstopping thrill of action. The extreme Context is the
extreme option-oriented without any possible action, resulting in depression. Depression
can result in suicide, terminating all possible action. Both extremes are the results of
chronic stress in terms of pain and loss.

5.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating

Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five
Openness High Updating (U) perceiving (P) Openness (O)
Low Persistence (P) judging (J)

An elaborate operating system for a computer not only schedules information
processes but also manipulate and update information from different information processes.
For the human mind, the simple operating system corresponds to emotion, while the
elaborate operating system corresponds to cognition for more elaborate manipulation and
updating. In the human brain, the part involved in the update is the prefrontal cortex.
The large size of the prefrontal cortex in human is an important difference between
human and other apes. The opposite of update is persistence which keeps the program
constant. The information process type for the low openness is persistence (represented
by P), and for the high openness is updating (represented by U).
According to MBTI, the judging type has characteristics of planned, orderly way,
settled, organized, decisive, closeness, and finishing things. The judging type matches
the Persistence type. The perceiving type has characteristics of flexible, spontaneous,
flexible, tolerant, open option, understand life rather than control it. This perceiving type
matches the Updating type.
Updating is a change in information in order to be adaptable to the current situation.
The change of information involves manipulation of several sets of information, including
old sets of information, possible new sets of information, and the final set of information.
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The manipulation of several sets of information requires the involvement of the prefrontal
cortex. It involves in new combination and arrangement of information. The prefrontal
cortex has multiple components: working memory buffers and a “central executive,” the
manager that manipulates and coordinates information stored in the buffers for updating
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.
Working memory is a “blackboard memory” operating over mere seconds. The process
includes moving information into working memory, updating what is already there, and
using it to select a final updating.
The whole updating process involves both the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the
cortex. The prefrontal cortex has extensive connections to various parts of the brain.
Neuroscientist Edmund Rolls
93
found that the prefrontal cortex in a monkey had fired
strongly immediately before the monkey changed the behavior in behavior to a changing
circumstance. The prefrontal cortex allows a quick switch of strategy in behavior to a
change of circumstance. The reason for such a quick switch of strategy is that the prefrontal
cortex has ample free neuron network which provides the space to construct a new strategy
one after another free of previous experience and memory. The people with damage in the
prefrontal cortex cannot construct a new strategy one right after another. They tend to
construct one strategy, and stay with the same strategy over and over again even there is a
need for another strategy. They fail to select the most current strategy for their action. The
people with damage in the prefrontal cortex may also persistently follow whatever
command given to them without change. The damage in the prefrontal cortex is the
example for the extreme case of persistence.
The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that has expanded the most in primates.
The large human prefrontal cortex provides human a very large space to construct new
strategy in terms of new combination and arrangement of information. The large prefrontal
cortex in human also provides an area to construct strategy overcoming salient and concrete
experiences.
Glutamate is the neurotransmitter for long-term potent (LTP) which is necessary
for the working memory, which in turn is important for updating. Dopamine enhances
the activity of few selective neurons by inhibiting the activity all other unrelated and
unneeded neurons. Both glutamate and dopamine work together to accomplish updating.
The mental disorders involved are the extreme Persistence without Updating. The
extreme Persistence is impulsiveness without considering any possible consequences. One
of such disorders is schizophrenia. The extremes are the results of chronic anxiety in
terms of uncertainty.
5.1.3. The Big Five

The most popular model of personality is the Big Five. The five factors in the Big
Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and
curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously),
extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be
compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a
tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as
the OCEAN model of personality.
Openness correlates to Updating in persistence-updating for the propensity for
adapting to changing information. Conscientiousness relates to Distinctiveness in
distinctiveness-network for the care for focusing attention. Extrovert corresponds to
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Assertiveness in sensitivity-assertiveness for the easy to receive incoming information.
Agreeable corresponds to bonding relation in bonding relation-free relation in the way of
social life for the propensity to form trust for social bonding. Neuroticism corresponds to
Context in goal–context for emotion.

Information
Process
Personality system Personality
Type (MBTI)
The Big Five
Admission High Sensitivity (S) introvert (I)
Low Assertiveness (A) extrovert (N) Extrovert (E)
Resolution High Distinctness (D) sense (S) Consciousness (C)
Low Network (N) intuition (N)
Action High Goal (G) thinking (T)
Low Context (C) feeling (F) Neuroticism (N)
Openness High Updating (U) perceiving (P) Openness (O)
Low Persistence (P) judging (J)
Social Relation
Commitment High Bonding relation (B) Agreeable (A)
Low Free relation (F)

5.2. The Social Lives

The human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts.

5.2.1. The Social Lives for the Primate Social Structures

The combination of the factors in the personality system results in the feminine
yin personality and the masculine yang personality for collective wellbeing and
individualistic achievement, respectively. The social lives are the combination of the yin-
yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social
units. The combination results in yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active,
corresponding to Amiable, Expressive, Analytical, and Drive in the popular Merrill-Reid
social style theory. The harmonious social life is the unique new human social life that
no other organisms have. The instinct for the harmonious social life (harmonious) is the
conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective
instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie.
The social lives are derived from the personality system. The social lives for the
primate social structures consist of three parts: the yin-yang personality, the intragroup
interaction among basic social units, and the degree of openness.
(1) Yin-Yang Personality (BNC-FDG)
The feminine yin personality is the combination of the bonding relation type (B),
the network type (N), and the context type (C), while yang is the combination of the free
relation type (F), the distinctiveness type (D), and the goal type (G). For the yin
personality (BNC) type, the combination leads to “collective wellbeing”, where collective
means B and N, and wellbeing does not involve a specific action. For the masculine
yang personality (FDG) type, the combination brings about “individualistic achievement”,
where individual means F and D, and achievement involves a specific goal. Collective
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wellbeing deals with mainly people, while individual achievement deals with primarily
with task. Therefore, yin represents people, while yang represents task. The society with
the yin personality is the collective society, while the society with the yang personality is
the individualistic society.
(2) Passive-Active Intragroup Interaction (S-A)
The social lives for primates are the combination of the yin-yang personalities and
the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units (subgroups) within
a social group. The basic social units (subgroups) can be single female and her offspring,
monogamous family, polyandrous family (one-female-several-male group), polygynous
family (one-male-several-female group), and multimale-multifemale group (non-
committal male-female). The intragroup interaction among the subgroups can be passive
or active interaction, corresponding to introvert (Sensitivity) or extrovert (Assertiveness).
The passive intragroup interaction leads to a loose social group where the intragroup
interaction in not active. The active intragroup interaction leads to a tight social group.
The tight social group helps to provide protection against predators. It also helps to
protect scarce food resources. This is especially true for non-human primates when the
food is fruit. Leaf-eaters, such as colobus monkeys and langurs, tend to form smaller
loose social groupings since there is little competition for their food. The very few
nocturnal species of primates are mostly small, relatively solitary hunters. In general, a
social group under the condition of sufficiency resource and security leads typically to a
loose social group, while a social group under the condition of insufficient resource and
insecurity results typically in a tight social group.
The combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup
interactions leads to yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active. The loose
collective society and the tight collective society come from the yin passive and the yin
active social lives, respectively, while the loose individualistic society and the tight
individualistic society come from the yang passive and yang active social lives,
respectively. In the tight collective society, the active intragroup interaction produces the
group wellbeing that promotes care about all members of the group and the group identity
in addition to basic collective wellbeing. In the tight individualistic society, the active
intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and
effort as well as the submission to the leader of group in addition to basic individualistic
achievement. The tight collective society is more egalitarian than the tight individualistic
society.
In general, the tight individualistic society is under the condition of less sufficient
resource and security than the tight collective society. The reason is that the competitive
hierarchy social structure, like an army, is more suitable to overcome the difficulties in
insufficient resource and insecurity than the group wellbeing social structure. A typical
example in ape is the different social structures of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobos
live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live
in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees
travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to
travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Bonobos have the female-centered collective
society with the group wellbeing, while chimpanzees have the male-centered
individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy.
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A primate society has typically more than one type of society. For example, the
society of female mouse lemurs found in the Island of Madagascar as described by Robert
Russell
94
is the tight collective society, and solitary male mouse lemurs have the loose
individualistic society. Six to twenty female mouse lemurs form a lifelong social group.
The basic lifelong unit of the social group is mother-daughter, so there are several units of
mother-daughter from the same neighborhood. Mother and daughter have mutual growth
relation. Mother takes care of daughter, and teaches her all skill of life. Daughter stays with
her mother. About three to ten pairs of mother-daughter form a social group. They have a
centrally located communal sleeping hollow for their daytime rest. The social group
provides lifelong warmth, stimulation, shared experiences, and warning system for
protection from the intrusion of predators. This form of social group increases greatly the
chance of survival for female mouse lemurs. The ratio of adult females to adult males
exceeds four females for every one male.
For orangutans, there are the loose collective society for single female and her
offspring and the loose individualistic society for solitary males. For chimpanzees, male
chimpanzees have the tight individualistic society, while female chimpanzees have loose
individualistic society. Female bonobos, on the other hand, have the tight collective
society, while male bonobos have the loose individualistic society. Female bonobos as a
group overpower male bonobos.
From of the perspective of acquisition instead of condition, the tight
individualistic society can acquire resource and security better than the tight collective
society, and the tight society acquire resource and security better than the loose society.
On the other hand, from the perspective of the cost for individuals in terms of energy and
time spend in intragroup interaction, the tight individualistic society is more costly than
the tight collective society, and the tight society is more costly than the loose society.
The social structure of non-human primates is the balance among condition, acquisition,
and cost.

Tight
individualistic
Society
Tight
collective
Society
Loose
individualistic
Society
Loose
collective
society

Condition 4 3 2 1 1 = under most abundant
resource and security
condition
Acquisition 1 2 3 4 1 = acquire most resource
and security
Cost 4 3 2 1 1 = least costly for
individuals in the
intragroup interaction

Humans, on the other hand, have tendency and capability for accumulation (greed) rather
than mere survival and reproduction, so humans allow high cost for individuals, such as
stress and anxiety.
(3) The Degree of Openness (P-U)
The additional social life is the harmonious social life for harmonious cooperation
that exists only in human that has the much larger prefrontal cortex responsible for the
high openness in terms of Persistence-Updating in the personality system. The high
openness allows the harmonious social life to transcend yin-yang and passive-active.
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Consequently, the society with the harmonious social life maximizes acquisition, and
minimizes the cost for individuals in the intragroup interaction, resulting in the most
successful society. However, the harmonious social group size has to be small. The
description and the evolution of harmonious cooperation social life and harmonious
society will be discussed in details in the next sections.
The social life system consists of five different combinations of the factors in the
personality system as in the following table.
The Social Lives for Primate Social Structures

Social lives
yin (BNC ) –yang
(FDG) or
harmonious
cooperation (high
openness)
passive-active
(introvert-extrovert) or
flexible Intragroup
interaction among
basic social units
Primate Social
Structures
Characteristics Merrill-Reid
Temperaments
Yin

Passive the loose
collective
society
passive collective
wellbeing
Amiable
Yang

Passive the loose
individualistic
society
passive
individualistic
achievement
Analytical
Yin

Active the tight
collective
society
active collective
wellbeing
Expressive
Yang Active the tight
individualistic
society
active
individualistic
achievement
Driver
Harmonious
cooperation
flexible the harmonious
society
harmonious
cooperation



The social life system is similar to the Merrill-Reid social style theory
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,
consisting of amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver temperaments. According to the
Merrill-Reid theory, the four social lives are described below.
• Amiable: Place a high priority on friendships, close relationships, and cooperative
behavior. They appear to get involved in feelings and relations between people.
• Expressive: Appear communicative, warm approachable and competitive. They
involve other people with their feelings and thoughts.
control emotion
emote
tell ask
analytical
driver
amiable
expressive
yang
yin
active passive

yang passive
yang active
yin passive
yin active
Merrill-Reid Social Style The Yin Yang Social Life
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• Analytical: Live life according to facts, principles, logic and consistency. Often
viewed as cold and detached but appear to be cooperative in their actions as long
as they can have some freedom to organize their own efforts.
• Driver: Give the impression that they know what they want, where they are going,
and how to get there quickly.

Amiable and Expressive have yin (female type) characteristic for collective
wellbeing, while Analytical and Driver have yang (male type) characteristic for
individualistic achievement. Expressive and Driver are more active in interpersonal
relations than Amiable and Driver. Merrill-Reid Temperaments do not include
harmonious cooperation. The amiable social life in the Merrill-Rein theory corresponds
to the yin passive social life that involves and is keenly interested in the close relationship
with people (yin) foe collective wellbeing. The expressive social life corresponds to the
yin active social life that involves in both close relationships with people in the basic
social unit and the intragroup in terms of group wellbeing in addition to basic collective
wellbeing. The analytical social life corresponds to the yang passive social life that
involves and is keenly interested in only systemizing task (yang) for individualistic
achievement. The driver social life corresponds to the yang active social life that
involves both the close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the
intragroup in terms of group hierarchy in addition to basic individualistic achievement.

5.2.2. The Human Instincts and the Yin Yang Social Lives

The social lives are derived from the human instincts. The human instincts
include the humanized instincts and the dehumanized instincts. The humanized instincts
are used originally involving human. The dehumanized instincts are used originally
involving nonhuman. It is quite common among social animals to behave differently
toward the animals of the same species and toward the animals of different species. For
examples, cannibalism and the killing among the animals of the same species are rare in
social animals even during the fighting among the animals of the same species. The
fighting among the animals of the same species for the purpose of domination is often
ritualistic without serious injury. The harms to the infant animals from the animals of the
same species are infrequent. On the other hand, as predators, animals kill preys of
different species without hesitation. As a prey, an animal makes a manipulative strategy
to escape from a predator of different species. Animals make a clear distinction between
the animals of different species and the animals of same species.
The humanized instinct consists of the female-male instincts involving human.
People possess all of the female-male instincts. The female instincts are in average
stronger in women, while the male instincts are in average stronger in men. However, the
overlap is large, so it is common for some men to have stronger female instincts, and for
some women to have stronger male instincts. The female instincts include the bonding
instinct to bond with other human and the nurturing instinct to nurture the love ones. The
male instincts include the systemizing instinct to systemizing various objects into a
system and the dominative instinct to have domination in social hierarchy.
The dehumanized instincts involving nonhuman are the prey-predator instincts.
The prey instincts include the freezing instinct to minimize the activity in the presence of
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strong nonhuman predator and the manipulative instinct to play tricks to a strong
nonhuman predator for the protection of self and love ones. The predatory instincts
include the addictive instinct to have obsession in terms of task and the predatory instinct
to over-control a weak nonhuman prey.
Such prey-predator instincts are for nonhuman, but in the large complicate
civilized society where people relations are complicate, people misuse the prey-predator
to subhuman that is defined as human who is treated as nonhuman. In an extreme case, a
person regards all people as subhuman that activates the prey-predator instincts in the
person, resulting in mental disorders, such as depression, borderline personality disorder,
obsession, and psychopath. The prey instincts closely relate to the female instincts, while
the predatory instincts closely relate to the male instincts. The human social lives are
listed in the following table.

The Positive Negative Yin Yang Social Lives

Social life POSITIVE YIN POSITIVE YANG
Origin Humanized female-male instincts involving human
Description collective wellbeing in mostly people individual achievement in mostly task
Perceived
Condition
abundant resource and security deficient resource and security
Perceived
Mechanism
offensive mechanism for connecting
people
defensive mechanism for survival
PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE
Merrill-Reid amiable expressive analytical driver
Instinct bonding nurturing systemizing dominative
Behavior kindness nurturing discipline strength
Role friend nurturer systemizer leader
Idealized Self-
Image
loyalist peacemaker idealist hero

NEGATIVE YIN NEGATIVE YANG
Origin dehumanized prey-predator instincts involving subhuman
Description Cool manipulation in mostly people obsessive over-control in mostly task
Perceived
Condition
deficient resource and security abundant resource and security
Perceived
Mechanism
defensive mechanism for protection offensive mechanism for hunting
PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE
Merrill-Reid amiable expressive analytical driver
Instinct freezing manipulative addiction predatory
Behavior withdraw manipulation obsession over-control
Role prey manipulator addict predator
Idealized Self-
Image
loner strategist specialist master
Mental
Disorder
depression borderline
personality
disorder
obsession psychopath

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As in the table above, the positive yin social life and the positive yang social life
are derived from the humanized female instinct and male instinct, respectively. The
general description of the positive yin social life from the female instincts is collective
wellbeing in mostly people. The best perceived condition to have collective wellbeing is
abundant resource and security. It is hard to have collective wellbeing under deficient
resource and security. Under such abundant resource and security, the mechanism is the
active offensive mechanism to connect with people instead of passively connecting with
people. The general description of the positive yang social life from the male instincts is
individual achievement in mostly task. The best perceived condition to have individual
achievement is deficient resource and security. The deficient resource and security
motivate an individual to achieve in order to survive and prosper. Under the deficient
resource and security, the mechanism is passive defensive mechanism to achieve in order
to survive and prosper.
The positive yin passive social life (amiable) involves and is keenly interested in
close relationships with people, so the instinct is the bonding instinct. The corresponding
behavior is kindness toward people. The role for the yin passive social life is friend. A
person with the role of friend can idealize (exaggerate) the role as loyalist.
The positive yin active social life (expressive) involves in both basic social unit
and intragroup. The instinct is the nurturing instinct in addition to the bonding instinct.
The nurturing instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The role for the yin active
social life is nurturer. A person with the role of nurturer can idealize in terms of
exaggeration the role as peacemaker to provide the peaceful environment for nurturing all
love ones.
The positive yang passive social life (analytical) involves and is keenly interested
in only task. The instinct is the systemizing instinct for the intrinsic human capability
and desire to make a system out of various objects. The corresponding behavior is
discipline to follow a well-developed system. The role for the yang passive social life is
systemizer. A person with the role of systemizer can idealize in terms of exaggeration
the role as idealist to have the idealistic system.
The positive yang active social life (driver) involves in the basic social unit and
intragroup. The instinct is the dominative instinct in addition to the systemizing instinct.
The dominative instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The corresponding behavior
is mental and physical strength. The role for the yang active social life is leader to
provide the best (dominating) condition to survive and prosper. A person with the role of
leader can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as hero who will fight for survival
and prosperity.
As in the table, the negative yin social life and the negative yang social life are
derived from the dehumanized prey instinct and predatory instinct, respectively. The
general description of the negative yin social life from the prey instincts is cool
manipulation in mostly people. The perceived condition to have cool manipulation is
deficient resource and security. Under the deficient resource and security, the mechanism
is passive defensive mechanism to stay away and to manipulate in order to survive. The
general description of the negative yang social life from the predatory instincts is
obsessive over-control in mostly task. The perceived condition to have obsessive over-
control is abundant resource and security. Under such abundant resource and security,
the mechanism is the active offensive mechanism to obsess and to over-control.
95
The negative yin passive social life is derived from the dehumanized prey instinct
that is the freezing instinct to avoid the contact with strong subhuman predator as much
as possible. The corresponding behavior is to withdraw (coolness) involving subhuman
predator. It involves only subhuman. The role for the yin passive social life is passive
prey. A person with the role of passive prey can rationalize the role as loner to avoid
detestable people. In the extreme case, the person can regard all people as subhuman
predator, resulting in the destruction of the intrinsic brain structure to distinguish human
and nonhuman. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of depression.
The negative yin active social life is derived from the dehumanized prey instinct
that is the manipulative instinct in addition to the freezing instinct. The corresponding
behavior is manipulation involving subhuman predator. Manipulation can be very
deceptive as the broken wing trick that a mother bird plays to lead a predator away from
the baby birds. It is the origin of the asymmetrical warfare. It involves both subhuman
and task needed to carry on manipulation. The role for the yin active social life is
manipulator. A person with the role of manipulator can rationalize the role as strategist
to protect the person and the love ones from strong opponents. The result of the extreme
case is the mental disorder of borderline personality disorder.
People with borderline personality disorder frequently have unstable relationships,
fly into rages inappropriately, or become depressed and cannot trust the actions and
motives of other people
96
. In the study, directed by neuroscientist Brooks King-Casas
97
,
people with borderline personality disorder played a "trust" game involving sending
money and receiving money. They play the game while their brains are scanned by
functional MRI. The fMRI shows areas of activities in parts of the brain during the game.
In this study, in the normal people, a part of the brain showed activity that responded in
direct proportion to the amount of money sent and the money received. However, in
people with borderline personality disorder, that part of the brain responded only to
sending the money, not to the money received. The interpretation in term of the prey-
predator relation is that money represents resource. In a prey-predator relation, a prey
wants to protect its resource by measuring how much resource (money) that it gives away.
It does not expect any resource from a predator. There is no mutuality in the prey-
predator relation. Most of people with borderline personality disorder are women.
The negative yang passive social life is derived from the dehumanized predator
instinct that is the addictive instinct. The corresponding behavior is obsession to do a
very specific task all the time. It involves only task. The task can be an obsessive
professional task for excessive wealth or an obsessive hobby task for excessive adventure.
The role for the yin passive social life is addict. A person with the role of addict
rationalizes the role as specialist. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of
obsession.
The negative yang active social life is derived from the dehumanized predatory
instinct that is the predatory instinct in addition to the additive instinct. The
corresponding behavior is over-controlling of weak subhuman prey. It involves both task
and subhuman prey. The role for the yin active social life is predator to weak subhuman
prey. A person with the role of predator can rationalize the role as master who controls
an inferior person. The mental disorder in the extreme case is psychopath.
People with psychopath are very egocentric individuals with no empathy for
others, and they are incapable of feeling remorse or guilt. Psychopath is a combination of
96
dominant and cold interpersonal characteristics Most of people with psychopath are men.
In an fMRI study by neuroscientist Kent Kichl
98
, a certain part of the brain in criminal
psychopaths showed much less activity in responses to emotional charged words like
blood, sewer, hell, and rape than the normal people. It shows that psychopaths are
relatively insensitive to the cruelty involving human.

5.2.3. The Harmonious Social Life and Society

The yin social lives in general require long social memory of the special features
and behaviors of friends, nurturers, and the one to be nurtured. With the dominative
instinct, the yang social life produces dominance hierarchy. Yin (female) and yang (male)
are distinctively different in the gender dichotomy.
Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important
to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free
cooperation among the members of society. Cooperation is important in survival
strategies as described by Axelrod and Hamilton's evolution of cooperation
99
. To find
different strategies for cooperation, they devised the prisoner's dilemma. The prisoner's
dilemma refers to an imaginary situation in which two individuals are imprisoned and are
accused of having cooperated to perform some crime. The two prisoners are held
separately, and attempts are made to induce each one to implicate the other. If neither one
does, both are set free. This is the cooperative strategy available to both prisoners. In
order to tempt one or both to defect, each is told that a confession implicating the other
will lead to his or her release and, as an added incentive, to a small reward. If both
confess, each one is imprisoned. But if one individual implicated the other and not vice
versa, then the implicated partner receives a harsher sentence than if each had implicated
the other.
Among all strategies, TIT FOR TAT is the best strategy. On the first move
cooperate. On each succeeding move do what your opponent did the previous move.
Thus, TIT FOR TAT was a strategy of cooperation based on reciprocity. From the
further analysis of TIT FOR TAT, four features of TIT FOR TAT emerged:

1. Never be the first to defect: indicate eager cooperate
2. Retaliate only after your partner has defected: important to detect defection
3. Be prepared to forgive after carrying out just one act of retaliation: minimum
social memory
4. Adopt this strategy only if the probability of meeting the same player again
exceeds 2/3: essentially a strategy for a small social group.

A distinctive character in TIT FOR TAT is eager cooperation as in the first
feature above. It always cooperates first. Such eager cooperation has minimum social
memory to forgive the past defection as in the third feature above. Such eager
cooperation generates a large cohesive domain, resulting in the best strategy. However, if
defection has no consequence as in a large group, TIT FOR TAT does not work as in the
fourth feature above. TIT FOR TAT works only in a small group.
In the yin and yang social lives, the high social barrier from long social memory,
dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy excludes eager cooperation in TIT FOR
97
TAT strategy. To carry out TIT FOR TAT strategy, the evolution of human social life
produced two additional new instincts. The two additional new instincts are the hyper
friendly instinct and the detective instinct. The hyper friendly instinct allows human to
cooperate eagerly, while the detective instinct allows human to detect defection. The
combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct brings about the
conscience instinct. The conscience instinct is the base for the harmonious social life.
The following sections describe the hyper friendly instinct, the detective instinct, and the
conscience instinct.
The Harmonious Social Life

Social life HARMONIOUS COOPERATION
Description maximum eager cooperation without lie: harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and
empowerment)
Instinct hyper friendly Detective
Behavior eager cooperation theory of mind
Idealized Self-Image Harmonist

5.2.3.1. Eager Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct

Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important
to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free eager
cooperation among the members of society. To promote eager social cooperation, it is
necessary to minimize such social barrier. One way for the minimization is the hyper
friendly instinct. Through the hyper friendly instinct, the hyper friendly act minimizes
the social barrier. One example of the hyper friendly instinct is the frequent sexual
activities among all members of bonobo social group
100
. The sexual activities can be
between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to
avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes
the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in
sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. Comparing to chimpanzees,
bonobos are much more peaceful and egalitarian because of this hyper friendly instinct.
Another example of the hyper friendly instinct is expressed in very enthusiastic greeting
from dogs. This hyper friendly instinct is inherited from wolfs that form highly
cooperative society. The domestication of dog for thousands years has enhanced the
hyper friendly instinct, resulting in the high cooperation between dog and human.
In human, the hyper friendly instinct is expressed as language. Language as an
instinct was proposed by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker
101
. The verbal
communication minimizes effectively social barrier. Human learns language quickly and
early. The human brain encourages language by rewarding language. For an example,
the extremely hyper friendly people are the people with Williams Syndrome, which has
unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. They have excellent
verbal skills, superior and precocious musical ability, perfect pitch and a good memory
for names and faces. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount
of fear with non-social encounter. The highly developed human language instinct
indicates the highly developed human hyper friendly instinct.

5.2.3.2. Detection – The Detective instinct
98

In the advanced stage of verbal communication, a verbal statement can express an
event occurred elsewhere. Since the event occurs elsewhere, a listener has to determine
if the expressed statement is a truth or a lie. The detective instinct for detecting a lie in a
verbal statement is necessary for the advanced stage of verbal communication. The
detective instinct is for subtle lie instead of conspicuous lie, which can be detected easily
without the new detective instinct. The neural network for the detective instinct is called
the lie detection neural network. The neural network has been described by Hiram
Brownell and Richard Griffin
102
as the neural network for theory of mind. The network
consists of the left brain, the right brain, and the prefrontal cortex as follows.

When a speaker expresses a statement, which describes an event occurred
elsewhere, the statement is registered in the right brain and the left brain. The left brain
has greater cell density and the more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural
messages, so the left brain can have a good copy of the statement consciously from the
speaker. The right brain, in contrast, has more areas of "associative" with more white
myelinated fibers for long distant neural message. In the right brain, instead of the exact
copy, the statement becomes a questionable statement waiting to be verified. The
questionable statement triggers automatically an internal alternative statement that relates
the event occurred elsewhere. The association of the original statement and the
alternative statement can be very weak. In the right brain, the questionable statement and
the alternative statement coexist. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting
statements along with other information to determine the correct statement. The correct
statement is realized by the left brain consciously as the statement 2. The statement 2 can
undergo lie detection again or can become the conclusion.
left brain right brain
statement 1
internal alternative
statement 1
prefrontal cortex
The Lie Detection Neural Network
questionable
statement 1
statement 2
questionable
statement 2
internal alternative
statement 2
repeat or conclusion
prefrontal cortex
expression
99
The reverse of the lie detection neural network is the lie making neural network as
below.

In the lie making network, the statement 1 appears consciously in the left brain.
The statement 1 becomes the changeable statement 1 in the right brain. The changeable
statement in the right brain triggers automatically the internal alternative statement 1.
The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements in the right brain to determine
the appropriate statement, which is realized consciously in the left brain as the statement
2. The statement 2 can undergo another lie making process or be the conclusion. The
conclusion is then expressed.
The lie detection neural network is for a subtle lie, and it is not needed for a
conspicuous lie, which contradicts immediate observable evidences. Equally, a lie
making neural network is for making a subtle lie, and it is not needed for making a
conspicuous lie. Conspicuous lie can be detected and made in the left brain.
The combination of the lie detection neural network and the lie making neural
network brings about theory of mind that a person believes that the other people have the
mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes.
Automatic triggering of alternative statements in the right brain becomes the base
for holistic thinking that requires a broad and non-obvious thinking. Automatic
triggering of alternative statement in the left brain becomes the logical thinking that
requires a narrow sequential thinking. The principle of humor is that subtlety in humor
can be figured out by the right brain, not the left brain. When the subtlety is explained
completely and logically by the left brain, the humor is no longer funny.
Autism and schizophrenia are the two extremes in the detective instinct. Both of
them have problems in bonding with people as indicated by that the people who have
autism and schizophrenia are mostly men. Autism represents the inactive detective
left brain right brain
statement 1
internal alternative
statement 1
prefrontal cortex
The Lie Making Neural Network
changeable
statement 1
statement 2
Changeable
statement 2
internal alternative
statement 2
repeat or conclusion
prefrontal cortex
expression
100
instinct, resulting in the theory of mind impaired
103
. People with schizophrenia have an
overactive detective instinct. The prefrontal cortex is not able to sort out so many
ridiculous alternative statements, so people with schizophrenia also are not capable of
subtle sensible deception. The deficiency in the detective distinct, however, can lead to
the very logical mind, while the excess in the detective distinct can lead to very creative
mind.
5.2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct

Theory of mind derived from the detective instinct is that a person believes that
the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. The
combination of the hyper friendly instinct and theory of mind derived from the detective
instinct brings about the conscience instinct that is the instinct for maximum eager
cooperation without lie that takes advantage of cooperation for selfish reason. People
feel guilty about cooperation with lie, and feel other people should feel guilty about
cooperation with lie. The conscience instinct as the self-regulation of cooperation results
in maximum eager cooperation without lie, leading to harmonious cooperation (mutual
empathy and empowerment). Mutual empathy is love, while mutual empowerment is
diligence. The result is the harmonious social life. The people with the harmonious
social life are harmonists. The society with the harmonious social life is the harmonious
society.
This harmonious social life as the innate goodness was described by Mencius, the
second most important saint in Confucianism.

Mencius said: .... Everyone has the heart of sympathy, everyone has the heart of
knowing shame, everyone has the heart of respect, and everyone has the heart of
knowing right and wrong. The heart of sympathy is a benevolent, the heart of
knowing shame is righteousness, the heart of respect is propriety, and the heart of
knowing right and wrong is wisdom. Benevolent, righteousness, propriety, and
wisdom that are not injected from outside were in us originally. Only we have not
comprehended them. Thus, we can get them through search, and we can lose
them through abandonment....” (Mengzi, chapter: human innate goodness)

Benevolent and propriety come from the hyper friendly instinct of the conscience instinct,
while righteousness and wisdom come from the detective instinct (theory of mind) of the
conscience instinct.
The summary of the social lives is as below.
101


Summary of the Social Lives
Perceived Resource
And Security
Social life Instinct Behavior
abundant deficient
Realistic
Role
Idealized
Self-Image
Positive Yin
Passive
(Amiable)
Bonding kindness √ Friend loyalist
Positive Yin
Active
(Expressive)
Nurturing nurturing √ Nurturer peacemaker
Positive Yang
Passive
(Analytical)
Systemizing discipline √ systemizer idealist
Positive Yang
Active (Driver)
dominative strength √ Leader hero
Negative Yin
Passive
freezing withdrawing √ Prey loner
Negative Yin
Active
manipulative manipulation √ manipulator strategist
Negative Yang
Passive
addictive obsession √ Addict specialist
Negative Yang
Active
predatory over-control √ Predator master
Harmonious conscience initial eager
cooperation
without lie
√ √ harmonist harmonist

The chart for the summary of the relationship between psychology in terms of
personality and social life and social structure is as below.
102

yin passive
social life
(amiable)
the loose
collective
society
the harmonious
society
the tight
individualistic
society
the tight collective
society
the loose
individualistic
society
SOCIAL LIFE
yang active
social life
(driver)
yang passive
social life
(analytical)
SOCIAL STRUCTURES
harmonious
social life
yin active
social life
(expressive)
bonding +
freezing
instincts
conscience instinct =
hyper friendly instinct
+ detective instinct
dominative +
predatory
instincts
nurturing +
manipulative
instincts
systemizing +
addictive
instinct
admission
(sensitivity-
assertiveness)
resolution
(distinctiveness–
network)
socialization
(bonding relation–
free relation)
action
(goal–
context)
openness
(persistence–
updating)
the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing
• yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang
(distinctiveness-free relation-goal = individualistic achievement)
• passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) intragroup interaction
• harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active
PSYCHOLOGY
PERSONALITY
PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the social instincts
103
5.3. Ape Evolution


Human social lives are derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and
hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge.
During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct fully
developed.
Early apes evolved during the Miocene epoch from 25 Ma (million years ago) to 5
Ma. Miocene warming began 21 Ma allowed tropical forests to prevail in Eurasia and
Africa. The early ancestors of apes migrated to Eurasia from Africa about 17 Ma. Apes
evolved in Eurasia. Miocene warming continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures
took a sharp drop. As a result, some apes migrated south into tropical forests in Africa. By
8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. Consequently, apes became extinct except
in tropical forests in Southeast Asia and Africa. In Africa, the climate got even cooler and
dryer and the forest patches shrank. By the end of the Miocene, East Africa had become
mostly open grassland. About 2 Ma, a significant drying occurred in Africa.
Cooling and drying cause the change in the density and type of trees in forest and the
changes from forest to woodland, grassland, and desert. The difference between woodland
and dense forest is in the canopy. Forest trees are tall and dense enough to hide most of the
sky, while woodland trees are sparse enough for the sky to be visible and grass and brush to
grow on the ground. Grassland has tall grass with few trees. Eventually, tropical forests are
limited to a tight band around the equator. The original apes were arboreal animals in dense
forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provided both food resource and
security. Different apes evolved to adapt to the changes in environments.
The family Hominidae (great apes) includes five apes: orangutans, bonobos,
gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. The most recent common ancestor of the Hominidae
lived some 13 Ma, when the ancestors of the orangutans by the analysis of DNA diverged
from the ancestors of the other four apes, which are in the subfamily Homininae. About
7 Ma, the ancestors of gorillas diverged from the ancestors of the three other apes, which
are in the tribe Hominin. About 6 Ma, the ancestors of humans diverged from the other
two apes, which are in the genus Pan. About 2 Ma, bonobos and chimpanzees diverged.
The divergences in DNA coincide with the significant changes in climate.

5.3.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape

The original great ape existed before 13 Ma, when the warm and wet climate
allowed tropical forest to prevail in Eurasia. It was the orangutan-like common ancestor
with the best food resource and security from dense forest. The orangutan-like common
ancestor did not migrate to Africa. Apes evolved a new way of moving around in the trees –
brachiation that is arm-over-arm swinging from one branch to another. Brachiation evolved
as a way to get at fruits that were at the very tips of branches. This allows apes to get at
104
fruits that a monkey cannot reach. Apes have larger brains than monkeys. Gestural
communication is virtually limited to great apes.
As the orangutan-like common ancestor, current orangutan is the solitary ape that
has the loose social structure without the need of the support of tight social group. They are
currently found only in rainforests on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Orangutan is the
largest arboreal animals in forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provides
both food resource and security. Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes,
spending nearly all of their time in the trees. Every night they fashion sleeping nests from
branches and foliage. They are more solitary than other apes; males and females generally
come together only to mate. There is significant sexual dimorphism. Orangutans primarily
eat fruit.

5.3.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape

The Miocene warming began 21 Ma and continued until 14 Ma, when global
temperatures took a sharp drop. About 13 Ma, the slight decrease in of tree-density in
forest by climate change caused the first split from the orangutan-like common ancestor to
produce the bonobo-like common ancestor with the second best food resource and security.
It was necessary to have the support of social group for the procurement of food and for
protection in this environment. With the support of social group, food and security posted
no serious problems without the strong need to fight for food in a social group. As a result,
as the bonobo-like common ancestor, bonobo is the peacemaking ape that has the matriarch
collective society for collective wellbeing. Bonobos are now found in the wild only in the
dense tropical forest south of the Congo River. Genetically modern bonobo is exactly as
close to modern human as modern chimpanzee.
For peacemaking, bonobo has “hyper friendliness” as shown in the frequent sexual
activities among all members of bonobo social group
104
. The sexual activities can be
between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to
avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes
the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in
sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. On the other hand, De
Waal pointed out that 'sex for peace' precisely because bonobos have plenty of conflicts.
There would obviously be no need for peacemaking if they lived in perfect harmony.
Bonobo walks upright approximately 25% of the time during ground locomotion. At
the time of the split, its quadrupedal ground locomotion was orangutan-like forelimb fist or
palm walking instead of the predominant use of knuckles developed later as characteristic of
gorillas and the chimpanzees. Like human, bonobo has relatively small canines. These
physical characteristics and its posture, give bonobo an appearance more closely resembling
humans than that of chimpanzee.

5.3.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape

By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. The further decrease in tree-
density in some forests by further temperature drop caused the second split from the
bonobo-like common ancestor to produce gorilla in diverse forests in about 7 Ma. In some
regions in Africa, dense forest turned into diverse forest with various tree-densities. Gorilla
is the loyal ape that has the patriarch collective society for collective wellbeing with strong
loyalty to the dominatingly large male leader for protection.
105
Gorillas are the largest of the living primates. Instead of relying trees for protection,
gorillas rely on their physical sizes for protection. Relying on physical size for protection
was adaptable to diverse forests with various tree-densities. Large gorillas could not climb
trees easily, so gorillas were ground-dwelling. Gorillas move around by knuckle-walking.
Gorillas are shy and peaceful vegetarians. Diverging from the bonobo-like common
ancestors, early gorillas ancestors were basically the dominatingly large bonobos. Gorillas
today live in tropical or subtropical forests in different parts of Africa.
In social group, a silverback is the strong, dominant troop leader. He typically leads
a troop (group size ranges from 5 to 30) and is in the center of the troop's attention, making
all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the
others to feeding sites and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop.
All members of a social group are loyal to the dominatingly large silverback.

5.3.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape

The progressive drying and cooling turned parts of forests in Africa into woodlands.
The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the bonobo-like common ancestor
to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free hands for the improvement in
gestural communication to survive in hospitable woodland. Early human ancestors were
basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable
woodland. Free hands from bipedalism allowed continuous gestural communication
during walking. The improvement in communication led eventually to the harmonious
society. Human was the harmonious ape.
Ardi (Ardipithecus ramidus)
105
, the oldest human skeleton discovered, lived in
4.4 Ma. Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc. Ardi’s
feet had a stout opposable big toe for climbing trees. She lived in grassy woodland with
patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. Woodland allowed increasingly amount of
food from bushes and low branches, which could be seen and reached from the ground.
Chimpanzees today move on two legs most often when feeding on the ground from
bushes and low branches. In the same way, feeding on fruits from bushes and low
branches, Ardi moved on two legs often. When chimpanzees today are under duress from
a poor fruit season, they break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment
more thoroughly. In the same way, Ardi and the members of her social group fanned out
to find food. Individuals could communicate with one another by vocal/gestural
communication. Bipedal Ardi’s free hands allowed individuals from the searching group
to communicate continuously and precisely during walking. (Without bipedalism, apes
cannot walk and do gestural communication at the same time continuously.) Such
effective coordination by vocal/gestural communication allowed them to find food
efficiently. The effective coordination also allowed them effectively escaping from
predators.
They climbed trees mostly at night, for high branch fruits, and for safety. The
tree-density was high enough, so they had easy access to trees to escape from predators,
and did not need the rapid movement of quadrupedal locomotion, such as knuckle
walking, to escape from predators. This initial woodland habitat was quite hospitable for
early bipedal hominid. Bipedalism might possibly happen in a number of locations with
similar hospitable woodland environment. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal
bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland.
106
Gorillas did not develop bipedalism, because instead of searching for high quality
food, such as fruits, gorillas today eat abundant low quality foods such as leaves, when
high quality is not readily available. Gorillas today do not break up into smaller foraging
units that scour the environment more thoroughly. As seen later, chimpanzees did not
develop bipedalism, because they needed knuckle walking to escape from predators and
for the large foraging ranges in inhospitable woodland as the initial habitat. In
inhospitable woodland, bipedal walking initially was not fast enough to escape from
predators, and initially was not efficient enough for the large foraging ranges to survive.
The continuous gestural communication allowed improved explanation gestural
communication for improving mutual understanding and the improved cooperative
gestural communication for establishing elaborate social rules. The improvement in
communication reduced conflicts by the improvement of understanding among them and
the establishment of some elaborate social rules.
The primitive gestural communication emerged first involved the primitive natural
gestures of pointing and pantomiming. Such primitive gestural communication did not
require the large expansion of the brain. What robust vocal/facial/gestural
communication needed was pleasure connecting with vocal/facial/gestural
communication. For bonobos, hyper friendliness for peacemaking is expressed by causal
sexual contact that gives them pleasure. Unlike other apes, humans, including babies,
enjoy gestural/facial/vocal communication, such as dancing, singing, and talking. The
pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication of early human ancestors gradually
replaced pleasurable casual sexual contact of the bonobo-like common ancestors as
pleasurable way to bond with one another. By the time of Ardi, pleasurable causal sexual
contact disappeared, and replaced by pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication.
Instead of group sex for peacemaking, human ancestors, like Ardi, had group dancing and
group singing for peacemaking. The disappearance of casual sexual contact allowed
human ancestors to develop monogamy for pair bonding. Communication became not
only useful but also pleasurable. Communication became frequent. Communication
became sharing information both related and unrelated physical needs. The human
ancestors, like Ardi, evolved from the merely peacemaking bonobo-like common
ancestors to the harmonious hominids as shown in the absence of large sharp canine teeth
(fangs) for fighting. Other apes, particularly males, have thick, projecting, sharp canines
that they use for displays of aggression and as weapons to defend themselves. Such
harmonious coherent social group improved its ability to find and collect food and to fend
off predators, resulting in improved chance for survival in woodland.
The human ancestors inherited good gestural communication from the bonobo-
like common ancestors as shown by Amy Pollick and Frans de Waal in “Ape Gestures
and Language Evolution”
106
. Gestural communication is virtually limited to the
Hominoidea (great apes). Chimpanzees beg other chimpanzees for food by approaching
them with open hands. Gestures seem less closely tied to specific emotions, hence they
permit greater cortical control than other forms of communication. They compared
bonobos and chimpanzees. They found that facial/vocal displays were used very
similarly by both ape species, but bonobos showed greater flexibility in gestural
communication than chimpanzees and were also the only species in which multimodal
communication (i.e., combinations of gestures and facial/vocal signals) added to
behavioral impact on the recipient. The bonobos' variable gestural repertoire and high
107
responsiveness to combinatorial signaling indicate that the human ancestors came from
the bonobo-like common ancestors. The development of free hands for the improvement
of gestural communication was a natural extension of the gestural communication from
the bonobo-like common ancestors.
The connection between human communication and human cooperative
infrastructure is shown by Michael Tomasello in “Origins of Human Communication”
107

Tomasello proposes that the most fundamental aspects of uniquely human
communication are biological adaptations for cooperative social interaction. The
cooperative infrastructure in human hominid ancestors was inherited from the bonobo-
like common ancestors who were the peacemaking apes. Gestural communication by
free hands from bipedalism improved greatly such cooperative infrastructure. No other
animals develop such human-like communication.
Gestural communication served as a stepping stone for the evolution of human
symbolic communication. Gesture production in humans is so automatic that it is
relatively immune to audience effects: blind subjects gesture at equal rates as sighted
subjects to a known blind audience. Gestural communication as gestural language is the
predecessor of spoken language
108
. The generally right-handed dominant hominid caused
the development of the gestural language area (Broca’s area) in the left-brain that eventually
developed into the part for the spoken language later. In the study by Hickok, Bellugi and
Klima
109
, the impairment for sign language patients was identical with that of speaking
patients. At the hemispheric level the neural organization of sign language is
indistinguishable from that of spoken language.

5.3.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape

Near the central Africa about 2 million years ago, the inhospitable woodland from
the further decrease in tree-density caused the fourth split from the bonobo-like common
ancestor to produce chimpanzee. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that has the patriarch
individualistic society with individual and group aggression to survive in inhospitable
woodland. The initial tree-density in the initial habitat of chimpanzees was the lowest
among the five apes.
Anatomical differences between chimpanzee and bonobo are slight, but in sexual
and social behaviors there are marked differences. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests
with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland
savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day
for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2
miles a day. Individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees became the mean to
survive in such inhospitable woodland. Chimpanzees cannot abandon quadrupedal
locomotion and its speed advantages because of their large foraging ranges and
susceptibility to predation. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early
chimpanzee ancestors were basically the aggressive bonobos whose habitat changed from
hospitable forest to inhospitable woodland.
Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society with the competitive
hierarchy. Primatologist Frans de Waal described male chimpanzees in Chimpanzee
Politics
110
. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. A leader is under constant
challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance
and ganged up against the leader. In the wild, male chimpanzees are extraordinarily
108
hostile to males from outside of the social group. Male patrolling chimpanzees attack and
often kill the neighboring male chimpanzee outsider who might be traveling alone. On
the contrary, bonobo males or females prefer sexual contact over violent confrontation
with outsiders.
In summary, the decrease of tree-density of dense forest in Africa by climate
change generated the environments for ape evolution. The decrease of tree-density
decreased food resource and security for apes. The orangutan-like common ancestors
had the best food resource and security in dense forest. The bonobo-like common
ancestors compensated the decreased food resource and security from the decreased tree-
density with the support of the peacemaking social group. Gorilla compensated the
further decreased food resource and security by following dominatingly large male leader
for protection. Humans compensated the further decreased food resource and security
with improved gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism. Chimpanzees
compensated the further decreased food resource and security with individual and group
aggression of male chimpanzees. Each species of apes made its initial niche divergence
from the previous species to fit its initial environment. Each species stays the same,
continues to evolve, diverges, or becomes extinct in the subsequent environment.
The diagram and the table of ape evolution and social structures are listed below.















Ape Evolution

History Initial Habitat
(1 = best food resource and
security)
Characteristic Social Structure
Orangutan the original ape
(> 13 Ma)
dense forest/tree
(1)
the solitary ape loose society
Bonobo the first split
( 13 Ma)
dense forest/tree
(2)
the peacemaking
ape
matriarch collective
society
Gorilla the second split
( 7 Ma)
diverse forest/ground
(3)
the loyal ape patriarch collective
society
Human the third split (6
Ma)
hospitable woodland/ground
(4)
the harmonious
ape
harmonious society
Chimpanzee the fourth split
(2 Ma)
Inhospitable woodland/tree
(5)
the aggressive ape patriarch
individualistic society

bonobo (matriarch collective society) chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society)
Ape Evolution and Social Structures
human (harmonious society)
bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch collective)
gorilla (patriarch collective society)
7 Ma

6 Ma

2 Ma

orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society)
orangutan (loose society)
13 million years ago (Ma)
Family Hominidae
Subfamily Homininae
Tribe Hominin
Genus Pan
109
5.4. Hominid Evolution

Human social lives are derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and
hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge.
During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was
fully developed.
Human is Homo sapiens, which is the only non-extinct species of hominids.
Hominid evolution started from woodland in Africa. From 6 Ma to 2 Ma, the drier and
cooler climate progressed slowly. By around 6 Ma to 2 Ma in Africa, an apelike species
had evolved with two important traits that distinguished it from apes: (1) bipedalism and (2)
small canine teeth.
The two most complete skeletons for early hominids are Ardi and Lucy
(Australopithecus afarensis)
111
. Ardi (45% complete skeleton) is estimated to be 4.4
million years ago. (Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc.)
She lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. The
further decrease in temperature and rain decreased food resource and security as shown in
Lucy (40% complete skeleton) in 3.2 million years ago. (The brain size is 450-530cc.)
The environmental pressure led to the small expansion of the brain as shown in the larger
brain in Lucy than in Ardi.
After about 2.8 Ma, in East Africa east of the African Rift System, the
environment pressure came from the climate fluctuation and significant drying. During
this period, parts of forest and woodland turned to grassland. Without the protection of
forest, the bipedal hominid in the open grassland faced predators from both large dangerous
animals
112
and intense inter-group competition. The climate fluctuation and open
grassland forced hominids to evolve quickly in terms of the brain size to thrive in diverse
environments including forests, woodlands, and grassland savannas. It involved the
usage of tools and the emergence of the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society
based on the conscience instinct as the combination of hyper friendliness and theory of
mind for social cooperation. The usage of tools and the highly efficient cooperative
harmonious society allowed human to thrive in diverse environments.
With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands that allowed the potential
for many usages. For the Australopithecines, the usage is gestural language to improve
communication for survival as discussed previously. The brain size was only slightly larger
than other apes.
In the next 2 million years, the Australopithecine evolved into the Homo with larger
brain than its predecessor. The next most significant gradual change of hominid evolution is
the conversion of free hands into manipulative hands with precision grip resulting in the
acquisition of tool-use and making. The most primitive stone tool-use hominid family is
Homo habilis in about 2.2-1.6 Ma. (The brain size is 750-850cc.) Because tool-use and
making required thinking and precision manipulation, the competitive advantage of the tool-
use and making resulted in the rapid expansion of the brain for tool-use and making. The
use of tools allowed hominids to hunt and butcher animals which provided the nutrients for
the brain.
Eventually, (1.9-0.1 Ma), Homo erectus had not only perfected stone tools
considerably but had also learned how to control and use fire. (Homo habilis and Homo
erectus coexisted. The brain size is 1000-1250 cc.) The hearth for fire and the gathering for
cooperative tool manufacture promoted the development of social organization. The
110
competitive advantage of social organization resulted in the rapid development of spoken
language to aid gestural language in the same area of the brain. The bone structures of
Homo erectus showed signs for commanding speech. For speech, Homo erectus had a
larynx with an equivalent position to that of an 8-year-old modern child
113
. Both brain-size
and the presence of the Broca's area also support the use of articulate language
114
.
The competitive advantage of the spoken language led to theory of mind as
mentioned before. Ardi already had vocal/facial/gestural communication as hyper
friendliness. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind from theory of mind
led to the conscience instinct that is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The social life
is the harmonious social life in the harmonious society. Homo erectus was probably the first
hominid to live in small, familiar band-societies similar to modern hunter-gatherer band-
societies
115
.
Language alone cannot solve all social conflicts to achieve maximum eager
cooperation without lie, so it is necessary to control social conflicts by will. The social
behaviors were still affected greatly by the instincts from the old non-harmonious social
lives that hinder frequently maximum eager cooperation without lie. The competitive
advantage of the harmonious society (TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best strategy) resulted
in the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. As the
brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in
size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the
brain than any other animal. Adult humans with injure in the prefrontal cortex know what
to do for socialization, but do not have the will to do for socialization. Therefore, the
conscience instinct can be divided into the conscience intelligence for the knowledge of
socialization and the conscience will to control the non-harmonious instincts to achieve
maximum eager cooperation without lie. A large part of the prefrontal cortex is for the
conscience will connecting emotion and instinct areas in the brain.
The competitive advantage of the harmonious society filtered out the less
harmonious people and social groups (trouble makers) who were marginalized or forced
to move out of the harmonious society. The remaining people with the harmonious social
life continued to evolve into even more harmonious social life, and the less harmonious
people and groups continued to be marginalized or move out. The technological and
social
116
selections generated the unusually fast evolution of the hominid brain.
Eventually, the most technologically advanced and harmonious hominid, Homo sapiens,
emerged in Africa where the harmonious society originated. This social movement
follows exactly the outcome for the TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best strategy to defeat
all other strategies. The earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia were dated to be about
200,000 years old. (The brain size is 1,350 cc.) The brain of Homo sapiens reaches the
maximum efficiency in terms of size and complexity. Any additional size and
complexity to achieve higher harmonious social life are counter-productive
117
, so Homo
sapiens have the maximum harmonious social life rather than the ideal harmonious social
life.
The genetic psychological reinforcement of the harmonious social life is achieved
by both the positive good feeling in practicing the harmonious social life and the negative
bad feeling in violating conscience for the harmonious social life. For the detection
instinct in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in lying is the
negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves people
111
toward honesty. For hyper friendliness in conscience, the automatic emergence of
miserable feeling in loneliness steers people toward social connection. Psychologist John
Cacippo
118
finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or
obesity. Since conscience involves significantly the prefrontal cortex, loneliness impairs
the performance of the prefrontal cortex, such as in logical reasoning
119
. Such harmful
and miserable effect of loneliness indicates the strong preference of social connection
through the harmonious cooperation in a social group for our primitive ancestors.
In summary, walking hands turned into free hands by bipedalism. Free hands
allowed improved gestural language that became the expression of hyper friendliness.
Such evolution took place in woodland without the requirement of additional brain
expansion for intelligence. In the highly impoverished and insecure open grassland, the
brain started to expand as free hands evolved into manipulative hands to make improved
tools. The appearance of very useful spoken language greatly accelerated the expansion
of the brain. The spoken language became the expression of theory of mind as theory of
mind that exists only in human. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of
mind resulted in the conscience instinct. The enhanced conscience instinct came from the
expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. Hominid
evolution is the evolution of the conscience instinct. Hominid evolution as the evolution
of the conscience instinct is as follows.

























The prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximized eager for the
prehistoric primitive hunters and gatherers, social connection through the harmonious
bipedalism
speech for theory of mind (Homo erectus 1.9-0.1 Ma)

hyper friendliness theory of mind (detective instinct)
conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex
enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens <0.2 Ma)
Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct
walking hands (bonobo-like common ancestor)
free hands for gestural language as hyper friendliness
(non-Homo hominids 6-1 Ma)
conscience intelligence conscience will
manipulative hands for tool (Homo habilis 2.2-1.6 Ma)


112
human relation instead of the accumulation of wealth, fame, pleasure, organization, and
power was essential for human survival.
The harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximum eager cooperation without
lie is egalitarian, democratic, and peaceful. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches
taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Each person lived adequately.
Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society may
be similar to the modern Bushman in African’s Kalahari Desert as described by Marshall
Sahlins’ “The Original Affluent Society”
120
. The hunter-gatherer society in small groups
(band about 20-35 people) adjusts its daily needs and desires with what is available to
them. The period between childbirths is four to five years by the long prolonged
lactation, so the population growth is very slow. Available food is actually fairly
adequate for their modest need without population pressure. Without material
accumulation, they work only for daily needs, so only the able-bodied work no more than
19 hours only a week, and 40% of people do not need to work. Without clear property
lines, they welcome all visitors. They do not have to permanently stay in one social
group.
A great deal of evidence suggests that the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was
much less war-like than later peoples. Archaeological studies throughout the world have
found hardly any evidence of warfare the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Many of
the world’s cultures have myths that refer to an earlier time when life was the balance
way of social life. In classical Greece and Rome this was known as the Golden Age; in
China it was the Age of Perfect Virtue, in India it was the Krita Yuga (Perfect Age),
while the Judeo-Christian tradition has the story of the Garden of Eden
121
.
The harmonious social life is the origin of the uniquely human social life. The
harmonious prehistoric society was based on the conscience instinct without external
artificial rules, identities, and desires for wealth. For Judaism, Islam, and Christianity,
the harmonious social life is the human original life created by God in the image of God.

So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male
and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27)

The harmonious social life is based on conscience for all people as described by
Paul in the Bible.

Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by
the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law,
since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their
consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even
defending them. (Romans 2:14-15)

The goal of this command is love, which comes from a pure heart and a good
conscience and a sincere faith. (1 Timothy 1:5)

For Zen Buddhism, the harmonious social life as the original human social life is
the Buddha nature that all people have in them. Everyone can achieve the Buddha nature.
As mentioned before, Mencius, a great Confucian teacher, described the human innate
113
goodness. He believed everyone could be Yao and Yu (the Chinese ancient mystic saint-
emperors).
The imitation of the prehistoric harmonious society was described by Laozi, a
founder of Daoism, as a small state with few people.

Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use
them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they
might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have
weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for
their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as
beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs.
Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs
might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings
and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80)

For Laozi, there are two different ways, the Way (Dao) and the civilized way.
The Way was practiced by the prehistoric harmonious society based on the harmonious
social life with the conscience instinct. The civilized way is practiced by the civilized
society based on the non-harmonious lives with external artificial rules, identities
(names), and desires for wealth. The two different ways are described in the first chapter
of Dao De Jing.

The way can be spoken of is not the constant Way; the name can be named is not
the constant Name. The nameless is the beginning of all things; the name is the
mother of all things. Therefore, the one without constant desire will perceive its
subtleties; the one with constant desire will perceive its boundaries. These two
are the same in source but different in name. Both of them are called the mystery.
It is the mystery of mysteries. It is the gateway to all subtleties. (Dao De Jing:
Chapter 1)

In the Chapter I of Dao De Jing, the Way (the harmonious social life) includes the
constant Way, the constant Name, the nameless, and the one without constant desire. The
civilized way (the non-harmonious lives) includes the way, the name, the name, and the
one with constant desire. The Way and the civilized way come from the same source in
the mysterious and subtle human mind.

5.5. The Interaction of the Social Lives

In Dao De Jing, the Way (Dao) means the harmonious social life as in Chapter 1
of Dao De Jing. The Way means also the social life structure as the source of all
societies as in Chapter 42 of Dao De Jing.

The Way gives birth to one, one gives birth to two, two give birth to three, and
three give birth to all things. All things carry yin on back and hug yang in front.
The forces collide to become harmony. (Chapter 42 Dao De Jing)

114
In terms of the Way as the social life structure,

The social life structure started with the one-branch social life structure as the
asexual social life structure, the one-branch social life structure evolved to
become the two-branch social life structure as the yin (female)-yang (male) social
life structure, the two-branch social structure evolved to become the three-branch
social life structure as the yin-yang-harmony social life structure, and the three-
branch social life structure generates all human societies. All human societies
have yin and yang in opposition, and these two combine into harmony. (an
interpretation of Chapter 42 Dao De Jing)

Chapter 42 of Dao De Jing describes the evolution of the human social life structure. The
three-branch social life structure is the natural social life structure for human societies.

5.5.1. The Properties of the Social Lives

Life has many parts. Each specific part has specific fitness and disorder. Fitness
enhances life, and disorder enhances demise. The instinctive response to fitness that
enhances life is happiness to continue the fitness. Disorder that enhances demise is the
loss of the function of certain adaptable life part. The instinctive response to disorder is
suffering to prompt attention to disorder, so disorder can be dealt with urgently. For an
example, a woman who has a good digest system enjoys digesting food. When the damage
in her digest system induces the loss of the function of her digest system, she instinctively
suffers from pain that prompts attention to the damage in her digest system, so she can deal
with the damage urgently. The healing of suffering is the adoption of fitness to replace
disorder. The healthy life allows all parts of life working together constructively rather than
destructively.
Social-life fitness enhances social life, and social-life disorder enhances social-life
demise. The instinctive response to social-life fitness that enhances social life is social-life
happiness to continue the pursuit of social-life fitness. The instinctive response to social-life
disorder that enhances social-life demise is social-life suffering to prompt attention to social-
life disorder, so individuals can deal with social-life disorder urgently. Social-life sin is the
action of social-life disorder. The healthy social life allows all three of social lives working
together constructively rather than destructively.
The social-life fitness for feminine social life is typically collective wellbeing for the
feminine task of upbringing of offspring, and social-life disorder is injustice, which
enhances the social-life demise of feminine social life. Feminine social life is the yin
(collective) social life. The response to injustice is the suffering of alienation. The action of
injustice is injustice sin that causes alienation. The fundamental social unit is collective
social group. A person who has the collective social life is a collective lifer. For an
example, a woman who is a collective lifer enjoys collective wellbeing. When injustice
induces the loss of her collective wellbeing, she suffers instinctively from alienation that
prompt attention to the injustice, so she can deal with the injustice immediately. When she
induces injustice, she commits injustice sin that causes alienation.
The social-life fitness for masculine social life is typically individualistic
achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate, and social-life disorder is
115
repression, which enhances the social-life demise of masculine social life. Masculine social
life is the yang (individualistic) social life. The response to repression is unfulfillment.
The action of repression is repression sin that causes unfulfillment. The fundamental social
unit is individual. A person who has the individualistic social life is an individualistic lifer.
For an example, a man who is an individualistic lifer enjoys individualistic achievement.
When repression induces his loss of individualistic achievement, he suffers instinctively
from unfulfillment that prompts attention to the repression, so he can deals with the
repression urgently. When he induces repression, he commits repression sin that causes
unfulfillment.
The unique human evolution produces harmonious cooperation as the harmonious
fitness that transcends the feminine fitness and the masculine fitness, produces highly
productive cooperation among all individuals, and works in small social group only. The
fundamental social unit is the one-to-one relation without collective social unit and
individuality, so it works only in a small social group. The social life is the harmonious
social life. Social-life disorder is disharmony, which enhances the social-life demise of the
harmonious social life. The response to disharmony is loneliness (disconnection). The
action of disharmony is disharmony sin that causes the social-life suffering of loneliness
(disconnection). A person who has the harmonious social life is a harmonious lifer. For an
example, a man who is a harmonious lifer enjoys harmonious cooperation. When
disharmony induces the loss of his harmonious cooperation, he suffers instinctively from
disconnection that prompts attention to the disharmony, so he can deal with the disharmony
urgently. When he induces disharmony, he commits disharmony sin that causes
disconnection.
The Social-Life Structural Theory

Yin (Collective) Social
Life
Yang (Individualistic) Social
Life
Harmonious Social
Life
Symbol
Social-life fitness collective wellbeing

individualistic achievement harmonious
cooperation
Social-life disorder injustice

repression

disharmony

Sin injustice repression disharmony
Suffering alienation unfulfillment loneliness
(disconnection)
Fundamental Social
Unit
collective social group individual one-to-one relation
Lifer (Person) collective individualistic harmonious
Society Collective individualistic harmonious

Different social lives have different rules, so social-life sin as the violation of
rules from a different society is inevitable. To all pigs, eating pork is a sin, and to most
humans, eating pork is not a sin. The human society has different social lives (collective,
individualistic, and harmonious social lives) which have different rules, so social-life sins
are inevitable. The severity of social-life sins decreases with decreasing separation and
polarization among social lives.

5.5.2. The Enforcement of the Social Life
116

Healthy society and individual in terms of social life enforce the adoption of social-life
fitness and the avoidance of social-life disorder. The enforcement originates from the
memories of happiness and suffering, social reward and punishment, and faith.
The memory of social-life happiness enforces the adoption of fitness, while the
memory of social-life suffering enforces the avoidance of disorder. The process can be
manifested by the memories of extreme social-life suffering and happiness.
The memory of extreme social-life suffering leads to posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD), involving painful persistent re-experience of traumatic suffering, such as extreme
alienation, repression, and disconnection. The extreme sufferings of alienation,
unfulfillment, and disconnection are the sudden extreme damages to collective wellbeing,
individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, by death or violence.
The re-experience is triggered by a similar experience to make the memory of the original
painful traumatic experience even more painful. The re-experiencing traumatic
experiencing brings about extreme avoidance and hyper-sensitivity. In PTSD, the re-
experience of extreme suffering greatly damages the ability for normal life. The memory of
normal social-life suffering enforces the avoidance of social-life disorder without damaging
the ability for normal life.
The memory of extreme social-life happiness brings about post peak experience
fitness (PPEF), involving happy persistent re-experiencing of social-life happiness, such as
extreme collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation.
Peak experiences are described by American psychologist and philosopher Abraham H.
Maslow
122
as especially joyous and exciting moments in life, involving sudden feelings of
intense happiness and well-being, wonder, and awe. The peak experience of collective
wellbeing is the happiness for sudden extraordinary wellbeing in social togetherness. The
peak experience of individualistic achievement is the happiness for sudden extraordinary
individualistic achievement far above ordinary individualistic achievement. The peak
experience of harmonious cooperation is the social happiness for sudden extraordinary
mutual empathy and empowerment or the personal happiness for the sudden extraordinary
sense of unity without self. The re-experience is triggered by a similar experience to make
the memory of the happy original peak experience even happier. In PPEF, the re-experience
of peak experience enforces the active participation and the confidence in social-life fitness.
The memories of many experiences of normal social-life happiness can also enforce the
active participation and the confidence in social-life fitness.
Society rewards fitness as virtue, and punishes disorder as sin. The collective
society rewards collective wellbeing, and punishes injustice as sin. The individualistic
society rewards individualistic achievement as virtue, and punish repression as sin. The
harmonious society rewards harmonious cooperation as virtue, and punishes disharmony as
sin.
As soon as a specific social life is established by the combination of memory and
social enforcement, the faith in the social life can continue the enforcement even without the
successful social life. Since social life enhanced by fitness is often interrupted, the faith in a
specific social life is important to continue the social life.

5.5.3. The Interaction of the Social Lives

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The interactions among the social lives result in the unified multi-social life society
and the single-social life society. A peaceful unified multi-social life society consisting of
the collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives has the balanced social life. In
the balanced social life, collective wellbeing is not violated severely by individualistic
achievement and harmonious cooperation, individualistic achievement is not repressed
severely by collective wellbeing and harmonious cooperation, and harmonious cooperation
is not disharmonized severely by collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement.
To have a balanced social life, a peaceful society must have a continuous checks and
balances process, so all social lives have acceptable existences. An unbalanced multi-social
life society does not have good checks and balances process to find acceptable existences for
all social lives. For an example, in traditional marriage, husband is responsible for the
individualistic life for individualistic achievement to achieve social status and wealth, while
wife is responsible for the collective wellbeing of family. In a balanced marriage, the
individualistic achievement by husband is not repressed by the collective wellbeing by wife,
while the collective wellbeing by wife is not violated by the individualistic achievement by
husband. A balanced marriage requires continuous checks and balances, so both collective
life and individualistic life have acceptable existences in marriage. In an unbalanced family,
the individualistic achievement by husband is repressed by the collective wellbeing by wife,
and/or the collective wellbeing by wife is violated by the individualistic achievement by
husband. An unbalanced marriage does not have good checks and balances process to find
acceptable existences for both collective life and individualistic life. A balanced marriage
has good checks and balances to work out acceptable effort, time, and risk for collective
wellbeing and individualistic achievement, while an unbalanced marriage does not have
good checks and balances. In dysfunctional marriage, one or both of the social lives are
dysfunctional.
A single-social life society has one complete social life. In the complete social life,
dominant collective wellbeing represses individualistic achievement and disharmonizes
harmonious cooperation, dominant individualistic achievement violates collective wellbeing
and disharmonizes harmonious cooperation, and dominant harmonious cooperation violates
collective wellbeing and represses individualistic achievement.
For examples, a purely socialistic society represents the complete collective life.
Dominant collective wellbeing requires equality that represses unequal individualistic
achievement. Dominant collective wellbeing also requires justice system that violates one-
to-one personal relation in harmonious cooperation. A purely capitalistic society represents
the complete individualistic life. Dominant individualistic achievement comes with
dominant individualistic underachievement that violates collective wellbeing. It also
disharmonizes one-to-one relation in harmonious cooperation. A religious monastery
represents the complete harmonious life. Dominant harmonious cooperation for one-to-one
relation precedes inflexible collective social unit and individuality. Therefore, dominant
harmonious cooperation violates collective wellbeing and represses individualistic
achievement.
A person who joins a purely single-social life society must choose the social
happiness of the complete social life and the social-life sufferings of the other social lives.
The conversion remains unchanged as long as the happiness is greater than the sufferings.
A converted collective lifer chooses the social happiness of collective wellbeing and the
social-life sufferings of unfulfillment and disconnection. A converted individualistic lifer
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chooses the social happiness of individualistic achievement and the social-life sufferings of
alienation and disconnection. A converted harmonious lifer chooses the social happiness of
harmonious cooperation and the social-life sufferings of alienation and unfulfillment.
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6. The Prehistoric Kingdom of God

In the Bible, God created humans twice. The first time is in Chapter 1 of Genesis.
“So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and
female he created them. (Genesis 1:27)” The second time is in Chapter 2 of Genesis.
“The LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his
nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. Now the LORD God had
planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. (Genesis 2:
7-8)” The original humans that God created were the original humans. The way God
created the original human was like the way God created everything else. In the second
time, the way that God created humans was special. God directly interacted with the
human by breathing nostrils the breath of life, and placed the human in the Garden of
Eden. The original humans became the religious humans.
The last chapter deals with the original humans in the band (small group) society,
and this chapter deals with the religious humans in the religious band society. The
interaction between God and humans involves supernatural selection. In supernatural
selection, the supernatural selects the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through
the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the
supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the divine revelation of
the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind).
During the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural revealed the abstract bond for
bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment in the prehistoric
hunter-gatherer society. As a result, the prehistoric kingdom of God was formed.

6.1. Supernatural Selection

Human as a species evolves through natural selection. The kingdom of God
evolves through supernatural selection. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects
human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen social life, and the
harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-
representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the harmonious
society to survive by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of
the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract
morality, and the abstract rebirth.
In the different human societies in need, the supernatural has appeared in different
functions to preserve the harmonious society and the harmonious social life. For about
160,000 years, when the harmonious society and the harmonious social life prevailed, the
supernatural did not appear explicitly and directly in the human society. In the harsh
environment of the Upper Paleolithic Period about 40,000 years ago, the supernatural
became the supernatural bonder for the abstract bond bonding the isolated social groups
to survive the harsh environment. The abstract bond results in the prehistoric kingdom of
God as the Garden of Eden and Symbolic Religion. For the immoral yin-yang civilized
society, the supernatural became the supernatural authority for the abstract morality to
prevent the destructive dehumanized prey-predator instincts. The abstract morality leads
to the early transitional kingdom of God and moral religions. For the civilized people,
the supernatural also became the supernatural liberator for the abstract rebirth to return to
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the harmonious social life. The abstract rebirth brings about the early kingdom of God
and the harmonious religions.

Supernatural
Symbol
Abstractness Kingdom of God Religions
supernatural
bonder
abstract bond the prehistoric kingdom
of God
Symbolic Religion (female figurines
and cave paintings)
supernatural
authority
abstract
morality
the early transitional
kingdom of God
moral religions (Hinduism, Judaism,
Confucianism, and Islam)
supernatural
liberator
abstract rebirth the early kingdom of
God
harmonious religions (Buddhism,
Daoism, and Christianity)

The abstractness will be discussed in details later.
The human brain is uniquely equipped to accept the abstractness from the
supernatural. The three reasons are that the human brain is capable of theory of mind,
autobiographic self in the form of life story, and the maintenance of the abstractness.
Only human has theory of mind, that is, a person older than about 3 or 4 years old has the
ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others and to understand that others have
mental states that are different from one's own. Nonhumans do not have theory of mind.
Based on theory of mind, people can develop theory of supernatural mind, that is, a
person can believe in invisible living supernatural that has its own mental state that is
different from human mental state, and can directly relate to supernatural. Theory of
mind allows human to imagine supernatural.
The second unique human characteristic for the acceptance of the supernatural is
autobiographic self in the form of life story. This capacity is from episodic memory,
which is different from semantic memory. Semantic memory refers to one’s stored
knowledge of facts, concepts, and general principles of how the world operates.
Semantic memory is the essential memory used to live in the world. Episodic memory,
on the other hand, is not essential, and more or less serves as the map for semantic
memory. It is an autobiographic story of life experiences. The prefrontal cortex in the
human brain is large. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of connections with
different parts of the brain. Consequently, the large prefrontal cortex in human is capable
to integrate the autobiographic story of life experiences into autobiographic self in the
form of the life story. Other animals do not have such autobiographic self. All animals
have biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of
biological self. Only human has a strong autobiographic self to determine the boundary
of experiential self. Only human has both biological self and autobiographic self.
Autobiographic self in the form of life story brings about path, meaning, and
purpose of life. The path of life allows human to map the past, the present, and the future
experiences. The meaning of life lets human to know the experiential position in the
world. The purpose of life permits human to prioritize life. Because of the changes in
life experiences and life expectation, the life story is in a continuous process of revision,
resulting in the continuous changes in path, meaning, and purpose of life.
The integration of experiences leaves many gaps in terms of the unusual and the
unexplainable. Since human is capable of theory of mind that allows an imaginary entity
with its own mind, autobiographic self often incorporates the supernatural to fill the gaps
in order to complete the life story in an integrate form. Autobiographic self attributes
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anything unusual and unexplainable to the supernatural. The supernatural becomes the
essential part of autobiographic self.
The third unique human characteristic for the acceptance of the abstractness from
the supernatural is the maintenance of the abstractness. The maintenance of abstractness
comes from the prefrontal cortex that can inhibit the concrete mind. The prefrontal
cortex has a high number of interconnections both between the instinctive part and the
emotional part of the brain. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control instinct and
emotion. When the supernatural reveals the abstractness that is outside of the expression
in the natural instincts to human, the large human prefrontal cortex is able to inhibit the
expression in the natural instincts and to add the abstractness from the supernatural into
the natural instincts on the free will. It is difficult for nonhumans to overcome the strong
expression in the natural instincts on their free will.

6.2. The Prehistoric Kingdom of God: The Garden of Eden

The prehistoric kingdom of God is the prehistoric harmononious society of God
as the Garden of Eden. For about 160,000 years, the livestyle as the prehistoric hunter-
gatherer society society as the band society remained mostly unchanged until the Upper
Palaeolithic Revolution about 40,000 years ago. The major human social life during this
period was the harmonious social life. The natural biological instincts were adequate for
the human survival.
Similarly to the Industrial and Neolithic Revolutions, the Upper Paleolithic
Revolution represents a short time span when numerous inventions appeared and cultural
changes occurred. The revolution comprised new religions, technologies, hunting
techniques, human burials, and artistic work. The Upper Paleolithic period extended
from about 40,000 to between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago.
The reasons for these changes in human behavior have been attributed to the
changes in climate during the period which encompasses a number of sudden global
temperature drops, meaning a worsening of the already bitter climate of the last ice age.
A number of sudden temperature drops reduced significantly the area for forest in Europe
and Asia. The reduction of forest reduced the food supply, usable timber, and other non-
food materials. The same climate change caused the extinction of Neanderthals, who had
survived since 200,000 years ago, and had similar intelligence as Homo sapiens. Homo
sapiens faced the same fate of extinction as Neanderthals. One distinct difference
between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is the
appearance of the new Homo sapiens’ religion, which saved Homo sapiens from
extinction.
At the time of the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural was immanent
supernatural that appeared everywhere as a part of all objects in the world. Anything
unexplained or unusual was attributed to the supernatural. The society was democratic
and egalitarian, so there was no authoritative transcendental gods to be worshiped.
Everyone and everything was equally an avatar, the incarnation of the supernatural. Such
concept of immanent supernatural was prevalent before the Upper Paleolithic Revolution.
The symbols for the immanent supernatural were typically the exaggerated and
distorted representation of the real natural objects to represent the unexplained and
unusual characteristics of the immanent supernatural, so the symbols represented partly
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the natural and partly the supernatural. (Symbol is the result of the exaggeration of a
specific feature of a real object.) Such symbols brought the immanent supernatural to
help people. They did not worship such symbols, because there was no concept of
worshipping anything authoritative.
During the harsh time in the Upper Paleolithic Period, the social group that was
preoccupied with fertility and vitality for women and men, respectively, and had strong
faith in the immanent supernatural had better chance to survive the harsh environment.
The common symbols of the immanent supernatural for fertility were the exaggerated and
distorted female figurines. In most cases, the female figurines are miniature sculptures of
well-rounded female nudes with an overemphasis of the fleshy parts of the body
(buttocks, stomach and chest). The sexual accent on the female breasts and the posterior
are assumed by many to connote signs of fertility. The head and arms are mostly absent
with the stress on the middle of the torso. Thighs tend to be exaggerated tapering into
smaller legs. The head has no face. These distorted and exaggerate form of female body
represents the immanent supernatural in a natural female body. These religious female
figurines were valuable bringing the immanent supernatural to help fertility in the sense
of bringing good luck to child birth.
Another group of religious symbols is the cave paints for the immanent
supernatural to achieve vitality. During the Upper Paleolithic Revolution, the harsh
environment prompted people to find alternate mental states to revitalize. The alternate
mental states involved hallucinatory or trance states by drugs or repetitive rhyme. The
belief in the immanent supernatural within a person made the entrance into the alternate
state easy and inevitable. The whole process was manifested in the Paleolithic cave
paintings as described by David Lewis-Williams
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. In the cave paints, the animals were
mystic large strong animals or mystic animals with horns that symbolized maturation and
strength. The mystic animal pictures were conceived during the trance states. The
mystic powerful animal cave paintings were presented as evidence of spirit journeys
previously undertaken.
The difference in the religious practice during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is
the increasingly shared religious symbols for the immanent supernatural among different
social groups. The enormous distribution of these female figurines implied a ritualistic
exchange system with the figurines playing a central role in inter-group relations
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.
Practicing alternate states of the mind also became community rituals among different
social groups, often led by shaman inside or outside of caves. The practicing of the
alternate state of mind together promoted unity among different social groups.
The sharing of the religious symbols brought about the sharing of survival
information and resource among different social groups. The sharing could actually
improve the fertility and vitality of the groups involved, resulting in the validation of the
power of the religious symbols. The result was the rise of the female figurine and cave
painting religion. People spent much more energy and time to develop and make such
religious symbols for the immanent supernatural, resulting in rapid development and
spread in religious art and the involved skills.
In terms of theology, when human faced the possibility of extinction in the harsh
environment, God initiated the supernatural miracle by Symbolic Religion for fertility
and vitality in the forms of female figurines and cave paintings, respectively. Through
sharing religious symbols among different social groups by the hyper friendly instinct,
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the religious symbols were blessed by God with the supernatural miracles. The religious
symbols really worked miraculously. Different social groups identified with the common
religious symbols, forming the social bond. The religious symbols become the abstract
bond outside of the natural mind that relies on actual concrete human interaction. In
other words, the religious symbols instantly evoke social bond without actual concrete
human interaction. This abstract bond is revealed through the supernatural miracle.
Bounded by the blessed religious symbols, different social groups worked together to
overcome the harsh environment, avoiding extinction. After providing the way for the
abstract bond among different social groups to avoid extinction, the supernatural miracle
became increasingly unnecessary. Neanderthals never conceived of an "alternate
reality”. From the perspective of Neanderthals, Homo sapiens were delusional to believe
in the religious symbols of the immanent supernatural. Without bonding different social
groups to overcome the harsh environment, Neanderthals became extinct in about 20,000
BC when Symbolic Religion in terms of female figurines and cave painting was popular.
In the Bible, God breathed the abstract bond into Adam to form the religious
being to be placed in the Garden of Eden as the first religion as follows.

The Original Bible Genesis 2
7 the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his
nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. 8 Now the LORD God had
planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed.

The interpretive Bible Genesis 2
7 the LORD God formed the human from the natural (hunter-gatherer) society and
breathed into human nostrils the abstract bond
a
, and the human became a religious being.
8 Now the LORD God had planted a religion; and there he put the human he had formed.
a. a non-representation of the expression of natural human mind

Symbolic Religion in the Upper Paleolithic Revolution started the culture of
symbols and rituals to form social bonds. The social structure changed from the band
society to the religious band society where isolated bands were bonded together by
religion. Symbolic Religion is egalitarian immanent theism that is the first generation
religion, the band religion in the religion band society. Later, religious symbols and
rituals for social bonds expanded to ancestors and particular landmarks, such as mountain
and lake. Without symbols and rituals, the human society as we know today cannot exist.
The abstract bond has been firmly established in the human society. Gradually, people
used symbols for reality other than social bonds. In human language, symbols are used
ubiquitously to signify reality.
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7. The Early Kingdom of God

Chapter 3 involves the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution to the
Modern Revolution in the West. The Neolithic Revolution that resulted in the civilized
agricultural-nomad society of large social group destroyed the harmonious small social
group. In the Early Period, the civilized society consisted of the exclusive collective
society and the exclusive individualistic society. In the exclusive collective society, the
state has the state collective religion as ideology (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and
Confucianism) to seek exclusive state collective religion. In the exclusive individualistic
society, the state has the state individualism as ideology (Greek mythology and science)
to seek exclusive state individualism. The early transitional kingdom of God was the
moral religion as Judaism where God was the high ruler. The moral religion maintained
high morality in immoral civilization. Outside of the collective society and the
individualistic society, the harmonious society without the state of a large social group
has the harmonious religion as ideology (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek
harmonious cooperation among people in small social groups. Jesus Christ initiated the
early kingdom of God through the sacrifice and the resurrection. It was manifested in the
early church based on the harmonious society and social life.

7.1. The Fall of the Prehistoric Kingdom of God

The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to
the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by
various independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic
Revolution may be caused by climatic change from the retreat of the glaciers at the end of
the last Ice Age at about 12,000 BC. These climatic shifts prompted the migration of
many big game animals to new pasturelands in northern areas. They left a dwindling
supply of game for human hunters in areas such as the Middle East. Climatic shifts also
led to changes in the distribution and growing patterns of wild grains and other crops on
which hunters and gatherers depended. These changes forced people to systematic
cultivation of plants and domestication of animals as the supplement for the
undependable source of food by gathering and hunting. As cultivated crops and
domesticated animals improved, people depended on cultivated crops and domesticated
animals as the main food source.
The first society resulted from the Neolithic Revolution is the horticultural-
pastoral society
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. Horticulture is agriculture before the invention of the plow. In simple
horticultural societies, the gardeners used their hands assisted by digging sticks.
Advanced horticultural societies used the hoe. They grew enough to support their
families and local group but not enough to produce surpluses to sell to non-agricultural
peoples.
Because horticulture required more labor, to have more children became
necessity. Women therefore had more children with shorter lactation period, and became
less available in production. In horticulture, women were still able to farm and be
productive while maintaining their reproductive roles. Gender inequality was not severe.
The main source of food supply in pastoral societies was by domestication of animals.
These societies were typically found in mountainous regions and in areas with
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insufficient rainfall to support horticultural societies. In desert areas they travel from
water hole to water hole. In mountain areas they move up and down the terrain as the
weather changes.
The increase in population in the horticultural society forced people to use more
productive method for the cultivation of crops. The method involved plow and draft
animals, resulting in the agricultural-nomad society. Plowing maintained the fertility of
the soil by turning topsoil. Agriculture could support population increases by more
intensive use of the same piece of land. Agriculture could support a much larger
population than horticulture. Farmers grew crops for sale rather than crops grown only
for household use. Market became an important part of society. Surplus food production
brought about non-food-producing professionals, such as religious or ruling elites. Large
cities emerged. It is the start of civilization whose original meaning relates to being a
citizen, who is governed by the law of one’s city, town or community.
Plowing by draft animals allowed large farm far away from home. Plow
technology, which required more upper body strength and allowed large farm far away
from home, did not allowed women to participate in plowing the fields and rearing
children at the same time. They still did much of the processing and preserving of food,
but their contribution to the household was not as valued as the work that men did
because they did not contribute economically by selling products. Gender inequality was
severe in the agricultural society.
Civilization was an irreversible process, because the large population caused by
civilization had to be supported by agriculture. The reverse to the pre-agricultural-nomad
society would have led to mass starvation. The agricultural society required to stay in
the same place, so it was more prone to the periodic local natural disaster, unlike the
hunter-gatherer society that was free to move away from local natural disaster. The
constant population pressure and the periodic natural disasters caused the deficient
resource and security. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than
agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Today, we are now as tall as we once were.


The life expectancy in the agricultural-nomad society was actually shorter than in the
hunter-gatherer society.
Because one of the rules for TIT FOR TAT is the probability of meeting the same
player again exceeds 2/3, the large size social group does not allow TIT FOR TAT
strategy for the harmonious society. TIT FOR TAT is essentially a strategy for a small
social group, like the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The agricultural society with
large size social group and deficient resource and security forced the society moving
away from the original harmonious society that had small social group and adequate
resource and security.
The civilization resulted in the degradation of the society from the harmonious
society with the minimum social barrier into the domination society with the maximum
social barrier in terms of social memory, hierarchy, and gender distinction. The
domination society is like the chimpanzee society. Other than the conscience instinct,
chimpanzees have similar instincts as human. Without the hyper friendly instinct in
bonobos, male chimpanzees are much less peaceful. Female chimpanzees are submissive.
In a chimpanzee social group, there is uneasy peace among constant shifting subgroups.
Primatologist Frans de Waal described this social relation type in Chimpanzee Politics
126
.
The male chimpanzees fought to be the number one. A leader was under constant
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challenge. A leader was deposed after the other male chimpanzees had formed alliance
and ganged up against the leader. The society of chimpanzee has dominant hierarchy
that forces conformity to obey the leader of the group. Biologically, bonobo is very
similar to chimpanzee. However, the bonobo society is much more harmonious than the
chimpanzee society, possibly due to the more adequate resource and security for bonobo
than for chimpanzee.
With the dominative instinct as in chimpanzees, people in the large group
agricultural society with deficient resource and security formed the domination society,
where the ruling class controlled social code and hierarchy. In the dominant hierarchy,
few ruling people who control the food producing system had plenty to eat to survive any
food shortage, while most people without power could eat whatever left, and may not
survive in famine. Such food ration system allowed a society with chronic food shortage
to survive. Few people lived well, while most people lived poorly. For the sake of
security, people accepted such system. For most people, the birth of a person was the
most important factor to determine the future position in the competitive dominant
hierarchy.
Maximum eager cooperation without lie in the harmonious society became
domination with force in the domination society. The force easily degraded further into
the dehumanized force from the activated dehumanized prey-predator instincts, which
produced dehumanized wars and slavery system. The result was the immoral civilized
society, deviated greatly from the harmonious society. Consequently, humans moved out
of the Garden of Eden.
A sign of immorality in the agricultural-nomad society is warfare. Cultural
anthropologist, Raymond C. Kelly
127
believes that warfare originated very late in human
evolution. Archaeological evidence points to a commencement of warfare that postdates
the development of agriculture. This strongly implies that earlier hunter-gatherer societies
were warless and that the Paleolithic was a time of universal peace. One example is
Japan where the agricultural society was established very late. In Japan, intensive
agriculture came in with migrants from the mainland about 2,300 years ago.
Archaeologists have excavated some 5,000 skeletons that predate the intrusion, and of
those only ten show signs of violent death. In contrast, out of about 1,000 post-migration
excavated skeletons, more than a hundred show such signs.
In the Bible, the emergence of civilization by the agricultural-nomad society
caused the exit from the Garden of Eden by taking the fruit of the knowledge of
civilization. The power struggle in an enormous dominant hierarchical group in
civilization deviated greatly from the human nature consisting of love and diligence in a
small egalitarian social group.
The emergence of civilization by the agricultural-nomad society caused the exit
from the Garden of Eden by taking the fruit of the knowledge of civilization as follows.

Original Genesis 3-4
2 The woman said to the serpent, "We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden, 3 but
God did say, 'You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and
you must not touch it, or you will die.' “4 "You will not surely die," the serpent said to the
woman. 5 "For God knows that when you eat of it, your eyes will be opened, and you
will be like God, knowing good and evil." 6 When the woman saw that the fruit of the
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tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom,
she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he
ate it. 7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked;
so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves.
1 Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain. She said,
"With the help of the LORD I have brought forth a man." 2 Later she gave birth to his
brother Abel. Now Abel kept flocks, and Cain worked the soil.

Interpretive Genesis 3-4
2 The woman said to the serpent, "We may accept any knowledge on earth, 3 but God did
say, 'You must not accept the knowledge of civilization, and you must not touch it, or you
will die.' “4 "You will not surely die," the serpent said to the woman. 5 "For God knows
that when you accept the knowledge of civilization, your eyes will be opened, and you
will be like God, knowing good and evil." 6 When the woman saw that the knowledge of
civilization was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining
wisdom, she took some knowledge of civilization. She also gave some to her husband,
who was with her, and he took some. 7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and
they realized they could not express openly their real selves; so they made masks, and
covered themselves.
1 Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain. She said,
"With the help of the LORD I have brought forth a man." 2 Later she gave birth to his
brother Abel. Now Abel kept flocks in the nomad society, and Cain worked the soil in the
agricultural society.
7.2. The Early Transitional Kingdom of God
The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to
the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by
various independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic
Revolution led to human civilization. Because one of the rules for TIT FOR TAT is the
probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3, the large size social group does
not allow TIT FOR TAT strategy for the harmonious society. TIT FOR TAT is
essentially a strategy for a small social group, like the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society.
The agricultural society with large size social group and deficient resource and security
forced the society moving away from the original harmonious society that had small
social group and adequate resource and security.
The civilization resulted in the degradation of the society from the harmonious
society into the collective society or the individualistic society for collective wellbeing
and individualistic achievement. In most cases, the harmonious society with the
minimum social barrier degraded into the dominative collective society with the
maximum social barrier in terms of social memory, hierarchy, and gender distinction.
Maximum eager cooperation without lie in the harmonious society became domination
with force in the dominative collective society. The force easily degraded further into the
dehumanized force from the activated dehumanized prey-predator instincts, which
produced dehumanized wars and slavery system. The result was the immoral yin-yang
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civilized society, deviated greatly from the harmonious society. Consequently, humans
moved out of the Garden of Eden.
When human faced the possibility of destruction in the immoral yin-yang
civilized society with the activated dehumanized prey-predator instincts, God became the
supernatural authority for the abstract morality to prevent the activation of the
dehumanized prey-predator instinct. Since humans by nature have both the humanized
instincts and the dehumanized prey-predator instincts, the abstract morality as the
prevention of the activated dehumanized prey-predator instincts is abstract outside of the
expression of biological instincts. The supernatural authority rules over all human rulers
with the abstract morality. The supernatural authority becomes the “High Ruler”. The
religious civilized social groups that worship the authoritative transcendental supernatural
as the high ruler for the abstract morality are blessed by the supernatural with the
supernatural miracles, resulting in the early transitional kingdom of God and the moral
religions.
Judaism and Islam believe in one personal God or Allah, while Confucianism
believes in one impersonal God (Heaven (Tian) or High Ruler (Shang-di)). Hinduism is
polymorphic monotheism where one God assumes many forms. The religions of the
supernatural authority for the abstract morality are blessed by the supernatural with
supernatural miracles. The immoral religions that worshiped human king as in the king-
god religions perished.
A typical example of the abstract morality is the Ten Commandments from
Exodus 20,

1. Thou Shall Have No Other Gods beside Me
2. Thou Shall Not Worship Any Graven Images
3. Thou Shall Not Take the Name of the Lord Thy God in Vain
4. Remember the Sabbath Day to Rest and Keep it Holy
5. Honor Thy Father and Thy Mother
6. Thou Shall Not Kill
7. Thou Shall Not Commit Adultery
8. Thou Shall Not Steal
9. Thou Shall Not Bear False Witness
10. Thou Shall Not Covet Anything that is Thy Neighbor's

The first four commandments are to accept the Lord as the supernatural authority.
The fifth commandment is to accept parents as the earthly authority. The rest of the
commandments are for the prevention of the activation of the dehumanized prey-predator
instincts, such as the addictive instinct for greed and the predatory instinct for harming
people.
The social structure changed from the religious band society to the religious tribal
society that is the hierarchical religious tribal large-group society. The result is the
second generation religion, the tribal religion as elite revealed theism. The believers in
elite revealed theism were ruling elites, including priests and political leaders. The
method is God’s revelation in terms of ritual, myth, and the way of ruling. Ritual is an
established or prescribed procedure connecting tribal people with God. Myth is a
traditional or legendary story connecting tribal people with God. The way of ruling
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relates to the specific way of governing including benevolence, justice, morality, law, and
power structure.
Common people could have their folk religions as long as they did not
outlandishly contradict elite revealed theism. Elite revealed theism was the religion for
ruling elites in Israel before the fall of Jerusalem (the 6
th
century BC). During the tribal
religion, the tribal and territorial borderlines changed, but their borderlines were fairly
distinct. Ruling elites changed, but they could still maintain social coherence within
distinct tribal and territorial borderlines.
Increasing internal and external large-scale warfare gradually destroyed
traditional tribal and territorial borderlines. Without distinct tribal and territorial
borderlines, the ruling elites could no longer keep social coherence, resulting in the
collapse of elite revealed theism.
The social structure changed from the religious tribal society to the religious global
society without distinct permanent tribal and territorial borderlines. The responsibility to
keep social coherence shifted from ruling elites to common people. The folk religion for
common people was too primitive to keep social coherence. The prophets in and outside of
Israel were familiar with elite revealed theism. They converted ritual, myth, and the way of
ruling in elite revealed theism into the rational way of social life (social interaction) for
common people. The result was common rational theism as the third generation religion,
the global religion. The believers are common people in the religious global society. The
method is the rational way of social life.
The prophets in and outside of Israel shifted the responsibility to continue Judaism
from ruling elites to common people who became the “remnants” after the fall of Jerusalem.
They wanted common people to live in the rational moral large-group way of social life as
expressed in moral monotheism. The conspicuous consequence of moral monotheism was
the disappearance of the folk religion as polytheism for common people after the “remnants”
returned to Jerusalem. Archeologists found many idols in the houses of Israelites before the
fall of Jerusalem, and they found no idols in the houses after the return. All common people
followed common rational theism as moral monotheism that has kept social coherence for
Jews for thousands of years.
In the society today, most people believe explicitly or implicitly in the supernatural
authority for the abstract morality that prevents the activation of the dehumanized prey-
predator instincts. The abstract morality becomes the foundation of a good society. The
abstract morality has been firmly established in the human society.

7.3. The Early Individualistic Society

The harmonious society also degraded into the individualistic society. In period
from 500-336 BC, classical Greece was divided into small city states, each of which
consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside. In this period Athens reached its
greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic system of
government under the Athenian statesman Pericles, and the founding of the philosophical
schools of Socrates and Plato.
Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern
largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from
its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges. It was difficult to have a collective empire
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over all communities. The costal cities allowed additional wealth from trades, permitted
the release of population pressure by colonization by the sea, and let the gathering of
various ideas to form cosmopolitanism. Such city states as a whole had fairly adequate
resource and security.
Such adequate resource (in both wealth and ideas) and security were further
concentrated in an elite group of wealthy males. The Greek society was highly stratified
in terms of class, race, and gender. Greek Society was mainly broken up between free
people and slaves, who were owned by the free people. Consequently, the social
resource was concentrated in an upper class, consisting of wealthy males. This social
class had abundant resource and security. With the abundant resource and security, the
upper class constituted the exclusive individualistic society, even though the society as a
whole was a collective society with rigid social code and hierarchy.
This exclusive individualistic society developed individualism. Greek
individualism allowed individuals to understand rationally the physical universe,
unrelated to human relations at all. It permitted individuals to have self-reliance to
question all traditional religions and human authorities. Individual achievement rather
than collective wellbeing became the primary concern.
The two distinctive features in Greek culture are Greek mythology and science.
Greek mythology involves essentially the individualistic supernatural achievement. All
gods engage in the competition of individualistic achievement. The high honor is to be a
high heroic achiever to overcome all obstacles and become an immortal. Morality is not
the main concern. Science involves essentially the individualistic intellectual
achievement. It involves no human relation for collective wellbeing. The main pursuit of
science is to find the most beautiful and perfect methods and natural laws, which do not
involve any practical usage for human.

7.4. The Early Kingdom of God

The early harmonious society was developed and separated from the early
civilized society. The yin-yang civilized society deviates from the harmonious society,
and the major social lives of the civilized people also deviate from the harmonious social
life. The civilized social lives are likely the non-harmonious social lives, which produce
high social barrier, consisting of long social memory, dominance hierarchy, the gender
dichotomy, lie, cruelty, greed, and guilt, among people. With the innate hyper friendly
instinct for eager cooperation at the minimum social barrier, the civilized people are
uncomfortable with the high social barrier. For some people, the high social barrier is
severe enough to cause disconnection and alienation to separate the people from other
people. These disconnected and alienated people eager to return to the harmonious social
life and society where they can again connect with people. Daoism reflects such
sentiment to return to the harmonious society as the pre-civilized society.
Daoism and Confucianism developed during a chaotic violence period of Chinese
history. Confucius sought a return to an idealized moral civilized society as utopia.
Daoism sought a return to a more remote past as utopia, the pristine times before humans
had been corrupted by culture and civilization. Zhuangzi, a founder of Daoism, stated,

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The humans of old dwelt in the midst of crudity and chaos; side by side with the
rest of the world, they attained simplicity and silence there. At that time the yin
and yang were harmonious and still, ghosts and spirits worked no mischief, the
four seasons kept to their proper order, the ten thousand things knew no injury,
and living creatures were free from premature death. Although humans had
knowledge, they did not use it. This was called the Perfect Unity. At this time, no
one made a move to do anything, and there was unvarying spontaneity.
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In prehistoric past, all was in harmony and all were happy, living in a simple state
of nature. Nothing and nobody died prematurely. Zhuangzi was actually correct. A great
deal of evidence suggests that the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was much less war-
like than later peoples. Archaeological studies throughout the world have found hardly
any evidence of warfare the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The hunter-gatherers
were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Today, we
are now as tall as we once were.

The life expectancy in the agricultural-nomad society
was actually shorter than in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society.
Zhuangzi explained how and why humans went downhill since those ancient,
pristine times:

The time came, however, when natural potency began to dwindle and decline, and
then Suiren and Fuxi stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result
there was compliance, but no longer any unity. Natural potency continued to
dwindle and decline, and then Shennong and the Yellow Emperor stepped
forward to take charge of the world. As a result, there was security, but no longer
any compliance. Virtue continued to dwindle and decline, and then Yao and Shun
stepped forward to take charge of the world. They set about in various fashions to
order and transform the world, and in doing so defiled purity and shattered
simplicity. The Way was pulled apart for the sake of goodness; natural potency
was imperiled for the sake of conduct. After this, inborn nature was abandoned
and minds were set free to roam, mind joining mind in understanding; there was
knowledge, but it could not bring stability to the world. After this, 'culture' was
added on, and 'breadth' drowned the mind, and after this the people began to be
confused and disordered. They had no way to revert to the true form of their
inborn nature or to return once more to the Beginning.
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It was culture that ultimately came to stand between humans and their true nature.
For the Daoism, the primitive state of nature was the high point of human development. It
was a time when humans lived in accordance with the Way and their own inborn natures.
Human development went steadily downhill since then.
The return to the harmonious society requires the transformation from the non-
harmonious social life and society into the harmonious social life and society. The
harmonious religions involved in such transformation are Christianity, Buddhism,
Daoism, and other spiritual religions. The religions involved in such transformation are
Christianity, Buddhism, Daoism, and other spiritual religions. Both Christianity and
Buddhism provide the details how the transformation takes place. The transformation
can be described in principle and practice.
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7.4.1. The Transformation Principle

The transformation is the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into
the harmonious social life. The transformation involves the extinction of the non-
harmonious social life and the rebirth into the harmonious social life as follows.
the social life level
the non-harmonious social life → the extinction of the non-harmonious social life → the
rebirth into the harmonious social life
On the conscious level, the social life is expressed as autobiographic self.
Autobiographic self in a person is the life story of self with goal and meaning of life. In
the yin-yang civilized society, it becomes the civilized autographic self through the non-
harmonious social lives. The transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the
harmonious social life is the transformation from the civilized autobiographic self into the
harmonious autobiographic self. The transformation involves first the realization of the
futility of the civilized autobiographic self in terms of the eventual appearance of the
harmonious social life, so the civilized autobiographic self is actually the no civilized
autobiographic self or simply the no-self. However, because self naturally is too
important to be replaced, no-self is abstractness, non-representation for the expression of
the natural detective instinct. The supernatural miracle reveals the abstract no-self as the
alternative to the civilized autobiographic self.
For Buddhism, the abstract no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusive-self
absent of reality and independence. For Christianity, the abstract the abstract no-self is
the perishable sinful self. The abstract no-self is followed by the abstract self-ending that
leads to the abstract rebirth to form the harmonious autobiographic self as below.
the conscious (autobiographic self) level
1. the formation of the civilized autobiographic self
the non-harmonious social life → the civilized autobiographic self
2. the transformation of the civilized autobiographic self
the civilized autobiographic self → the abstract no civilized autobiographic self
(the abstract no-self) → the abstract no civilized autobiographic self-ending (the
abstract no self-ending) → the abstract rebirth into the harmonious autobiographic
self = the harmonious social life

The supernatural sent the liberators to liberate the civilized people from the
bondage of the civilized autobiographic self, and to return to the harmonious society
through the abstract rebirth. The harmonious religions include Christianity, Buddhism,
Daoism, and other spiritual religions.
For Christianity, the no-self is the perishable sinful self (flesh), the self-ending is
to die on the cross with Christ, and the rebirth is to resurrect with Christ into the
Kingdom of God. For Buddhism, the no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusive-
self and the self-ending is Nirvana that extinguishes the flame of life. Rebirth in the
Buddhist context relates to reincarnation. For Buddhism, the abstract rebirth into the
harmonious social life corresponds to the way of Bodhisattva that is a person who has
achieved enlightenment has chosen to remain in this world to help those who are
suffering, instead of going on to Nirvana. Therefore, for Buddhism, the abstract rebirth
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into the harmonious social life is the Bodhisattva Way rather than reincarnation. For Zen
Buddhism, Nirvana and the Bodhisattva Way correspond to the Insight (dun wu) into the
futility of the civilized nature and one’s own original nature (Buddha nature), the
harmonious social life. Zen Buddhism is essentially the combination of the original
Buddhism and Daoism. It has simplicity and spontaneity from Daoism, and discipline and
the basic framework from Buddhism. For Daoism, no-self is no civilized self. It does
not have a specific self-ending. The rebirth corresponds to the return to the nature away
from the civilization.

7.4.2. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life

The civilized society is dominated by the non-harmonious evolutionary societies
(the collective and the individualistic societies) that support civilization. Essentially,
every civilized human grows up predominately for the non-harmonious fitness (collective
wellbeing and individualistic achievement). For the individuals grown up in the non-
harmonious civilized society dominated by the non-harmonious social lives, the
conversion to the harmonious social life involves the three-stage conversion: the
harmonious relationship, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation.
The most suitable identity for the harmonious relationship is the kingdom of God
from Christianity. The kingdom of God represents the kingdom of the harmonious
relationship based on love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is love.

A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must
love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love
one another. (John 13:34-35)

The kingdom of God requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and
the “rebirth” into the harmonious social life. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into
the kingdom of God is “justification” (to make just).
The most suitable identity for the harmonious mind is the fourfold harmonious
mind from Buddhism. The harmonious mind is achieved by practicing meditation
diligently. The last advice and words from Buddha is “All things are perishable. Strive
with earnestness (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha).” The harmonious
mind also requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and the “rebirth”
into the harmonious social mind. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the
harmonious mind is “sanctification” (to make sacred).
The most suitable identity for the harmonious adaptation to the world (non-
harmonious civilization) is water from Daoism. To Laozi, the adaptation of the
harmonious social life to the world is like the adaptation of water to its environment.

The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with
them. It flows to the lowest level that people disdain. In this it comes near to the
Way. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8)

The three-stage conversion constitutes the seven-step conversion is as follows.

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The Seven-Step Conversion:
The harmonious relationship: justification
1. the harmonious relationship identity: the kingdom of God
2. the self-ending
3. the rebirth
The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God.
To enter the kingdom of God requires the self-ending of the non-harmonious social lives,
which can cause disharmony. The self-ending involves first the confession of
disharmony sin and then the repentance from disharmony sin. The rebirth into the
spiritual harmonious society is through the acceptance of the salvation by Jesus whose
forgiveness of disharmony sin allows the repentant person to have complete harmonious
life.
The harmonious mind: sanctification
4. the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the
clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind)
5. the self-ending
6. the rebirth
The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious mind is
justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind
identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind, the
loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious social
lives into the harmonious social life. The meditation through the fourfold harmonious
mind produces the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the non-
harmonious autobiographic self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human
nature with the innate goodness as the harmonious social life.
The harmonious adaptation: adaptation:
7. the harmonious adaptation identity: water
The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world
(non-harmonious civilization) is non-competitive water.

The Seven-Step Conversion:
the harmonious relationship: justification
Step 1: the harmonious relationship identity
The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God.
To enter into the kingdom of God requires the rebirth.

In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God
unless he is born again." "How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus
asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!"
Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless
he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives
birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born
again.' (John 3:3-7)

To Jesus, the kingdom is not of this world as the civilized society.

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Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight
to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place."
(John 18:36)

To Jesus, the kingdom of God is not political, and the state of the Roman Emperor
was separated from the kingdom of God, as described by Jesus.

Then he said to them, "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is
God's." (Matthew 22:21)

The kingdom of God is within a person as the harmonious social life.

Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come,
Jesus replied, "The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation,
nor will people say, 'Here it is,' or 'There it is,' because the kingdom of God is
within you." (Luke 17:20-21)

According to Jesus, the kingdom of God does not belong to the kingdom of
civilization as described in the parable of mustard seed and bush.

Again he said, "What shall we say the kingdom of God is like, or what parable
shall we use to describe it? It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest seed
you plant in the ground. Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all
garden plants, with such big branches that the birds of the air can perch in its
shade." (Mark 4:30-32)

The kingdom of God starts small like a mustard seed, and it becomes a modest mustard
bush. According to the rabbinical law, a mustard plant was forbidden in a household
garden because it was fast spreading and would tend to invade the veggies. Mustard is a
common, fast-spreading plant, which grows to about four feet in height. Garden
symbolizes artificial civilization, while mustard represents a plant unlike the normal
plants in the artificial civilized garden. The kingdom of God as the kingdom of mustard
bush is small and ubiquitous unlike normal civilized plants, but the kingdom of God
grows in the civilized garden.
The kingdom of God consists of small groups of people.

"Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the
kingdom. (Luke 12:32)

The civilized society has the propensity to accumulate. The kingdom of God as
the harmonious society does not have the propensity to accumulate.

Jesus looked at him and said, "How hard it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of
God!” (Luke 18:24)
Looking at his disciples, he said: "Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the
kingdom of God. (Luke 6:20)
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But Jesus called the children to him and said, "Let the little children come to me,
and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these. (Luke
18:16)

Therefore, the kingdom of God consists of ubiquitous small groups of people
unlike the kingdom of civilization and without accumulation and grandiosity. The
kingdom of God corresponds to the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society consisting of
ubiquitous small groups of people unlike civilization and without accumulation and
grandiosity.
The small group of people led by Jesus followed Jesus’ command.

A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must
love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love
one another. (John 13:34-35)

With love from God, the kingdom of God is harmonious as in the prehistoric kingdom of
God. Finally, the people in the kingdom of God follow the will of God as Jesus said,

"Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven,
but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. (Matthew 7:21)

The will of God is the harmonious society.
The same aspiration to return to the prehistoric harmonious society is expressed in
Daoism. In Daoism, the harmonious relationship identity is the “small state”. Laozi
describes the small group society as following.

Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use
them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they
might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have
weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for
their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as
beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs.
Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs
might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings
and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80)

This small state has no ambition to become big and grandiose. The people are plain and
content.
Step 2: the self-ending
The complete harmonious life requires the end of the non-harmonious social lives to
have the complete cessation of disharmony sin and disconnection. The end of the non-
harmonious social lives involves first the confession of disharmony sin and then the
repentance from the disharmonious sin. Disharmony sin is defined as disharmony against
fellow humans as described by Paul in Romans 1:29-32.

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They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed and depravity.
They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips,
slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing
evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless.
Although they know God's righteous decree that those who do such things
deserve death, they not only continue to do these very things but also approve of
those who practice them. (Romans 1:29-32)

It is impossible for civilized individuals under the domination of the non-harmonious
social lives to avoid all disharmony sins described by Paul. It is not surprising that all
civilized humans are not righteous.

There is no one righteous, not even one. (Romans 3:10)
For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23)

The confession of disharmony sin is followed by the repentance from disharmony
sin. According to Jesus,

"The time has come," he said. "The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe
the good news!" (Mark 1:15)

Also, according to Peter,

Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of
refreshing may come from the Lord, (Acts 3:19)

Step 3: the rebirth
The rebirth into the spiritual harmonious relationship requires complete
harmonious life. Because of disharmony sin, humans cannot achieve complete
harmonious life. Through the salvation by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross,
disharmony sin can be forgiven. The repentant people who accept the salvation can
claim complete harmonious life for the rebirth into the spiritual harmonious society. The
acceptance of Jesus is the end of self.

I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me.
(Galatians 2:20a)

An individual accepts the salvation to become just (righteous) as complete harmonious life
which allows the rebirth with Jesus into the harmonious society, the God’s family. “This
righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. (Romans
3:22)”. “That if you confess with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," and believe in your heart that
God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. (Romans 10:9)”. “Consequently, you are
no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of
God's household. (Ephesians 2:19)” “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, one is a new
creation; the old has gone, the new has come! (2 Corinthians 5:17).”
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Jesus represents “the last Adam, a life-giving spirit (1 Corinthians 15:45)” to
bring back the original harmonious society of the Garden of Eden. Jesus found the new
covenant.

For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called
may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a ransom
to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant. (Hebrews 9:15)

It is a tremendous life-changing experience to liberate from disharmony sin and
disconnection, and to enter into the warm, loving, and egalitarian harmonious society, which
is build by Jesus to fill with love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is

A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must
love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love
one another. (John 13:34-35)

According to Paul, Christians in the church are interconnected as the body of
Christ as he stated,” Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it.
(1 Corinthians 12:27)” In terms of organization, the church in small group unit is
essentially similar to the pre-historic hunter-gatherer harmonious society.
the harmonious mind: sanctification:
Step 4: the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm
mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind and the no-self mind) for
sanctification
The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious social mind is
justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind (social
life) identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind,
the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious
mind into the harmonious mind.
They correspond to faith, wisdom, love, and perishable flesh, respectively, in
Christianity, and right concentration, right mindfulness, loving-kindness, and emptiness,
respectively, in Buddhism. For neuroscience, the calm mind and the clear mind relate to the
prefrontal cortex to control non-conscience instincts, and the loving-kindness and the no-self
relate to the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, respectively, in the conscience
instinct.
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Fourfold
harmonious mind
Calm mind Clear mind loving-kindness
mind
no-self
Christianity Faith Wisdom Love perishable flesh
Buddhism right
concentration
right mindfulness Loving-kindness Emptiness
Neuroscience prefrontal cortex Hyper friendly
instinct
detective
instinct
control non-conscience instincts enhance conscience instinct Purposes
stress reduction
relaxation and
integrity
anxiety reduction
emotional stability
and objectivity
Hyper friendly = love
and kindness
detection of the
no-self

As mentioned before, the evolution of the conscience instinct required the
expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the old instincts from the non-harmonious
social life. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex
had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger
percentage of the brain than any other animal. Thus, the prefrontal cortex serves as
executive function for the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the
harmonious social life. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections
between both drives and instincts in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and
emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain,
anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses.
A neurological principle in sanctification is to strengthen the neural connection between
the prefrontal cortex and drive, instinct, emotion, and cognition in the brain. One
indication of the importance of the prefrontal cortex in sanctification is the increased
thickness of areas in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex associated with the long-
term meditation practice of Buddhist monks
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.
the calm mind: right concentration
The calm mind is mainly for stress reduction. The calm mind is based on the
prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in
the mind of person. A calm focus that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates
harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words,
the calm mind is through the prefrontal cortex that concentrates non-judgmentally at one
point or task. Distractive emotion is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex,
the calm mind trains the mind to focus calmly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the
perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the calm
mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to stress. The calm mind is
faith from Christianity and right concentration from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path
(right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right
concentration, and right mindfulness).
The calm mind is strengthened by meditation and prayer. The meditation for the
calm mind is the concentrative meditation. In terms of meditation, the non-verbal
method includes concentrating on the breath, movement (walking, Sufi dancing, yoga, Qi
Gong, and Tai Chi), and mantra.
The verbal method involves prayer. In prayer, the close relation with God as a
close friend establishes the personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of the
person who prays. The personal harmonious cooperation within the mind establishes the
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calm mind. One of the prayer methods for the calm mind is the centering prayer
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to
center at a sacred word. The faith in harmonious cooperation with God during prayer
allows calm and objective perception.
During meditation, the brain’s activity alters significantly, as mapped by a device
called an electroencephalograph (EEG). The most well-known brain waves evident
during many kinds of meditation are called alpha waves. When the brain moves into an
alpha wave state, many physiological changes occur, such as the parasympathetic half of
the autonomic nervous system. This results in lowered blood pressure and heart rate, a
reduction in stress hormones and slowed metabolism. If meditation is practiced regularly,
these beneficial changes become relatively permanent.
The opposition to the calm mind is ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder). The common symptom is a persistent pattern of impulsiveness and inattention,
with a component of hyperactivity. Typically, ADHD is a developmental disorder. In
one study, the region with the greatest average delay is the middle of the prefrontal
cortex
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, lagged a full five years in development occurred in elementary school aged
ADHD patients. The drug, Ritalin, for ADHD stimulates activity in the prefrontal cortex.
The prefrontal cortex is important for the calm mind that requires concentration through
the prefrontal cortex.
One of the symptoms for ADHD is the failure to follow instruction because of the
deficiency in the prefrontal cortex. For adult, following instruction is important part of
morality, so the calm mind as concentration is important to resist temptation as
distraction from the right moral path. Alcohol is forbidden because alcohol also
depresses the activity of the sophisticated prefrontal cortex, resulting in lowering the
resistance against temptation. Therefore, the calm mind is for both relaxation and
integrity through the prefrontal cortex.
the clear mind: right mindfulness
The clear mind is mainly for anxiety reduction. The clear mind is based on the
prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in
the mind of person. A clear awareness that is produced in the prefrontal cortex
cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In
other words, the clear mind is through the prefrontal cortex that is aware clearly and non-
judgmentally of specific sense, feeling, or thought. Distractive awareness is pushed
gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the clear mind trains the mind to aware
clearly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by
personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the clear mind disperses and reduces the
persistently high emotion due to anxiety. The clear mind is right mindfulness from the
Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path and wisdom from Christianity.
The meditation for the clear mind is called mindfulness or insight meditation.
The meditators pay close attention to sensations and thoughts as they come and go each
passing moment but refraining from judging or acting on those objects, thoughts and
feelings. The basic principle is labeling information. When the scan of self becomes
difficult, it is necessary to return to the calm mind step.
The prayer for labeling emotion is the mindfulness prayer to talk to God freely
because of the personal harmonious cooperation with the Spirit. Guided by the
spontaneous Spirit, the prayer is a free association private talk with God. The scan of self
is through confession, thanksgiving, and supplication for thoughts and feelings of guilt,
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happiness, and stress-anxiety, respectively. Basically, it is a free association private talk
to God about self, as Paul states.

In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we
ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words
cannot express. And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit,
because the Spirit intercedes for the saints in accordance with God's will.
(Romans 8:26-27)

The clear harmonious communication with God during prayer allows clear and objective
perception.
The study by Matthew D. Lieberman
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showed that while the emotion part
(amygdala) of the brain was less active when an individual labeled the negative feeling,
the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was more active. The individuals trained in the
scan of self by the mindfulness meditation have higher activity in the right ventrolateral
prefrontal cortex and lower activity in the emotional part of the brain than the individual
without the training in the mindfulness meditation. Unlabeled emotional information can
lead to stress-anxiety, so labeling information reduces stress-anxiety. Labeling
information corresponds to the mindfulness prayer or meditation.
A person experienced in the clear mind meditation or prayer can experience all
things objectively, particularly during meditation or prayer, because the perception of all
things involves the prefrontal cortex. It can overcome instinctive reflexes, such as startle
and habituation. Paul Eckman observed and measured the ability of a seasoned
meditation practitioner to suppress the startle reflex while meditating. Loud sounds went
off out of view and failed to startle this individual while doing his mindfulness (open)
meditation, but not during his concentrative (fixed point) meditation. He has found that
in general meditators don't get as shocked as nonmeditators to such unpredictable loud
sounds
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. Similarly, the people with clear mind can handle shocking, unpleasant, and
difficult social encounters objectively, because they are experienced in the control of
emotion by the prefrontal cortex. In this way, they are able to stay in the middle-way,
not psychological extreme. Therefore, the clear mind is for both emotional stability and
objectivity through the prefrontal cortex.
the loving-kindness mind:
Loving-kindness toward all people is derived from the activation of the hyper
friendly instinct of the conscience instinct. The loving-kindness is the foundation of
morality. The loving-kindness mind can be practice during meditation (the Buddhist non-
referential compassion meditation
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) or prayer. Typical sacred verses for the loving-
kindness mind from Christianity are

For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes
in him shall not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:16)
Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is
not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs.
Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always
trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. (1 Corinthians 13:4-8)

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For Buddhism, typical verses are from the Karaniya Metta Sutta (Hymn of Universal Love).

Let none deceive or decry his fellow anywhere; let none wish others harm in
resentment or in hate. Just as with her own life, a mother shields from hurt her own
son, her only child, let all-embracing thoughts for all beings be yours.
Cultivate an all-embracing mind of love for all throughout the universe in all its
height, depth and breadth — Love that is untroubled and beyond hatred or enmity.
As you stand, walk, sit or lie, so as long as you are awake, pursue this awareness
with your might: It is deemed the Divine State here and now.
the no-self mind:
The no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is basically derived from
the non-existence of non-harmonious autobiographic self with respect to the harmonious
social life that was the normal social life in the prehistoric time before the civilization.
The realization of the no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is derived from
the activation of the detective instinct of the conscience instinct. The non-harmonious
autobiographic self becomes questionable. The no non-harmonious autobiographic self
along with the questionable non-harmonious autobiographic self is in the right brain. The
prefrontal cortex chooses the no non-harmonious autobiographic self to represent the
non-harmonious autobiographic self.
For Christians, the abstract no-self is the perishable sinful self. For Christianity,
“all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23), and “the wages of sin
is death. (Romans 6:23a)” The self-ending is equivalent to the complete surrendering
self to God for the salvation.
For Buddhism, the abstract no-self is impermanent and imperfect illusive-self
absent of reality and independence. The illusive civilized life is source of disconnection
and suffering. For Buddhism, the self-ending is to extinct the illusive no-self.
Step 5: the self-ending Nirvana
For Christianity, the no-self is the perishable sinful self (flesh), the self-ending is
to die on the cross with Christ, and the rebirth is to resurrect with Christ into the kingdom
of God. For Buddhism, the no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusive- self and
the self-ending is Nirvana that extinguishes the flame of life. Rebirth in the Buddhist
context relates to reincarnation. For Buddhism, the rebirth into the harmonious mind
corresponds to the way of Bodhisattva that is a person who has achieved enlightenment
has chosen to remain in this world to help those who are suffering, instead of going on to
Nirvana. Therefore, for Buddhism, the harmonious mind is the Bodhisattva Way rather
than reincarnation. For Zen Buddhism, Nirvana and the Bodhisattva Way correspond to
the Insight (dun wu) into the futility of the civilized nature and one’s own original nature
(Buddha nature), the harmonious social life.
To reach the Insight as the transformation from the non-harmonious social life
into the harmonious social life, it is necessary to have all four minds in the fourfold
harmonious mind involving the conscience instinct and the prefrontal cortex. When the
combined fourfold harmonious mind reaches certain critical point unconsciously, the
Insight occurs suddenly. The critical point is how a person feels comfortable enough
unconsciously to change the social life. The Insight consists of the sudden realization of
the non-existence (self-ending) of the non-harmonious autobiographic self and the
reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness. The Insight
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is sudden because the mind is mostly unconscious. Since the non-harmonious social life
and the harmonious social life always appear and disappear, the Insight is a process rather
a fixed point.
For Christianity, the Insight is the spiritual Insight into the ultimate relationship
between Christ and the perishable flesh from the civilized world. In the Insight for Paul
in the Bible, all things are rubbish.
What is more, I consider everything a loss compared to the surpassing greatness
of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whose sake I have lost all things. I consider
them rubbish, that I may gain Christ. (Philippians 3:8)
For Buddha, all things are perishable. The last advice and words from Buddha is

All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness. (vayadhamma sankhdra
appamddena sampadetha)

To prehistoric hunters and gatherers who had very little material accumulation, it
was not difficult to regard all things as rubbish and perishable. More important than all
things, the harmonious social life was the best prehistoric survival strategy, the TIT FOR
TAT with maximum eager cooperation without lie.
The Insight consists of the self-ending and the rebirth. The self-ending is through
the extinguishment of the abstract no-self. The self-ending is Nirvana in Buddhism and
the death of self on the cross in Christianity. In the meditation or prayer practice, the
self-ending comes from the combination of the no-self mind with any one of the three
minds, the calm mind, the clear mind, and the loving-kindness mind. During such
practice, self disappears. Occasionally, the self-ending comes suddenly outside of
meditation and prayer. After experiential self-ending, there is a sense of letting go of
self. The emotion, due to autobiographic self, loses its emotional impact as if the
emotional memory of the self-identity fades away.
Neurologically, the self-ending is the deliberate inhibition of biological self that
determines the boundary of biological self in space and time. The self-ending is observed
by the brain activity in meditation and prayer examined by neurologist, Andrew
Newberg
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. When the meditation by the Tibetan Buddhist monks and the prayer by
Franciscan nuns reached to the “peak”, he found increase in activity in the prefrontal lobe
and marked decrease in activity in the parietal lobes. The prefrontal lobe is for mental
concentration. The parietal lobe is for the orientation of self in space, determining where
the self ends and where the external space begins. The decrease in activity in the parietal
lobes means the loss of self. At the peak, people have a loss of the sense of self and
frequently experience a sense of no space and time. Therefore, the brain activity
observed by Newberg corresponds to the self-ending of the biological self, which for a
meditator is the self-ending of autobiographic self. Thus, the self-ending of
autobiographic self has a real brain experience of self-ending, allowing the brain to end
or minimize the non-harmonious autobiographic self.
Step 6: the rebirth: the Bodhisattva Way
Without self, one can feel oneness with the universe in the sense of completely
harmonious cooperation with the universe without self. The self-ending leads to the rebirth
into the harmonious social life, the human original social life. The harmonious social life is
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friendlier toward all people, calmer, more contented, more attentive, and more moral than
the non-harmonious social lives.
The result of sanctification is the harmonious social life with maximum
tranquility and contentment. After sanctification, a person with the harmonious social
life and compassion in the harmonious society and in the world is described by Paul in
the Bible.

Love must be sincere. Hate what is evil; cling to what is good. Be devoted to one
another in brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves. Never be lacking
in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor, serving the Lord. Be joyful in hope, patient
in affliction, faithful in prayer. Share with God's people who are in need. Practice
hospitality. Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. Rejoice with
those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn. Live in harmony with one
another. Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position.
Do not be conceited. Do not repay anyone evil for evil. Be careful to do what is
right in the eyes of everybody. If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at
peace with everyone. (Romans 12:9-18)

The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation
Step 7: the harmonious adaptation: adaptation

The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation
Christianity
The harmonious adaptation identity
The cross
Daoism
The harmonious adaptation identity
Water


The world as non-harmonious civilization consists of the collective and the
individualistic societies. Both societies work well and consistently as large social groups
in the world. There is a competition between these two societies to determine the most
suitable dominant society for civilization. The harmonious society, however, does not
work well and consistently as a large social group to support civilization. The
harmonious society is simply not a suitable dominant society for the world, so
realistically there should not be competition between the harmonious society and the
world.
The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world is
non-competitive water from Daoism.

The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with
them. It flows to the lowest level that people disdain. In this it comes near to the
Way. In their dwellings, they love the earth. In their hearts, they love what is
profound. In their friendship, they love humanity. In their words, they love
sincerity. In government, they love good order. In business, they love ability. In
their actions, they love timeliness. It is because they do not compete that there is
no resentment. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8)

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To Laozi, the adaptation of the harmonious social life to the world (non-
harmonious civilization) is like the adaptation of water to its environment. Water does
not compete with its environment in terms of what form to exist. The harmonious social
life simply survives whatever form that the world allows it to exist as long as there is a
place for the harmonious social life that is different from the social lives of the world.
Therefore, the harmonious social life does not mind to exist in the place that the world
dislikes. The motivation for the harmonious society to exist is mutual empathy and
empowerment, instead of winning. It is like water that benefits the world. Water is close
to the Way. The ways to benefit the world is to have down-to-earth living place,
thoughtful mind, loving relationship, trustworthy words, orderly government, capable
business, and timely action. In the long run, the world appreciates the non-competing
harmonious society. Without competing with the world, the harmonious society as
Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism actually survives and thrives in the world.
Laozi further described the leadership in the social life. It is also like water, soft
and yielding.

Nothing in the world is as soft and yielding as water, yet nothing can better
overcome the hard and strong, for they can neither control nor do away with it.
The soft overcomes the hard. The yielding overcomes the strong. Every person
knows this, but no one can practice it. Therefore the sage declares: One who
accepts the humiliation of the nation may be the priest at the altar. One who
accepts the misfortunes of the nation is the Empire's Sovereign. True words are
often paradoxical. (Dao De Jing Chapter 78)

For Daoism, a leader of the Way accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of
the nation. For Christianity, the symbol of the humiliation and the misfortunes is the
cross, and paradoxically, through the cross Jesus reaches priesthood and kinghood. The
harmonious adaptation identity of the kingdom of God to the world is the cross that
accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of the world rather than the domination of the
world. In the way, paradoxically, the kingdom of God as the harmonious society
survives and thrives in the world.
The summary of the seven-step conversion to the harmonious social life is as
below.
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The Seven-Step Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life
The Harmonious Relationship: Justification
Christianity
禅宗 禅宗 禅宗 禅宗 (Zen Buddhism)
1 The harmonious relationship identity
The kingdom of God

2 The self-ending

3 The rebirth into the harmonious relationship

The Harmonious Mind: Sanctification
4 The harmonious mind identity
the fourfold harmonious mind
the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-
kindness mind, the no-self mind (faith, wisdom,
love, and perishable flesh)
和谐四心
镇定心, 清晰心, 仁慈心, 无我心
(正定right concentration, 正念right mindfulness, 仁慈
loving-kindness, 无emptiness)
5 the self-ending
the non-harmonious autobiographic self-ending
灭我
一刹那间妄念俱灭
6 the rebirth into the harmonious social mind 重生
顿见真如本性
The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation
7 Christianity
The harmonious adaptation identity
The cross
Daoism
The harmonious adaptation identity
Water


7.5. The Early Church as the Kingdom of God

The early church from 30 to 312 AD represented the kingdom of God established
by Jesus Christ. Jesus is the head of the church.

And God placed all things under his feet and appointed him to be head over
everything for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills
everything in every way. (Ephesians 1:22-23)

It was the harmonious society, small and ubiquitous like the prehistoric
harmonious society. Since human society was the harmonious society in the prehistoric
time, and human was evolved to adapt to the harmonious society, humans have
propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society. Such propensity for
harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society is the basic reason for the growth of
the early church from the obscure, marginal Jesus Movement to become the religious
force in the Western World in a few centuries as described by sociologist Rodney
Stark
137
.

E. R. Dodds has put this as well as anyone:
A Christian congregation was from the first a community in a much fuller sense
than any corresponding group of Isiac or Mithraist devotees. Its members were
bound together not only by common rites but by a common way of life.... Love of
one's neighbor is not an exclusively Christian virtue, but in [this] period
Christians appear to have practiced it much more effectively than any other group.
The Church provided the essentials of social security.... But even more important,
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I suspect, than these material benefits was the sense of belonging which the
Christian community could give.

Christianity did not grow because of miracle working in the marketplaces
(although there may have been much of that going on), or because Constantine
said it should, or even because the martyrs gave it such credibility. It grew
because Christians constituted an intense community, able to generate the
"invincible obstinacy" that so offended the younger Pliny but yielded immense
religious rewards. And the primary means of its growth was through the united
and motivated efforts of the growing numbers of Christian believers, who invited
their friends, relatives, and neighbors to share the "good news."

The early church spread in the urban area, the center of civilization. The center of
civilization was also the place farthest away from harmonious cooperation in the
harmonious society. Most people in the urban area suffered from endless conflicts,
diseases, and loneliness. The church as the community with harmonious cooperation
attracted a lot of people in the urban area. They loved each other and took care of each
other. During the time of plague and conflict, the people in the harmonious society
survived much better than the people outside.
In the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society, men and women were equal. The rise
of civilization lowered the status of women. The early church had much better equality
between men and women than the Roman Empire. Many leaders in the early church
were women. The equality attracted women, contributing to the growth of the early
church.
The Roman Empire required people to worship the emperor as a divine being.
When Christians refused to worship the emperor as a divine being, the unity of the
Roman state appeared to be threatened. Some Christians refused to serve in the army and
opposed the use of violence. Numerous persecutions ensued. Such persecutions forced
the early church to gather in small groups for regular worship. In the urban area, many
Christians came from the middle and upper classes, which prepared their houses for
worship, resulting in the house church. The small social group in the house church
actually worked very well for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society whose
ideal size of social group is small. In this way, the persecution actually helped rather than
weakened the growth of the early church.
The contemporary pagan religions were essentially civilized religions that
concentrated in the building of grandiose temples and the presentation of magnificent
festivals, like what civilized institutes wanted to do. They relied on the support of
government and wealthy class rather than community. The loss of such support doomed
the pagan religions.
From the perspective of the human propensity for harmonious cooperation in the
harmonious society, the rise of the early church in Europe was unstoppable and almost a
certainty. The similar rise of the early church in Asia, however, has not occurred.
Basically, Asia also has the harmonious religions, such as Buddhism and Daoism. Asians
have the choices of the harmonious religions. One way to have significant impact of
Christianity in Asia is to work with the Asian harmonious religions, and also to show the
uniqueness of the kingdom of God.
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7.6. The Church as the State Religion in the Collective Society

The decline of the kingdom of God as the church resulted from the rise of the
state religion as the persecution ended in 313 AD when Edict of Milan gave Christians
equal rights. It was issued by Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East. The
church started to rely on the state. Eventually, the church became the state religion of the
Roman Empire. The society became the collective society, consisting of the civilized
state and the state religion.
Facing the rise of the church, Constantine decided to use the church for the unity
of the Roman Empire. The church started to have a similar hierarchical structure as the
Roman Empire. People started to compete to obtain the positions of bishops. After that,
the church was no longer a person-to-person movement.
The weakening of the Roman Empire near the end of the Roman Empire also
forced the church to assume the role of maintaining social and political order. The
church became powerful socially and politically. After the end of the West Roman
Empire, the spread of Christianity beyond the empire was almost entirely by political
means such as treaty and baptizing kings and queens.
The state religion was a large social group activity instead of small group activity
as the kingdom of God. At its peak, the state religion excommunicated a king, and sold
people the right to go to the heaven. The state religion became an intermediary between
people and the head of the civilized state, and also an intermediary between people and
God
The human propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society as
the tradition of the kingdom of God was maintained by devoted monks and nuns who
gave up the accumulation of wealth and devoted entirely to God and the Christian
community.
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8. The Modern Kingdom of God

Chapter 3 involves the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the
Modern Revolution to the Postmodern Revolution. The modern individualistic society is
capitalism in terms of free market. The modern collective society is socialism. In the
West, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and
understanding among the three branches of human society, resulting in the Modern
Unified Society. In the typical Modern Unified Society such as America, political parties
replace states, partisan socialism replaces state religion, partisan capitalism replaces state
individualism, and religions become harmonious religions separated from political state
of large social group. The three branches coexist peaceful. The modern kingdom of God
exists in the Unified Society.

8.1. The Reformation: the breakdown of the intermediary

In period from 500-336 BC, classical Greece was divided into small city states,
each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside. In this period Athens
reached its greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic
system of government under the Athenian statesman Pericles, and the founding of the
philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato.
Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern
largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from
its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges. This Greek culture generated individualism
and the individualistic society.
The Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, Italy. Italy was
divided into smaller city states and territories, similar to the classical Greece. Italy was
one of the most urbanized areas in Europe. They were in the Roman Empire that inherited
Greek culture. Italy at this time was notable for its merchant Republics. The wealthy
merchants constituted the affluent upper class, resulting in the individualistic society,
similar to the individualistic society in the classical Greece.
Greek individualism gave people self-reliance to change traditions and authorities.
The Renaissance expresses the changes in art, religion, philosophy, science, and politics.
The highly spiritual art in the Middle Ages was transformed into worldly and secular art.
The religion that depended on the church authority and tradition in the Middle Ages was
transformed into the personal rational reading of the original scripture. People again
were interested the rational system of the nature. Politics was understood in more
realistic power struggle among individuals.
Individualism from Renaissance changed the collective society consisting of the
civilized state and the state religion. For the civilized state, individualism led to the
breakdown of the state religion (the church) as the intermediary between people and the
head of the civilized state, resulting in nationalism without the interference of the church.
For the state religion, the religious individualism brought about the breakdown of the
state religion (the church) as the intermediary between human and God, resulting in the
Reformation with direct relation between human and God and the Bible as the sole
authority without an intermediary. The Reformation was started by Martin Luther. The
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breakdown of the intermediary is manifested in his speech to defend his faith in front of
the representative of Pope before the Diet of Worms in 1520 AD.

Since your most serene majesty and your high mightiness require of me a simple,
clear and direct answer, I will give one, and it is this: I can not submit my faith
either to the pope or to the council, because it is as clear as noonday that they
have fallen into error and even into glaring inconsistency with themselves. If,
then, I am not convinced by proof from Holy Scripture, or by cogent reasons, if I
am not satisfied by the very text I have cited, and if my judgment is not in this
way brought into subjection to God’s word, I neither can nor will retract anything;
for it can not be right for a Christian to speak against his country. I stand here and
can say no more. God help me. Amen.
.
The modern mass printing and increased literacy allowed the Reformation to
spread quickly. Without the intermediary, the collective society, however, continued to
exist. The national state and the state religion continued to support each other. The
national state as the civilized state recognized the state religion as the exclusive religion
within a nation, while the state religion recognized the national state as the exclusive state
with the divine right. Each one concentrated in its domain of authority. The state
religion continued to be a large social group activity, unlike the kingdom of God.

8.2. The Puritan Movement: the breakdown of the collective society

The further development of individualism resulted in the Enlightenment.
Individualism from the Enlightenment brought about further change in the collective
society consisting of the national civilized state and the state religion. Individualism
from the Enlightenment forced the national civilized state to accept the individualistic
society coexisting with the original collective society, resulting in the constitutional
democracy to allow individualistic expression in the collective society. The religious
individualism from the Enlightenment objected the conformity imposed by the state
religion (the Church of England), resulting in the Puritan movement. The Puritans
objected to ornaments and ritual in the churches for the state religion. They also objected
to ecclesiastical courts. They refused to endorse completely all of the standardized ritual
directions and formulas of the state religion. The state religion could not exist well as a
large group collective society with all the individualistic religious expressions. The non-
conformable denominations had to be silent or expelled.

8.3. The Decline of the State Religion

The return of the kingdom of God resulted from the decline of the state religion.
The religious individualism and pluralism brought about the decline of the state religion.
The religious individualism led to the migration of the persecuted non-
conformable Puritan and other denominations to America. The most famous and well-
known emigration to America was the migration of the Puritan separatists from the
Anglican Church of England, who fled first to Holland, and then later to America, to
establish the English colonies of New England, which later became the United States.
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These Puritan separatists were also known as "the pilgrims". The original intent of the
colonists was to establish spiritual Puritanism, which had been denied to them in England
and the rest of Europe to engage in peaceful commerce with England and the Native
American Indians and to Christianize the peoples of the America.
The collective society consisting of the civilized state and the state religion,
initially, continued to exist in America. Each state sanctioned but one official church that
was supported by taxes and received privileges granted to no other denomination. Almost
every colony founded in the western hemisphere before the mid-seventeenth century.
The religious pluralism
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in America changed such collective society consisting
of the civilized state and the state religion. Historians conventionally note that early New
England’s religious character was shaped primarily by English Puritans, and the religious
character of the South by English Anglicans. The Middle Colonies—comprised of New
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware—became a stage for the western world’s
most complex experience with religious pluralism. The mid-Atlantic region, unlike either
New England or the South, drew many of its initial settlers from European states that had
been deeply disrupted by the Protestant Reformation and the religious wars that followed
in its wake.
Early American churchmen and churchwomen soon discovered that if they
wanted to practice their beliefs unmolested in a diverse society, they had to grant the
same right to others. No single state religion could be imposed on such a mixed
population. Instead, a new form of religious practice emerged in the middle region: the
voluntary church—an institution supported by the free choice and personal commitment
of its adherents. As a result, there was the separation between state and religion.
Religion actually flourished under this system. As Thomas Jefferson wrote,
“Pennsylvania and New York…have long subsisted without any establishment. … They
flourish infinitely. Religion is well supported.” James Madison concurred: “The example
of the Colonies…which rejected religious establishments altogether, proved that all Sects
might be safely & advantageously put on a footing of equal & entire freedom.”
The religious individualism allows a non-conformable person to follow what one
believes, while the religious pluralism disallows the existence of a single religion as the
state religion. The collapse of the state religion without destroying the religion itself led
to the return of the kingdom of God as a small group activity for harmonious cooperation.

8.4. The Three-Branch Unified Society of America

When the United States of America was formed, the United States Constitution
was written by a coalition of Enlightenment rationalists and evangelical Christians who
were deeply concerned about entanglements between religion and government. It
established the base for the separation of state and church, resulting eventually the three-
branch Unified Society of America for the modern kingdom of God.

8.4.1. General Description

The three-branch Unified Society
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is the system of separation and balance of
powers in the three-branch society, consisting of the collective society, the individualistic
society, and the harmonious society. The Unified Society is based on the unified theory
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of society, where the human society is the reflection of three human social lives (yin,
yang, and harmony). The two old human social lives are yin and yang, corresponding to
female and male psychological characteristics of advanced sexual organisms. For human
in general, yin corresponds to collective wellbeing, and yang stands for individualistic
achievement. The yin-yang dichotomy constitutes the basic social structure in sexual
organisms. Harmony in terms of harmonious cooperation is the unique new human social
life that no other organisms have. Since the human society needs all three social lives,
the three societies reflecting such three social lives are unified. The prototype Unified
Society is the Unified Society of America.
The three-branch Unified Society of America is the system of separation and
balance among the three social powers: yin, yang, and harmony as describe below.

The Three-branch Unified Society of America

Branch Yin Yang Harmony
Social life = principle Collective wellbeing Individualistic
achievement
Harmonious cooperation
Basic group unit Large group Large group Small group
Social activity Politics Politics Religion
Political party Democratic Party Republican Party None
Preferred economic
policy
Collective socialism Individualistic
capitalism
None

The social lives or the principles for yin, yang, and harmony are collective wellbeing,
individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The basic social
group unit for yin and yang is large, while the basic social group unit for harmony is
small. The main social activity for yin and yang is politics, while the main social activity
for harmony is religion, which is mostly Christianity, a harmonious religion as the
kingdom of God. The political parties for yin and yang are typically the Democratic
Party and the Republican Party, respectively. The preferred economic policies for yin
and yang are collective socialism and individualistic capitalism, respectively. Since
economic policy is for large social group unit, harmony as a small social group unit does
not have an economic policy.
The evolution of the system of separation and balance among the yin, the yang,
and harmonious societies is still in progress. The three-branch Unified Society of
America has evolved through different stages. Different stages have established different
foundations for the Unified Society.
A society must meet the following requirements to evolve into the Unified
Society. The requirements include adequate resource and security, the absence of a
dictatorial power, the amiable presence of the three societies, and the clear separation and
balance among the three societies.

8.4.2. The Requirements for the Unified Society

1. Adequate Resource and Security
To start a nation in the modern time requires adequate resource and security.
Adequate resource includes natural resource and human resource in terms the human
capability to manage a modern nation. Adequate security requires an adequate military
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power. Without adequate resource and security, a nation is in a continuous conflict and
chaos. Such a nation becomes too weak to evolve into the Unified Society. America had
adequate natural resource and the educated people to manage a modern nation. America
had adequate military power to protect itself.
2. The Absence of a Dictatorial Power
A dictatorial power does not allow three different separated societies. America
practices democracy. In democracy, the government is answerable to citizens, who may
change it through elections. In this way, a dictatorial power cannot exist. The American
political system is clearly defined by basic documents. The Declaration of Independence
of 1776 and the Constitution of 1789 form the foundations of the United States federal
government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an
independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the
federal government. At the heart of the US Constitution is the principle known as
'separation of powers'. This means that power is spread between three institutions of the
state - the executive, the legislature and the judiciary - and no one institution has too
much power and no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This
system of checks and balances prevents the emergence of dictator.
3. The Amiable Presences of the three Societies
Some political revolutions are hostile toward one or two of the three societies.
The communism revolution was hostile toward the yang individualistic society and the
harmonious religious society. The French Constitution of 1905 and the Spanish
Constitution of 1931 have been characterized as the two most hostile of the twentieth
century toward religion, although the current schemes in those countries are considered
friendly. The United States Constitution has an amiable relation with religion. The
United States Constitution was written by a coalition of Enlightenment rationalists and
evangelical Christians who were deeply concerned about entanglements between religion
and government.
4. The Clear Separation and Balance among the three Societies
The American Revolution met the first three requirements for the Unified Society.
It takes long time to meet the requirement of the clear separation and balance among the
three societies.
The initial distinction between the yin-yang secular society and the harmonious
religious society is an amiable difference as described in the First Amendment of the
United States Constitution, which reads, "Congress shall make no law respecting an
establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ". It means that
Congress as state is different from religion, so Congress does not establish or prohibit
religion. The phrase "separation of church and state" is derived from a letter written by
Thomas Jefferson in 1802 to a group identifying themselves as the Danbury Baptists. In
that letter, referencing the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Jefferson
writes:

Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man & his
God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the
legitimate powers of government reach actions only, & not opinions, I
contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people
which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an
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establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a
wall of separation between Church & State.

Jefferson moved the amiable difference in the Constitution to the amiable
separation. The wall between Church and State was quite permeable. State freely used
broad religious symbols and rituals without establishing a specific religion.
As American society has become more pluralistic, there is no broad religious
symbol and ritual that applies to all religious beliefs and non-belief. The amiable
separation gradually evolves into the clear separation to accommodate the pluralistic
society.
The separation is natural for Christianity as described by Pope Benedict. In
October 2008 Pope Benedict XVI said in a Papal address to a visiting ambassador, with
reference to the Church, that:

She carries out this mission fully aware of the respective autonomy and
competence of Church and State. Indeed, we may say that the distinction between
religion and politics is a specific achievement of Christianity and one of its
fundamental historical and cultural contributions.

The United States Constitution is silent on the subject of political organizations,
mainly because most of the founding fathers disliked them. They wanted individual
citizens to vote for individual candidates, without the interference of organized groups.
Yet, major and minor political parties and groups soon arose.
By the 1790s, the followers of Alexander Hamilton, the Hamiltonian faction, took
up the name "Federalist"; they favored a strong central government that would support
the interests of commerce and industry. The followers of Thomas Jefferson as Anti-
Federalists took up the name "Democratic-Republicans" They preferred a decentralized
agrarian republic in which the federal government had limited power. Immediately, the
predecessors of the collective society and the individualistic society were formed. Since
the 1790s the country has been run by two major parties
The clear separation of principles in the yin society (the Democratic Party) and
the yang society (the Republican Party) started to occur after most people could vote
during the 20
th
century, when collective wellbeing was for most people instead of the few
privileged people who were qualified to vote. The significant separation started with the
presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, whose New Deal included the founding of Social
Security as well as a variety of other federal services and public works projects.
Roosevelt's success in the twin crises of the Depression and World War II led to a sort of
polarization in national politics, centered around him; this combined with his increasingly
liberal policies to turn FDR's Democrats to the left and the Republican Party further
rightward.
Because many Americans choose a political party based on race, ethnicity,
religion, and geographic location, the clear division of principles in the yin and the yang
parties evolve slowly. Only recently, the division becomes obvious from the delegates to
the party conventions. The delegates who attend the yin party convention clearly prefer
and are benefited from collective wellbeing, while the delegates who attend the yang
party convention clearly prefer and are benefited from individualistic achievement.
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Regardless of political parties, Americans place high value in harmonious cooperation in
individual religious communities separated from government.
The clear separation and balance among the three societies allow the existences of
the clear and significant social organizations for all three human social lives. Since the
human society needs all three social lives, the three societies are unified in the Unified
Society.
8.5. The Christian Nation and the Kingdom of God

The kingdom of God is not a civilized nation, as described by Richard T. Hughes
in “Christian America and the Kingdom of God” and his opinion in Philadelphia
Inquirer
140
.

The kingdom of God is universal, and those who promote that kingdom care
deeply for every human being in every corner of the globe, regardless of race or
nationality. But earthly nations - even so-called Christian nations - embrace
values that are inevitably nationalistic and tribal, caring especially for the welfare
of those within their borders.

The Christian nation is the state religion that caused the decline of the kingdom of
God.
8.6. The Harmonious Moral Religions

A major difference between the Western European social system and the
American social system is religion. In the Western Europe, religion loses prevalence in
favor of secularism, while in America, religion continues its prevalence. The main
reason for the decline in Christianity in the Western Europe is the historic position of
Christianity. Christianity in Europe was state religion, a large social group associated
with politics. Such Christianity as state religion is not the original form of Christianity.
Christianity as state religion loses the vitality of social and personal harmony associated
with harmonious religion. Without its vitality, Christianity loses power in the Western
Europe. Furthermore, the increasing pluralistic world also causes the weakening of any
state religions closely associated with large society politics as state religions become the
source of conflict. All state religions are not viable religions in the pluralistic world as
witnessed in Europe.
Early Christians came to America to escape from the control of state religions in
Europe. The United States Constitution was written by a coalition of Enlightenment
rationalists and evangelical Christians who were deeply concerned about entanglements
between religion and government. Without being state religion, Christianity in America
has maintained its vitality of social and personal harmony associated with harmonious
religion. Without associating closely with large social group politics, Christianity can
survive in the increasing pluralistic world. People come to Christian churches for social
and personal harmonious cooperation in a small social group and in one own self. The
viable religions today are harmonious religions which thrive in small social groups as in
the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society for nearly 200,000 years.
In today’s pluralistic world, the state religions that seek domination often and
inevitably undergo zero-sum competition, even though sometimes they coexist peacefully.
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The permanent solution for such zero-sum competition is the conversion of state religion
into the harmonious religion that does not engage in the dominative competition among
large social groups. The conversion in fact has already taken place in today’s pluralistic
world. The mainstream religions of the moral religions, including Islam, Judaism,
Confucianism, and Hinduism move toward the harmonious moral religions. The
harmonious moral religions include harmonious Judaism, harmonious Islam, harmonious
Hinduism, and harmonious Confucianism that separate themselves largely from large
social group state politics, and concentrate in building harmonious cooperation in local
communities. Instead of political religions, the harmonious moral religions become
cultural and spiritual religions.
Most countries disestablished state religions or maintain relatively weak state
religions. The few state and semi-state religions today can survive well mostly because
of their unusually large resource and strong security. With such resource and security,
they resist any significant changes to be adaptable to the pluralistic world.
As shown in the history of America, the way to maintain Christianity as the
harmonious religion is the separation of religion and state. One of the continuous
difficulties in the separation is the insistence of religion to be the final moral authority.
Morality, especially the principles of morality, today certainly is based largely on
religions. The expressions of morality, however, change with time and culture. Religion
based on sacred text reflects only the expressions of morality of a specific time and
culture. Religion continues to be the foundation of morality, but the legal aspect of
morality should be decided by state, rather than religion. The connection between
religion and state is inevitable. The fair and open cultural (traditional) instead of political
connection can be acceptable.
The emphasis of the harmonious religion is the harmonious person-to-person
connection in a small local social group. The propagation of the harmonious religion is
through mostly the example of love in small social group, like hunters and gathers in
small social groups in the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society. The social life
is the harmonious social life based on eager cooperation without lie. Such harmonious
cooperation is not applicable in large social group, but the person-to-person connection
anywhere and time can reveal illusion and impermanence of dehumanized conflicts
among large social groups.
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9. The Postmodern Kingdom of God as the
Harmonious Society of God


9.1. The Harmonious Society of God

In the current postmodern world, the rapid development of science and global
communication in the postmodern world push the religion in the brink of the fourth
generation religion: the universal religion as universal scientific theism. The society for
universal scientific theism is the religious universal society greater than the religious global
society on earth. The believers are the all human-like universal humanity in the universe.
The method is the universal scientific revelation of the God’s scientific plan for our universe
and society.
A self-evidence proposition of the universal scientific revelation is that the God’s
scientific plan for our universe and society has been revealed symbolically to humans. The
God’s scientific plan for our universe is shown in Genesis that shows the process for the
emergence of our universe. The process is Genesis Cosmology. The God’s scientific plan
for our society is the kingdom of God as taught by Jesus, the Bible, and Dao De Jing. The
Bible and Dao De Jing are the two most widespread sacred texts in the world.
Jesus said that the kingdom of God is within you. The kingdom of God is within
the harmonious society and social life. In the postmodern society, the postmodern
kingdom of God scientifically becomes the harmonious society of God in the three-branch
Unified Society. The three obvious elements in the harmonious society of God are human,
God, the interaction between human and God.

9.2. Human

The human social lives and society were evolved through natural selection. The
two old human social lives are yin and yang, corresponding to female and male
psychological characteristics of advanced sexual organisms, corresponding to collective
wellbeing, and yang stands for individualistic achievement.
Because of the high social barriers for the yin and the yang social lives, eager and
free cooperation among individuals is not easy. Eager cooperation among human
individuals is possible because the new human social life is harmony. Harmony in terms
of harmonious cooperation is the unique new human social life that no other organisms
have. In terms of evolution, the departure from other apes is bipedalism, which is the
oldest of all hominid characteristics.
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With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands for enhancing gestural
language. Language reduced the social barriers from the old human yin-yang social lives,
resulting in the hyper friendly instinct to facilitate eager cooperation, which had
evolutionary competitive advantage. In terms of human evolution, the human brain grew
larger rapidly to accommodate language and socialization skill. The prefrontal cortex grew
even faster to control the old human social lives. The result is the harmonious social life
with the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the
detective instinct for detecting lie associating with elaborate language, resulting in eager
cooperation without lie. The society from the harmonious social life is the harmonious
society as manifested in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society.
The harmonious society follows the social behaviors in Humanist Manifesto III
141

that describe what human should be.
• Life’s fulfillment emerges from individual participation in the service of humane ideals.
• Humans are social by nature and find meaning in relationships.
• Working to benefit society maximizes individual happiness.

9.3. The Interaction

The supernatural is known only through the interaction of the supernatural and the
human society. Beyond the interaction, the seeking for the understanding of the
supernatural is unnecessary. Jesus said, “But seek first his kingdom and his
righteousness (Matthew 6:33a).”
The interaction is through supernatural selection. In supernatural selection, the
supernatural selects human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen
social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural
miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the
human harmonious society to survive by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the
non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract
bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth.
During the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural revealed the abstract bond
for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment in the prehistoric
hunter-gatherer society. Without the abstract bond (symbolized by female figurines and
cave paintings), human would have become extinct like Neanderthals. The prehistoric
hunter-gatherer society with the abstract bond is the prehistoric harmonious society of
God.
The harmonious social life essentially follows essentially TIT FOR TAT, the best
strategy for the game of prisoner's dilemma. TIT FOR TAT works in small social group.
The harmonious social life as TIT FOR TAT does not work in a large social group. The
enlargement of social group by civilization from the Neolithic Revolution caused the
deviation from the harmonious social life and society.
The ideal human social behaviors as described in Humanist Manifesto III do not
work well the large civilized social group. To prevent the activated dehumanized prey-
predator instinct in the civilized society, the moral religion as the transitional harmonious
society of God was established in the Old Testament with the abstract morality through
the supernatural miracle. Jesus Christ initiated the harmonious society of God with the
abstract rebirth.
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9.4. The Organism Structure of the Harmonious Society of God

The basic unit of social group in the harmonious society is a small social group
less than about 35 people, because the harmonious cooperation works the best in a small
social group. The structure of the harmonious society is like organism consisting of
single cell or multiple cells. Single cell structure is like house church that exists as one
small group of people unconnected to other group. Multiple cell structure is the
harmonious society consisting of many small groups as the basic units. There are
connections among cell groups. There are joint activities among cell groups, but the cell
group activity is the essential activity to keep harmonious cooperation as reality, because
the harmonious cooperation works well in a small social group.

9.5. The Harmonist Manifesto for the Harmonious Society of God

The harmonious society of God is interpreted by human evolution, human
history, and psychology to describe the whole human society in the past, the present, and
the future. The prehistoric harmonious society of God was the Garden of Eden, which is
the prehistoric harmonious society of God. It existed as the prehistoric harmonious
hunter-gatherer society. The fall of the prehistoric harmonious society of God resulted
from the emergence of civilization that deviated from the harmonious society. The
transitional harmonious society of God was the moral religion as Judaism where God was
the high ruler. The moral religion maintained high morality in immoral civilization.
Jesus Christ initiated the harmonious society of God through the sacrifice and the
resurrection. The decline of the harmonious society of God later resulted from the rise of
the state religion. The decline of the state religion resulted in the return of the
harmonious society of God. The return and the future harmonious society of God is the
harmonious society of God on earth in the three-branch Unified Society consisting of the
collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collective
wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The
Harmonist Manifesto is as follows.
1. the name:
The harmonious society of God is the harmonious society of God on earth. Jesus
Christ is the head.
2. the context
The harmonious society of God is the harmonious society in the Unified Society
consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious
society for collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious
cooperation, respectively. The non-harmonious world consists of the collective
society and the individualistic society.
3. the origin:
The origin of the harmonious society of God is the interaction between God and
humans. The interaction between humans and God is supernatural selection.
Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical
laws), God selects the harmonious society as the chosen society by the divine
revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the
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natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the
abstract rebirth. The abstract rebirth leads to the harmonious society of God.
4. the admission:
Unlike the non-harmonious world, the harmonious society of God has the
minimum social barrier among God and all people. The minimum social barrier
was achieved by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for all people on the cross to break
down the high social barrier of the non-harmonious world. Everyone who accepts
the salvation of Jesus Christ can be admitted to the harmonious society of God
through the confession of disharmony sins, the repentance from disharmony sins,
and the acceptance of the salvation. Because of the unique salvation through
Jesus Christ to minimize the social barrier among God and all people, the
salvation of Jesus Christ is the path to establish the harmonious relationship in the
harmonious society of God.
5. the missions:
The first mission is to establish the harmonious relationship among God and all
people. The second mission is to learn and practice the harmonious mind as
sanctification from all sources. The third mission is to establish the harmonious
adaptation that is to benefit without competing with the non-harmonious world
and other religious traditions.
6. the structure
The social structure is the organism structure consisting of single cell group or
multiple cell groups, which are small social groups. Harmonious cooperation
works well in a small social group.

The simple foundation for the harmonious society of God is love as described by
Paul in the Bible.

If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a
resounding gong or a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom
all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but
have not love, I am nothing. If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body
to the flames, but have not love, I gain nothing. Love is patient, love is kind. It does
not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not
easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but
rejoices with the truth. 7It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always
perseveres. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where
there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away.
For we know in part and we prophesy in part, 10but when perfection comes, the
imperfect disappears. When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I
reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me. Now we
see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in
part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known. And now these three remain:
faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love (1 Corinthians 13)

When we start to know fully, we start to know that love is greater than the differences in
religious faiths and religious hopes. The New Testament of the Bible tears down the
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separation between the Jewish and the Gentile (non-Jewish) religious traditions, and
builds the kingdom of God based on Jesus Christ. Similarly, universal scientific theism
tears down the separation between the Christian and the non-Christian religious
traditions, and builds the harmonious society of God based on Jesus Christ.

9.6. The End Time

In human society, different interactions among different entities result in different
products. There are two possible interactions: the elimination interaction and the
combination interaction. In the elimination interaction, the result is the elimination of
entities by the other entities. In the combination interaction, the result is the interlocking
product as the combination of the interacting entities balancing each other. The dualism of
good and evil represents the elimination interaction, resulting in the elimination of evil by
good as the ultimate product. The dualism of yin and yang represents the combination
interaction, resulting in the interlocking product with both yin and yang balancing each other.
There are proper places for the elimination interaction and the combination
interaction. In divided society, including the divided international society, where nations
fight against and eliminate each other, the concept of the elimination interaction prevails to
reflect the fighting for survival in divided society. In unified society where social groups
depend on each other, the concept of the combination interaction prevails to reflect the
existing peaceful co-existent entities in unified society. Historically, in Europe and the
Middle East for the West, many nations fought and eliminated each other as the divided
society, so the concept of the elimination interaction prevailed to reflect the divided society
in Europe and the Middle East. In China, India, and the Far East for the East, there was the
reality of unified society, so the concept of the combination interaction prevailed to reflect
the unified society in China, India, and the Far East.
In India, the key to the unified society is connection among all things. In India, the
different social classes were interlocked into the caste system through reincarnation.
Millions of gods are simply connected together by reincarnations, families, and theories.
India today with many different languages is held together by the concept of the unified
society. For thousands years, Indians have connected all things together, so the divided
society is unthinkable and foreign. In China, the key to unified society is one nation (the
Middle Kingdom). The strong sense of one nation allows China to overcome divisions and
absorb invading people and ideas into the Middle Kingdom.
Now the East meets the West. The question now is what the postmodern society is,
divided society or unified society. If the postmodern society is divided society, the
elimination interaction prevails. If the postmodern society is unified society, the
combination interaction prevails. Since the end of the Cold War, all major powers in the
world have become increasingly interdependent in trades, goals, and many parts of life
through increasingly ubiquitous global communication. For major powers in the world, the
postmodern society is unified society. Therefore, in the postmodern society, the
combination interaction prevails to reflect the Postmodern Unified Society.
In the traditional West as divided society, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have the
prophecies about the end time, while in the East as unified society, Hinduism, Buddhism,
Confucianism, and Daoism do not have the end time. Without fighting for survival,
Hinduism and Buddhism believe in cycles of destruction and creation. Confucianism and
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Daoism believe the past, the present, and the future are connected continuously in the sense
that learning passes from generations to generations. In the prophecies of the West with the
fighting for survival, the ultimate result of the end time is the emergence of unified society
by the ultimate victory of good over evil in divided society. By the definition of divided
society, there is eternal fighting for survival without ultimate victory until the end of divided
society. Therefore, the end time reflects divided society, and the end of prevailing divided
society is the beginning of prevailing unified society.
The Postmodern Unified Society fulfills the end time prophecies of Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam. The end time is the end time of divided society as the divided
society of the West, so the end time is social-cultural-economic rather than physical-
religious as traditionally expected. It is similar to Jesus’ kingdom of God that is social-
spiritual rather than political as traditionally expected.
In the Bible, the unified society was described by Prophet Isaiah (in the 8th-century
BC) as the unified society without the fighting for survival after the end time.

“See, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be
remembered, nor will they come to mind…The wolf and the lamb will feed together,
and the lion will eat straw like the ox, and dust will be the serpent’s food. They will
neither harm nor destroy on my entire holy mountain,” says the LORD. (Isaiah 65:
17-25)
They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks.
Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore.
(Isaiah 2:4)

Prophet John (in the first-century AD) described the new earth as the unified society where
all nations co-exist peacefully without separation after the end time.

Then I saw “a new heaven and a new earth,” for the first heaven and the first earth
had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City… The city
does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light,
and the Lamb is its lamp. The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the
earth will bring their splendor into it. On no day will its gates ever be shut, for there
will be no night there. The glory and honor of the nations will be brought into it.
(Revelation 21:1-26)

9.7. This Life and Afterlife

In religions, many aspects of doctrines in afterlife are the projection of this life in
terms of idealized forms of this-life. In reality, it is not easy to project this life into
afterlife. When Jesus was asked about marriage in afterlife in terms of resurrection after
dead,

Jesus replied, “You are in error because you do not know the Scriptures or the power
of God. At the resurrection people will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they
will be like the angels in heaven.” (Matthew 22:29-30)

To Jesus, marriage of this life cannot be projected into afterlife.
163
Similarly, the living body and the living society of this life cannot be easily
projected into afterlife. In this life, there are living physical body and living society, but
in afterlife, there is no living physical body and living society that are the origin of
happiness and suffering that we know in life. Happiness is the encouragement to enhance
the fitness in living body and living society, while suffering is the warning about the
disorder that can hurt living body and living society. There is nothing intrinsic about
happiness and suffering. The differences between happiness and suffering are in small
molecules (good and bad taste and odor), temperatures (comfort and pain), air pressures
(music and noise), wavelengths (pleasant and unpleasant color), symmetry (beauty and
ugliness), reproduction (attraction and rejection), and social support (love and loneliness).
All happiness and suffering must be measured by living body and living society.
Heaven and hell in afterlife associate with happiness and suffering, but without
living body and living society in afterlife, happiness and suffering that we know in this
life do not exist in afterlife. Without happiness and suffering that we know in this life,
how can we define heaven and hell in afterlife?
Since afterlife cannot be projected easily from this life, it is possible to read the
religious doctrine of afterlife as the idealized this-life to teach the followers how to
behave in this life. The reincarnation based on karma that teaches the followers to take
the moral consequences seriously for the future life after afterlife really teaches the
followers to take the moral consequences seriously for this life. The religious teaching of
heaven and hell for afterlife based on how a person behaves is really the religious
teaching of heaven and hell in this life based on how a person behaves. Happiness and
suffering in afterlife are really happiness and suffering in this life. Heaven and hell in
afterlife are really heaven and hell in this life.
Does afterlife have happiness and suffering that we know? This life is limited, so
happiness and suffering are needed to extend this life as long as long as possible in terms
of survival and reproduction. Afterlife is eternal, so there is no need for happiness and
suffering to extend eternal life. There is no dualism of happiness and suffering in
afterlife in terms of life itself. However, if there is a purpose in afterlife, happiness is the
encouragement to enhance this purpose, while suffering is the warning about the disorder
that hurts this purpose.
What is the afterlife purpose that we know? In natural selection in the biological
evolution, fitness enhances biological survival. In supernatural selection, the
supernatural selects human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen
social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Harmony is the purpose of
the supernatural. Human in afterlife is dependent on the supernatural, so happiness in
afterlife associates with harmony, while suffering in afterlife associates with disharmony.
Whoever believes in harmony and behaves accordingly continues to exist in afterlife as
described in the Bible,

Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, as clear as crystal,
flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb down the middle of the great
street of the city… They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads.
There will be no more night. They will not need the light of a lamp or the light of
the sun, for the Lord God will give them light. And they will reign for ever and
ever. (Revelation 22:1-5)
164

The verses show that the human existences in afterlife are dependent on the harmony (the
Lamb).
Whoever does not believe in harmony and hurts harmony ceases to exist in
afterlife as described in the Bible,

For the living know that they will die, but the dead know nothing; they have no
further reward, and even their name is forgotten. (Ecclesiastes 9:5)

9.8. Summary for Part 2

Jesus said that the kingdom of God is within you. The kingdom of God is within
the harmonious society and social life. The kingdom of God is divided into five parts as
the original humans, the prehistoric kingdom of God, the early kingdom of God, modern
kingdom of God, and the postmodern kingdom of God for the human evolution period,
the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, the Modern Period, and the Postmodern Period.
The uniqueness of the original humans is explained by human social lives. The
three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective
wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation,
respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans.
Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and
hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge.
During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was
fully developed. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social
group. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society. In the Bible,
the human in the image of God is the human of the harmonious social life that is different
from all other animals.
The supernatural interaction between the supernatural and human is expressed as
the kingdom of God that is the harmonious society. The kingdom of God evolves
through supernatural selection. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation
of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the harmonious society as the
chosen society by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the
expression of the natural human mind) including abstract social bond, abstract morality,
and abstract rebirth.
As the Garden of Eden, the prehistoric kingdom of God expressed as Symbolic Religion
(female figurines and cave paintings) provided the abstract social bond to bond the
isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. In the Early Period starting from
the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitably large civilized social group destroyed the
prehistoric harmonious small social group as the prehistoric kingdom of God. The early
transitional kingdom of God was the moral religion as Judaism, and provided the abstract
morality to prevent the activated dehumanized prey-predator instinct. Jesus Christ
initiated the early kingdom of God that provided the abstract rebirth for the civilized
people to return to the harmonious social life and society. It was manifested in the early
church based on the harmonious society and social life. The decline of the kingdom of
God later resulted from the conversion of the church to the state religion. In the Modern
Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the decline of the state
165
religion resulted in the modern kingdom of God in the three-branch Unified Society
consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious
society for collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation,
respectively. The typical example of the Unified Society is America that has the
collective political party, the individualistic political party, and the modern kingdom of
God separated from the state. In the postmodern world, the postmodern kingdom of God
scientifically becomes the harmonious society of God in the three-branch Unified Society.
The Postmodern Unified Society fulfills the end time prophecy for the end of the old
divided society and the beginning of the new unified society. The followers of harmony
continue to exist in afterlife.


the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society
the Upper Paleolithic Revolution
the Neolithic Revolution
The Development of the Kingdom of God
the unified prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society the prehistoric kingdom of God

the Modern Revolution
the collective society:
the collective party
+ the partisan socialism
the individualistic society:
the individualistic party
+ the partisan capitalism
the harmonious society
the harmonious religion
the modern kingdom of God
the collective society:
the collective state +
the state religion
the early transitional
kingdom of God
the harmonious society
the harmonious religion
the early kingdom of God
the individualistic society:
the individualistic state +
the state individualism
the Postmodern Revolution
the global collective society:
the collective party
+ the partisan socialism
the global individualistic society:
the individualistic party
+ the partisan capitalism
the global harmonious society
the harmonious religion
the harmonious society of God
166
10. Summary

The four-generation religion from the prehistoric society to the postmodern society
consists of the band religion, the tribal religion, the global religion, and the universal
religion for egalitarian immanent theism, elite revealed theism, common rational theism, and
universal scientific theism, respectively. The fourth generation religion is the universal
religion as universal scientific theism in the postmodern religious universal society. Science
based on rationalism and empiricism is the universal language for observable phenomena.
The method of universal scientific theism is the universal scientific revelation of the God’s
scientific plan for our universe and society. The God’s scientific plan for our universe is
Genesis Cosmology based on Genesis and the unified theory of physics. The God’s
scientific plan for our society is the kingdom of God based on Jesus’ teaching, the Bible,
Dao De Jing, and human biological and social evolutions. The universal scientific
revelation based on rationalism and empiricism is verifiable. Science involved includes
physics, cosmology, astronomy, the human biological and social evolutions, neuroscience,
and psychology.
The God’s scientific plan for our universe is Genesis Cosmology that is the
cosmology model in agreement with the interpretive description of the first three days in
Genesis. Genesis Cosmology is derived from the unified theory that unifies all physical
phenomena in our universe. Genesis Cosmology is verifiable.
The God’s scientific plan for our society is the kingdom of God as taught by Jesus,
the Bible, Dao De Jing, and human evolution. Jesus said that the kingdom of God is
within you. The kingdom of God is within the harmonious society and social life (social
interaction). The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine
collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation,
respectively. The harmonious social life exists only in humans. Human social lives were
derived from human biological evolution. The harmonious social life was evolved to
adapt to the small social group (band). The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the
harmonious society. In the Bible, the human in the image of God is the human of the
harmonious social life that is different from all other animals. As the Garden of Eden, the
prehistoric kingdom of God was the band (small-group) religion where many isolated
bands were bonded together by religion to overcome the harsh environment during the
Upper Paleolithic Revolution. Starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitably
large civilized social group destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group as
the prehistoric kingdom of God, resulting in the fall in the Garden of Eden. The early
transitional kingdom of God was the moral religion as Judaism that was the tribal religion,
and then became the global religion. Jesus Christ initiated the early kingdom of God that
allowed the civilized people to return to the harmonious social life and society. In the
postmodern world, the postmodern kingdom of God scientifically becomes the harmonious
society of God in the three-branch Unified Society. The Postmodern Unified Society
fulfills the end time prophecy for the end of the old divided society and the beginning of
the new unified society. The followers of harmony continue to exist in afterlife.

167
11. Reference

Email address: einsnewt@yahoo.com
Website (download all books): http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/
Books list: http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt




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Neuroreport. 2005 November 28; 16(17): 1893–1897.
131 William Johnston's, The Cloud of Unknowing: and The Book of Privy Counseling, Image, 1996
132 Brain Matures a Few Years Late in ADHD, But Follows Normal Pattern NIMH Press Release,
November 12, 2007
133 Jennifer H. Pfeifer, and Baldwin M. Way, Putting Feelings Into Words: Affect Labeling Disrupts
Amygdala Activity in Response to Affective Stimuli, Psychological Science 18:5, p. 421-428, 2007
134 Judy Foreman, A Look at the Science Behind Meditation, Boston Globe, April 22, 2003.
171

135 Lutz A, Greischar LL, Rawlings NB, Ricard M, Davidson RJ. (2004) Long-term meditators self-
induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences. 101:16369-73
136 A. Newberg, E. D’Aquili, and V. Rause, Why God Won’t Go Away: Brain Science and the Biology of
Belief, New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 2001.
137 Rodney Stark, The Rise of Christianity: How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the
Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries (Princeton University Press/Harper Collins,
1996/1997).
138 Bonomi, Patricia, “Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies.” Divining America, TeacherServe.
National Humanities Center. 2009.
<http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/midcol.htm>
139 Einsnewt, The Postmodern Society: Divided and Unified Societies, 2009
http://www.scribd.com/doc/16638719/The-Postmodern-Society-Divided-and-Unified-Societies
140 Richard T. Hughes, Christian America and the Kingdom of God, University of Illinois Press, 2009, Is
the United States a Christian nation? Let's look at the Bible
http://www.philly.com/inquirer/opinion/50551762.html
141 Humanist Manifesto III, http://www.harvardhumanist.org/humanism/humanist-manifesto-iii

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