You are on page 1of 44

Computer Basics

ICT Module 1
SNGS College Learning Management
System
What is a Computer ?

• A computer is an electronic machine


that process raw data under
program control to give meaningful
information with speed and
accuracy.
Characteristics of Computers:

 Speed
 Accuracy
 High Storage Capacity
 Reliability
 Versatality
 Automation
Limitations of Computers :

• Lack of Commonsense
• Inability to Correct
• Dependence on human assistance
History of Computers :
• ‘Abacus’ – The first known calculating
machine (600 BC)

• Mechanical Calculator – Blaisie Pascal


(1645), French Scientist and Mathematician.

• Multiplying Machine – Gottfried


Leibnitz (1671), German Scientist.
History of Computers......cont....

• Jacquard’s Loom – Mr. Joseph Mary


Jacquard(1804), French Man.

• Difference Engine – Charles Babbage


(1813), English Scientist & Mathematician.

• Analytical Engine– Charles Babbage


(1863), English Scientist & Mathematician.
History of Computers......Cont..
• Charls Babbage – The father of
Computers

• Punched Card Machine – Dr. Herman


Hollerith (1890), U.S. Scientist.

• Harward Mark I – Howard Aiken (1937),


in association with IBM
History of Computers......Cont..
• ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator
and Calculator) – Scientists of Harward
University (1943), First Electronic
Computer
• EDSAC (Electronic Delayed Storage and
Calculations) – University of Manchester
(1947)
• UNIVAC-I – Sperry Rand Corporation ,
USA (1951)
History of Computers......Cont..
• 1953 : IBM introduced IBM 650
• 1961 : First commercial IC
• 1968 : Founded Intel Corporation
• 1972 : First 8 bit microprocessor by Intel
• 1977 : Founded Apple Computer Company
• 1968 : Founded Intel Corporation
• ...............
Types of Computers

• Analog Computer
• Digital Computer
• Hybrid Computer
Analog Computer

“The variables are represented by


continuous physical quantities”

Mainly used for Engineering and


Scientific applications.
Speed but not accurate
Digital Computer
“works on discontineous data
(descrete data). Convert the data in
to digits ”

Widely used for business and personal


applications
Hybrid Computers
“utilise the best qualities of both
digital and analog computer. It is a
combination of Digital and Analog
computers ”

Widely used in hospitals


Number System
1. Decimal System :
 Consists of 10 numbers or symbols
(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8&9)
 Base 10 system
 Positional Value system (value
depends upon position
 Eg : 4672 – (‘4’is the MSD & 2 is the LSD)
can be written as :
(4X103)+ (6X102)+ (7X101)+ (2X100) = 4672
Number System.....cont..

2. Binary System:
 Consists of only 2 numbers or
symbols (0,1)
 Base 2 system
 Positional Value system
 Eg : 11can be written as : 1 0 1 1
(1X23)+ (0X22)+ (1X21)+ (1X20) = 11
Number System.....cont..

3. Octal Number System:


 Consists of only 8 possible digits
(0,1,2,3,4,5,6&7)
 Base 8 system
4. Hexa Decimal Number System:
 Consists of only 16 possible digits
(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 +A,B, etc.)
 Base 16 system
Bits & Bytes

1. Bits :
 Short form of ‘Binary Digits’
 Numbers in a binary number system.
2. Bytes :
 Combination of 8 Bits makes one
character (Byte)
Others Measures
 Kilobyte (KB) (210) = 1024
 Megabyte (MB) (220) = 1048576
 Gigabyte (GB) (230) = 1073741824
 Terabyte (TB) (240) = 1099511627776
 Petaabyte (PB) (250) = 1125899906842624
 Exabyte (EB) (260) =
 Setabyte (SB) (270) =
 Yotabyte (YB) (280) =
Data Representation Standards
 BCD System (Binary Coded Decimal)

ASCII System (American Standard Code


for Information Interchange)

EBCDIC System (Extended Binary Coded


Decimal Interchange Code)
Boolean Algebra

 Boolean constants and variables are


allowed to have only two possible values
that is ‘0 & 1’. This is used for getting best
possible result.
Three Basic Operations (Gates)
(1) OR, (2) AND & (3) NOT
Boolean Algebra......

OR Gate : Output Y=A+B


AND Gate : Output Y=A.B
NOT Gate (Single input) : Output Y=A
NOR Gate (Combination of NOT & OR):
Output Y=A+B
NAND (Combination of NOT & AND) :
Out put Y = A.B
Boolean Algebra......

OR Gate : Output Y=A+B

AND Gate : Output Y=A.B


Boolean Algebra......
NOT Gate (Single input) : Output Y=A

NOR Gate (Combination of NOT & OR):


Output Y=A+B

NAND (Combination of NOT & AND) :


Out put Y = A.B
Structure of a Computer
CPU

ALU
Input Output
Unit Unit

CU Registers

Memory Unit
Terms
1. CPU – Central Processing Unit – Most
Important componant - Processing
operations are taken place here
2. ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit – Logical
operations like calculations, comparisons
are taken place here.
3. CU (Control Unit) – Control Unit directs
and Co-ordinates all operations of a
computer.
Memory Unit
Two types of Memory :

1. Primary Memory (Main Memory)

1. RAM (Random Access Memory)


2. ROM (Read Only Memory)
a) PROM (Programmable ROM)
b) EPROM (Erasable PROM)
c) EEPROM (Electrically EPROM)
Memory Unit cont....
1. Secondary Memory (Auxiliary Memory)

1. Magnetic Tape
2. Magnetic Disk
3. Floppy Disk (3.5”, 5.25” & 8”)
4. Hard Disk (Metallic disk pack )
5. Optical Disk
6. Magnetic Bubble Memory (MBM)
Input & Output Devices

1. Input Devices : Used to enter data in to


the computer.

1. Key Board
2. Mouse
3. Joystick
4. Light Pen
5. Magnetic Ink Character Reader
Input & Output Devices....cont...

6. Punched Card Reader


7. OMR (Optical Mark Reader)
8. Optical Character Reader (OCR)
9. Bar Code Reader
10. Voice Recognition system
11. Scanner
Input & Output Devices

1. Output Devices : Used to supply the


processed information to the users.

1. Visual Disply Unit (VDU)Monitor etc.


2. Printer
3. Plotter
4. Voice Response devices (Speaker etc.)
Computer Hardware & Software

1. Hardware : All electronic, magnetic and


mechanical components used
in a computer system Eg :

1. Key Board
2. Mouse
3. Mother board
4. Hard Disk
5. Removable drives etc.
Computer Hardware & Software
1. Software : Programs or sequence of
instructions given to a computer to
perform a particular task.
Types of Software :
1. System Software :
Programs needed to manage and support a
computer system and its information processisng
activities.
Eg. Operating system, Programming Language Utility
Programmes etc.
Computer Hardware & Software

1. Application Software :
Programs designed to accomplish a particular
task. That is program for specific application
only
Eg. Program for word processing, Spread sheet,
Animation etc.
Operating System

Operating system : An interface between


the User and the Hardware. OS controls all
componants of a computer system.

Functions of Operating System :


1. Job Management
2. Resource Management
3. Data Management
Operating System.......

Types of Operating System :


1. Single Program OS
2. Multiprogram OS
3. Time Sharing OS
4. Real Time OS
5. Multiprocessing OS
Operating System......

Popular Operating Systems :


1. DOS (Disk Operating System)
2. Windows (Version 1, 1.1......Vista)
3. Linux
4. UNIX -UNiplexed Information Computing
System (UNICS)-1970s
5. Mac.
Operating System......

CUI – Character user interface (Support


only characters)
(Eg. DOS)
GUI – Graphic user interface (Graphical
supporting like sound, video, image etc.)
(Eg. Windows, Linux etc.)
DMA - Direct Memory Access (less
effort to OS)
Computer Languages

 A standaised communication technique for


expressing instructions to a computer.
 Used to develop programs or softwares.
Types of Computer Languages :
1. Machine Languages
2. Low level Languages
(Assembly Languages)
3. High level Languages
Computer Languages........
 Machine Language : Written by using
binary digits. High end technical
knowledge is required.
 Low level Languages (Assembly Languages) :
Processed byan assembler which translate the
assembly language in to machine language
 High level Languages (Compiler Languages) :
Closely resembles human language and make use
of common mathematical notations.
Eg : COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC Etc.
Data Processing

 Data : unorganised facts but able to be organised


in to useful information.
Eg : Name, Date of birth, Age, Mark etc.
 Database : Collection of unorganised facts
but able to be organised in to useful
information.
Eg : Student details, Employee details, etc.
 Information : Manipulated or organised data.
Data Processing.......

 Data Base Management System (DBMS) :


Interface between user and database. Programe
used for manipulating or processing the database
to get meaningful information
Eg : ORACLE, MS-Access etc.
 Database Architecture (Data Models) :
 Hierarchical Model
 Network Model
 Relational Model (RDBMS)
Relational Data Base Management System-very
popular
Computer Network

 Interconnected collection of independent


computers
 Types of Network:
 Local Area Network (LAN)
 Wide Area Network (WAN)
 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
 Personal Area Network (PAN)

3.
Network Topologies

 Star Topology
 Ring Topology
 Bus Topology
 Tree Topology
 Hybrid Topology

3.