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Ministry of Road Transport & Highways

(Government of India)

CONSULTANCY SERVICES FOR FORMULATION OF MASTER


PLAN FOR INDIAN NATIONAL EXPRESSWAY NETWORK

FINAL PROJECT REPORT


November 2009

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Table of Contents

Executive Summary 1

1.0 Introduction 5

2.0 Brief Review of Earlier Works 7

2.1 Major Expressways in the Country 7

3.0 The Present Study 13

3.1 Objective 13
3.2 Scope of Work 13
3.2.1 Traffic studies and Axle Load spectrum 13
3.2.2 Establish National Expressway Network 13
3.2.3 Land Acquisition Plan 14
3.2.4 Rehabilitation and Resettlement Analysis 14
3.2.5 Environmental Impact Assessment 15
3.2.6 Organisation/Human Resource Development 15

4.0 Regional Characteristics of India – An Overview 16

4.1 Description of the Study Area 16


4.2 Economy 17
4.3 Industrial Regions 17
4.4 Tourism 19
4.5 Ecology & Environment 19
4.6 Geo–morphology 20
4.7 Existing Transport Network 21
4.7.1 Road Network 21
4.7.2 Rail Network 21
4.7.3 Major Ports & Harbours 25
4.7.4 Major Airports 25

5.0 Methodology and Work Plan 28

5.1 General 28
5.2 Methodology 28

6.0 Collection and Analysis of Data from Secondary Sources 32

7.0 Analysis of Data from Secondary Sources 34

7.1 Trend Analysis and Growth Factor Analysis 34


7.2 Growth Factor using Econometric Modeling Technique 34

7.2.1 Freight Traffic 38


7.2.2 Preferred Growth Factor 39
7.2.3 Alternative Traffic Growth Scenarios 39

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7.3 Axle load Spectrum 41


7.4 Diversion Curve Analysis 43

7.4.1 Vehicle Operating Cost 43


7.4.2 Value of Time 44
7.4.3 Toll Rate 45

7.5 Overview of Traffic Diversion Curve 46


7.6 Summary 52

8.0 Traffic, Travel and Axle Load Characteristics 53

8.1 Traffic Flow Characteristics 53


8.1.1 Background 53
8.2 Classified Traffic Volume Count Survey 53
8.2.1 Average Daily Traffic (ADT) Characteristics 53
8.3 Origin – Destination Survey 57
8.4 Trip Length 58
8.5 Commodities Carried 58
8.6 Major OD Pairs 58
8.6.1 Goods Traffic 58
8.6.2 Passenger Traffic 61
8.7 Axle Load Spectrum 61
8.8 Establishing Diversion Curves 63
8.9 Fixing Optimum Toll Rate for National Expressway Network 64

9.0 Master Plan of Expressway Network 66

9.1 Background 66
9.2 Export Processing Zones 66
9.3 Mineral Belts in the Country 67
9.4 Development Matrix 68
9.4.1 General 68
9.4.2 Method adopted for Ranking 69
9.4.3 Description of Different Zones 69
9.5 Master Plan for National Expressway Network 77

10.0 Comments from Different States 80

10.1 General 80
10.2 Comments from States and Compliance there of 80

11.0 Economic Evaluation 94

11.1 Approach 94
11.2 Economic Parameters 94
11.2.1 Standard Conversion Factors 94
11.2.2 Economic Analysis Parameters 95
11.2.3 Project Cost 95
11.2.4 Results of Economic Evaluation 95

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12.0 Financial Analysis 97

12.1 Approach 98
12.2 Major Assumptions 98
12.2.1 Project Capital Cost 98
12.2.2 Construction Schedule 99
12.2.3 Funding Options – Debt – Equity 99
12.2.4 IDC and Financing Chargers 99
12.2.5 Term Loan 101
12.2.6 Tollable Traffic Levels 101
12.3 Toll Rates 101
12.4 Income Tax 102
12.5 Depreciation 102
12.6 Carry Forward and Set Off of Losses 103
12.7 Operation & Maintenance Cost 103
12.8 Results of Financial Analysis 103

13.0 Prioritization of Expressway Links 105

13.1 Earlier Recommendations and Findings 105


13.2 Findings from the Present Study 105

14.0 Interchange Forms, Toll Plaza and Wayside Amenities 113

14.1 Pedestrian and Cattle Crossings 113


14.2 Wayside Amenities 113
14.3 Intelligent Transportation Systems 114

15.0 Land Acquisition 115

16.0 Rehabilitation and Resettlement Issues 117

16.1 Introduction 117


16.2 Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement 118
16.3 Compensation and Resettlement Assistance 118
16.3.1 Agricultural Titleholders 119
16.3.2 Non – Agricultural Title holders 120
16.3.3 Tenants 121
16.3.4 Wage earners and Share-croppers 121
16.3.5 Encroachers 121
16.3.6 Squatters 121
16.3.7 Kiosks 122
16.3.8 Common properties 122
16.3.9 Disposal of Acquired Properties and Eviction of the SBEs / households 122
16.4 Resettlement Side 122

17.0 Legal and Administrative Frame Work 124

17.1 Legal and administrative frame work 124


17.2 Institutional Setting for the Project 124

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18.0 Environmental Impact Assessment 126

19.0 Conclusions and Recommendations 127

19.1 Conclusions 127


19.2 Recommendations 128

20.0 Beyond the Master Plan 129

List of Figures

2.1 Evolution of the Major Road System in India 8


2.2 Recommended Expressway Network to be achieved by 2005 as per earlier Study 10
4.1 Physical Map of India 16
4.2 Agricultural & Industrial Belts of India 18
4.3 Major Tourist Spots of India 19
4.4 Climate and Vegetation Patterns in India 20
4.5 Different Soil Types in India 21
4.6 Major Road Network of India 22
4.7 Existing Railway Network in India 23
4.8 Proposed Alignment of Dedicated Freight Corridor 24
4.9 Major Sea Ports of India 26
4.10 Major Airports in India 27
7.1 Growth trend of goods traffic along Bangalore-Chitradurga Stretch 35
7.2 Growth trend of passenger traffic along Bangalore-Chitradurga Stretch 35
7.3 Growth trend of goods traffic along Pune- Sholapur Stretch 36
7.4 Growth trend of passenger trafffic along Pune- Sholapur Stretch 36
7.5 Growth trend of goods vehicles along Chitoor-Kurnool Stretch 37
7.6 Growth trend of passenger vehicles along Chitoor-Kurnool Stretch 37
7.7 Axle Load Spectrum for Dual Axle trucks (Secondary Data) 41
7.8 Axle Load Spectrum for Multi Axle trucks (Secondary Data) 42
7.9 Cumulative Distribution of Axle Load of Dual Axle Trucks (Sec. Data) 42
7.10 Cumulative Distribution of Axle Load of Multi Axle Trucks (Sec. Data) 43
8.1 Traffic Variation (NH-48) 53
8.2 Traffic Composition (NH-48) 53
8.3 Traffic Variation (NH-17) 54
8.4 Traffic Composition (NH-17) 54
8.5 Traffic Variation (NH-5) 54
8.6 Traffic Composition (NH-5) 54
8.7 Traffic Variation (NH-7) 55
8.8 Traffic Composition (NH-7) 55
8.9 Traffic Variation (NH-2) 55
8.10 Traffic Composition (NH-2) 55
8.11 Traffic Variation (NH-1) 56
8.12 Traffic Composition (NH-1) 56
8.13 Traffic Variation (NH-8) 56
8.14 Traffic Composition (NH-8) 56
8.15 Axle Load Spectrum for Dual Axle trucks (Primary Data) 61
8.16 Axle Load Spectrum for Multi Axle trucks (Primary Data) 61
8.17 Cumulative Distribution of Axle Load of Dual Axle Trucks (Primary Data) 63
8.18 Cumulative Distribution of Axle Load of Multi Axle Trucks (Primary Data)63
8.19 Diversion Curve for Cars 63
8.20 Diversion Curve for Trucks 63

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8.21 Diversion Curve for Buses 64


9.1 Major SEZ and Ports in India 67
9.2 Mineral Belts in India 68
10.1 Alignment of National Expressway through Bihar 80
10.2 Alignment of National Expressway through Chhattisgarh 81
10.3 Phase wise National Expressway Network 82
10.4. Expressway Corridors proposed by the State 83
10.5 Alignment of Proposed National Expressway through Gujarat 85
10.6 Alignment of Proposed National Expressway through Karnataka 86
10.7 Expressway Corridors proposed by the State 87
10.8 Alignment of Proposed National Expressway through Kerala 88
10.9 Alignment of National Expressway Proposed through Madhya Pradesh 89
10.10 Alignment of National Expressway through Pondicherry 89
10.11 Alignment of National Expressway proposed through Punjab 90
10.12 Alignment of National Expressway proposed through Rajasthan 91
10.13 Alignment of National Expressway proposed through Uttar Pradesh 92

List of Plates
6.1 Survey Locations 33
8.1 Traffic Zone Diagram of Study Area 59
8.2 Desire line Diagram of Goods Traffic 60
8.3 Desire line Diagram of Passenger Traffic 62
9.1 Traffic Intensity at Major Arterial Roads 78
9.2 Proposed National Expressway Network 79
13.1 Proposed National Expressways by the Year 2012 (PPP) 109
13.2 Proposed National Expressways by the Year 2017 (PPP) 110
13.3 Proposed National Expressways by the Year 2022 (PPP) 111
13.4 Proposed National Expressways by the Year 2022 (Annuity) 112

List of Tables

1 Prioritized Expressway Segments (PPP mode) 3


2 Prioritized Expressway segments (Annuity) 4
2.1 Categories of Roads 7
7.1 Growth Rates Obtained from the available Data 34
7.2 Elasticity of Transport Demand 38
7.3 Growth Rate of Traffic during 2008 and 2012 38
7.4 Growth Rate of Traffic during 2013 and 2017 38
7.5 Growth Rate of Traffic during 2018 and 2022 39
7.6 Growth Rate of Traffic during 2008 and 2012 (optimistic) 39
7.7 Growth Rate of Traffic during 2013 and 2017 (optimistic) 40
7.8 Growth Rate of Traffic during 2018 and 2022 (optimistic) 40
7.9 Growth Rate of Traffic during 2008 and 2012 (pessimistic) 40
7.10 Growth Rate of Traffic during 2013 and 2017 (pessimistic) 41
7.11 Growth Rate of Traffic during 2018 – 2022 (pessimistic) 41
7.12 Average Speed for National Highways and Expressways 44
7.13 Value of Time (Rs/Hr) 44
7.14 Value of Time (Rs/Km) 45
7.15 Toll rates as per Price Water Coopers Study 45
7.16 Toll Rates as per CES Study 45
7.17 Toll rate as per CTS Mumbai 45
7.18 Toll rates for different Expressways 46
7.19 Diversion Curve Equations 46

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7.20 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 47


7.21 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 47
7.22 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 47
7.23 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 48
7.24 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 48
7.25 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 48
7.26 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 49
7.27 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 49
7.28 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 49
7.29 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 50
7.30 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 50
7.31 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 50
7.32 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 51
7.33 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 51
7.34 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 51
7.35 Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km) 52
7.36 Summary of Different Scenarios 57
8.2 O-D Survey Sample Size at 7 Locations 57
8.3 Percentage Share of Traffic for Different Trip Length 58
8.4 Diverted Traffic in Percentage as per Ministry's Toll Rate 64
9.1 Ranking of States in Zone 1 69
9.2 Ranking of States in Zone 2 73
9.3 Ranking of States in Zone 3 75
9.4 Ranking of States in Zone 4 76
10.1 Expressway Proposed by the State 83
11.1 Results of Economic Analysis 96
12.1 Project Capital Cost (Excluding IDC & FC) for 4 lane expressway 99
12.2 Project Capital Cost (Excluding IDC & FC) for 6 lane expressway 99
12.3 Project Cost for Four Lane Expressway 100
12.4 Project Cost for Six Lane Expressway 100
12.5 Traffic Levels for Normal Toll Rates 101
12.6 Traffic Levels with 50% higher toll Rates 101
12.7 Traffic Levels with 100% Higher Toll Rates 101
12.8 Toll Rates as Specified by The Ministry 102
13.1 Prioritization of National Expressway Network (Scenario-I) - PPP-Mode 106
13.2 Prioritization of National Expressway Network (Scenario-II) - PPP-Mode 107
13.3 Prioritization of National Expressway Network (Scenario-I & II) Annuity 108
18.1 Summary of Relevant Acts and Guidelines 126

List of Charts

5.1 Systems flow chart 29


List of Annexures

I Macro Economic Matrix and Ranking of States 131


II Comments received from States 133
III Economic Analysis 163
IV Financial Analysis 169
V Estimated Traffic Volumes Diverted on Expressway Network 177
VI Typical Interchange forms 181

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Executive Summary
1) Road transport in India is the dominant mode of transport, accounting for 70% of
freight movement and 85% of passenger traffic. The NH network constitutes about 2% of
the country’s road network, but carries about 40% of the total traffic. Over the last
decade, the numbers of LMVs and heavy vehicles have increased at about 9% and
7.6%, respectively. Most of our national highways are severely congested.
Internationally, a goods vehicle travels an average of 600–800 km a day, while on
Indian roads, until recently, the average distance covered was only 250–300 kms a day.
With the advent of National Expressway there will expectedly be a greater scope of
weaning away some traffic from other competing modes with the possibility of the
average trip length being doubled in due course of time.

2) The objective of the present study is to formulate a Master Plan for development of
“INDIAN NATIONAL EXPRESSWAY NETWORK” for the horizon year 2022, i.e. by the end of
the 13th Five Year Plan. The idea is to achieve a modest target of nearly15, 600 kms of
expressway by the design year. The study also aims at prioritising and phasing of
expressway development/construction programme by the years 2012, 2017 and 2022.

3) The Consultants have considered the geography of the study area, its major potential
economic hubs, ports, airports, major growth centers, tourist spots, industrial regions,
agricultural regions etc., for preliminary assessment of major attraction and production
centers that understandably impact traffic generation and attraction within the region.

4) For the purpose of better comprehension the entire study area has been divided into 7
Zones, based on the broad macro – economic and other relevant parameters.

5) Passenger and Goods traffic growth rates have been derived zone wise based on the
Econometric Modeling technique (IRC) and projected to horizon year of 2022 (under
different time slabs).

6) The consultants have taken care to ensure that the proposed expressway network
compliments the existing major arterial network in terms of connectivity and
performance.

7) The consultants took the help of secondary data bank (Traffic Volume database
collected at Permanent Count Stations of different states) available with the Ministry
towards assessing segmental traffic demands along the existing arterial road network of
the country.

8) Diversion curve analysis was carried out using the diversion curve equations developed
for Expressways by M/s Wilbur Smith Associates (1991).The consultants also re-established
the diversion curves and calculated the estimated traffic loads on the expressway
segments on the basis of the re-established diversion curves.

9) The parameters considered for the diversion curve analysis were VOT, VOC and Toll
Rate (as per Ministry’s Guidelines – 2008).

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10) Keeping in view the requirements of the TOR, the consultants undertook the following
primary surveys to assess typical traffic, travel, socio-economic and transport
characteristics within the influence area of each survey location:

• Classified Traffic Volume Count


• Origin-Destination Study
• Axle Load Survey.

11) Desire line diagrams for Passenger and Goods Traffic were drawn based on the data
collected at designated Survey Locations.

12) Ranking of States has been done based on their Macro-Economic indices such as
agricultural productivity, industrial activity, major ports, major airports, tourist spots,
Class I cities, NSDP Index, per capita income etc. These indices give a general
indication of the extent of productivity of each state (within a specific region). The
consultants have also considered traffic demand characteristics in a conjoined manner
for the purpose of this exercise.

13) Traffic volumes (different class intervals) have been plotted on the major arterial
network of the country. Data from secondary sources for the past 5 years (2003-2008)
have been utilized for this purpose. The road segments catering to traffic volumes of
more than 10,000 PCUs during the base year (2008) have been paid special attention as
most likely deserving candidate projects.

14) Future expansion of ports, major identified SEZs, development programme under NHDP
Phase VI, proposed expressways, existing expressways, expressways committed at the
state levels have all been considered while drafting the network of national
expressways.

15) The suggestions received regarding the alignments proposed by the consultants from
the states which chose to respond have been duly considered.

16) Data gathered from the primary surveys by the consultants have been used for studying
some of the trends in traffic flow characteristics.

17) A systematic analysis of the data led the consultants to propose development of 18,637
kms. of National Expressway Network.

18) As mentioned in the TOR, the entire network of expressways has been prioritized into
three phases keeping in view a total time period of 3.5 years for detailed feasibility
study, land acquisition and construction of 2000-3000 kms of expressways per year on
BOT basis wherever the threshold value of FIRR was found to be more than 12%.

19) Financial Modeling has been carried out for 20% and 40% VGF and also with varying toll
rates. Finally two scenarios have been framed with 20% VGF and, with 20 years
(Scenario I) and 30 years (Scenario II) of concession periods under PPP model.

20) Scenario 1 has been recommended by the consultants along with prioritization of
network as shown in Table 1. The proposed Expressway Segments appear in order of
inter se’ Priorities derived on the basis of the planning parameters. This has been
recommended keeping in view a balanced development of the network over different
time slabs.

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21) However, during the last phase (up to 2022) a stretch of 5226 kms shall have to be
developed on annuity basis as derived from financial analysis (Table 2).

22) Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation has to be done in a comprehensive manner. For this
purpose creation of a central authority with required liaison units at state levels has
been recommended by the consultants.

23) The consultants have further recommended certain amendments in the LA act of the
NHAI along the lines of the DMRC Act.

24) In the process, the consultants have also recommended formation of a nodal authority
to be named as the National Expressway Authority of India (NEAI) that shall have state
(project) units for efficient discharge of duties. The Commissionerate (Land) shall be a
part of the NEAI.

Table 1: Prioritized Expressway segments (PPP mode)

Total
Length Passing
Priority Phase Year Stretches Stretch
(Km) Through States
(Km)

1 Ahmedabad-Rajkot 215 Gujarat


2 Bamanbor-Kandla 210 Gujarat
3 Pune-Sholapur 250 Maharashtra
Sholapur- Hyderabad - Maharashtra,
4 580
Vijayawada AP
5 Mumbai-Nashik-Dhule 340 Maharashtra
6 Haridwar-Sitapur 330 HP,UP
I 2012 3530 Delhi,
7 Delhi-Panipat-Ambala 195
Haryana
8 Trichur-Kanyakumari 400 Kerala,TN
Coimbatore-Erode-
9 175 TN
Salem
Karnataka,
10 Manglore-Karwar-Panaji 400
Goa
Lakhandon (Jabalpur)-
11 435 MP,UP
Allahabad
Delhi-Rhotak-Sirsa-Mandi Delhi,
12 II 2017 350 4310
Dabwali Haryana
Gujarat,
13 Surat-Nagpur 750
Maharashtra
14 Chitradurga-Sholapur 400 Karnataka
Amritsar-Ludhiana-
15 260 Punjab
Ambala
Gazhiabad-
16 Muzzafarnagar- 260 UP,HP
Dehradun
17 Fatehpur-Jaipur-Agra 430 Rajasthan, UP
Honavar-Shimoga-
18 325 Karnataka
Bangalore
19 Vishakapatnam-Koraput 230 AP,Orissa
Jharkhand,
20 Bokaro-Bhaktiyarpur 215
Bihar
21 Kendhujagarh-Rourkela 80 Orissa
Goa,
22 Panaji-Mumbai 510
Maharashta
MP,
23 Biaora-Nagpur 460
Maharashtra

Contd…

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24 Dhanbad-Bokaro 40 Jharkhand
MP,
25 Nagpur-Raipur 260
Maharashtra
26 Dhule-Etwah 750 MP, UP
27 Pindwara-Pali 223 Rajasthan
28 Raipur-Kolkata 750 MP, WB
29 Bangalore-Mangalore 360 Karnataka
Ranchi-Jamshedpur- Jharkhand,
30 220
Baharagora WB
31 Ranchi-Bokaro 90 Jharkhand
32 Indore-Chittaurgarh 290 MP, Rajasthan
33 Faridkot-Barnala 85 Punjab
34 Faizabad-Allahabad 151 UP
III 2022 5571
35 Coimbatore-Bangalore 402 TN, Karnataka
36 Sholapur-Dhule 400 Maharashtra
37 Salem-Cuddalore 190 TN
Pathankot-Amritsar-
38 255 Punjab
Faridkot
39 Jammu-Pathankot 110 JK, Punjab
40 Etwah-Faizabad 250 UP
41 Ahmedabad-Ratlam 350 Gujarat, MP
42 Ludhiana-Barnala 120 Punjab
43 Chittaurgarh-Pali 150 Rajasthan
Bhaktiyarpur-
44 165 Bihar
Muzzafarpur

Table 2: Prioritized Expressway segments (Annuity)

Total
Length Passing
Phase Year Stretches Stretch
(Km) Through States
(Km)

Kanyakumari-Tirunelveli-Pondi-
700 TN
Chennai
Chittoor-Cudappah 130 AP
Cudappah-Khammam* 610 AP
Khammam-Koraput* 350 AP, Orissa
Koraput-Kendhujagarh* 500 AP, Orissa
Orissa,
Rourkela-Ranchi 225
Jharkhand
Kishanganj-Dispur 500 WB, Assam
Muzzafarpur-Kishanganj* 150 Bihar
III 2022 Etwah-Agra 75 5226 UP
Kolkata-Kishanganj 380 WB
Pali-Fatehpur 315 Rajasthan
Rajasthan,
Fatehpur-Hissar 175
Haryana
Punjab,
Barnala - Mandi Dabwali 96
Haryana
Balia-Patna 80 UP, Bihar
UP,
Allahabad-Bilaspur-Raipur 640
Chattisgarh
Chattisgarh,
Raipur-Koraput 300
Orissa
* Traffic data not received.

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Introduction 1
E conomic fortune of a country is believed to depend upon the growth in infrastructure
in various sectors. It is thus, often considered necessary to develop infrastructure towards
sustaining the economic momentum at both national and regional levels. India is no exception
to this. A sound and reliable transport infrastructure is a definite asset towards ensuring all round
growth and development. The road sector occupies a position of pre – eminence in the
domain of total transportation facility. India can now boast of 65, 596 kms. of National
Highways. But even this network (along with other transport facilities) cannot really cater to the
latent and, not – so- latent demand for mobility. There is a real time need to cut down on travel
time (and turnaround time) while simultaneously ensuring higher levels of safety along the major
national road networks. As a measured response to this need the Government of India had
embarked upon the task of widening and strengthening the national highway system all over
the country under various schemes (NHDP amongst others for example). Subsequently the need
was felt for the “Golden Quadrilateral” (GQ) for speeding up freight and passenger traffic
between Metro Centres of the Country. A total length of 5846 kms of GQ has already been
constructed. No sooner than these projects had been completed, need was felt for further
capacity augmentation in the road sector. However, in order to make the system really
satisfactory, it was observed that it would not be enough to simply build on the existing
alignments (including bypasses). In order to keep pace with the spirit of “modernism” that the
country has embraced, it would be essential to put assured Level of Service on offer along road
corridors that need to be built to the highest standards of safety and efficiency. Therein lies the
genesis of the concept of National Network of Expressways. An effort to evolve a national
network of expressways was made by the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways
(GOI) as early as 1991. However, a fresh study now needs to be carried out towards evolving
the national level network of expressways under the emerging transport infrastructure and
economic scenarios.

In countries like the US and some European countries the overriding criterion to have
expressways was to provide high speed facilities connecting ports, major cities, industrial and
business centres (albeit traffic level was also a criterion). The main reason for the emergence of
Motorways in UK was the heavy demand of long distance freight movement by road. For a vast
country like India having limited financial resources, the decision to have expressways will be
dictated by the need to provide high speed facilities connecting ports, cities, industrial/
agricultural centres, major markets, and any other high revenue earning centres (e.g. tourism,
SEZs) etc. Since these expressways will essentially be toll ways, the estimated potential traffic
demand is likely to dictate the feasibility of any link. For analytical purposes India is generally
divided in the following seven regions:

• Northern region
• Eastern Region
• North – Eastern Region
• Central Region
• Western Region
• Southern Region
• South Central Region

Since the climatic and physiographic characteristics could also be broadly classified in a similar
manner, a certain degree of regional homogeneity could be expected in a like fashion. It is felt

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that while building up the national network of expressways, the same could be attempted in a
manner of integrating the various regional requirements into a national canvass. This will also
open up an opportunity to examine the feasibility of the network at a more disaggregate level
(making it possible to consider regional revenue generating options etc. together with viability
of expressways while compared with other competing modes).

The present study aims at developing a Master Plan of National Expressway Network that may
be developed in phases. The estimated total length of the network is expected to be over
15,000 kms by the year 2022. A Master Plan for any national expressway network has to factor
expected developments in various fields and find a configuration that could be both
supplementary and complimentary to the existing networks of corridors of arterial character not
merely in a physical sense but also, in an economic sense. It may be noted that the present
study aims at developing only a Master Plan with the understanding that the detailed
alignments etc. shall be decided during the project preparation stage. This study therefore,
makes an attempt to establish the broad technical, economic, financial and administrative
parameters that could assist the client in implementing and managing the works likely to be
taken up under one or more preferred funding options.

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Brief Review of Earlier Works 2


A chronological history of road development in India is schematically presented in Figure 2.1.
Of course this does not depict the more recent advances made in this sector. What could be
noted however is that the roads came to be constructed as a means to serve certain ends, be
it political, trade, cultural or any other purpose. The other interesting feature is that over the
centuries, till the present times, roads have continued to be largely redeveloped and rebuilt on
already available historic alignments even when other developments had taken place all over
the land mass. Perhaps relatively easy availability of land for road construction along the
existing alignments dictated this option. This does not of course obviate the need to think afresh
particularly when the country is poised for gaining big economic momentum.

Having appreciated the need to augment the road infrastructure in a big way, albeit on a
hierarchical basis, the Government of India initiated multi pronged development schemes in
this sector during the last two decades. The results obtained so far are summarized in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1
Category of road Length in Km
Total road network 3.34 million
National Highways 65,569
State Highways 1,30,000
Major Dist. Road, Rural road & 3.14 million
Urban road

As per present estimate, roads carry nearly 65% of freight and 85% of passenger traffic. Traffic
on roads is growing at a rate of 7% to 10% per annum while the vehicle population growth is of
the order of 12% per annum.

As already mentioned, a study on Identification of a National Network of Expressways had been


initiated in 1991. This was followed by a Pre – Feasibility study for Expressway Network in 1998.
The study recommended a total length of 15,776 kms. of expressway network by the year 2020.
Some of the State Governments also initiated similar efforts towards meeting emerging needs at
the state levels. The Consulting Engineering Services (I) Pvt. Ltd., while submitting the
recommendations before the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways, suggested
time – slab - wise development of a network of expressways. Figure 2.2 shows the Expressway
Network that was to be achieved by 2005 as recommended by the CES as a result of the earlier
study.

2.1 Major Expressways in the Country

At present the country has a fragmented network of expressways as stated hereinafter (Ref:
Materials available from the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, NHAI and other sources):

Ahmedabad-Vadodara Expressway

This was India's first expressway. It was originally planned during the 1970's, but was delayed for
decades due to landuse and political issues. These issues were resolved in the 1990's, and the
expressway opened in 2001. The expressway cuts the journey time between the two cities to

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Major routes of the Mughal Period

Routes opened in late 18th Century

Modern Segments

Figure 2.1: Evolution of the Major Road system in India

A – Major Cultural Currents of the Pre – Historic Period


B – Pre – Mauryan Indian Routes
C – Mauryan Network
D - Trade Routes at the Beginning of the Christian era
E – The Indian “Z”

less than 1 hour. This expressway was India's first 4-lane dual carriageway expressway project,
and includes minor bridges and canal crossings, interchanges at Nadiad and Anand, cross-
drainage works, rest areas, and related structures over a length of 92.85 km.

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Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway

This expressway opened for the public on Jan 23, 2008, and is part of Golden Quadrilateral
highway project. This expressway is expected to finally reduce travel time between Gurgaon
and Delhi from upwards of 60 minutes to approximately 20 minutes. Some special features of
this highway are SOS telephones every 1.5 km, CCTV surveillance, and a 32-lane toll plaza at
the Delhi-Haryana border. The highway will be categorized into three parts namely, the VIP
zone (up to the IGI Airport), the Urban section (up to Gurgaon), and Truckers’ Paradise (after
Gurgaon).

Mumbai-Pune Expressway

The Mumbai-Pune Expressway is India's first 6-lane, concrete, high-speed, tolled, access-
controlled expressway. It connects Mumbai, the commercial capital of India, to the
neighbouring educational and information technology-oriented city of Pune. With its smoothly
paved concrete surface, this highway is unlike most other roads in India, where traffic is chaotic
and, aggressive driving the norm. This high speed motorway largely follows established traffic
patterns and offers a scenic drive between Mumbai and Pune while cutting down the travel
time between these two commercially important Western Indian cities from 4 - 5 hours on the
old NH4 to 2 - 3 hours. Mumbai - Pune Expressway has the following features:

ƒ 6-lane concrete highway with 7m wide divider. An extra lane has been provided on
each side as paved shoulder.
ƒ Separate tunnels for traffic in each direction.
ƒ Complete fencing to avoid humans/animals crossing the expressway.
ƒ No two-wheelers, three-wheelers, or tractor vehicles allowed.
ƒ Provision of petrol pumps, motels, workshops, toilets, emergency phones, first aid facility,
facilities for breakdown vans, etc.
ƒ Proposed plantation of 80,000 trees along the Expressway.

Taj Expressway

Noida - Greater Noida Expressway connects Noida, an industrial sub-urban area to Greater
Noida. This expressway is undergoing expansion to Taj Economic Zone, An International Airport
and Aviation Hub are proposed to be constructed along the Taj Expressway. The objectives of
the proposed expressway are as follows:

ƒ To minimize travel time


ƒ To connect the main townships / commercial centres on the eastern side of river
Yamuna
ƒ To ensure development of adjoining areas
ƒ To relieve NH-2 which is already congested and runs through the heart of cities like
Faridabad, Ballabhgarh and Palwal

Delhi-Noida Direct Flyway

This is an eight-lane access controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Noida, an
industrial sub-urban area. It is built and maintained by the Noida Toll Bridge Company Limited
(NTBCL). NTBCL was developed under a Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model. The project
included the construction of a flyover at Ashram Chowk in Delhi. The other major part of the
project was the construction of a 552.50m bridge across River Yamuna.

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Figure 2.2: Recommended Expressway Network that was to be


achieved by the year 2005 as per earlier study

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Durgapur Expressway

The Durgapur Expressway linking Dankuni with Memari on Grand Trunk Road, now allows fast
communication between Kolkata and Durgapur.

Belghoria Expressway

Belghoria Expressway through Nivedita Bridge cuts down the travel time to Dum Dum Airport
from Dankuni to 20-25 minutes.

Panipat Elevated Expressway

Panipat Expressway is an uplift of the National Highway 1.

Shimla-Chandigarh Expressway

The expansion to 4 lanes of Shimla - Chandigarh National Highway 22 (NH22) will eventually
result in the formation of the Shimla - Chandigarh Expressway.

Ganga Expressway

This project was announced in 2007 by Govt. of Uttar Pradesh. Measuring 1000 kms. in length it
would be India's longest expressway to date. It will link Noida to Ballia on Uttar Pradesh's
eastern border with Bihar. The expressway will run along the left bank of the Ganga River, in
contrast to the Grand Trunk Road which is on the right bank. The estimated cost of the project is
Rs 40,000 crores ($10 billion). This expressway should reduce the travel time between Delhi and
Varanasi to 8 hours. The project is expected to be completed by 2011.

Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP)

The construction work for 135.6-km long Delhi Western Peripheral Expressway, also known as the
Kundli-Manesar-Palwal (KMP) expressway, is going on at full swing. Kundli-Manesar-Palwal (KMP)
expressway was expected to become operational by June 2009. With this Delhi would be
relieved of the congestion of heavy truck traffic at night.

Eastern Peripheral Expressway

Eastern Peripheral Expressway will have two sections i.e. 56 km long Faridabad-NOIDA-
Ghaziabad expressway section and 49 km long Ghaziabad-Kundli expressway section.

Pathankot-Jalandhar-Ajmer Expressway

This Expressway will start from Pathankot in Punjab and pass through Haryana and end at the
Holy city of Ajmer in Rajasthan.

There are a few other expressways as stated in the following:

• Chennai-Bangalore Expressway
• Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway
• Bangalore-Mysore Expressway
• Hosur Road Expressway
• PV Narsimha Rao Expressway to HIAL
• Chennai Elevated Expressway
• Mumbai eastern Freeway that starts from CST

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The Uttar Pradesh government is also planning for five more expressways in the state. The five
proposed expressways will have a combined length of around 1,400kms.

The Five Expressways would be:

• Greater Noida-Saharanpur-Dehradun expressway (in partnership with the


Uttarakhand state government)
• Jhansi-Lucknow expressway
• Lucknow-Gorakhpur expressway
• Agra-Kanpur-Lucknow expressway
• Farrukhabad-Kotdwar expressway.

The sections of Expressways identified under NHDP-VI are:

(i) Vadodara-Mumbai Expressway


(ii) Delhi-Meerut Expressway
(iii) Kokata-Dhanbad Expressway
(iv) Bangalore-Chennai Expressway

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The Present Study 3


The present study was initiated by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (GOI) with the
objective of developing a Master Plan for National Expressway Network for the country. Since
the study aims at developing a Master Plan, it involves extensive map studies but no physical /
topographic surveys of any area. The all new dimension of the study is to examine the viability
of the networks (NH and expressways) in a domain of competing revenue earnings (since many
of the NH segments are also toll ways).

3.1 Objective

The objective of this study is to formulate a Master Plan for development of “INDIAN NATIONAL
EXPRESSWAY NETWORK” for the horizon year 2022, i.e. by the end of the 13th. Five Year Plan. The
idea is to achieve a modest target of nearly15,600 kms of expressway by the design year
considering:

i) Overall development plan of the Centre/States and resultant growth in traffic


ii) Centre/State priorities
iii) Funding options including PPP mode, cost sharing by states/ Centre, Commercial
utilization of land within/beyond ROW etc.

The study also aims at prioritising and phasing of expressway development/construction


programme by the years 2012, 2017 and 2022.

3.2 Scope of Work

3.2.1 Traffic studies and Axle Load spectrum

The activities carried out under this are briefly described in the following:

(i) Study of available traffic flow data on National Highways and selected State
Highways including traffic census data being collected by the Ministry as well as
the State PWDs.
(ii) Collection of interregional traffic flow data by carrying out OD study at selected
locations.
(iii) Gathering supplementary data, as required, through primary surveys or
secondary sources, to fill the existing data gaps to establish traffic benchmarks,
modal splits, and traffic diversion curves for Expressways.
(iv) Estimating the modal split of traffic to be carried by the expressway network.
(v) Establishing Diversion Curves for estimating the traffic expected to ply on
expressways (and growth of traffic on expressways at different time slabs).
Derivation of Diversion Curves is to be based on alternate scenario and detailed
assessment based on the variations in toll rates for different types of vehicles.
(vi) To analyse available axle load data and carry out limited axle load study to
determine the axle load spectrum.

3.2.2 Establish National Expressway Network

To establish a National Expressway Network identifying therein the expressway corridors


for the horizon year 2022 i.e. by the end of the 13th. Five Year Plan giving prioritised

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phasing for completion by the years 2012, 2017 and 2022. The tasks, inter-alia, cover the
following:

(i) To consider ongoing and proposed development works of road corridors by the
Central Government and the State Governments as well as development of
railway network by the Ministry of Railways.
(ii) To study the impact on the viability of other BOT projects on NHs / SHs which are
under construction, or under commercial operation or in the pipeline, and
suggestion regarding possible trade-offs or ameliorative measures to minimize
the adverse impact on such BOT projects.
(iii) To adopt a corridor approach of development with due consideration to the
capacity of the entire corridor.
(iv) To indicate starting points/terminal points and wayside places and develop type
designs to facilitate collection and dispersal of traffic to/from such areas.
(v) The network planning for expressways also to indicate the likely intervals at
which these facilities should be set up integrally as part of expressway
development projects.
(vi) The States are to be kept on board and their views duly considered while
finalizing the prioritized routes / network of expressways.
(vii) Each State Government should be consulted and sensitized regarding the
cooperation required from them in Land Acquisition as well as development of
National Network of Expressway. The responses of the States and their
suggestions and willingness regarding sharing of costs, participation in the
implementation process including willingness to undertake development of the
specific corridors by the States themselves (amongst the National Network to be
finalized by the Central Government) out of their resources etc, should also be
covered in the report.
(viii) To evolve draft guidelines for identification of projects/sub-projects and
selection of implementing authority.

3.2.3 Land Acquisition Plan

(i) Mechanisms are to be suggested to expedite LA.


(ii) Based on the above, an Action Plan should be formulated for land acquisition
and developing the Expressway corridors in order of priority, tentative cost
estimation thereof, economic and financial viability study in general and
suggestion of innovative and feasible measures to improve the financial viability
(including ploughing back of profit generated from real estate development,
commercial development of wastelands etc.), and modalities of financing the
projects including possible participation of States concerned in the
development process and the extent of participation.

3.2.4 Rehabilitation and Resettlement Analysis

To examine the social, environmental and economic effects due to acquisition of land
and severance effect due to construction of expressways and to recommend policies /
remedies with respect thereto. Suggest legal measures which are to be taken for
development of these expressways. Impact of vast land requirement, especially the
acquisition of agricultural lands, severance effects etc., should be studied in detail
including the detailed proposal for the effective relocation of the project affected

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persons with no loss to their profession and livelihood. Alternate proposals including the
viability of elevated corridors at specific locations should also be studied with their
financial analysis.

3.2.5 Environmental Impact Assessment

Impact on environment, and ecology to be studied in detail and recommendations


should be given for corrective action in the light of the existing policies etc. The reserve
forests etc. should also be discussed in the study while recommending corridors.

3.2.6 Organisation/Human Resource Development

Suggest the infrastructural needs for development of expressway network in respect of


planning, administration, construction, maintenance and operation and the
organisational requirements to manage these activities keeping in view the existing
organisational set up at the Centre and in States.

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Regional characteristics of India – 4


an overview
4.1 Description of the Study Area

India is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country,
and the largest democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean in the south, the
Arabian Sea in the west, and the Bay of Bengal in the east, India has a coastline of
7,517 kilometers (4,671 mi). The original Indian plate now survives as peninsular India, the oldest
and geologically most stable part of India, extending as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya
ranges in central India. These parallel ranges run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the
west to the coal-rich Chhota Nagpur Plateau of Jharkhand in the east. Further south the
remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the left and right by the
coastal ranges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats respectively. The plateau contains the
oldest rock formations in India, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion,
India lies to the north of the equator between 6o 44' and 35o 30' north latitude and 68o °7' and
97o°25' east longitude. Figure 4.1 shows the physical map of India.

Figure 4.1: Physical Map of India

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4.2 Economy

Agriculture is the predominant occupation in India, accounting for 60% of employment.


Service sector makes up 28% and industrial sector 12%. In terms of output, the
agricultural sector accounts for 28% of GDP while the service and industrial sectors
make up 54% and 18% respectively. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat,
oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes while poultry and dairy products include
cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish etc. Major industries include textiles,
chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining,
petroleum, machinery and software. India's trade reached a relatively moderate share
of 24% of GDP in 2006, up from 6% in 1985. India's share of world trade has reached 1%.
Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering
goods, chemicals, leather products etc. Figure 4.2 shows the major agricultural and
industrial areas of the country.

4.3 Industrial Regions

There are 8 major Industrial Regions of India. These are:

• Mumbai-Pune Region,
• Hugli Region,
• Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Region,
• Gujarat Region,
• Chhota Nagpur Region,
• Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Region,
• Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Region,
• Kollam-Thiruvantapuram Region.

Mumbai - Pune Industrial Region: Major industries in this region are engineering goods,
petroleum refining, petrochemical, leather, synthetic and plastic goods, chemicals,
drugs, fertilizer, and electronics industries. The important industrial centres are Mumbai,
Colaba, Nasik, Sholapur, and Ahmednagar.

Hugli Industrial Region: Development of tea plantations in Assam and West Bengal,
opening of coal fields in Damodar valley and also opening of jute processing units in
this region boosted its development. Location of petroleum refinery at Haldia has
facilitated the development of petrochemical industry in this region. The important
industries are jute industries, cotton textile industries, paper, pharmaceuticals, and
petrochemical industries.

Chhota Nagpur Industrial Region: This region is known for Iron and Steel industry. The five
major steel plants are Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, and Rourkela. The other industries
are heavy engineering, machine tools, cement, locomotives etc. The factors which led
to its development are: proximity to the coal and iron fields, power from Damodar
valley plants, densely populated regions, nearness to Hugli market.

Delhi- Meerut- Gurgaon Industrial Region: The industries in this region are light and
market oriented because this region is located far from the mineral and power
resources. Electronics, light engineering, electrical goods, software industry and
vegetable oil industry are some of the important industries of this region.

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Gujarat Industrial Region: Ahmadabad / Vadodra is the nucleus of this region. The
important industries are cotton textile, petrochemical, heavy chemicals, motor, dairy
products etc. Decline of cotton textile industry in Mumbai industrial region led to the
development of this region. It is located in the cotton growing region. Proximity to the
markets in Ganga plains, oil fields and location of port at Kandla led to the
development of this region.

Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Industrial region: The important industries are cotton textile
industry, heavy engineering, aircraft, watch, machine tools, and electronics. Availability
of cotton, electricity from Pykara hydroelectric plant, mineral from nearby region led to
the development of this region.

Kollam-Thriuvananthapuram Industrial region: Agricultural products processing and


market oriented industries are important industries in this region because it is located far
away from the mineral belt of the country. Cotton textile, matchbox, chemical, fish-
based industries are important industries of this region. Plantation agriculture and
hydropower led to the development of this region. Location of petroleum refinery at
Kochi has added an advantage to new industries.
There are also 13 minor Industrial belts in the country. These are:

ƒ Ambala-Amritsar
ƒ Saharanpur-Muzaffar Nagar
ƒ Indore-Dewas-Ujjaini
ƒ Jaipur-Ajmer
ƒ Kolhapur-South Kannada
ƒ Northern Malabar
ƒ Middle Malabar
ƒ Adilabad-Nizambad
ƒ Allahabad-Varanasi-Mirzapur
ƒ Bhojpur-Munger
ƒ Durg-Raipur
ƒ Bilaspur-Korba
ƒ Brahmaputra valley

These belts are likely to have some bearing on the master plan of expressway network
at the national level.

Figure 4.2: Agricultural and Industrial Belts of India

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4.4 Tourism

In 2006 about 4 million foreign tourists visited India and collectively spent US$ 8.9 billion.
In 2007, India's 5 million international arrivals, out of 903 million worldwide, were the
world's 42nd highest. India has great advantages as could be discerned from the facts
that price competitiveness ranking was a high 6th. while, safety and security a good
39th. The tourism sector is presently growing at double digits. India has a huge
advertising campaign "Incredible India”. Travel and tourism contributes 5.3% to India's
GDP. Figure 4.3 shows the major tourist spots of India.

Figure 4.3: Major Tourist Spots of India

4.5 Ecology and Environment

Because of its size and range of latitude, topography, and climate, India is home to a
great diversity of eco-regions, ranging from permanent ice and snow to rainforests. The
Himalaya, which runs across India's northern tier, is the boundary between two of the
earth's great eco-zones namely, the Palearctic which covers most of temperate-to-
arctic Eurasia and, Indo - Malaya which covers most of the Indian subcontinent and
extends into Indochina, Sunderland (Malaysia and western Indonesia) and the
Philippines.

The climate of India defies easy generalization, comprising a wide range of weather
conditions across a large geographic scale and varied topography. Analyzed
according to the Köppen system, India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from
desert in the west, to alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, to humid tropical regions
supporting rainforests in the southwest and the island territories. Many regions have
starkly different microclimates. The nation has four seasons namely, winter (January and

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February), summer (March to May), a monsoon (rainy) season (June to September), and
a post-monsoon period (October to December).

India's unique geography and geology strongly influence its climate; this is particularly
true of the Himalayas in the north and the Thar Desert in the northwest. The Himalayas
act as a barrier to the freezing katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus,
North India is kept warm or only mildly cold during winter. In summer, the same
phenomenon makes India relatively hot. Although the Tropic of Cancer, the boundary
between the tropics and subtropics, passes through the middle of India, the whole
country is considered to be tropical. India is home to an extraordinary variety of
climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the
Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The nation's
climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. The Himalayas,
along with the Hindu Kush mountains in Pakistan, prevent cold Central Asian katabatic
winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most
locations at similar latitudes. Simultaneously, the Thar Desert plays a role in attracting
moisture-laden southwest summer monsoon winds that, between June and October,
provide the majority of India's rainfall. India has six climatic regions namely, tropical wet
region, tropical wet and dry region, humid sub tropical region, semi arid region,
undifferentiated highlands and desert region. Figure 4.4 shows the map of climate and
vegetation pattern over the entire nation.

Figure 4.4 : Climate and Vegetation Pattern in India

4.6 Geo–morphology

The Indo-Gangetic Plain, the largest alluvial tract in the world, is divisible into three
sectors namely, Brahmaputra Plain in the east, Ganga Plain in the middle and Indus
Plain in the west. Confined between Delhi–Aravalli ridges in the west to Rajmahal hills in
the east, the Ganga Plain is geomorphologically diverse and drained by numerous
southeasterly flowing Himalayan and plains-fed rivers. India has been classified into 7
divisions on the basis of the characteristic geomorphic features:

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1. Northern Mountains
2. Central Plains
3. Central Highlands
4. Peninsular Plateaus
5. West Coast
6. East Coast
7. Islands

Figure 4.5 shows the geological features of India.

Figure 4.5 : Different Soil Types in India

4.7 Existing Transport Network

4.7.1 Road Network

The status of road network within the country has already been discussed elsewhere in
this Report. A comprehensive road network plan showing the road network up to the
level of National Highways is placed at Figure 4.6.

4.7.2 Rail Network

Indian Railways (IR) have one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world,
transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2 million tonnes of freight daily. It
is the world's largest commercial or utility employer, with more than 1.4 million
employees. The railways traverse the length and breadth of the country, covering 6,909

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stations over a total route length of more than 63,327 kms (39,350 mi). Indian Railways
operate about 9,000 passenger trains daily across the twenty-eight states.

IR carries a huge variety of goods like mineral ores, fertilizers and petrochemicals,
agricultural produce, iron and steel etc., besides passenger traffic. Ports and major
urban areas have their own dedicated freight lines and yards. Many important freight
stops have dedicated platforms and independent lines for such purposes. IR makes 70%
of its revenues and most of its profits from the freight sector, and uses these profits to
cross-subsidize the loss-making passenger sector. The railways are in direct competition
with the road sector in this sphere. Since the 1990s, IR has switched from small
consignments to larger container movement which has helped speed up its operations.
Most of its freight earnings come from rakes carrying bulk goods such as coal, cement,
food grains and iron ore. Figure 4.7 shows the existing railway network in the country.

Recently IR has proposed new Dedicated Freight Corridors based on freight traffic
study. There are two primary corridors, i.e. the Eastern Corridor and the Western
Corridor.

East – West Corridor


North-South Corridor
Golden Quadrilateral

Figure 4.6: Major Road Network of India

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Figure 4.7: Existing Railway Network in India

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Eastern Corridor: The Eastern Corridor encompasses a double line electrified traction
corridor from Son Nagar on the East Central Railway to Khurja on the North Central
Railway (820 Km), Khurja to Dadri on NCR Double Line electrified corridor (46 Km) and
single electrified line from Khurja to Ludhiana (412 Km) on Northern Railway. The total
length works out to be 1279 kms. The traffic on the Eastern Corridor mainly comprises
coal for the power plants in the northern region of U.P., Delhi, Haryana, the Punjab and
parts of Rajasthan from the Eastern coal fields; finished steel, food grains, cement,
fertilizers, lime stone from Rajasthan to steel plants in the east and, general goods. The
total traffic in up direction is projected to go up from 38 million tonnes in 2005-06 to 116
million tonnes in 2021-22. Similarly, in the down direction, the traffic level has been
projected to increase from 14 million tonnes in 2005-06 to 27 million tonnes in 2021-22. As
a result, the incremental traffic works out to a whooping 82 million tonnes from the base
year of 2005-06.

Western Corridor: Western Corridor comprises 1483 km of a double line diesel track from
JNPT to Dadri via Vadodara-Ahmedabad-Palanpur-Phulera-Rewari. In addition a single
line connection of 32km length from proposed Pirthala Junction Station (near Asaoti on
Delhi-Mathura line) to Tughlakabad is also proposed to be provided. The traffic on the
Western Corridor mainly comprises ISO containers from JNPT and Mumbai Port in
Maharashtra and ports of Pipavav, Mundra and Kandla in Gujarat destined for ICDs
located in northern India, especially at Tughlakabad, Dadri and Dandharikalan. Besides
Containers, other commodities moving on the Western DFC are POL, fertilizers, food
grains, salt, coal, iron & steel and cement. Further, owing to its faster growth as
compared to other commodities, the share of container traffic is expected to
progressively increase and reach a level of about 80% by 2021-22. The rail share of
container traffic on this corridor is slated to increase from 0.69 million TEUs in 2005-06 to
6.2 million TEUs in 2021-22. The other commodities are projected to increase from 23
million tonnes in 2005-06 to 40 million tonnes in 2021-22. Figure 4.8 shows the alignment
of the Dedicated Freight Corridors as discussed above.

Figure 4.8: Proposed Alignment of Dedicated Freight Corridors

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4.7.3 Major Ports and Harbours

India has a long coastline spanning 7600 kilometers forming one of the biggest
peninsulas in the world. It is serviced by 12 major ports and 185 notified minor and
intermediate ports. Major ports handled over 80% of all cargo traffic in 2007. However,
the nomenclatures major, intermediate and minor do not have a strict association with
the traffic volumes served by these ports. As an example, Mundra Port, a newly
developed minor port in the state of Gujarat registered a cargo traffic of around 28.8
million tonnes per annum during the financial year of 2008, which is higher than that at
many major ports. There are also 7 shipyards under the control of the central
government of India, 2 shipyards controlled by state governments, and 19 privately
owned shipyards. The major ports handled 423.4 million tons of cargo for the financial
year 2005-2006, with Vishakhapatnam, Cochin, Kolkata Port, Chennai Port and Kandla
carrying the greatest tonnage. Major ports can collectively handle over 400 million tons
of cargo annually. Port operations have improved since the mid1990s. Cargo handling is
projected to grow at 7.7% until 2013-14. Some 60% of India’s container traffic is handled
by the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust in Mumbai. It has just 9 berths compared to 40 in the
main port of Singapore. It takes an average of 21 days to clear import cargo in India
compared to just 3 in Singapore. There is a proposal from the concerned Ministry to
develop another port adjacent to JNPT-Mumbai, known as Rewas Port towards
decongesting the existing harbour. Figure 4.9 shows the major ports in India.

4.7.4 Major Airports

There are 449 airports/airstrips in the country. Out of these, 5 are major international
airports and 87 domestic airports. In 1998-99, 120 airports/civil enclaves handled 4.20
lakh aircraft movements involving 24.17 million domestic and 12.83 million international
passengers and 221 thousand metric tonnes of domestic cargo and 468 thousand
metric tonnes of international cargo. 51 percent of traffic was handled at the
international airports at Mumbai and Delhi. Presently various airlines are operating only
through 61 airports. The remaining are grossly underutilized handling only occasional
aircraft operations. Figure 4.10 shows the major airports of India.

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Figure 4.9: Major Sea Ports of India

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Figure 4.10: Major Airports in India

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Methodology and Work Plan 5


5.1 General

For the purpose of preparation of Master Plan of National Expressway, it is very


important to decide on a scientific and rational work sequence in the beginning itself.
This sequence of course, had to undergo continuous monitoring and fine tuning during
the course of the project. The first step in this process was proper task definition. In the
present context, tasks have been defined and identified under the following task series.
Chart 5.1 gives a thematic sequence of the steps followed by the Consultants.

5.2 Methodology

Approach of the Consultants towards performance of various sub tasks that led to
achievement of the desired objective is briefly discussed in the following:

Task 001 - Traffic Studies and Axle Load Predictions

The Ministry and the state PWDs have a wealth of data on traffic counts along the
National Highways and selected State Highways. These are the arterials that are
presently catering to the mobility requirements of inter regional traffic. The Consultants
compiled this data (volumes) towards developing the basic platform as database.
Origin – Destination surveys for all modes (fast) were carried out at strategically
selected locations and in a purposive manner. Besides information on origin and
destination of trips, data on trip lengths and routes followed were also gathered.

Task 002 - To establish a National Expressway Network.

The study focuses primarily on macro level identification of the National Expressway
Network and this is not to be supported by actual detailed land survey. Movement
pattern of passengers and goods along existing NH/SH would be a good guide for
identification of nodes over the network. However, development policies both at the
state and at national levels will have certain bearing on this (SEZs for example). For best
results the consultants had engaged both the central and state governments in
meaningful dialogues.

The Expressway Network shall be a “Green Field” project. The Consultants endeavoured
to find a trade-off between the options in terms of:

• Connectivity indices
• Regional / sub regional growth centers and growth potentials
• Spatial distribution of competitive and feeder routes
• Broad physical characteristics of the areas likely to be traversed

There are on-going works on development of NH/SH on BOT basis. A national network of
expressways is likely to wean away a certain proportion of traffic from these corridors
resulting in apparent loss in revenue for the operators of such corridors. The Consultants
broadly looked into other ameliorative measures such as commercial exploitation of
land / air rights etc., towards compensating loss in revenue for the existing operators.

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Chart 5.1: Systems Flow Chart

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Task 003 - Land Acquisition Plan

Land acquisition is likely to be one of the initial hurdles (and a major one at that). As
already stated, this will require combined effort from various quarters. Most importantly
this would need legal / legislative support. This would perhaps require formulation of a
special Expressway Act towards streamlining the whole procedure. It would also need
support / justification in terms of economic and financial viability under various models
of project financing and management including recycling of funds from other
attendant revenue generating developments. It has been discussed elsewhere in this
report.

Task 004 - Rehabilitation and Resettlement Analysis

It is known that a transport corridor, almost always, becomes a divider that serves
activity areas (residential, agricultural etc.). In other words, such projects could inflict
very heavy social costs (and other costs in real terms). Since the Expressway network will
span across the length and the breadth of the country, the number of Project Affected
Persons (PAP) and the severity of the impact is expected to be very significant. It is
rather easy to feel tempted to explain this as a project of national interest that goes
against community interest. The Consultants have approached this in a two pronged
manner. However, at the macro level these measures are likely to take the form of
general solutions covering a large canvass rather than solutions specific to a particular
location.

Task 005 - Environmental Impact Assessment

The Consultants have given due attention to impact of the project on environment and
ecology. There are reserve forests, ecologically fragile areas, protected areas etc.
distributed over extensive land masses in every part of the country. Generally speaking,
as far as possible, such areas were avoided.

Task 006 - Organization / HR Development.

The Project, in its entirety, is going to be a massive one. This will also be a continuing
process. Towards satisfactory completion and maintenance of the same, it would be
essential to form an apex body that would efficiently organize and oversee the various
related activities. Perhaps formation of a National Expressway Authority of India (NEAI)
shall be in order in this context.

Task 007 - Amendments in Extant Statutory Provisions / Acts etc.

The importance of looking into the legal aspects has already been stated in this Report.
Formulation of an Expressway Act, for example, cannot be done as a stand- alone
exercise. It is likely to impact other extant statutory provision as much as, it will itself be
impacted by the prevailing Policies and Acts. To that extent a complete assessment
has been made by the Consultants to make the various provisions both supplementary
and complimentary to each other.

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Task 008 - Cost Analysis and Economic Evaluation

Link (of a most likely standard length) wise cost and economic evaluation has been
carried out as the total network is not expected to be built in one go. However, in the
present context, it is broadly in the manner of an aggregate analysis with a few critical
and prioritized links getting a closer look. It is possible that one “link” as stated here,
would have several important nodes en-route. The Consultants have already
approached this in a judicious manner and in conformity with the inter-se priorities set
earlier in the process. Since the project is being looked upon as a revenue generating
exercise as well (under BOT, BOOT, PPP etc.), the Diversion Curves have also been
revisited.

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Collection and analysis of data


6
from secondary sources
Data from secondary sources had been collected on the following (with the help of
communication sent out by the MoRT&H):

• Traffic Census as recorded at permanent count stations located along the


National Highways in the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, Orissa, MP, U.P, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, West Bengal,
Uttaranchal, Bihar and Jharkhand.
• Axle Load data as available with the NHAI for various segments of National
Highways.

The consultants conducted O–D survey at the selected locations for determining the
origin – destination characteristics of travel (both passengers and goods), likely average
trip lengths etc.

The following primary surveys were conducted to cross check (on a sample basis) the
intensity of traffic flow on the existing road network:

i). Mid block classified traffic volume count at 7 locations.


ii). Origin-Destination Survey
iii). Axle Load Survey

Plate 6.1 shows the survey locations chosen for this purpose (representative location for
each region).

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Plate 6.1: Survey Locations

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Analysis of Data from Secondary Sources 7


Data obtained from the secondary sources were analyzed and some major
observations on the same are briefly stated hereafter:

7.1 Trend Analysis and Growth Factor Analysis

Passenger vehicles and trucks have been estimated separately from the time series
data available from secondary sources for the delineated regions. The estimated
growth rates are presented in Table 7.1. The physical representation of Zones is shown in
Figure7.1

Table 7.1: Growth Rates Obtained from the Available Data


Growth Rate(%p.a)
Sl No Zones
Passenger Goods
1 Zone 1 9.8 5.313
2 Zone 2 7.54 5
3 Zone 3 9.013 4.36
4 Zone 4 6.96 18.36
5 Zone 5 6.56 3.78
6 Zone 6*
7 Zone 7*
*Traffic data for zone 6 and zone 7 were not
available from the respective states

From the preliminary analysis it was observed that the growth factor varied from 6.5% to
10 % and 3.7% to 18.36% for passenger traffic and goods traffic respectively. This
estimation of course, suffers from inadequacy of data. Besides, sudden spikes in data
are also noticeable. Such abrupt variations might have been caused by certain local
phenomena. Figures 7.1-7.6 show the growth trends in traffic along segments of some of
the national highways.

7.2 Growth Factor using Econometric Modeling Technique

This approach is primarily based on the broad guidelines for economic analysis for
highway investments circulated for schemes under the proposed assistance by the
Asian Development Bank. It helps forecast future traffic demand along a project road
on the basis of annual population growth and per capita growth rates in real income
estimated for the Road Influence Area (RIA) along with elasticity of transport demand in
relation to economic growth in other related sectors. In other words, annual traffic
growth is thought to be related to specific economic activities in each RIA. The
equation used here as per IRC: SP: 19-2001 is:
Growth Rate (%) = {(1+ P/100) (1+R/100) – 1} x100 x E

Where,
P= Population growth rate
R= Real Income per capita growth
E= Elasticity of Transport demand (Table 7.2 shows typical values)

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4500

y = 315.59x + 2722.8
4000 R2 = 0.9888

3500

3000
Average CVPD

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
2004 2005 2006 2008
Year

Fig 7.1: Growth Trend of Goods Traffic along Bangalore-Chitradurga Stretch

4000

y = 526.05x + 1683.5
R2 = 0.8997
3500

3000

2500
Average Veh/day

2000

1500

1000

500

0
2004 2005 2006 2008
Year

Fig 7.2: Growth Trend of Passenger Traffic along Bangalore-Chitradurga Stretch

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10000

9000
y = 665.64x2 - 3453.4x + 11553
R2 = 0.9784
8000

7000

6000
Average CVPD

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
2004 2005 2006 2007
Year

Fig 7.3: Growth Trend of Goods Traffic along Pune – Sholapur Stretch

16000

y = 9112.2e0.1093x
14000 R2 = 0.7317

12000

10000
Average Veh/day

8000

6000

4000

2000

0
2004 2005 2006 2007
Year

Fig 7.4: Growth Trend of Passenger Traffic along Pune-Sholapur Stretch

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2900

2800

2700
Average CVPD

2600

2500
y = -167.06x + 2957.7
R2 = 0.8524

2400

2300

2200
2005 2006 2007
Year

Fig 7.5: Growth Trend of Goods Traffic along Chitoor-Kurnool Stretch

5000

4500
y = 2690.3e0.1061x
R2 = 0.8081
4000

3500
Average Veh/day

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
2005 2006 2007
Year

Fig 7.6: Growth Trend of Passenger Traffic along Chitoor-Kurnool Stretch

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Table 7.2: Elasticity of Transport Demand

First Five Years Second Five Years Third Five Years

E for Cars, Jeeps &


2 2 1.8
Vans

E for Buses 1.6 1.6 1.5

7.2.1 Freight Traffic

Estimation of freight traffic is more complex in nature and involves the process of
iteration as well as subjective decision so as to be compatible with the regional
perspective plans and other indicators. The basic steps comprise:

a) Finding out, from socio-economic profile, the annual weighted average growth rate
in per cent in the agricultural, industrial, mining and tourism sectors from the State
Domestic Product database. This growth may be computed for five year block
periods.

b) Applying the elasticity of transport demand to the above growth rate. For example
the factors would be 1.8 for first five year, 1.6 for second five year and 1.4 for third
five year slabs respectively.

Table 7.3 shows the most likely growth factors computed for various zones as per IRC
econometric modeling for the period 2008 – 2012.

Table 7.3: Growth Rate of Traffic during 2008 and 2012


Growth Rate(% p .a)
Sl No Zones
Passenger Buses Goods
1 Zone 1 11.04 8.83 9.84
2 Zone 2 11.50 9.19 10.46
3 Zone 3 10.04 8.03 9.00
4 Zone 4 9.78 7.82 8.70
5 Zone 5 13.97 11.17 12.66
6 Zone 6 6.10 4.88 5.35
7 Zone 7 5.5 5.3 5.2

Table 7.4 shows the most likely growth factors computed for various zones as per IRC
econometric modeling for the period 2013 – 2018.

Table 7.4: Growth Rate of Traffic during 2013 and 2018


Growth Rate(% p .a)
Sl No Zones
Passenger Buses Goods
1 Zone 1 11.04 8.83 8.75
2 Zone 2 11.50 9.19 9.30
3 Zone 3 10.04 8.03 8.00
4 Zone 4 9.78 7.82 7.74

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5 Zone 5 13.97 11.17 11.26


6 Zone 6 6.10 4.88 4.75
7 Zone 7 5.5 5.3 4.9

Table 7.5 shows the most likely growth factors computed for various zones as per IRC
econometric modeling for the period 2018 – 2022.

Table 7.5: Growth Rate of Traffic during 2018 and 2022


Growth Rate(% p. a)
Sl No Zones
Passenger Buses Goods
1 Zone 1 9.94 8.28 7.65
2 Zone 2 10.35 8.62 8.13
3 Zone 3 9.03 7.53 7.00
4 Zone 4 8.80 7.33 6.77
5 Zone 5 12.57 10.47 9.85
6 Zone 6 5.49 4.58 4.16
7 Zone 7 5.1 4.8 4.3

7.2.2 Preferred Growth Factor

Generally speaking the growth rates derived through the econometric modeling
technique are found to be higher than those derived from the trend analysis. However,
the latter suffers from inadequacy of data resulting in rather abnormal variations in
growth rates amongst the regions. The growth rates derived from IRC: SP19 econometric
modeling technique has therefore, been considered for the purpose of this study (in
view of the consistency in output).

7.2.3 Alternative traffic growth scenarios

In addition to the above, two more traffic growth scenarios namely, “optimistic” and
“pessimistic” have also been developed for comparison purposes. The most likely
growth rates have been inflated by 33% for building the optimistic scenario while the
same has been reduced by 33% for working out the pessimistic one.

The optimistic growth rates for three different time slabs are shown in Tables 7.6-7.8.

Table 7.6: Growth Rate of Traffic during 2008 and 2012 (optimistic)
Sl Growth Rate(% p. a)
Zones
No Passenger Buses Goods
1 Zone 1 14.68 11.74 13.09
2 Zone 2 15.30 12.22 13.91
3 Zone 3 13.35 10.68 11.97
4 Zone 4 13.01 10.40 11.57
5 Zone 5 18.58 14.86 16.84
6 Zone 6 8.11 6.49 7.12
7 Zone 7 7.32 7.05 6.92

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Table 7.7: Growth Rate of Traffic during 2013 and 2017 (optimistic)

Growth Rate(% p.a)


Sl No Zones
Passenger Buses Goods
1 Zone 1 14.68 11.74 11.64
2 Zone2 15.30 12.22 12.37
3 Zone 3 13.35 10.68 10.64
4 Zone 4 13.01 10.40 10.29
5 Zone 5 18.58 14.86 14.97
6 Zone 6 8.11 6.49 6.32
7 Zone 7 7.32 7.05 6.52

Table 7.8: Growth Rate of Traffic during 2018 and 2022 (optimistic)
Growth Rate(% p. a)
Sl No Zones
Passenger Buses Goods
1 Zone 1 13.21 11.01 10.18
2 Zone 2 13.77 11.46 10.82
3 Zone 3 12.02 10.01 9.31
4 Zone 4 11.71 9.75 9.00
5 Zone 5 16.72 13.93 13.10
6 Zone 6 7.30 6.08 5.53
7 Zone 7 6.78 6.38 5.72

The pessimistic growth rates for three different time slabs are shown in Tables 7.9-7.11.

Table 7.9: Growth Rate of Traffic during 2008 and 2012 (pessimistic)

Growth Rate(% p. a)
Sl No Zones
Passenger Buses Goods
1 Zone 1 7.40 5.92 6.59
2 Zone 2 7.71 6.16 7.01
3 Zone 3 6.73 5.38 6.03
4 Zone 4 6.55 5.24 5.83
5 Zone 5 9.36 7.48 8.48
6 Zone 6 4.09 3.27 3.58
7 Zone 7 3.69 3.55 3.48

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Table 7.10: Growth Rate of Traffic during 2013 and 2017 (pessimistic)

Growth Rate(% p. a)
Sl No Zones
Passenger Buses Goods
1 Zone 1 7.40 5.92 5.86
2 Zone 2 7.71 6.16 6.23
3 Zone 3 6.73 5.38 5.36
4 Zone 4 6.55 5.24 5.19
5 Zone 5 9.36 7.48 7.54
6 Zone 6 4.09 3.27 3.18
7 Zone 7 3.69 3.55 3.28

Table 7.11: Growth Rate of Traffic during 2018 – 2022 (pessimistic)

Growth Rate(% p. a)
Sl No Zones
Passenger Buses Goods
1 Zone 1 6.66 5.55 5.13
2 Zone 2 6.93 5.77 5.45
3 Zone 3 6.05 5.04 4.69
4 Zone 4 5.90 4.91 4.54
5 Zone 5 8.42 7.02 6.60
6 Zone 6 3.68 3.07 2.79
7 Zone 7 3.42 3.22 2.88

7.3 Axle load Spectrum

The data gathered from secondary source have been analyzed and axle load spectra
plotted for dual as well as multi axle commercial vehicles. Figures 7.7 -7.8 show the axle
load spectra of dual and multi axle load trucks.

.
50%
% Distribution of Vehicles

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 >70
Axle loads(Tonnes)

Figure 7.7: Axle Load Spectrum for Dual Axle trucks (Rear Axles)

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60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 >70
Axle load(tonnes)

Figure 7.8: Axle Load Spectrum for Multi Axle trucks (Rear Axles)

It is observed from the plot that 75% of dual axle vehicles carry loads less than 15-20
Tonnes where as the rest is overloaded. Incase of multi axle vehicles 80% of vehicles
carry less than 40 Tonnes while the rest is overloaded.

Cumulative distribution of axle loads for Dual and Multi Axle vehicles are shown in
Figures 7.9 - 7.10.

100.00%

90.00%
Percentage Distribution of Vehicles

80.00%

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 >70

Axle Load(Tonnes)

Figures 7.9: Cumulative Distribution of Axle Load of Dual Axles

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100.00%
90.00%

Percentage Distribution of Vehicles 80.00%


70.00%
60.00%

50.00%
40.00%
30.00%

20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 >70
Axle Load (Tonnes)

Figures 7.10: Cumulative Distribution of Axle Load of MAV

7.4 Diversion Curve Analysis

7.4.1 Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC)

As per the present scenario VOC and toll rates have been calculated and the percent
diversion of traffic broadly estimated from the diversion curve equation developed
during the course of the earlier study. In other words, the proportion of diverted traffic
(on to the expressway) has been estimated with the help of present toll rates from the
curves developed earlier. The consultants of course have also made an effort to re-
establish the diversion curves in the present context as described in latter part of this
Report. In the first part the VOC has been calculated from the equation derived by CRRI
(as per Revised Road User Cost Study-2003). The equations used for the study are:
Cars:
Loge VOC NBCIT = 0.93+0.00004633*RG+0.00934*RF
LCV:
Loge VOC LCVIT = 1.88+0.00001953*RG+0.01247*RF
HCV :
Loge VOC HCVIT = 2.034+0.00003146*RG+0.00863*RF
MAV :
Loge VOC MAVIT = 2.577+0.0002093*RG+0.01407*RF
BUS :
Loge VOC BUSIT = 1.747+0.00002931*RG+0.00949*RF

Where RG = Roughness (mm/Km)


RF = Rise & Fall (m/Km)
NBC=New Branded Cars
LCV=Light Commercial Vehicle
HCV=Heavy Commercial Vehicle
MAV=Multi Axle Vehicle
BUSIT=Bus (VOC of Bus Including Tax)

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The roughness considered for expressway and existing national highways is 2000mm/km
and 3000mm/km respectively, where as the rise and fall considered for expressway and
national highway is 5m/km and 15 m/km respectively.

VOC for Expressways and National Highway have also been worked out as per IRC SP-30
1993. As Trucks consist of several classes such as LCV, HCV and MAV, the consultants
worked out VOC for each class separately and average VOC was considered as the
goods vehicle operating cost.

Comparison of the results obtained through the application of two different formulae
has led the consultants to adapt the values obtained through the equations as given by
the IRC.

7.4.2 Value of Time (VOT)

In this analysis VOT in Rs/hr has been considered to be the same for the expressways
and national highways. The difference in aggregate VOT will of course be dependent
on speed. The same distance will be covered in less time along an expressway as
compared to that along a National Highway. Table 7.12 shows the average speed of
Expressway and National Highway.

Table 7.12: Average Speed for National Highways and Expressways

Speed(Km/hr)
Expressway National Highway
Cars 80* 55*
Bus*** 60 35
Truck 60* 35**
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Speed_Limits (India)
**Indian Highways planning for prosperity (Sudip Arora)
***Avg.Speed of bus is considered same as of Truck

The value of time for the present study has been calculated assuming the average
national growth rate as 7.5% p.a with inflation at 6%. The value of time so determined
for each category of vehicles is given Table 7.13.

Table 7.13: Value of Time

Class of Vehicle Value of Time (Rs/hr)

Car 80
Bus 695
Truck 17.25

Based on the speed mentioned above and the value of time (Rs/hr) shown in Table
7.13, VOT for National Highways and Expressways (Rs/Km) has been worked out and
shown in Table7.14.

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Table7.14: Value of Time (Rs/Km)


VOT(Rs/Km)
Expressway National Highway
Cars 1.00 1.45
Bus 11.58 19.86
Truck 0.29 0.49

7.4.3 Toll Rate

The average toll rates on Indian highways are given in Table 7.15.

Table 7.15: Toll rates as per Price Water Coopers Study

Tollable 2003 Unit Toll


Toll Multiple/PCU Factor
Class Rate(Rs/Km)

Car 0.4 1
Bus 1.4 3
Truck 1.4 3
*Pricewaterhouse Coopers

The average toll rates on Indian Highways as per CES Study (2002) on DPR for Satara
Corridor Link from 2 lanes to 4 lanes are given in Table: 7.16.

Table: 7.16: Toll Rates as per CES Study


2002 Unit Toll
Tollable Class Toll Multiple/PCU Factor
Rate(Rs/Km)
Car 0.68 1
Bus 2.4 3
Truck 2.4 3

The average toll rates on Indian Highways as per CTS Mumbai Study (2008) are given in
Table: 7.17.

Table 7.17: Toll rate as per CTS Mumbai

2008 Unit Toll Rate


Tollable Class Toll Multiple/PCU Factor
(Rs./km)

Car 1 1
Bus* 3 3
Truck 3 3
*Toll Rate of bus is not specified in the report considered same as Truck

Different toll rates have been prescribed for different expressway segments so far.
The toll rates of different Expressways are shown Table 7.18.

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Table 7.18: Toll rates for different Expressways

Toll Multiple/PCU
Tollable Class Unit Toll Rate(Rs/Km)
Factor

Car 0.6 1
CES(1998) Bus 1.8 3
Truck 1.8 3
Car 1.47 1
MPEW(2008) Bus 4.32 3
Truck 5.52 3
Car 0.67 1
Gurgaon EW(2007) Bus 2.03 3
Truck 2.03 3
Car 0.79 1
Ahmedabad-Vadodara(2008) Bus 1.38 2
Truck 1.38 2

In this analysis, diversion of traffic has been computed after converting the toll rates of
the above mentioned expressways to the present value or to the value for which the
first phase of expressway gets implemented.

7.5 Overview of Traffic Diversion Curve

For the present report, the Diversion Curve developed in the course of the earlier study
has been taken as a sample case for understanding the impacts of various affecting
and affected parameters. The diversion curve equations developed earlier are
presented in Table 7.19.

Table 7.19 : Diversion Curve Equations

Item Cost Ratio Interval Equations


Cars <0.634 %Div=98.750-(CR/0.634)*8.125
0.634<=CR<=1.465 %Div=90.625-((CR-
0.634)/0.831)*84.375
1.465<=CR<=2.00 %Div=06.250-(CR-
1.465)/0.535)*5.25
Trucks & Buses <=0.750 %Div=100-(CR/0.75)*.5
0.750<=CR<=1.250 %Div=95-((CR-0.75)/0.5)*90
1.250<=CR<=2.00 %Div=((2-CR)/0.75)*5

Based on these equations curves had been plotted with respect to cost ratio (Expressway:
National Highway) and percent of traffic diverted to expressway. The Consultants has
considered three scenarios based on various parameters and the road user cost of each
are shown in Table 7.20 to 7.35, also mentioned the percentage of diverted traffic in each
case.

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Scenario 1 (Toll Rate of NH considered as per Price water Cooper)


Part A: VOC using IRC Formula
Table 7.20: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)
Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.40 3.68 10.22 11.01 5.85 6.33
Toll
Rate 0.89 0.43 7.3565 4.52 8.26 4.52
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

From these parameters percent of diversions to expressway work out to be 52%, 54%
and 46% for car traffic, bus traffic and truck traffic respectively.

Part B: VOC using as per Revised Road User Cost Study-2003

Table 7.21: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)

Cars Buses Truck


National National National
Expressway Expressway Expressway
Highway Highway Highway

VOC 3.21 3.54 7.15 7.89 11.35 13.16


Toll Rate 0.89 0.43 7.3565 4.52 8.26 4.52
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 52% 54% and 49% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic would get diverted to expressway respectively.

Part C: VOC using IRC Formula (Projected Toll Rate of previous study by CES on
Expressways)

Table 7.22: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)


T
Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Expressway Expressway
Highway Highway Highway

VOC 3.40 3.68 10.22 11.01 5.85 6.33


a
Toll 6.27
Rate 0.70 0.43 4.52 6.27 4.52
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 52%, 55% and 49% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic would get diverted to expressway respectively.

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Part D: VOC using as per Revised Road User Cost Study-2003 (Projected Toll Rate of
previous study on Expressways)

Table 7.23: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)

Cars Buses Truck


National National National
Expressway Expressway Expressway
Highway Highway Highway

VOC 3.21 3.54 7.15 7.89 11.35 13.16


Toll Rate 0.7 0.43 6.27 4.52 6.27 4.52
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 52% 55% and 51% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

Scenario 2 (Toll Rate of NH considered as per CES Study)


Part A:VOC using IRC Formula (Average Toll Rate of Existing Expressways)

Table 7.24: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)

Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.40 3.68 10.22 11.01 5.85 6.33
Toll
Rate 0.89 0.73 7.3565 7.74 8.26 7.74
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 53% 56% and 51% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

Part B: VOC using as per Revised Road User Cost Study-2003 (Average Toll Rate of
Existing Expressways)
Table 7.25: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)

Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.21 3.54 7.15 7.89 11.35 13.16
Toll Rate 0.89 0.73 7.3565 7.74 8.26 7.74
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that in the same stretch around 53% 56 % and 52% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

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Part C: VOC using IRC Formula (Projected Toll Rate of previous study on Expressways

Table 7.26: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)

Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.40 3.68 10.22 11.01 5.85 6.33
Toll Rate 0.70 0.73 6.27 7.74 6.27 7.74
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 53%,57% and 54% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

Part D: VOC using as per Revised Road User Cost Study-2003 (Projected Toll Rate of
previous study on Expressways)

Table 7.27: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)


Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.21 3.54 7.15 7.89 11.35 13.16
Toll Rate 0.7 0.73 6.27 7.74 6.27 7.74
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that in the same stretch around 54%, 57 % and 54% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

Scenario 3 (Toll Rate of NH considered as per CTS Mumbai Study)


Part A:VOC using IRC Formula (Average Toll Rate of Existing Expressways)

Table 7.28: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)


Cars Buses Truck
National National National
Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.40 3.68 10.22 11.01 5.85 6.33
Toll Rate 0.89 1 7.3565 9 8.26 9
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 53% 55 % and 52% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

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Part B:VOC using as per Revised Road User Cost Study-2003 (Average Toll Rate of Existing
Expressways)

Table 7.29: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)


Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.21 3.54 7.15 7.89 11.35 13.16
Toll
Rate 0.89 1 7.3565 9 8.26 9
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 54%, 57 % and 53% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

Part C: VOC using IRC Formula (Projected Toll Rate of previous study on Expressways)
Table 7.30: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)
Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.40 3.68 10.22 11.01 5.85 6.33
Toll Rate 0.70 1 6.27 9 6.27 9
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 54% 56 % and 56% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

Part D: VOC using as per Revised Road User Cost Study-2003 (Projected Toll Rate of
previous study on Expressways)

Table 7.31: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)


Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.21 3.54 7.15 7.89 11.35 13.16
Toll Rate 0.7 1 6.27 9 6.27 9
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 55% 58 % and 54% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

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Scenario 4 (Toll Rate of NH as per Ministry’s Toll Rate)


Part A:VOC using IRC Formula (Average Toll Rate of Existing Expressways)

Table 7.32: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)

Cars Buses Truck


National National National
Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.40 3.68 10.22 11.01 5.85 6.33
Toll Rate 0.89 0.65 7.3565 6.6 8.26 6.6
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 52%, 55 % and 49% of the car traffic, bus traffic
and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

Part B:VOC using as per Revised Road User Cost Study-2003 (Average Toll Rate of Existing
Expressways)

Table 7.33: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)

Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.21 3.54 7.15 7.89 11.35 13.16
Toll Rate 0.89 0.65 7.3565 6.6 8.26 6.6
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 53%, 56 % and 51% of the car traffic, bus traffic
and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

Part C: VOC using IRC Formula (Projected Toll Rate of previous study on Expressways)

Table 7.34: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)

Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.40 3.68 10.22 11.01 5.85 6.33
Toll Rate 0.70 0.65 6.27 6.6 6.27 6.6
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 53% 56 % and 52% of the car traffic, bus traffic
and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

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Part D: VOC using as per Revised Road User Cost Study-2003 (Projected Toll Rate of
previous study on Expressways)

Table 7.35: Total Road User Cost (Rs/Km)

Cars Buses Truck

National National National


Expressway Highway Expressway Highway Expressway Highway
VOC 3.21 3.54 7.15 7.89 11.35 13.16
Toll Rate 0.7 0.65 6.27 6.6 6.27 6.6
VOT 1 1.45 11.58 19.86 0.2875 0.493

It is found that for the same stretch around 53% 57 % and 53% of the car traffic, bus
traffic and truck traffic gets diverted to expressway respectively.

7.6 Summary

The summary of all the three Scenarios are shown in Table 7.36.

Table 7.36: Summary of Different Scenarios

Diverted Traffic (%)


Scenarios Options
Cars Buses Trucks
A 52 54 46
B 52 54 49
1
C 52 55 49
D 52 55 51
A 53 56 51
B 53 56 52
2
C 53 57 54
D 54 57 54
A 53 57 52
B 54 57 53
3
C 54 58 55
D 55 58 54
A 52 55 49
B 53 56 51
4
C 53 56 52
D 53 57 53

It is observed that under the same scenarios both Revised Road User Cost Study-2003
and IRC equations yield fairly comparable results. Scenario 4 has been considered as it
is compared with NHAI Toll Rate. Subsequent financial analysis has been carried out by
increasing the NHAI Toll rate by 50%, 100% and 150% for Expressways.

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Traffic, travel and axle load 8


Characteristics
8.1 Traffic flow characteristics

8.1.1 Background
Traffic characteristics help in appreciating the spatial and temporal features of traffic
within and around the study area, relationship of traffic intensity, network capacity and
prevailing level of service along various transport corridors within the influence area.
The traffic characteristics observed at various survey locations are described below:

8.2 Classified traffic volume count survey

Classified traffic volume count surveys were conducted to assess the traffic
characteristics in terms of traffic volume, its composition, peak hour and directional
split. These surveys were conducted for 24 hrs at 7 stations. The locations of count
stations were as under:

i) Bellur Cross (NH-48)


ii) Sindhudurg (NH-17)
iii) Baleshwar (NH-5)
iv) Nagpur (MP/Maharshtra Border,NH-7)
v) Kurukshetra (NH-1)
vi) Kanpur (NH-2)
vii) Udaipur (NH-8)

8.2.1 Average Daily Traffic (ADT) Characteristics

The temporal variation in traffic volumes at each of the six locations and the
composition of traffic at the respective locations are shown below. A seasonal factor of
1.03 has been applied for finding out the AADT (traffic surveys were carried out during
the month of April 2009)

Bellur Cross (NH-48)

Survey was conducted on Bellur Bridge which is a major link connecting Bangalore to
Mangalore. The surveyed section was found to carry AADT of 16459 PCU with a peak
hour flow of 924 PCU at during 17:15-18:15 hrs. The traffic variation during the day and
composition of traffic are shown in Figures 8.1 – 8.2.

( )
Cycles
1000 1%
900
MAV
800 2% Tw
2/3 Axle
21%
Traffic Volume (PCU)

700
20%
600

500

400

LCV Auto
300
7% 10%
200

100

0 Bus
0

0- 5

5- 0

0- 5

5- 0

5
45 00

30 45

15 30

00 15

45 00

30 45

15 30

00 15

45 00
7. 745

45 00

5
15 0
00 15

14%
.1 .3

.0 .1

.4 .0

.3 .4

.1 .3

.0 .1

.4 .0

.3 .4

.1 .3

.0 .1

.4 .0

.3 .4

.1 .3

.0 .1

.4 .0

.3 .4

:1 .3

:1
.3 .4

Cars
.3
00 01

01 01

02 02

03 03

04 04

05 05

06 06

06 07

0.
9. -.9

11 -11

12 -12

12 13

13 -13

14 -14

15 -15

15 -16

16 16

17 -17

18 -18

18 -19

19 -19

20 20

21 -21

21 -22

22 -22

23 -23

00
10 -10
-8
-0

-0

-1
-

30
00

0
8.
00

03

25%
9.

Time

Figure 8.1: Traffic Variation Fig 8.2: Traffic Composition

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The same section was found to carry AADT of 15994 PCU’s in the year 2008 (data from
permanent count station) with 31% Goods traffic and 48% Passenger Traffic (excluding
Two Wheelers and Autos).

Sindhudurg (NH-17)

This location lies on NH-17 that connects Mumbai to Goa. National Highway-17 passes
through the Western Ghat of India connecting Edapally to Panvel. AADT revealed from
the survey was 9411 PCU with a peak flow of 642 PCU during 09:30-10:30hrs. The traffic
variation during the day and composition of traffic are shown in Figures 8.3 – 8.4.

700

MAV Cycles
600
1% 0%
Traffic Volume (PCU)

500 Tw
22%
400 2/3 Axle
31%
300
Auto
0%
200

100

0
Cars
LCV 24%
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00

30 5

0
5

10 -1 0
11 0-1 5
12 5-1 0
12 0-1 5
13 5-1 0
14 0-1 5
15 5-1 0
15 0-1 5
16 5-1 0
17 0-1 5
18 5-1 0
18 0-1 5
19 5-1 0
20 0-2 5
21 5-2 0
21 0-2 5
22 5-2 0
23 0-2 5
5- 0

5
8. -8.3

00 1

.1 1.3
.0 2.1
.4 3.0
.3 3.4
.1 4.3
.0 5.1
.4 6.0
.3 6.4
.1 7.3
.0 8.1
.4 9.0
.3 9.4
.1 0.3
.0 1.1
.4 2.0
.3 2.4
:1 3.3

:1
7. 074

45 .0
.3 0.4

8%
00 -01
01 -01
02 -02
03 -03
03 -04
04 -04
05 -05
06 -06
06 -07

9. 5-.9

00
9. -10
-
00

1
00

Bus
Time
14%

Fig 8.3: Traffic Variation Fig 8.4: Traffic Composition

AADT of 8629 PCUs had been recorded at the permanent count station during the year
2008 (survey carried out during August 2008).

Baleshwar (NH-5)

This location lies on NH-5 that connects Kolkata to Chenai via Vizagapattanam. AADT
obtained from the Survey was 24466 PCU with observed peak flow of 1334 PCU’s during
10:15-11:15hrs. Traffic variation during the day and composition of traffic are shown in
Figures 8.5 – 8.6.

p
1600

1400
Cycles
3%
1200
Tw
MAV
Traffic Volume (PCU)

15%
1000
5%
Auto
800 3%

600
2/3 Axle
28% Cars
400
13%

200

0 Bus
11%
0
5

12 5-1 0
12 0-1 5
13 5-1 0
14 0-1 5
15 5-1 0
15 0-1 5
16 5-1 0
17 0-1 5
18 5-1 0
18 0-1 5
19 5-1 0
20 0-2 5
21 5-2 0
21 0-2 5
22 5-2 0
23 0-2 5
5- 0

5
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00

30 5

10 5-1 0
5
7. 074
8. -8.3

00 1
4 .0
.3 0.4
.1 1.3
.0 2.1
.4 3.0
.3 3.4
.1 4.3
.0 5.1
.4 6.0
.3 6.4
.1 7.3
.0 8.1
.4 9.0
.3 9.4
.1 0.3
.0 1.1
.4 2.0
.3 2.4
:1 3.3

:1
00 -01
01 -01
02 -02
03 -03
03 -04
04 -04
05 -05
06 -06
06 -07

9. 5-.9

00
9. -10

11 -1
-
00

0
1

LCV
00

Time 22%

Fig 8.5: Traffic Variation Fig 8.6: Traffic Composition

AADT of 16069 PCUs was observed at the permanent count station during the year 2008.

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Nagpur (NH-7)

The survey was conducted on NH-7 (near Nagpur on the border of Maharashtra /
Chhattisgarh region) which passes through the hinterland of the country and is also a
part of the North-South Corridor.

AADT as revealed by the Survey was 8986 PCUs with a peak flow of 534 PCUs during
10:30-11:30hrs. The traffic variation during the day and composition of traffic are shown
in Figures 8.7 - 8.8.

600
MAV
Cycles
1%
500 0%
2/3 Axle
Traffic Volume (PCU)

400 28% Tw
35%
300

200

LCV
100 4%
Bus
0
4% Auto
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00

30 5

0
5

10 -1 0
11 0-1 5
12 5-1 0
12 0-1 5
13 5-1 0
14 0-1 5
15 5-1 0
15 0-1 5
16 5-1 0
17 0-1 5
18 5-1 0
18 0-1 5
19 5-1 0
20 0-2 5
21 5-2 0
21 0-2 5
22 5-2 0
23 0-2 5
5- 0
5
7. 074
8. -8.3

00 1
45 .0
.3 0.4
.1 1.3
.0 2.1
.4 3.0
.3 3.4
.1 4.3
.0 5.1
.4 6.0
.3 6.4
.1 7.3
.0 8.1
.4 9.0
.3 9.4
.1 0.3
.0 1.1
.4 2.0
.3 2.4
:1 3.3
:1
0 0 -0 1
0 1 -0 1
0 2 -0 2
0 3 -0 3
0 3 -0 4
0 4 -0 4
0 5 -0 5
0 6 -0 6
0 6 -0 7

9. 5-.9

00
9. -10

8%
-
00

Cars
00

Time 20%

Fig 8.7: Traffic Variation Fig 8.8: Traffic Composition

Kanpur (NH-2)

AADT obtained from the Survey was 15060 PCUs with a peak flow of 982 PCUs
during17:00-18:00 hrs. Traffic variation during the day and composition of traffic are
shown in Figures 8.9 - 8.10.

1000 Cycles
900
MAV 0%
6%
800 Tw
2/3 Axle 20%
Traffic Volume (PCU)

700
15%
600

500
Auto
400
LCV 3%
300
8%
200

100
Cars
0 19%
12 5-1 0
12 0-1 5
13 5-1 0
14 0-1 5
15 5-1 0
15 0-1 5
16 5-1 0
17 0-1 5
18 5-1 0
18 0-1 5
19 5-1 0
20 0-2 5
21 5-2 0
21 0-2 5
22 5-2 0
23 0-2 5
5- 0

5
4 5 00
3 0 45
1 5 30
0 0 15
4 5 00
3 0 45
1 5 30
0 0 15
4 5 00

30 5
15 0

10 5-1 0
11 -1 5
8. -8. 3

00 1

.1 1.3
.0 2.1
.4 3.0
.3 3.4
.1 4.3
.0 5.1
.4 6.0
.3 6.4
.1 7.3
.0 8.1
.4 9.0
.3 9.4
.1 0.3
.0 1.1
.4 2.0
.3 2.4
:1 3.3

:1
7. 074

4 .0
.3 0.4
00 -01
01 -01
02 -02
03 -03
03 -04
04 -04
05 -05
06 -06
06 -07

9. -.9

00
9. -10
-
00

0
00

Bus
Time
29%

Fig 8.9: Traffic Variation Figure 8.10: Traffic Composition

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Karnal Toll Plaza (NH-1)

AADT found out from the Survey was 48648 PCU with a peak flow of 2872 PCU during
10:15-11:15hrs. The traffic variation during the day and composition of traffic are shown
in Figures 8.11 - 8.12.

3000 Cycles
1%
2500 MAV
2% Tw
Traffic Volume (PCU)

2000 2/3 Axle 10% Auto


17% 1%
1500

1000
LCV
8%
500

Bus
0
6%
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00

30 5
15 0

10 5-1 0
11 -1 5
12 5-1 0
12 0-1 5
13 5-1 0
14 0-1 5
15 5-1 0
15 0-1 5
16 5-1 0
17 0-1 5
18 5-1 0
18 0-1 5
19 5-1 0
20 0-2 5
21 5-2 0
21 0-2 5
22 5-2 0
23 0-2 5
5- 0

5
7. 074
8. -8.3

00 1
4 .0
.3 0.4
.1 1.3
.0 2.1
.4 3.0
.3 3.4
.1 4.3
.0 5.1
.4 6.0
.3 6.4
.1 7.3
.0 8.1
.4 9.0
.3 9.4
.1 0.3
.0 1.1
.4 2.0
.3 2.4
:1 3.3

:1
00 - 01
01 -01
02 -02
03 -03
03 -04
04 - 04
05 -05
06 - 06
06 -07

9. -.9

00
9. -10
-
00

0
00

Cars
Time 55%

Fig 8.11: Traffic Variation Fig 8.12: Traffic Composition

Udaipur (NH -8)

AADT obtained from the survey was 12992 PCU with a peak flow of 864 PCU during
17:00-18:00 hrs. The traffic variation during the day and composition of traffic are shown
in Figures 8.13 - 8.14.

1000

900 MAV
1% Cycles
800 0%
2/3 Axle
700
14% Tw
Traffic Volume(PCU)

600
23%

500

400 LCV
13%
300 Auto
4%
200

100

0
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00
30 45
15 30
00 15
45 00

30 5
15 0

- 5
10 -1 0
0- 5

12 5-1 0
12 0-1 5
13 -1 0
14 0-1 5
15 -1 0
15 -1 5
16 5-1 0
17 0-1 5
18 5-1 0
18 0-1 5
19 5-1 0
20 0-2 5
21 5-2 0
21 -2 5
22 5-2 0
23 -2 5
5- 0
5

Cars
7. 074
8. -8.3

00 1
45 .0
.3 0.4
.1 1.3
.0 2.1
.4 3.0
.3 3.4
.1 4.3
.0 5.1
.4 6.0
.3 6.4
.1 7.3
.0 8.1
.4 9.0
.3 9.4
.1 0.3
.0 1.1
.4 2.0
.3 2.4
:1 3.3

:1
00 -01
01 -01
02 -02
03 -03
03 -04
04 -04
05 -05
06 -06
06 -07

9. -.9

00
9. 10

11 1

Bus
-
00

5
0

21%
00

Time
24%

Fig 8.13: Traffic Variations Fig 8.14: Traffic Composition

The summary of traffic volumes observed at all the seven locations is given in Table 8.1.
Two wheelers and autos have been excluded while working out the percentage shares
of goods and passenger traffic.

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Table 8.1: Summary of observed traffic volumes at Survey Locations


Percentage Share of
Traffic
Peak Hour
Sl Location AADT Flow Goods Passenger
No (PCU) Peak Hour (PCU/Hr)
1 Bellur 15979 17:15-18:15 897 29.00% 39.00%
2 Sindhudurg 9137 09:30-10:30 623 39.00% 38.00%
3 Baleshwar 23753 10:15-11:15 1334 55.00% 22.00%
4 Nagpur 8470 10:30-11:30 502 33.00% 24.00%
5 Kanpur 14195 17:00-18:00 925 29.00% 48.00%
6 Karnal 47231 10:15-11:15 2788 27.00% 61.00%
7 Udaipur 12992 15:30-16:30 864 27.54% 45.18%

8.3 Origin - Destination Survey

The objective of the O-D survey was to ascertain the travel patterns of passenger and
goods traffic. The survey was carried out at the survey stations simultaneously with the
classified traffic volume survey adopting ‘Roadside Direct Interview’ method. It was
carried out for 24 hours on sample basis. This provided information on travel pattern in
terms of origin and destination of trips, trip length, trip purpose, mode of travel, journey
times and cost incurred etc. In addition, for goods movements, details regarding
commodity in terms of type of commodity, mode used, trip lengths etc were also
obtained. The seven survey locations as mentioned elsewhere in the report were:

i) Bellur Cross (NH-48)


ii) Sindhudurg (NH-17)
iii) Baleshwar (NH-5)
iv) Nagpur (MP/ Maharshtra Border,NH-7)
v) Kurukshetra (NH-1)
vi) Kanpur (NH-2)
vii) Udaipur (NH-8)

This survey was conducted on random sample basis for light commercial vehicles,
cars/jeeps and trucks. The sample size for each category of vehicles interviewed at
each of the locations is given in Table 8.1.

Table 8.2: O-D Survey Sample Size at 7 Locations


Sample Size
Location
Goods Passenger
1 Bellur Cross
5.19 % 17.88%
2 Sindhudurg
23.76% 30.27%
3 Baleshwar
7.10% 19.78%
4 Nagpur
8.0% 40.21%
5 Kurukshetra
7.2% 6%
6 Kanpur
21.77% 16.29%
7 Udaipur
6.21% 14.35%

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8.4 Trip Length

As obtained from the survey the percentage share of freight and passenger traffic
For different trip lengths are shown in the Table 8.3.

Table 8.3: Percentage Share of Traffic for Different Trip Length

Sl Trip Length (Km)


Type of Traffic
No <150 150-300 300-600 600-1200 >1200
1 Goods Traffic 13.01% 4.53% 9.6% 25.31% 47.56%
Passenger
2 75.12% 10.60% 8.23% 5.23% 0.88%
Traffic

8.5 Commodities Carried

The commodities carried mainly consist of petroleum products, food and vegetables,
building materials, chemical and fertilizer, water etc, besides empty carriages.

8.6 Major OD Pairs

The study area has been divided into 37 zones .The zoning system for the study is shown
in Plate 8.1. The metro cities have been considered as special zones while zoning the
entire region.

8.6.1 Goods Traffic

Desire line diagrams (Plate 8.2) were plotted and major OD pairs identified as listed
below :

1) Kolkata-Delhi
2) Delhi-Guntur
3) Ahmedabad-Dharwad
4) Pune-Kochi
5) Amritsar-Jammu
6) Amritsar-Rhotak
7) Amritsar-Agra
8) Amritsar-Ahmedabad
9) Delhi-Ahmedabad
10) Ahmedabad-Jodhpur
11) Ahmedabad-Dharwad
12) Pune-Mumbai
13) Amritsar-Raipur
14) Guntur-Raipur
15) Mysore-Raipur
16) Kolkata-Kanpur
17) Mysore-Kochi
18) Kanpur-Chennai
19) Kolkata-Bhopal
20) Kolkata-Dehradun
21) Ranchi-Kanpur
22) Agra-Guntur

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23) Bangalore-Kanpur
24) Hyderabad-Kanpur
25) Mysore-Raipur
26) Kanpur-Guntur
27) Bangalore-Mysore
28) Delhi-Jammu
29) Kolkata-Ranchi

It may be noted in this context that the above O-D pairs are specific only to the surveys
carried out at the seven locations. Some of the major O- D pairs identified from
secondary data source are:

Plate 8.1 : Traffic zone diagram of study area

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Plate 8.2 : Desire line diagram of Goods Traffic

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1) Bangalore-Chennai
2) Chennai-Kolkata
3) Mumbai-Hyderabad
4) Mumbai-Delhi
5) Mumbai-Ahmedabad
6) Mumbai-Nagpur
7) Chennai-Hyderabad

8.6.2 Passenger Traffic

Desire line diagrams for passenger traffic (Plate 8.3) were plotted and major O-D pairs
identified as listed below:

1)Amritsar-Jammu 12)Pune-Mumbai
2)Amritsar-Shimla 13)Bangalore-Chennai
3)Amritsar-Delhi 14)Thrissur-Bangalore
4)Delhi-Rhotak 15)Thrissur-Chennai
5)Delhi-Agra 16)Guntur-Mysore
6)Delhi-Jaipur 17)Pune-Hyderabad
7)Delhi-Jammu 18)Hyderabad-Mysore
8)Delhi-Kanpur 20)Hyderabad-Bangalore
9)Jaipur-Agra 21)Pune-Dharwad
10)Kolkata-Durgapur 22)Panaji-Dharwad
11)Kolkata-Bhubhaneshwar

8.7 Axle Load Spectrum

The data gathered from primary survey were analyzed and axle load spectra plotted
for dual as well as multi axle commercial vehicles. It is observed from the plot that
90% of dual axle vehicles carry loads less than 15-20 Tonnes and the rest is overloaded.
Incase of multi axle vehicles 90% of vehicles carry less than 30 Tonnes and while the rest
is overloaded.

40.00% 60.00%
% Distribution of Load on Rear
% Distribution of Load on Rear

35.00%
50.00%
30.00%
40.00%
25.00%
Axles

Axles

20.00% 30.00%

15.00%
20.00%
10.00%
10.00%
5.00%
0.00% 0.00%
0-5 5- 10 10 - 15 15 - 20 > 20 15 - 20 20 - 25 25 - 30 > 30
Axle Load (Tonnes) Axle Load (Tonnes)

Fig: 8.15 Axle Load Spectrum Dual Axle Fig: 8.16 Axle Load Spectrum Multi Axles
trucks Trucks

Cumulative distributions of axle loads for Dual and Multi Axle vehicles are shown in
Figures 8.17 - 8.18.

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Plate 8.3 : Desire line diagram of Passenger Traffic

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100.00% 100.00%

Percentage Distribution of Vehicles


Percentage Distribution of Vehicles
90.00% 90.00%

80.00% 80.00%

70.00% 70.00%

60.00% 60.00%

50.00% 50.00%

40.00% 40.00%

30.00% 30.00%

20.00% 20.00%

10.00% 10.00%

0.00% 0.00%
0-5 5- 10 10 - 15 15 - 20 > 20 15 - 20 20 - 25 25 - 30 > 30

Axle Load (Tonnes) Axle Load (Tonnes)

Fig 8.17: Cumulative Distribution of Axle Load of Fig 8.18: Cumulative Distribution of Axle Load
Dual Axles trucks of Multi Axle trucks

8.8 Establishing Diversion Curves

In the Second Part of analysis for Diversion Curves, the percent diversion of vehicles to
National Expressway was derived mode wise for different Toll Rates. Figures 8.19 – 8.21
show the re – established Diversion Curves for Cars, Buses and Trucks respectively.

0.6

0.5
Percent Diversion of Cars

y = -0.0378x + 0.5682
0.4 2
R = 0.9958

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Toll Rate
Fig 8.19: Diversion Curve for Cars

0.7

0.6

y = -0.0258x + 0.6083
2
R = 0.9921
Perecent Diverted Trucks

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Toll rate (Rs/Km)


Fig 8.20: Diversion Curve for Trucks

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0.7

y = -0.0235x + 0.6231
0.6
R2 = 0.9949

Percent Diversion of Buses


0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Toll Rate(Rs/Km)

Fig 8.21: Diversion Curve for Buses

The re - established diversion curves have then been compared with the diversion
curves established during the course of the earlier study. Table 8.4 gives a comparison
between the percentages of diverted traffic calculated on the basis of each of the two
different sets of diversion curves.

Table 8.4: Diverted Traffic in Percentage as per Ministry's Toll Rate

Cars Buses Trucks


Diverted Traffic
WSA Diversion
54.3 % 56.8 % 54.7 %
Curve

New Diversion
54.4 % 57.1 % 55.2 %
Curve

It would be seen that the diversions calculated through the two different sets of
diversions curves are more or less identical.

8.9 Fixing Optimum Toll Rate for National Expressway Network:

The Consultants had seriously attempted determination of optimum toll rates. However,
in the present instance (which is a Master Plan level study) it was not possible to go into
the details that would be necessary for reliable evaluation of the different affecting
parameters.

It is not difficult to see that the optimum toll rate could be derived from the Diversion
Curve Analysis. Ideally, the “diversion” should vary with varying toll rates in a manner
that the curve could indicate an apex position signifying maximization of revenue at a
particular toll rate against the resultant diversion. However, the nature of the Diversion
Curves developed during the course of the earlier study does not follow this pattern
within the range of toll considered or adopted. One plausible reason for this could be
that “toll” against projects under PPP mode was not a clear priority at that time. The
entire financing scenario was very different from what obtains today and, the question
of “loss in revenue” for a competing project (i.e expressways vis a vis tolled national
highways) was not exactly within the visual cursor of that study.

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The present study considers PPP mode of implementation of the project. The expressways
analytically would be competing with the rest of the tolled highways and thus, there
would be revenue sharing. This is easily understood. However, what eludes
comprehension at this stage is that each segment of expressway shall be competing with
highways under different conditions of tolling (in terms of concession period, period
already under operation, toll rate etc.) and thus, it would be impossible to evaluate the
extent of competition between segments in real terms. In other words, here is a variable
that cannot be considered at the macro level and hence, this has to be left for case-
specific situations as and when the same is confronted with.

As would be seen, the above condition is most likely to project different toll rates for
different segments of expressway. In reality that may not be a very desirable situation. It
would probably thus, be appropriate to follow a particular toll rate and derive the other
revenue generating elements in a manner so that the projects become individually
financially viable (even there “change of landuse” from agricultural to commercial, for
example, may not be a feasible option). The Consultants, as per the advice of the client,
have applied the Toll Rate as specified under National Highway Fee as a standard
measure for aggregate analysis of financial returns. In fact, the analysis has been carried
out on the basis of tangible and measurable parameters (at the Master plan level) only.
This is logical as this gives a reliable and robust base that can be suitably tailored while
further financial evaluation for specific project segments.

The toll rate has been varied over a wide range for financial analysis keeping the same
base. It could be seen that the FIRR values do not undergo changes through the same
ranges because of such variations. That only goes to prove that returns form toll cannot
be very significant in the overall context. It generally provides a datum for financial
returns. The major part of this shall have to come in the form of VGF and, perhaps other
use rights.

The Diversion Curves developed earlier do not show any point of contra flexure within
reasonable toll rates for toll optimization. The fresh group of Diversion Curves developed
by the CRAPHTS used the same principles as made use of in the earlier study. The values
of the parameters (VOC, VOT etc.) have been modified as per present assessment. Since
the present curves also follow the same philosophy as the earlier ones, these set of curves
too are not amenable to any optimization analysis. It would be appreciated that
developing the curves ab initio was quite beyond the scope of the present study.
Developing the curves all over again will call for detailed surveys with representative
samples under each category of highway and would be a colossal task in itself. The
Master Plan level study as carried out by the Consultants, aimed primarily at connectivity
parameters. Financial viabilities (and prioritization) too may undergo changes due to a
host of reasons in the years to come.

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Master Plan of Expressway Network 9


9.1 Background

The physical features, geographical features, agricultural areas, industrial areas, along
with the data available from the secondary sources, Natural Resources belt and SEZ’s
etc. were considered in detail while planning the network. This chapter provides an
insight into the planning strategy for the study area (entire country) that had duly taken
into account the existing/proposed SEZ’s, mineral belts in the country, future expansion
of major ports etc. These Macro-economic parameters have been considered for
deciding the relative ranking of each state (excepting the Union Territories as well as
the metro cities that had been considered separately). In conjunction, traffic volumes
received from different permanent count stations (classified into different class
intervals) have been plotted along major arterial roads so as to assess the relative
importance of corridor segments which could eventually guide the process of network
identification.

9.2 Export Processing Zones

India accounts for a meager 2.4 percent of the world’s surface area, yet it sustains a
whopping 16.7 percent of the world’s population, numbering to a little over one billion
people residing in 28 states and 7 union territories. The variation in physical geography,
culture, and economic conditions across these states and territories is enormous. Some
states have achieved rapid economic growth in recent years, whereas others have
languished. Road transport is the dominant mode of transport, accounting for 70% of
freight movement and 85% of passenger traffic. The NH network contributes to the
extent of about 2% of the country’s road network, but carries about 40% of total traffic.
Over the last decade, the numbers of automobiles and heavy vehicles have increased
at about 9% and 7.6%, respectively. Most of these national highways are already
severely congested. Internationally, a goods vehicle travels an average of 600–800 km
a day, while on Indian roads, until recently, the average distance covered was only
250–300 km a day. Poor road conditions have negative consequences for road user
costs, road safety, and the quality and frequency of transport services. These also limit
the contribution of roads to nation building, economic growth, and poverty alleviation.

With the advent of the National Expressway Network there will expectedly be a greater
scope of weaning away some traffic from other competing modes with the possibility of
the average trip length being doubled in due course of time. Traffic is a derivative of
economic activities and, while planning a new network of national expressways, this
really becomes the starting point towards deciding the network alignment and
connectivity. To start with, the consultants have considered the export potentials in
various parts of the country. The major export processing zones and major ports in India
in this context are shown in Figure 9.1. The locations just give an indication about the
broad shape of the network that could best serve this facet of our economy.

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-Ports

$ - SEZ

Figure 9.1: Major SEZ and Ports in India

9.3 Mineral Belts in the Country

The mineral belts of the country lie mainly in Eastern and Central parts of India (in States
like Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh etc). These are also
distributed in some parts of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Figure 9.2 shows the
major mineral belts within the country. While these indicate the production zones, the
processing zones are also located mostly around such areas. The finished products of
course are consumed in different parts of the country.

The foregoing has been cited just as an indicative approach adapted by the
consultants towards deciding the network pattern for national expressway (also to
maintain continuity with earlier efforts). A detailed account of this is available in the
earlier reports submitted by the Consultants. Suffice it to say that all the relevant
economic parameters have actually been considered by the consultants in a
comprehensive manner for generating a weighted scale describing the status of

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development of each state/region. This too has been used towards deciding the
network connectivity warrants. The rationale towards deciding the relative levels of
resourcefulness (in terms of traffic generation) for each state could be seen in the
following.

9.4 Development Matrix


9.4.1 General

A matrix comprising different states in India has been developed and ranked based on
the macro economic parameters, NSDP indices, tourist places and revenues, mineral
belts and natural resources etc. so as to scale the different states in terms of level of
economic activities (and by implication traffic generation potentials). This has been
necessitated in absence of data on commodity flows between different origin –
destination node pairs. However, this has finally been related with the recorded traffic
flows along various segments of national highways passing through each state.

Figure 9.2: Mineral Belts in India

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9.4.2 Method adopted for Ranking

All the parameters have been ranked on a 5 point scale. The agricultural yield has been
ranked as per yield per hectare of each state so as to obtain the actual potential yield.
Data on food grain, non food grain productivity as well as the NSDP have been taken
from the Statistical Handbook of the RBI. The major industrial regions as specified by the
Ministry of Industries (GOI) have been given a score of “1” for each major industry and a
score “0.25” for each of the minor ones.

The states having the most number of Class I cities have been assigned a score of “5”
with scores varying proportionately for states with varying number of Class I cities. The
ports have been rated based on two parameters namely, percentage of annual share
of cargo and percentage share of handling of containers. As regards Metro Cities, the
states having Metro Cities have been given a rating of “5” while those without one
given a rating of “0”. Similarly a state having an international airport was given a rating
of “5”. The results have then been grouped under the respective study regions and the
same are presented in the following:

9.4.3 Description of different Zones


9.4.3.1 Zone 1

This zone comprises parts of the South Indian States of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh. The rankings are shown in Table 9.1 (with respect to all the states
taken together; UTs have not been considered in this).

Table 9.1 : Ranking of States in Zone 1


States Total Points Ranking
Kerala 21.04 15
Tamil Nadu 51.76 3
Andhra Pradesh 54.41 2
Karnataka 45.30 5

The major arterials within this zone catering to more than 20,000 PCU (AADT) as
identified from the secondary data, are NH-17 (Edapally - Panvel), NH-7, NH-47 (Salem-
Trivandrum), and NH-68.

Expressway Alignment

The proposed Expressway alignment passes through the costal area of this region
connecting all the major ports of the region as well some of the prominent cities like
Trichy, Pondicherry, Chennai, Trivandrum, Bangalore etc. The most important feature is
that it could connect Mangalore to Chennai (Via Chennai-Bangalore Expressway)
within 8-9 hours. The proposed Expressway alignment passes largely through the coastal
belt of Kerala which offloads the traffic of NH-47 connecting major cities such as Trichur,
Ernakulam, Trivandrum, Kanyakumari and the like. It also passes through the Tamil Nadu
coastal belt which connects Tirunelveli, Trichy, Pondicherry and Chennai. The proposed
alignment connects Mangalore to Bangalore and Honavar to Bangalore. Some of the
major ports and their accessibility as could thereby be achieved are discussed in the
following:

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Major Ports of this Zone

Ennore Port Limited

Commodities handled are mainly POL, Iron ore and thermal coal. Total traffic handled
during the year ending 31.3.2005 was 9.48 million tonnes. The port is expected to handle
traffic of around 47.50 million tonnes by the year 2013-14.

The Ennore Port is now in its second phase of development wherein it is proposed to
develop new terminals for handling coal, iron ore, marine liquid, LNG and container
terminal. The capacity of the port is projected to increase from the present 16 MTPA to
39.5 MTPA by 2010-2011 and will go up to 62 MTPA by 2021-2022. The estimated cargo
projected to be handled through different modes is conveyor- 13 MTPA; pipeline-4
MTPA; rail-20.5 MTPA + 0.25 MTEUs; road – 2 MTPA + 0.75 MTEUs. To meet the increased
demand of traffic the following have already been proposed:

Chennai Port

Commodities handled are mainly POL, iron ore and containers. Total traffic handled
during the year ending 31.3.2005 was 43.81 million tonnes.The port is expected to
handle traffic of around 47.40 million tonnes by the year 2013-14.

Existing Road Connectivity

The present road connectivity is through NH-5 (Chennai-Kolkata), NH-4 (providing


access to Chennai from West), and NH-45 (Chennai- Dindugal). NHAI is implementing
the 30 km stretch for Chennai–Ennore Port Connectivity Project, Chennai - Ennore
Expressway.

Proposed Road Connectivity

Ennore-Manali Road Improvement Project (EMRIP) is being undertaken at an estimated


cost of Rs. 150 crore. It includes shore protection along Ennore Coast, 4-laning of Ennore
Expressway, improvement of Tiruvottiyur-Ponneri-Panjetti road and Manali Oil Refinery
Road, up gradation of Northern Segment of inner ring road leading to the National
Highway.

Cochin Port

Commodity handled is mainly POL. Total traffic handled during the year ending
31.3.2005 was 14.10 million tonnes. The port is expected to handle traffic of around 45
million tonnes by the year 2013-14.

Existing Road Connectivity

The present road connectivity of the Port is through two bridges – one each on
Mattanchery channel and Ernakulum Channel linking the Port to mainland. There is also
a link road between the Wellington Island and NH-47 bypass.

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Future Requirements

Cochin Port is a natural harbour located on the West Coast. The existing Port facilities
are located on the Wellington Island. Two bridges - one on the Ernakulum channel and
the other bridge on the Matte cherry Channel connects the Wellington Island to the
mainland and the Wellington Island to Western Kochi respectively. The bridge
connecting the mainland and Wellington Island is a road –cum - rail corridor. The port
facilities are also connected to the Railway network through an 8 km. long rail line. The
rail connection is also extended to the Ernakulum Wharf and the Mattencherry Wharf.
Railways are in the process of replacing the existing railway bridge across the Ernakulum
Channel, which connects Wellington Island with the mainland.

Road Connectivity

Road connectivity to Vallarapadam is proposed by NHAI in two phases:-

Phase-I

4-laning of 10 km stretch of NH-47 from Vyttila to Aroor at an estimated cost of Rs.100


crore is in the pipeline.

Phase-II

4-Lane NH connectivity to Vallarapadam is being revised taking into account additional


requirement for 2-lane road and bridge up to Vallarapadam.

New Mangalore Port

Commodities handled are mainly POL and Iron ore. Total traffic handled during the year
ending 31.3.2005 was 33.89 million tonnes. The port is expected to handle traffic of
around 43 million tonnes by the year 2013-14.

Existing Road Connectivity

The present road connectivity of the Port is through NH-48 (Bangalore-Mangalore), NH-
17 (Cochin-Goa-Mangalore) and NH-13 (Sholapur-Mangalore). NHAI is implementing
projects for four laning of NH-17 (Suratkal-Nantur section), NH-48 (Padil-Bantwal section)
and a bypass from Nantur junction on NH-17 to Padil junction on NH-48.

Future Requirements

The traffic of NMPT is projected to increase to 43 MTPA by 2013-14 from the present level
of 33.89 MPTA. Under the NMDP, the Port plans to construct an additional general cargo
berth, develop cruise lounge, develop LNG Bunkering facilities, LNG terminal, container
terminal for transshipment, coal handling facilities for captive users, install SBM for POL
and also develop some additional facilities. In order to cater to the increase in cargo in
coming years, it is necessary to improve the existing road rail connectivity of the port.
For this following projects need to be undertaken:

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Road Connectivity

Improvement of NH-13 from Sholapur to Chitradurga was extended from Chitradurga to


Mangalore three years ago. While the stretch between Sholapur and Chitradurga is in
good condition, the stretch between Chitradurga and Mangalore needs to be widened
and strengthened. The stretch between Karkala to Shringeri is a Ghat section. Therefore,
heavy vehicles are not using this route from Hospet - Bellary region to the port. Instead,
they are using the route via Hubli-Karwar to Mangalore and via Chitradurga and from
Tumkur and Hazan to Mangalore. If the Chitradurga- Mangalore stretch NH-13 is
widened and strengthened, the distance will get reduced by 150 km.

Tuticorin Port

Commodities handled are mainly thermal coal and POL. Total traffic handled during the
year ending 31.3.2005 was 15.81 million tonnes. The port is expected to handle traffic of
around 35.20 million tonnes by the year 2013-14.

Existing Road Connectivity

Present road linkages to the port are through:

(a) 2-lane NH-45 B Tuticorin to Ettaiapuram- Aruppukottai-Madurai


(b) 2-lane NH-7 Tirunelvei to Madurai-Erode, Salem and Bangalore
(c) 2-lane NH7A, Tuticorin to Tirunelveli.

NHAI is implementing a project for four laning of 47.2 km stretch of NH-7A between
Tuticorin and Tirunelvelli. NHAI is to undertake 4-laning of NH 45B under NHDP III.

Future Requirements

The traffic handled at Tuticorin is growing steadily. The traffic at the Port is expected to
increase to 35.20 MTPA by 2013-14 as against the present traffic of 15.81MTPA. The Port
proposes to convert its 8th Berth into a Container terminal. It also has plans to construct
a Coal Berth for NLC-TNEB, up gradation of the existing coal jetty, construct Berth No.9
and Shallow Berths. The port is also identified as one of the Ports for cruise shipping.
While the present road connectivity to the nine CFSs in Tuticorin is good, it would further
improve with four laning of NH7A currently in progress and proposed four laning of
NH45B. Thus, connectivity to CFSs is not an issue with Tuticorin Port Trust. However, to
meet the future requirements arising from increase in traffic, the Port has proposed
undertaking of the following projects for augmenting rail/road connectivity:

Road Connectivity

While all National Highways, State Highways and major district roads providing
connectivity to the Port are already in the process of being widened/improved, the Port
has proposed completion of the projects in the following priority:

(a) 4-laning of NH45B


(b) 4-laning of NH7 between Madurai- Dindugal.
(c) East Coast Road between Tuticorin and Ramanathapuram.

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9.4.3.2 Zone 2

This zone comprises parts of South Indian States such as Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and
the states and UT of Maharashtra, Orissa and Goa. The states’ total points and the
rankings are shown in Table 9.2.

Table 9.2 : Ranking of States within Zone 2


States Total Points Ranking
Andhra Pradesh 54.41 2
Karnataka 45.30 5
Goa 19.05 18
Maharashtra 58.53 1
Orissa 20.34 13

The major nodal points of this zone are Mumbai, Vizag, Marmagoa, Nagpur, Panaji,
Surat, Kandla, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad etc. It is observed from the rankings that
Maharashtra has got the highest score after doing the psychometric analysis in a five
point scale. From the secondary data plotted over the existing National Highways it is
found that the congested roads (AADT>20,000 PCU) are NH-9 (Pune-Hyderabad), NH-4
(Pune-Banglore-Chennai), NH-7 (Kanyakumari-Varanasi), and NH-63. The other
important national highway segments in this zone which cater to more than 15,000 PCU
(AADT) are NH-206, NH-13, NH-17 etc. Activities at some of the major ports in this zone
are described in the following:

Mumbai Port

Commodities handled are mainly POL. Total traffic handled during the year ending
31.3.2005 was 35.12 million tonnes. The port is expected to handle traffic of around 45.20
million tones by the year 2013-14.

Existing Road Connectivity

The Port is well connected to other parts of the country through NH-8 (Ahmadabad),
NH-3 (Delhi & Kolkata), NH-4 (Bangalore), and NH-17 (Goa/Mangalore). Port traffic has
to move through Eastern Express Highway, Western Express Highway and Sion - Panvel
Highway through busy city roads. Anik-Panjorpole Link Road (APLR) project, which is a
part of Eastern Freeway Project, will provide access between Mumbai Port and Southern
parts of Mumbai, Navi Mumbai on the mainland to the East and the Eastern Express
Highway to the North-East.

Future requirements

The traffic of Mumbai Port is projected to increase to 45.20 MTPA by 2013-14 from the
present level of 35.12 MTPA. The expansion proposals for Mumbai Port include
construction of two offshore container terminals having a capacity of 0.8 MTEUs,
redevelopment of Harbour Wall Berths to handle larger and deep drafted general
cargo vessels and a fifth oil berth. The port has plans to develop facilities for coastal
ships. With a view to ensure smooth flow of traffic and to meet the future requirements,
the Port has proposed the following for improving connectivity:

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Jawaharlal Nehru Port

Commodities handled are mainly through containers. Total traffic handled during the
year ending 31.3.2005 was 32.81 million tonnes. The port is expected to handle traffic of
around 73 million tonnes by the year 2013-14.

Existing Road Connectivity

The port is connected through:

(a) NH-4B to the Mumbai-Pune Expressway


(b) Mumbai-Goa Highway (NH-17)
(c) SH-54 to Navi Mumbai, Thane, Nasik, Ahmadabad.

Future Requirements

JNPT has been steadily growing as a major container hub port in this part of the world.
The port has already crossed 2 million TEU mark and accounts for about 58% of total
container traffic of the country. JNPT has already signed concession agreement for
taking up development of third container terminal on BOT basis with a capacity of 1.3
million TEUs. JNPT has plans to develop the 4th and 5th terminals in the near future. The
port is likely to handle about 73 million tonnes by 2013-14. As per recent traffic survey
and traffic forecasting studies, it is estimated that the peak traffic volume generated
due to port activity would be to the tune of 3668 PCUs per hour by 2015-16. This would
require corresponding augmentation of road connectivity of the port.

Road Connectivity

To avoid the longer route via NH-4B from Panval to JNPT for traffic to/from Southern
States, the link road via Khopta-Koproli-Kalambusare-Chirner-SaiKharpada needs to be
widened and strengthened. There is a need to have a separate access bypassing
Thane and Mumbra City, connecting Nasik and Ahmedabad Highway through NH-3
and NH-8 respectively as road passing through Mumbra and Thane gets damaged
during monsoons and traffic movement is severely affected.

Visakhapatnam Port

Commodities handled are mainly POL and iron ore. Total traffic handled during the year
ending 31.3.2005 was 50.15 million tonnes. The port is expected to handle traffic of
around 100 million tonnes by the year 2013-14.

Existing Road Connectivity

The Port is connected to NH 5 via GNT Road (17 km), Gnanapuram-Thatichetlapalem (9


km), Alipuram- Railway Station - Thatichetlapalem (9 km), Naval Dockyard and Industrial
by-pass Road (15 km).

Future Requirements

The cargo traffic at this port is predominantly rail borne. Out of 50.15 MT, 32.9 MT (65%) is
moved by rail from/to various places of primary and secondary area comprising states
of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttarnchal, UP, Maharashtra, Orissa, West Bengal and

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Punjab. The port also serves tertiary service area of Haryana and J&K. The remaining
cargo is moved by pipeline/road.

9.4.3.3 Zone 3

This zone comprises parts of the States of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Jharkhand,
Sikkim, MP and Bihar. The states total points and the ranking are shown in Table 9.3.

Table 9.3 : Ranking of States within Zone 3


States Total Points Ranking
Madhya Pradesh 26.62 12
Orissa 20.34 16
Chhattisgarh 18.52 19
West Bengal 43.59 6
Jharkhand 22.70 14
Bihar 27.84 11

The major nodal points of this zone are Kolkata, Ranchi, Bhubhaneshwar, Raipur,
Bilaspur, Durg, Rourkela, Paradeep Port, Haldia, Durgapur, Dankuni, Patna and
Gangtok.

From the secondary data plotted over the existing National Highways it is found that the
congested roads (AADT>20,000 PCU) are NH-2 (Delhi-Kolkata) and NH-6 (Dhule-Kolkata).
The other important roads in these zones are NH-5, NH-43, NH-23 etc.

Paradeep Port

Commodities handled are mainly iron ore, thermal coal, cooking coal and fertilizers.
Total traffic handled during the year ending 31.3.2005 was 30.10 million tonnes. The port
is expected to handle traffic of around 71 million tonnes by the year 2013-14.

Existing Road Connectivity

The port is linked to NH-5 through a 2 lane road from Chandikhol at a distance of 80 km.
This connection is through NH 5A and at Cuttack through SH 12.

Future Requirements

Orissa is attracting huge investments particularly in the mineral sector. With the setting
up of 36 steel plants, 3 aluminum plants and one refinery, the traffic requirement will
increase manifold. The adjoining land locked states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are
also attracting huge investments. Paradeep is the only deep draft port to cater to
traffic relating to the projects in Orissa and neighboring states.

Kolkata Port - Kolkata Dock System (KDS)

The main commodities handled are POL, Iron ore, containers and other cargo. The total
traffic handled during the year ending 31.3.2005 was 9.95 million tonnes. The port is
expected to handle the traffic of 16.60 million tonnes by 2013-14.

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Existing Road Connectivity

KDS is located at a distance of 10 km from the junction of NH2 & NH6 and at a distance
of 25 km from the junction of NH34 and the Airport.

Future Requirements

The traffic of KDS is projected to increase to 16.60 MTPA by 2013-14 from the present
level of 9.95 MPTA. The expansion proposals for KDS include development of a full
fledged cargo facility at Saugar, construction of two additional virtual jetties/mooring
facilities at Saugar and transloading of dry bulk cargo and installation of a floating
terminal for containers at Sand heads. With a view to ensure smooth flow of traffic and
to meet the future requirements of the projected increase in traffic, the Port has
proposed undertaking the following proposals for improving the connectivity of KDS:

Road Connectivity

At present, cargo to/from Northern, Southern hinterland moves from junction of NH-2
and NH-6 through Second Hooghly Bridge (Vidyasagar Sethu). KDS is planning to
construct cargo handling jetties at Diamond Harbour which is70 km downstream from
Kolkata. This would help handling of bigger vessels with heavier parcel load as the
draught there is deeper. The proposed site is close to the Diamond Harbour road-since
rechristened as NH 117.

Kolkata Port - Haldia Dock Complex (HDC)

Commodities handled are mainly POL, iron ore, fertilizers & minerals, thermal coal,
coking coal, containers and other cargoes. Total traffic handled during the year ending
31.3.2005 was HDC- 36.21 million tonnes. Traffic of 56.74 million tonnes is expected to be
handled by 2013-14.

Future Requirements

The traffic handled at HDC is growing steadily. The traffic of HDC is expected to
increase to 56.74 MTPA by 2013-14 as against the present traffic of 36.21 MTPA.

9.4.3.4 Zone 4

This zone comprises parts of the States of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Rajasthan Uttaranchal, Haryana and Punjab (UTs like Delhi and Chandigarh have been
considered as separate entities in this case). The rankings of the States are shown in
Table 9.4.
Table 9.4: Ranking of States within Zone 4
States Total Points Ranking
Madhya Pradesh 26.62 12
Bihar 27.84 11
Uttar Pradesh 40.24 9
Punjab 41.13 8
Haryana 46.51 4
Himachal Pradesh 19.17 17
Rajasthan 28.98 10

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This zone is one of the wealthiest zones in terms of agricultural yield and there is no
coastal belt in this region. It can be observed from the ranking that Punjab and Haryana
stand ahead of the others as per this ranking system. The major nodal points of this zone
are Ambala, Chandigarh, Amritsar, Pathankot, Ludhiana, Delhi, Meerut, Muzzafarnagar,
Shimla, Udampur, Kanpur, Unnao, Lucknow, Gwalior, Jaipur, Jhansi, Varanasi, Haridwar,
Dehradun, Mussorie, etc.

From the secondary data plotted over the existing National Highways it is found that the
congested roads (AADT>20,000 PCU) are NH-1, NH-2 (Delhi-Kolkatta), NH-8
(Ahmadabad-Delhi), NH-11, NH-12 and NH-7. The other important roads in this zone are
NH-15, NH 3 etc.

9.4.3.5 Zone 5

This Zone comprises parts of Rajasthan and northern parts of Gujarat. Rankings and
major roads within this zone have already been discussed earlier in this note.

9.4.3.6 Zones 6 & 7

These zones consist of Jammu & Kashmir and North Eastern States. Data on traffic
volumes from permanent count stations could not be made available by the
concerned state units of the MoRT&H. However, expressway alignments have been
proposed for these zones on the basis of locational attributes of nodal points and
existing arterial links. In the overall rankings of states, J&K and the North – Eastern States
actually have low scores. For the same reason it may be necessary to provide proper
high level road connectivity for these states (towards propelling to higher levels of
economic activities) as may be permitted by topographic and terrain conditions.

The traffic intensity at major arterial network which is plotted over existing major arterial
roads is shown in Plate 9.1. The development matrix and its ranking is placed in the
Annexure I.

9.5 Master Plan for National Expressway Network

The foregoing describes some of the control parameters that eventually dictate
formulation of the Master Plan for the national network of expressways. In conjunction
with observed volumes of traffic along the existing corridors, such parameters offer a
fairly robust base for drawing up the network of expressways in a manner that is
technically feasible and socio - economically desirable. These above mentioned
parameters give a consolidated statement that has been used as a guide by the
consultants towards drawing up the national network of expressways for India. It could
be noted that the total length of the expressway network works out to be 18,637 kms.
(broadly complying with the requirements projected in the TOR). The proposed National
Expressway Network derived on the basis of the parameters described above is shown
in Plate 9.2.

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Plate 9.1 : Traffic intensity along major arterial roads

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Plate 9.2 : Proposed National Expressway Network

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Comments from Different States 10


10.1 General

The consultants have received the comments from 11 states (copies placed at Annexure II). It
is generally observed that the requirements/suggestions projected by the States are very State
specific. The Consultants have made an effort to integrate such requirements into the National
Network that has been developed on the basis of a host of parameters broadly following the
cap on the network length. Following is a brief discussion eliciting the method adapted by the
Consultants towards resolving the relevant issues:

10.2 Comments from States and Compliance thereof

i) Bihar (Comments)

State Capital must be connected with cities of the countries through the Expressway.
Accordingly State capital Patna should be connected with Kolkata, Ranchi and Bhubaneswar
through Expressway.

Compliance

The expressway network proposed by the Consultants would connect Kolkata to Patna via
Bokaro and Dhanbad wherefrom it would take on the Kolkata- Dhanbad Expressway (Under
NHDP Phase VI).Patna-Ranchi and Patna-Orissa are already mentioned in the proposed
alignment. Figure 10.1 shows the mentioned alignment.

Fig 10.1 Alignment of National Expressway Through Bihar

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ii) Chhattisgarh (Comments)

Chhattisgarh is a fast growing state but has relatively poor inter-state connectivity. It has also
been deprived of the Golden-Quadrilateral, North-South and East-West corridors. The
development in the northern & southern parts of the State is at a slower pace and also suffers
from severe Naxalite problems. A broad overview of the report submitted reveals that the
above facts have been overlooked and development in the central region of Country is
neglected

Compliance

The total length of National Expressway proposed through Chhattisgarh is about 900km. It would
connect Jagdalpur (extending up to Chhattisgarh / Orissa Border) to Ambikapur (610Km) via
Raipur and Bilaspur (extending up to Chhattisgarh / UP Border) in the north – south direction. It
is proposed to be aligned parallel to NH 6 in the east – west direction covering a length of
314Km through the state. This being a land locked state, the Consultants have taken special
care to ensure proper connectivity through expressway network for the same. Figure 10.2 shows
the National Expressway Network through Chhattisgarh.

Fig 10.2 Alignment of National Expressway through Chhattisgarh

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Comments

The stretches between Nagpur-Raipur (260 kms) and Raipur- Khargpur (750 kms.) have been
taken in phase III of scenario I, where as the stretch of Allahabad-Bilaspur-Raipur has not been
considered in any of the two Scenarios.

Compliance

A reference to Table 12.3 would show the Allahabad-Bilaspur-Raipur segment that may be
taken up on Annuity basis for Scenarios 1 & 2.

Comments

The Stretch from Nagpur-Raipur (260 kms) under Scenario II is taken in phase II which has
enough potential to be considered in phase I. Also, the stretch of Allahabad-Bilaspur-Raipur
(640 kms.), which is taken under Annuity mode should be included in phase II on BOT mode
implementation. The proposal is therefore being made as per sheet enclosed.

As such, the prioritization of National Expressway Network under Scenario I & II is requested to
be re-assessed.

Phase1- Nagpur – Raipur


Phase2- Raipur – Kharagpur
Phase2-Allahabad–Bilaspur–Raipur

Compliance

The deciding factor for considering the stretches in Phase 1, 2 or on Annuity mode is based on
the present level of traffic as revealed by the traffic counts. However, if the traffic level
changes significantly in future, there is always this flexibility to have a modified prioritization for
construction.

Fig 10.3 Phase wise National Expressway Network


iii) Gujarat (Comments)

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State is planning for 15 Expressway Corridors. Figure 10.4 shows the expressway corridors as
proposed by the State. The list of expressways is attached in the Table 10.1.

Fig 10.4: Expressway Corridors proposed by the State

Table 10.1: Expressway proposed by the State

S.No Corridor Name Importance of Corridor


1 Rajasthan Border - Himatnagar - • Part of NHDP-GQ.
Ahmedabad - Vadodara - Bharuch - • Establishes Connectivity of
Surat - Navsari – Mahrashtra Border Northern India with West/South India
(Existing NH8) through Mumbai.
• Full length falling under DMIC.
• SEZ's almost all along the length across
the state.
• South Gujarat Ports parallel to corridor.

2 Ahmedabad - Godhra- Dahod - MP • Establishes Interstate Connectivity.


Border (Existing NH59) • Part length falling under DMIC.
• Connects SEZ's in Ahmedabad-
Gandhinagar region.
3 Dahej - Bharuch - Mahrashtra Border • Establishes Interstate Connectivity.
(Existing State Highway) • Part length falling under DMIC.
• Connects Ports - SEZ's in Bharuch-
Dahej region.
• Connects Investment Area Bharuch-
Dahej.
4 Hazira - Surat - Mahrashtra Border • Establishes Interstate Connectivity.
(Existing NH6) • Part length falling under DMIC.
• Connects Ports - SEZ's in Surat-Hazira

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region.
5 Chikhali (NH8) - Vansada - Ahwa - • Establishes Interstate Connectivity.
Maharashtra Border (Existing State • Part length falling under DMIC.
Highway)
6 Ahmedabad - Mahesana - • Establishes Interstate Connectivity.
Palanpur (Existing State Highway) - • Full length falling under DMIC.
Rajasthan Border (Existing Part of NH14) • Connects SEZ's in Ahmedabad-
Gandhinagar region.
• Connects Investment Area Mahesana-
Palanpur.
7 Gandhinagar. - Ahmedabad (NH8C) • Establishes vital regional Connectivity.
- Rajkot - Gandhidham - Mundra - • Part length falling under DMIC.
Mandvi (NH8A) But Close to Ahmedabad-Dholera
Special Investment Region.
• SEZ's almost all along the corridor.
• Connects Major port of national
importance Kandla, also Mundra.
8 Palanpur - Radhanpur (NH14) - • Establishes Regional, Interstate and
Samikhiyali (NH15) Port Connectivity.
• Part length falling under DMIC.
• Connects SEZ's.
• Connects Investment Area Mahesana-
Palanpur.
9 Rajkot - Porbandar (Existing NH8B) • Establishes Regional and Port
Connectivity.
• Connects SEZ's.
10 Dwarka - Jamnagar - Morbi - Maliya • Establishes Port Connectivity.
(Existing. State Highway) • Connects SEZ's.
• Accessible Coast Line.
11 Ahmedabad - Bhavnagar (Existing • Establishes Regional and Port
State Highway) Connectivity.
• Full length falling under DMIC.
• Connects SEZ's.
• Connects Special Investment Region
of Ahmedabad- Dholera.
12 Bhavnagar - Pipavav - Veraval - • Establishes important Coastal .and
Porbandar – Dwarka (Existing NH8E) Port (18 nos) Connectivity and
Connects SEZ's along the corridor.
13 Express way around Ahmedabad - • Through connectivity for traffic
Gandhinagar Capital Region destined to port

Compliance

Gujarat already has the benefits of the Golden Quadrilateral and East-West Corridor that
connect Mumbai-Surat-Ahemedabad-Guj/Rajasthan and Porbandar-Samkhiali-Palanpur – Guj /
Rajasthan Border respectively. Development of Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway is in progress
under NHDP VI and Vadodara - Ahemedabad Expressway has been in operation for some time.
In addition the Consultants have proposed Kandla-Rajkot, Rajkot-Ahmedabad, Surat-Kolkata
and Ahmedabad-Ratlam stretches under the National Expressway Network. Figure 10.5 shows
the proposed expressway network through the State of Gujarat.

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Fig 10.5: Alignment of Proposed National Expressway through Gujarat

iv) Karnataka (Comments)

The Stretches of Mysore-Kozhikode (215 Km) and Honnavar-Shimoga (160Km) may be dropped
and the stretch of NH-63 from Chitradurga to Karnataka border near Bijapur may be taken up

Compliance

™ The stretch of Mysore-Kozhikode has been deleted from the final network
™ The stretch Honavar-Shimoga has been retained in new of comprehensiveness of the
total network
™ The stretch NH-63 does not connect Chitradurga. In the final Master Plan proposed
National Expressway connects Chitradurga-Bijapur along an alignment running parallel
to NH-13.

Comments

Chitradurga-Sholapur:The Chitradurga-Sholapur stretch can be considered for Expressway with


the approximate length of 400 Km instead of 240Km as given in table 12.1 & 12.2.

Compliance

The observation has been noted and corrected length incorporated in the Final Report.

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Comments

Most of the Stretches considered for expressway provide the connectivity to the important
cities in the state except the North Karnataka cities like Raichur, Gulbarga & Bidar. Otherwise
the proposed network of Expressways is generally in order.

Compliance

As mentioned elsewhere in this Report, the total length of the expressway network has a cap
and it is to be seen in the National Context. The State specific projects definitely bear
relevance but then when the network has to be planned at the National Level only those
segments that qualify on the basis of planning indices amongst the various competing
segments could be considered for implementation under the given programme. Figure 10.6
shows the proposed National Expressway alignment in the Karnataka State.

Fig 10.6: Alignment of Proposed National Expressway through Karnataka

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v) Kerala (Comments)

In the proposal the stretches of Mysore – Kozhikode and Kollam – Teni are also included to be
taken up at a later stage. This may be agreed to as it would provide better connectivity of
National Expressway Network.

Compliance

The Stretch Kozhikode –Mysore and Kollam - Teni stretches pass through the most Sensitive
Zones of the area and hence these have not been considered at this of the study. Besides
traffic indices also do not reveal the need for immediate provision of expressway links. It is of
course a fact that these would improve the overall connectivity but then, these shall have to
be considered only in the future.

Kerala (Comments)

The route through which the Thrissur to Kanyakumari is fixed is not known. It is presumed that it
will be through non sensitive/moderately sensitive zones. The requirement of extending the
National Expressway reach from Thrissur to Kasargod and Mangalore may be stressed for. Figure
10.7 shows the expressway corridors proposed by the State.

Compliance

The expressway alignment proposed by the Consultants passes through the least sensitive area.
Kasargod and Mangalore are already efficiently connected. The expressway alignment
proposed by the Consultants meets with the indices that have been used for planning the
National Network. Figure 10.8 shows the proposed alignment of National Expressway.

Fig 10.7: Expressway Corridors proposed by the State

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Fig 10.8: Alignment of Proposed National Expressway through Kerala

vi) Madhya Pradesh (Comments)

We propose that the following lengths of National Highways be included in the proposed
Expressway Network.

a) NH-12 starting from Rajasthan border via Bhopal – Jabalpur – Mandla – Chilpi NH No.12
& 12A
b) NH-7 from UP border crossing Rewa-Katni-Jabalpur and finally joining North-South
Corridor at Lakhnadon.
c) Maharashtra Border-Sendhwa-Khalgat-Indore-Shajapur-Biaora-Guna-Shivpuri-Gwalior-
UP Border NH No.3.

Compliance

a) It follows an alignment parallel to NH 12 up to Obaidullaganj.


b) The alignment connecting Rewa-Katni-Jabalpur has already been considered
c) The same has been considered under the proposed expressway network

Figure 10.9 shows the National Expressway alignment passing through Madhya Pradesh

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Fig 10.9: Alignment of National Expressway proposed through Madhya Pradesh

vii) Pondicherry (Comments)

Alignment is OK (Option 2)
Compliance
Figure 10.10 shows the proposed National Expressway in the Pondicherry region.

Fig 10.10: Alignment of National Expressway through Pondicherry

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viii) Punjab Comments

Alignment is OK (Conveyed through Telephone).

Compliance

Figure 10.11 shows the proposed National Expressway in the Punjab region.

Fig 10.11: Alignment of National Expressway proposed through Punjab

ix) Rajasthan (Comments)

The Expressways suggested are :

a) Jaipur-Delhi Expressway (New alignment)


b) Jaipur – Agra Expressway
c) Jaipur – Kishangarh-Beawar-Udaipur-Ahemdabad (NH-8) Expressway

Compliance

The alignment Delhi-Jaipur-Kishangarh-Beawar-Udaipur-Ahemdabad comes under Golden


Quadrilateral. Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway is already in existence. The Consultants
endeavoured to connect the hitherto unconnected areas and open up new avenues of
economic upliftment. Jaipur-Agra Expressway has been considered in the proposed alignment.
Figure 10.11 shows the proposed Expressway alignment within the State.

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Fig 10.11: Alignment of National Expressway proposed through Rajasthan

Comments

There is a small mismatch between National Expressways Network proposed in Chapter 9 at


Plate 9.2 and Network proposed in chapter 12 at Plate 12.4 and Table 12.1 to Table 12.3.The
alignment given in Chapter 12 is more suitable.

Compliance

The observation has been noted and the alignment corrected as Pali-Chittorgarh-Indore.

Comments

The following additional stretches may be included in National Expressway Network:

a) Jaipur-Lalsot-Sawaimadhopur-Itawa-Mangrol-Baran-Raghaogarh(M.P.) Road : this network


will compliment/supplement the North-South Corridor.
b) Sirohi-Pindwara Road: It will connect the National Expressway Network with East West
Corridor and then this network will compliment/supplement the present NH Network.
c) Jodhpur-Barmer Road: Looking to the oil reserve in Barmer area and proposed refinery
there, it will become an important economic center. This connection will link this area with
National Expressway Network.

Compliance

As mentioned elsewhere in this Report, the total length of the expressway network has a cap
and it is to be seen in the National Context. The State specific projects definitely bear
relevance but then when the network has to be planned at the National Level only those

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segments that qualifies on the basis of planning indices amongst the various competing
segments could be considered for implementation under the given programme.

x) Uttar Pradesh (Comments)

The Expressways suggested for the proposed National Expressway Network are

a) Panipat-Najibabad
b) Najibabad-Rampur-Lakhimpur-Ghazipur
c) Mathura-Budaun-Bareilly-Pillibhit
d) Mahoba-Fatehpur-Gonda
e) Orai-Kannauj-Sitapur-Lakhimpur
a) Allahabad-Azamgarh-Krishnanagar-UP/Nepal Border

Compliance

The proposed alignments for National Expressway Network are

a) Delhi-Muzaffar Nagar-Haridwar
b) Haridwar-Rampur-Bareily-Bahraich-Gonda-Sultanpur-Allahabad-UP/MP Border
c) Allahabad-Raipur
d) Etwah-Bahraich
e) Agra-Etwah

Most of the places mentioned by the State have been covered in the proposed alignment.
Certain additional links have also been proposed by the consultants on the basis of their
findings. Figure 10.12 shows the proposed Expressway alignment in the Uttar Pradesh region.

Fig 10.12: Alignment of National Expressway proposed through Uttar Pradesh

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xi) Mizoram (Comments)

The Expressway Suggested for Silchar-Aizwal-Lunglei of NH-54 of length 420 km to be taken up


as Expressway.

Compliance

No Traffic data was made available for this State.

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Economic Evaluation 11
11.1. Approach
The Expressway network under evaluation involves alternative roads for long distance
traffic in the form of existing National Highways and other roads. The benefits from road
investments are essentially due to the difference in the total transportation costs with
the proposed improvements having been undertaken (i.e. with project), compared to
that with the do-nothing option (i.e., without project). Economic evaluation of a project
takes into account all the related costs and benefits to the society. In case of a road
project, the benefits accrue to the road users, in the form of vehicle operating cost
savings and time savings, and also to the society in general, in the form of socio-
economic development of the project road influence area, while the improvement
costs are primarily borne by the road owning agency.

Transportation costs over the period of analysis for the “with project” option, consist of
cost of construction, cost of maintenance of facility in the future (routine and periodic
maintenance) and road user costs to be incurred in the future (mainly vehicle operating
costs and other time-related costs). For the “without project” option, the transportation
costs will include the cost of maintenance of the existing facility and road user costs
incurred over the period of analysis. The combined road construction and maintenance
costs might be higher in the “with project” option, but this is expected to be more than
offset by the lowering of the road user costs. In the economic evaluation, the total
transportation cost during the project life (i.e. road improvement and maintenance
costs and road user costs) is compared for the “with project” and “without project”
options.

The savings in transportation costs “with project” vis-à-vis “without project” are the
benefits to the society from the investment for road improvement. Both the benefits and
costs over the analysis period are discounted to the base year for being compared. The
results of the economic analysis are expressed by the following standard measures to
evaluate the economic viability of the project:

• Net Present Value (NPV);


• Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR);

The NPV is the sum of the discounted stream of project costs and benefits during the
project life. A project with a positive NPV, taking into account the discount rate is a
measure of its economic viability. The EIRR represents that discount rate at which the
NPV of the project would be equal to zero. Projects with EIRR above the cut-off point
are treated as economically viable.

The Highway Development and Management Model (HDM-4), Version 1.3 has been
used for carrying out the economic evaluation of the Project. This is a widely used tool
for economic evaluation of highway investments.

11.2 Economic Parameters

11.2.1 Standard Conversion Factors


The market prices used as inputs for Project road improvement costing reflect the prices
in financial terms, whereas economic costs represent the true cost of resource

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consumption of those inputs. For the purpose of economic analysis, the financial costs
have been converted into the economic costs using standard conversion factors. The
conversion factors are based on consideration of transfer payments and also on the
identification of non-traded or intermediate goods. For example, taxes paid on goods
and services are costs to the domestic consumers. However, from the national
economic view point, taxes are transfer payments from the consumers to the
government and not economic costs. For other items standard conversion factor of
0.80 was used.

11.2.2 Economic Analysis Parameters

The following project implementation and investment schemes have been considered
for the HDM-4 Model input data:

Analysis Period : 23 years


Construction Period : 3years
Investment Schedule : 1st Year : 20%
2nd Year : 40%
3rd Year : 40%
Salvage Value : 15%
Discount Rate : 12%

11.2.3 Project Cost

The project cost for the section has to take account of all expenditure over the life of
the project and therefore includes:

• Initial construction cost


• Annual routine maintenance cost
• Periodic maintenance cost

The Capital costs, in financial terms at the prevailing market prices have been
computed as at the end of current financial year. The foreign exchange component in
the total capital cost is zero, as all material, machinery and labour are available in
India. Standard Conversion factor of 0.80 is used for converting market prices of road
construction and maintenance inputs into economic costs.

11.2.4 Results of Economic Evaluation

The economic evaluation of the Project road has been carried out using the HDM-4
Model. Modelling exercise on the computer was carried out at the level of road
segments. The economic Internal Rate of Returns (EIRRs) for the project roads have
been derived by comparing “with improvement” and “without improvement” project
options. The Net Present Values (NPVs) have been calculated at 12% discount rate. The
results of the economic evaluation are summarized in Table 11.1 and the details of the
results showing benefits and costs are presented in Annexure III.

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Table 11.1: Results of Economic analysis

Category IRR NPV (in Rs Million)

Less than 5000 1.18% (13,515.24)

5000-10000 5.77% (8,788.59)

10000-15000 12.74% 1,244.36

15000-20000 14.99% 5,433.14

20000-25000 16.99% 9,383.18

It is seen that the Expressways are economically viable with average daily traffic
upward of 10000PCUs during the base year.

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Financial Analysis 12

The financial viability study of a project aims at ensuring that the project is financially
viable in that sufficient funds are available to cover the cost of implementing the
project according to the planned schedule as well as generates adequate returns to
principals involved. The financial study gains relevance and importance when a project
is to be developed through Public-Private Partnership, using a Build, Operate and
Transfer (BOT) process or any of its variants. The financial viability analysis of this project
has, therefore, been carried out taking into consideration the factors that affect its
implementation as either a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) project or as a
Government/Public Enterprise undertaking.

Financial appraisal was carried out with the objective of determining a scenario under
which a project would achieve the greatest financial return, thereby making it an
attractive investment proposition to all concerned.

The financial feasibility study attempts to evaluate the monetary costs of project
implementation and operation, estimated revenues from the project over a
predetermined contract / concession period. The analysis focuses on the annual cash
flows arising from the project, as well as forecast yearly profit and loss accounts and
balance sheets in order to determine profit and tax implications with greater accuracy.
Finally the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of net cash flow has been determined in order to
understand the extent of financial return available to investors.

When an infrastructure project is intended for development on a commercial basis, the


achievement of comfort of the various stakeholders in the project plays a crucial part in
determining the success of the project. The key stakeholders in an infrastructure project
being developed on a commercial basis include the Government, the Potential Bidder
or Developer, Equity Investors and Lenders. Each one will approach the project
financial appraisal in a slightly different manner and with different objectives, as are
described below:

The Government will tend to estimate the monetary costs and benefits as the first stage
of an overall economic appraisal. The financial appraisal allows it to test whether
project cash flows alone are likely to give a sufficient financial return to a private sector
sponsor or whether a contribution in the form of grant / subsidy will be required from the
public sector.

Potential sponsors or bidders will look at both the operational and financial cash flows in
order to check the project’s financial viability and to assess whether the company will
be able to meet all its financial obligations, including debt service. From the financial
appraisal, the potential bidders will seek to estimate the size of any funding gap that
may have to be met by Government or Public Sector enterprise in the form of grant or
subsidy.

Equity investors will need to be satisfied that the project’s expected equity return on
investment is acceptable in comparison with returns they could obtain from other
investments with similar risk.

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Lenders will want to be satisfied that the project will be able to service its debt with
sufficient allowance to cover any contingencies. They will normally require that the
sensitivity analysis, considering different risk structures, should always show a sufficient
debt service coverage ratio to ensure uninterrupted debt servicing over the term of the
loan. While some lenders may be content to examine the sponsor’s financial appraisal
and test the assumptions underlying the project’s financial feasibility study, other
financial institutions will wish to undertake their own independent appraisal.

12.1 Approach

The financial viability analysis has accordingly been carried out on the basis of a typical
configuration of 4 lane expressway with construction, operations & maintenance cost
estimates, traffic forecasts, and toll rates as described elsewhere in this report. The
possible concession period for the project has been arrived at on the basis of the return
offered by the project (for commercial development) in terms of the IRR for the time
interval considered.

Analysis has been carried out by projecting the profit and loss statement and cash flow
statement over the concession period of 20 and 30 years. The approach is to examine
the viability of the project on a stand-alone basis and with Grant varying from 20 to 40
% (50% for capital Cost and 50 % for O&M) by the government and for annuity bases.

The Return of Equity (ROE) representing the return to the BOT operator has been
calculated from the projected cash flows as the internal rate of return (IRR) of the
investments made by the private investor and the free cash flows accruing to the
investor over the concession period. A minimum return of 15% can be considered the
cut off for considering the project viable for BOT, though this is a subjective assessment.
The options considered for the projects are as follows;

ƒ Base case Scenario with Concession Period of 20& 30 years


ƒ With 20% and 40% viability gap funding for Concession Periods of 20&30 years
ƒ Annuity Model
ƒ Varying toll rates (normal, 50% higher and 100% higher) for above cases

12.2 Major Assumptions

12.2.1 Project Capital Cost

The civil work cost has been broadly estimated at Rs 14 Crores per km for 4 lane
expressway and Rs.20 Crores per km for 6 lane expressway. The analysis has been
carried out for a typical unit of 100 km segment of expressway. The project cost break
up for 4 lane and 6 lane facilities are presented in Tables 12.1 – 12.2. The base cost has
been worked out for the year 2009-10, Consequently, escalation over the base year
prices has also been factored in @ 4.5% p.a. for the years of construction.

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Table 12.1: Project Capital Cost (excluding IDC & FC) for 4 lane expressway
S.
Description Rs. (Crores)
No.
1 Cost of Civil Construction ( including escalation) 1476.73

2 Contingencies @3% on Cost of Civil Construction 44.30


Engineering Procurement & Construction (EPC)
3 1521.04
Cost
4 Supervision Charges @6% on EPC Cost 91.26

5 Agency Charges @ 1% of EPC Cost 15.21

6 Total 1627.51

Table 12.2: Project Capital Cost (excluding IDC & FC) for 6 lane expressway
S.
Description Rs. ( Crores)
No.
Cost of Civil Construction ( including
1 2109.62
escalation)
Contingencies @3% on Cost of Civil
2 63.29
Construction
Engineering Procurement & Construction
3 2172.91
(EPC) Cost
4 Supervision Charges @6% on EPC Cost 130.37
5 Agency Charges @ 1% of EPC Cost 21.73
6 Total 2325.01

12.2.2 Construction Schedule

Construction period has been estimated to stretch over 3 years i.e. commencing from
2009-10 to 2011-12, and the capital expenditure is spread over the construction period
in the ratio of 20:40:40.

12.2.3 Funding Options-Debt-Equity

It has been assumed that the project would be funded through loan and equity at 70:30
ratios. Infusion of debt and equity is taken on a pro-rata basis during the construction
period.

12.2.4 IDC and Financing Chargers

Based on the component borrowed, an element of interest during construction (IDC) at


the prevailing interest rate of 9% has also been added to the project cost and Debt &
Equity components accordingly. Financing chargers at the rate of 2 % of the Debt has
been considered for the analysis. The resulting project costs (for a typical project road
length of 100 kms) are given in Tables 12.3 - 12.4.

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Table 12.3
Project Cost for Four Lane Expressway

S. No. Description Rs. (Crores)

Cost of Civil Construction( including


1 1476.73
escalation)
Contingencies @3% on Cost of Civil
2 44.30
Construction
Engineering Procurement & Construction
3 1521.04
(EPC) Cost
4 Supervision Charges @6% on EPC Cost 91.26
5 Agency Charges @ 1% of EPC Cost 15.21
1627.51
Interest During Construction (IDC) @9% p.a.
6 131.48
on Debt Component
1758.99
7 Financing Charges @2% on Debt Component 24.63
Total Project Cost 1783.61
Say 1784

Table 12.4
Project Cost for Six Lane Expressway

S.
Description Rs. (Crores)
No.
Cost of Civil Construction( including
1 2109.62
escalation)
Contingencies @3% on Cost of Civil
2 63.29
Construction
Engineering Procurement & Construction
3 2172.91
(EPC) Cost
4 Supervision Charges @6% on EPC Cost 130.37
5 Agency Charges @ 1% of EPC Cost 21.73
2325.01
Interest During Construction (IDC) @9% p.a.
6 187.82
on Debt Component
2512.84
7 Financing Charges @2% on Debt Component 35.18
Total Project Cost 2548.02
Say 2548

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12.2.5 Term Loan

Repayment of the loan is assumed on a quarterly basis over a period of 10 years with a
moratorium on principal repayment during construction period, i.e. 36 months as per
existing norms.

12.2.6 Tollable Traffic Levels

The traffic details are available elsewhere in this report. There are four categories of
traffic which had been estimated for various expressways and, as these expressways
would be carrying the divertible traffic, the traffic levels would vary according to the
toll levels. The summary of traffic levels for different categories of traffic are summarized
in Tables 12.5 - 12.7.

Table 12.5: Traffic levels for normal toll rates


Class Interval Cars Buses Trucks PCUs
Less than 5000 805 193 894 4066
5000-10000 1273 350 1750 7573
10000-15000 2988 719 2274 11967
15000-20000 2509 681 4520 18112
20000-25000 1040 850 6321 22553
Above 25000 3771 1595 10840 41076

Table 12.6: Traffic levels with 50% higher toll rates


Class Interval Cars Buses Trucks PCUs
Less than 5000 805 193 894 4066
5000-10000 1241 334 1657 7214
10000-15000 2914 687 2153 11434
15000-20000 2203 696 4437 17602
20000-25000 797 749 6910 23774
Above 25000 3677 1524 10265 39044

Table 12.7: Traffic levels with 100% higher toll rates

Class Interval Cars Buses Trucks PCUs


Less than 5000 767 176 804 3707
5000-10000 1213 319 1574 6892
10000-15000 2847 655 2045 10947
15000-20000 1677 747 4512 17454
20000-25000 778 714 6563 22609
Above 25000 3593 1453 9750 37202

12.3 Toll Rates

The proposed toll rates are according to Ministry’s toll rates and guidelines on annual
escalation (ref. Table 12.8).

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Table 12.8 Toll Rates as Specified by the Ministry

Type of Vehicle Toll Rates

Car / Jeep / Van 0.65


Light Commercial 1.10
Vehicle
Truck 2.20
Bus 2.20

For calculating the actual toll revenues, the corresponding length of the contract
packages has been considered. The toll has been proposed thereafter, to escalate
annually based on the Wholesale Price Index (WPI).

12.4 Income Tax


Section 80 IA of the Income Tax Act, 1961 (IT Act) as applicable from April 1, 2002 states
that in computation of the profit of an undertaking of an eligible business1 a deduction
equal to 100% of the profits of the business would be allowed to the undertaking. This
deduction is allowed for a period of 10 years out of a block of 20 years. The 20 years
are to be calculated from the date of commencement of commercial operations of the
undertaking, which in this case would be the commencement of the concession period.
The block of 10 years needs to be a continuous period. Thus from any year in which the
undertaking chooses, it may decide to avail the above benefit and no tax would be
payable by the undertaking in that year and for the next nine years.

As the company would be earning higher revenue in the later years of the concession
period it would be desirable to avail of the benefit as late as possible, i.e. from the 11th
to the 20th year of the concession period. This would lead to saving of the highest
possible amount of tax to the Company.

Provisions of Section 80 IA are subject to provisions of section 115 JB on Minimum


Alternative Tax (MAT). This section states that if in a year the tax payable by a company
is lower than 7.5% of its ‘Book Profit’2 the Company should pay at least 7.5% of its Book
Profits as tax. Thus, the company effectively pays Income Tax at the normal rates or tax
calculated based on MAT; whichever is higher.

12.5 Depreciation

Depreciation rates as prescribed by the various Acts have been considered in the
Financial Projections. A rate of 10% has been taken as per the IT Act on written down
value basis and a rate of 5% has been taken as per the Companies Act, 1956 on straight
line basis. These are the rates applicable to Roads. The concessionaire would be able to
avail of the above depreciation benefits during the concession period.

Definition of eligible business includes the business of operating and maintaining of an infrastructure
facility.
Book Profit is defined as profit as per books of account of the Company. In the above context, the
differences between Taxable Profit and Book Profit are that in arriving at the Book Profit, depreciation
as per the Companies Act would be considered and benefit of carry forward loss (normally available in
computation of the Taxable Profit) would not be given to the Company. These have been incorporated
in the financial analysis.

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12.6 Carry Forward and Set Off of Losses

A business loss, not being a loss sustained in a speculation business, can be carried
forward to the subsequent Assessment Year and set off against the profits and gains, if
any, of any business carried on by the assessee and assessable for that Assessment
Year. If the loss cannot be wholly so set off, the amount of loss not so set off can be
carried forward for 8 Assessment Years immediately succeeding the Assessment Year for
which the loss was first computed. Accordingly, the losses in the initial years of the
concession period have been carried forward and set off in the subsequent years when
profit accrued.

Provision of carry forward and set off of losses, is, however, subject to provision of
Section 115 JB of MAT.

12.7 Operation & Maintenance Cost

Operation and Maintenance (O&M) cost estimated are as follows:

(i) Routine Maintenance Rs. 2.5 lakhs per km per year


(ii) Periodic maintenance Rs. 50.0 lakhs per km at every fifth year
(iii) Toll Plaza (O&M) Rs. 170 lakhs per year
(iv) Insurance cost as 0.15% of project cost
(v) Electricity charges have been considered as Rs. 50000 per km

12.8 Results of Financial Analysis

Financial analyses were carried out for three scenarios. They are
Scenario 1 (Ministry’s Toll Rate)

™ VGF 20% and Concession Period of 20 Years


™ VGF 20% and Concession Period of 30 Years
™ VGF 40% and Concession Period of 20 Years
™ VGF 40% and Concession Period of 20 Years

Scenario 2 (50% Higher than Ministry’s Toll Rate)

™ VGF 20% and Concession Period of 20 Years


™ VGF 20% and Concession Period of 30 Years
™ VGF 40% and Concession Period of 20 Years
™ VGF 40% and Concession Period of 20 Year

Scenario 3 (100% Higher than Ministry’s Toll Rate)

™ VGF 20% and Concession Period of 20 Years


™ VGF 20% and Concession Period of 30 Years
™ VGF 40% and Concession Period of 20 Years
™ VGF 40% and Concession Period of 20 Year

The above scenarios were developed for different class intervals of traffic. The results
obtained are placed in Annexure IV.

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It can be very well concluded that the expressways carrying different traffic volumes
would become viable under different scenarios. The suggested mode for development
of expressways would be as follows;

™ Traffic Class less than 5000 PCUs : Annuity Base


™ Traffic Class between 5000 PCUs and 10000 PCUs: 40% grant with 30 year
Concession Period with 100% higher toll or Annuity model
™ Traffic Class between 10000 PCUs and 15000 PCUs: 20% grant with 30 year
Concession Period with 50% higher toll
™ Traffic Class between 15000 PCUs and 20000 PCUs: 40% grant with 20 year
Concession Period with normal toll
™ Traffic Class between 20000 PCUs and 25000 PCUs: 20% grant with 20 year
Concession Period with normal toll
™ Traffic Class between above 25000 PCUs: No grant with 20 year Concession
Period for four lane road.
™ Traffic Class between above 25000 PCUs: No grant with 20 year Concession
Period for Six lane road.

However, since the expressways are going to “complete” with the national highways,
the actual toll rates could be decided only after examining the differences in length
between any two node pairs over the “completing” NH & NE networks.

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Prioritization of Expressway Links 13


13.1 Earlier Recommendations and Findings

The following recommendations were made in the course of the earlier study
commissioned by the Ministry:

• A total of 15,766 km of expressway network was suggested for the entire country
• The phasing had been done in four stages
• The priority sections were the links connecting the four Metros i.e Delhi, Mumbai,
Chennai and Kolkata
• The time frame for each stage was stipulated as 6 years

13.2 Findings from the Present Study

The present study, after having considered various options inclusive of the available
arterial road network, already existing and proposed expressways, socio – economic
status of different regions, growth potentials and connectivity requirements etc.,
proposes construction of a total length of 18,637 Kms. of expressway links across the
country in phases consistent with the financial viability of each link (as may be desired
under PPP mode of implementation).

Besides other composite parameters already considered in the analysis, financial


viability for any project link has been examined under a combination of financing and
concession period mechanism. The scenarios so examined are:

i) Viability Gap Funding of 20% and Concession Period of 20 years.


ii) Viability Gap Funding of 20% and Concession Period of 30 years.
iii) Viability Gap Funding of 40% and concession period of 20 years.
iv) Viability Gap Funding of 40% and concession period of 30 years.

A project has been considered to be viable for BOT at a threshold FIRR of 12%.

Results of the financial analysis have been presented elsewhere in this Report. While the
need to provide 40% VGF for some segments and, the need to take up certain
segments on Annuity basis cannot be discounted, the Consultants have considered the
following funding options by adopting Ministry’s Toll rate (2008) for the purpose of
prioritization of expressway segments:

i) VGF of 20% with 20 years of Concession period (Scenario I)


ii) VGF of 20% with 30 years of Concession period (Scenario II)

Financial Analysis suggests that in order to be financially viable, a link must cater to
AADT of 25,000PCUs under Scenario I while the same would be 15,000 PCUs under
Scenario II.

The prioritized expressway network links are given in Tables 13.1 – 13.2. It would be seen
that the network gets completed in three phases spanning up to 2022 under Scenario I.
The same links become financially viable in two phases under Scenario II. The complete
matrix of traffic volumes diverted on the expressway network is placed in Annexure V. It
would further be seen that the total length of prioritized network does not add up to the

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planned length of 18,637 Kms. The reason behind this is that the balance 5226 Kms. are
not expected to become financially viable within the total project period and as such,
these shall have to be taken up on annuity basis. Details of these segments are given in
Table 13.3. There is also a need to gather more traffic volume data along these links on
a regular basis.

Table 13.1: Prioritization of National Expressway Network (Scenario I) – PPP Mode

Total
Length Passing Through
Priority Phase Year Stretches Stretch
(Km) States
(Km)

1 Ahmedabad-Rajkot 215 Gujarat


2 Bamanbor-Kandla 210 Gujarat
3 Pune-Sholapur 250 Maharashtra
Sholapur-Hyderabad-
4 580 Maharashtra, AP
Vijayawada
5 Mumbai-Nashik-Dhule 340 Maharashtra
6 Haridwar-Sitapur 330 HP,UP
I 2012 3530
7 Delhi-Panipat-Ambala 195 Delhi, Haryana
8 Trichur-Kanyakumari 400 Kerala, TN
Coimbatore-Erode-
9 175 TN
Salem
Manglore-Karwar-
10 400 Karnataka, Goa
Panaji
Lakhandon (Jabalpur)-
11 435 MP,UP
Allahabad
Delhi-Rhotak-Sirsa-
12 350 Delhi, Haryana
Mandi Dabwali
Gujarat,
13 Surat-Nagpur 750
Maharashtra
14 Chitradurga-Sholapur 400 Karnataka
Amritsar-Ludhiana-
15 260 Punjab
Ambala
Gazhiabad-
16 Muzzafarnagar- 260 UP,HP
Dehradun
17 Fatehpur-Jaipur-Agra 430 Rajasthan, UP
II 2017 Honavar-Shimoga- 4310
18 325 Karnataka
Bangalore
Vishakapatnam-
19 230 AP,Orissa
Koraput
20 Bokaro-Bhaktiyarpur 215 Jharkhand, Bihar
Kendhujagarh-
21 80 Orissa
Rourkela
22 Panaji-Mumbai 510 Goa, Maharashta

23 Biaora-Nagpur 460 MP, Maharashtra


24 Dhanbad-Bokaro 40 Jharkhand
25 III 2022 Nagpur-Raipur 260 5571 MP, Maharashtra
26 Dhule-Etwah 750 MP, UP
27 Pindwara-Pali 223 Rajasthan
28 Raipur-Kolkata 750 MP, WB
29 Bangalore-Mangalore 360 Karnataka
Ranchi-Jamshedpur-
30 220 Jharkhand, WB
Baharagora
31 Ranchi-Bokaro 90 Jharkhand
32 Indore-Chittaurgarh 290 MP, Rajasthan

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33 Faridkot-Barnala 85 Punjab
34 Faizabad-Allahabad 151 UP
35 Coimbatore-Bangalore 402 TN, Karnataka
36 Sholapur-Dhule 400 Maharashtra
37 Salem-Cuddalore 190 TN
Pathankot-Amritsar-
38 255 Punjab
Faridkot
39 Jammu-Pathankot 110 JK, Punjab
40 Etwah-Faizabad 250 UP
41 Ahmedabad-Ratlam 350 Gujarat, MP
42 Ludhiana-Barnala 120 Punjab
43 Chittaurgarh-Pali 150 Rajasthan
Bhaktiyarpur-
44 165 Bihar
Muzzafarpur

Table 13.2: Prioritization of National Expressway Network (Scenario II) – PPP Mode

Total
Length Passing Through
Priority Phase Year Stretches Stretch
(Km) States
(Km)

1 Ahmedabad-Rajkot 215 Gujarat


2 Bamanbor-Kandla 210 Gujarat
3 Pune-Sholapur 250 Maharashtra
Sholapur-Hyderabad-
4 580 Maharashtra, AP
Vijayawada
5 Mumbai-Nashik-Dhule 340 Maharashtra
6 Haridwar-Sitapur 330 HP,UP
I 2012 3530
7 Delhi-Panipat-Ambala 195 Delhi, Haryana
8 Trichur-Kanyakumari 400 Kerala,TN
Coimbatore-Erode-
9 175 TN
Salem
Manglore-Karwar-
10 400 Karnataka, Goa
Panaji
Lakhandon(Jabalpur)-
11 435 MP,UP
Allahabad
II 2017 Delhi-Rhotak-Sirsa-
12 350 9881 Delhi, Haryana
Mandi Dabwali
Gujarat,
13 Surat-Nagpur 750
Maharashtra
14 Chitradurga-Sholapur 400 Karnataka
Amritsar-Ludhiana-
15 260 Punjab
Ambala
Gazhiabad-
16 Muzzafarnagar- 260 UP,HP
Dehradun
17 Fatehpur-Jaipur-Agra 430 Rajasthan, UP
Honavar-Shimoga-
18 325 Karnataka
Bangalore
Vishakapatnam-
19 230 AP,Orissa
Koraput
20 Bokaro-Bhaktiyarpur 215 Jharkhand, Bihar
Kendhujagarh-
21 80 Orissa
Rourkela
22 Panaji-Mumbai 510 Goa, Maharashta

23 Biaora-Nagpur 460 MP, Maharashtra


24 Dhanbad-Bokaro 40 Jharkhand
25 Nagpur-Raipur 260 MP, Maharashtra

Contd…
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26 Dhule-Etwah 750 MP, UP


27 Pindwara-Pali 223 Rajasthan
28 Raipur-Kolkata 750 MP, WB
29 Bangalore-Mangalore 360 Karnataka
Ranchi-Jamshedpur-
30 220 Jharkhand, WB
Baharagora
31 Ranchi-Bokaro 90 Jharkhand
32 Indore-Chittaurgarh 290 MP, Rajasthan
33 Faridkot-Barnala 85 Punjab
34 Faizabad-Allahabad 151 UP
35 Coimbatore-Bangalore 402 TN, Karnataka
36 Sholapur-Dhule 400 Maharashtra
37 Salem-Cuddalore 190 TN
Pathankot-Amritsar-
38 255 Punjab
Faridkot
39 Jammu-Pathankot 110 JK, Punjab
40 Etwah-Faizabad 250 UP
41 Ahmedabad-Ratlam 350 Gujarat, MP
42 Ludhiana-Barnala 120 Punjab
43 Chittaurgarh-Pali 150 Rajasthan
Bhaktiyarpur-
44 165 Bihar
Muzzafarpur

Table 13.3: Prioritization of National Expressway Network (Scenario I & II) – Annuity Mode

Total
Length Passing Through
Phase Year Stretches Stretch
(Km) States
(Km)

Kanyakumari-Tirunelveli-
Pondi-Chennai 700 TN
Chittoor-Cudappah 130 AP
Cudappah-Khammam* 610 AP
Khammam-Koraput* 350 AP, Orissa
Koraput-Kendhujagarh* 500 AP, Orissa
Orissa,
Rourkela-Ranchi 225 Jharkhand
Kishanganj-Dispur 500 WB, Assam

III 2022 Muzzafarpur-Kishanganj* 150 5226 Bihar


Etwah-Agra 75 UP
Kolkata-Kishanganj 380 WB
Pali-Fatehpur 315 Rajasthan
Rajasthan,
Fatehpur-Hissar 175 Haryana
Barnala-Mandi Dabwali 96 Punjab, Haryana
Balia-Patna 80 UP, Bihar
Allahabad-Bilaspur-Raipur 640 UP, Chattisgarh
Chattisgarh,
Raipur-Koraput 300 Orissa
* Traffic data not received.
Considering the modus of resource generation and mobilization, the Consultants are of
the opinion that Scenario I be considered as the model implementation schedule. The
three phase development scheme is also shown in the form of key plans at Plates 13.1 –
13.4.

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Interchange Forms, Toll Plaza 14


and Wayside Amenities
The construction of a highway with complete control of access automatically justifies
the use of grade-separated structures in order to ensure safe and free movement of
high-speed traffic. The various types of interchanges are diamond, cloverleaf, trumpet
interchanges etc. The type of interchange, the shape and pattern of the interchange
ramps for the different turning movements and their designs are governed by various
factors such as the importance of intersecting highways, the number of intersecting
legs, availability of land, requirement of other facilities like toll plazas etc.

For four way intersections with important highways, Diamond interchanges are quite
frequent along the Interstate Highways in the USA or, along the Motorways in Europe.
Cloverleaf interchanges are provided where land does not offer any constraints. Simple
overpasses are provided at intersections with minor roads. For three way intersections a
trumpet interchange is usually considered to be in order.

A toll plaza is a very important fixture on a toll road. It needs space and generates
certain different kinds of movements long and across the approach areas. In a recent
exercise on design of such facilities for the Outer Ring Road (Expressway standard) in
Hyderabad, the consultants have attempted to integrate the toll plaza with the
interchange form by planning the toll plaza as an “off street” facility. In doing so, they
have also split a four way interchange in two numbers three way interchanges thereby
obviating the need to provide a cloverleaf interchange. Decidedly, this consumes less
space even while accommodating the toll plaza. An attempt has been made to further
refine this design in the present study. However, it must be noted that such an attempt
does not preclude the possibility of using other interchange forms as each interchange
must be designed on its merit as derived from the specific local conditions.

14.1 Pedestrian and cattle crossings

Since the expressway network would cut across many habitats and agricultural areas, it
would be essential to provide pedestrian and cattle crossing facilities at regular
intervals (these must not be confused with vents to be provided for drainage purposes).
As a general rule such facilities could be provided at every 1.5 kms along the
expressway passing through agricultural areas. The spacing shall have to be judiciously
decided while passing through habited areas. Generally speaking the openings could
be a minimum of 5.5m wide with a head room of 3.5m.

14.2 Wayside Amenities

Wayside amenities usually include the following:

(i) Eateries, water points and toilets;


(ii) Dormitory for rest;
(iii) Facility of telephone;
(iv) Fuel stations and first aid facilities;
(v) Parking space for different categories of vehicles segregating the parking
for buses and trucks from cars and other light vehicles;

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(vi) Repair shops (mechanical and electrical) and shops for spare parts;
(vii) Kiosks for sundry items;
(viii) Space for spreading awareness about various government welfare programmes;
and
(ix) Open spaces and landscaped areas

At this stage of the study typical layout plans have been developed integrating the
interchange area with toll plaza (for traffic wanting to enter the expressway) and way
side facilities. Needless to say that there would be toll plazas also along the stretches of
the expressways (on – street) the design of which would generally conform to practices
already in vogue. Typical layout plans for off – street toll plazas integrated with
interchanges and way side facilities are placed at Annexure VI.

It is not possible for a Master Plan level study to precisely predict the locations of way
side amenities along the project road segments. As a general guideline however, it may
be pertinent to state that way side amenities could appear at the same frequency as
the tolling areas. Thus, if toll plazas are to be setup every 70 kms. or thereabouts, way
side amenities could also be planned at like intervals. Some of these amenities located
near interchanges could be accessible to only the expressway traffic if the situation so
demands. Additionally, there could be “look out” points (different from the way side
amenities) at places where, road users could halt briefly to enjoy the scenic beauties of
the surroundings (India offers many such locations). Locations of “look out” points shall
be dictated by specific site characteristics.

14.3 Intelligent Transportation Systems

An intelligent transportation system (ITS) is a system of hardware, software, and


operators that allow better monitoring and control of traffic in order to optimize traffic
flow. As the number of vehicle lane miles traveled per year continues to increase
dramatically, and as the number of vehicle lane miles constructed per year has not
been keeping pace with this demand, the need for ITS becomes paramount towards
controlling congestion and safety related issues. As a cost-effective solution toward
optimizing traffic, ITS presents a number of technologies to reduce congestion by
monitoring traffic flows through the use of sensors and live cameras or analyzing cellular
phone data traveling in cars (floating car data) and, in turn rerouting traffic as needed
through the use of variable message signs (VMS), highway advisory radio, on board or
off board navigation devices and other systems through integration of traffic data with
navigation systems. Additionally, the roadway network is being increasingly fitted with
additional communications and control infrastructure to allow traffic operations
personnel to monitor weather conditions, for dispatching maintenance crews to
perform rocks or boulder removal, as well as intelligent systems such as automated
accident prevention mechanisms. Variable Message Signs (VMS) and ITS are
inseparable components of any modern Expressway system. The mobile telephone
networks open up a wonderful opportunity towards upgrading the user information and
guidance system. Electronic VMS is considered essential for maintaining safety and
efficiency of traffic operation along Expressways. The NHAI has already initiated studies
on development of Road Safety Zones along national highways. This is expected to
come with a complete package of ITS and other associated infrastructure and aids. The
same module could be made use of in case of the expressway network.

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Land Acquisition 15

Land Acquisition (LA) for national highways is so far governed by the National Highways
Act, 1956, which provides for compensation against properties to be acquired. The
principles governing compensation against acquisition are broadly covered under
Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R) measures. The nature of compensation to be
granted to persons affected by the project who do not own land or other properties but
who have economic interest or lose their livelihoods is also covered under R&R policy.

Land Acquisition is going to be one of the most important, arduous and essential
activity that shall have to precede all other activities pertaining to construction of the
expressway network. Since this is going to be a “green field” project, the quantum of
land to be acquired for construction is going to enormous and as such, efficiency of
implementation of the project packages would depend very largely on the speed and
efficiency with which LA formalities could be completed for the respective packages.

In view of both the enormity and the importance of the task National Highway Act, 1956
may require certain modifications both in terms of the service itself and in the system of
delivery of service (LA policies and procedures). It is suggested that the new/modified
Act, as and when it is implemented, may be known as the National Expressway Act,
2010 (it is hoped that the modifications would be incorporated by 2010).

There are indeed certain model Acts that have been found to be successful in
negotiating the task of LA expeditiously. The Delhi Metro Act is a case in point. As for LA,
the Act stipulates as follows:

“6. Powers of metro railway administration.- (1) The metro railway administration shall
have the power to do anything which may be necessary or expedient for the purpose
of carrying out its functions under the Act.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, such power shall
include the power to- (a) acquire, hold and dispose of all kinds of properties owned by
it, both movable and immovable; (b) improve, develop or alter any property or asset
held by it; (c) enter temporarily in or upon the lands adjoining the metro railway
alignment in order to remove obstruction, or prevent imminent danger from any source,
such as tree, post or structure, which may obstruct the movement of the rolling stock, or
passengers, or the view of the signal provided for movement of the rolling stock; (d)
execute any lease or grant any license in respect of the property held by it; (e) enter
into, assign and rescind any contract or obligation; (f) employ an agent or contractor
for discharging its functions; (g) obtain license from the Central Government to establish
and maintain telegraph lines; (h) lay down or place electric supply lines for conveyance
and transmission of energy and to obtain license for that purpose; and (i) do all
incidental acts as are necessary for discharge of any function conferred, or imposed,
on it by this Act.”

The provisions in the above clause empower the client in a more explicit and forceful
manner as compared to the NHAI Act and offers a window to empower
agents/contractors to accomplish the desired task. This may become useful as the

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expressway packages are likely to be constructed on some form of PPP mode. This
modification could be suitably drafted in the NE Act.

The procedure for LA is well laid out in the NHAI Act and as such, not much modification
may be warranted therein. The procedure for LA is therefore, not being repeated in this
report. There may be state-specific issues on LA. But then, no input to this effect has so
far become available.

LA being a very important and a very massive task that may have socio-political
implications, it may be necessary to create a central authority in the form of
Commissioner (LA) with subordinate officials at the state level for maintaining continued
interaction with the state authorities.

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Rehabilitation and Resettlement Issues 16


16.1 Introduction

The project will be a Green Field Project. Under the circumstances, it is quite likely that
huge tract of agricultural land shall have to be acquired. Properties or structures if any,
on such land, shall generally be classified as agricultural property. The thrust in the R&R
guidelines will thus be more towards R&R issues associated with agricultural land even
though, issues related to other types of structures/properties shall also figure in this. The
project is going to create severance problems besides changing the landuse (along the
alignment) to transport use. Certain negative impacts therefore, will almost certainly be
associated with any project segment. The effort of this exercise will be towards
minimizing the negative impacts to the extent feasible. The broad principles governing
resolution of R&R issues have been outlined in the following (largely following the
present practice):

• The negative impact on persons affected by the project would be minimized and
if possible, avoided.
• Where the negative impacts are unavoidable, the project-affected persons will
be assisted in improving or regaining their standard of living. Vulnerable groups
will be identified and assisted to improving their standard of living.
• All information related to resettlement preparation and implementation will be
disclosed to all concerned, and people’s participation shall be ensured in
planning and implementation of the project. The overall mechanism must allow
the PAPs to become stake holders in the project.
• All acquisition of land would be under the National Expressway Act 2010 which
provides for compensation for properties to be acquired. Support would be
extended for meeting the replacement value of the property. The persons
affected by the project who do not own land or other properties but who have
economic interest or lose their livelihoods will be assisted as per the broad
principles brought out in this policy.
• Before taking possession of the acquired land and properties, compensation and
R&R assistance will be made in accordance with relevant provisions.
• There shall be minimum adverse social, economic and environmental effects of
displacement on the host communities and specific measures would be provided
for in the Resettlement Plan.
• Broad entitlement framework of different categories of project-affected people
shall be assessed and entitlement matrix prepared. Provisions will be kept in the
budget for those who were not present at the time of enumeration. However,
anyone moving into the project area after the cut-off date will not be entitled to
assistance.
• Appropriate grievance redress mechanism will be established at the State level to
ensure speedy resolution of disputes.
• All activities related to resettlement planning, implementation, and monitoring
would ensure involvement of women. Efforts will also be made to ensure that
vulnerable groups are included.
• All consultations with PAPs shall be documented. Consultations will continue
during the implementation of resettlement and rehabilitation works.

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• The Resettlement Plan must include a fully itemized budget and an


implementation schedule linked to the civil works contract.

16.2 Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement

The policy on involuntary resettlement could be in the following manner:

• Avoid or minimize project impacts where possible.


• Consultation with affected people in project planning and implementation,
including disclosure of RP and project-related information.
• Payment of compensation for acquired assets at the market/replacement value
(a mechanism of perpetual income for the PAPs could be thought of).
• Resettlement assistance to affected people, including non-titled persons (e.g.,
informal dwellers/squatters, and encroachers;
• Income restoration and rehabilitation program; and
• Special attention to vulnerable people and groups.

The objectives and principles of the policy, related to income restoration or having a
bearing on it are as follows:

• People unavoidably displaced should be compensated and assisted, so that


their economic and social future would be generally as favorable as it would
have been in the absence of the project.
• Any involuntary resettlement should, as far as possible, be conceived and
executed as a part of a development project or program and resettlement
plans should be prepared as appropriate time bound actions and budgets.
Resettlers should be provided sufficient resources and opportunities to re-
establish their homes and livelihoods as soon as possible (continued support
towards meaningful sustenance must be ensured – this will also ensure that they
become stakeholders in the project).
• People affected should be informed fully and consulted on resettlement and
compensation options.
• Existing social and cultural institutions of resettlers and their hosts should be
supported and used to the greatest extent possible, and resettlers should be
integrated economically and socially into host communities.

16.3 Compensation and Resettlement Assistance

In general terms, the affected persons in the project will be entitled to five types of
compensation and assistance: (i) Compensation for loss of land, crops/trees; (ii)
Compensation for structures (residential/commercial) and other immovable assets; (iii)
Assistance for loss of business/wage income; (iv) Assistance for shifting; and, (v)
Assistance for re-building and/or restoration of community resources/facilities. A
detailed description of each compensation measures and assistance will be provided in
the entitlement matrix. The affected SBEs / households may be entitled to a
combination of compensation measures and resettlement assistance, depending on
the nature of ownership rights of lost assets and scope of the impact, including social
and economic vulnerability of the affected persons.

The broad entitlement framework proposed for the different categories of PAPs is
presented hereinafter:

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16.3.1 Agricultural titleholders

Land records in India are not updated properly, leading to complications in deciding
the actual ownership, particularly the share of legal heirs of the titleholder. Therefore,
specially appointed agencies/groups/ NGOs are to be involved in the task to
effectively facilitate the work of land acquisition by updating of land records.

Once the land records are updated, calculation of replacement value of land will be
done by the following three methods and the highest value of the following shall be
considered:

• Taking into account such prescribed rates or the average of the actual
transaction rates of similar lands for contemporary years for which sale deeds
are registered
• Taking into consideration 20 times of the annual value of gross production of the
concerned land, averaged over preceding five years. For this purpose,
authentic secondary data from the District Statistical Handbook, data from the
local agricultural produce marketing societies, and agricultural department
should be used.
• Fixing up market value of land equal to the minimum land value if so prescribed
by the State Govt. under Indian Stamp Act for the purpose of registration of sale
deeds under Indian Registration Act of 1908.
• In cases where agricultural land has not been alienated but is being physically
used for residential/commercial purposes including where plotting has been
done for residential/commercial purpose, the replacement value will be worked
out on the basis of the transaction rates, provided the development of
residential/commercial plots is in cluster.
• Isolated cases of alienation of agricultural land will not be considered as
change in land use.

The replacement value for the land will be the highest of the value arrived by each of
the above methods. If the compensation decided by the competent authority is less
than the replacement cost, the difference will be paid to the EP in the form of
assistance.

In some cases it may so happen that after acquisition the remaining plot of the EP may
not be viable (the remaining land holding is below average land holding of the district).
In such cases, the EP will have the option of either keeping the remaining land or
getting the replacement value of the entire land, including the remaining unviable
piece of land that shall also be acquired by the government. If EP is from vulnerable
group, compensation for the entire land may be provided by means of land for land, if
so wished by the EP, provided that the land of equal or more productive value is
available.

The Agricultural titleholder EPs will also be entitled for the transitional allowance at an
appropriate rate for 9 months if the land acquired is 75 % or more of the EPs land
holding. In case where the land acquired is less than 75%, then the EP will be entitled for
transitional allowance for 3 months. In cases where a plot is in the name of two or three
family members, then the transitional allowance will be distributed among them, as per
the entitlement given above.

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In case of severance of agricultural land, an additional grant of 10% of the amount will
be paid to the titleholder.

If the titleholder EP becomes landless or falls below the Poverty line, then training would
be provided for up gradation of skills for the family by the project authorities. Such EPs
would also be provided one-time Economic Rehabilitation Grant (ERG) per family, in the
form of productive assets. From a titleholder household, only such families will be
entitled for ERG and training, those who are actually dependent on the acquired piece
of land. This information will be derived from the census survey undertaken by the
Consultant/NGO during verification.

The absentee landlords will receive only the compensation at “replacement cost”.

In cases where, in the revenue records, the land is in the name of the head of the
household, but actually possessed by some other member of the household, then the
assistance amount (difference between the replacement value and compensation),
transitional allowance, additional grant of 10% for severance (if applicable), and
Training/ERG (if vulnerable) will be paid to the person who is actually loosing the land. In
such cases though, as per revenue records, the compensation will be paid to the
titleholder, but NGO will do the facilitation for convincing the titleholder to transfer the
compensation amount to the person who is actually loosing the land.

In cases of disputes such as where land records are not updated / mutated or where
the EPs are unable to produce the desired documents, then the compensation amount
will be deposited with the competent authority till the disposal of the case.

All fees, taxes and other charges, as applicable under the relevant laws, incurred in the
relocation and resource establishment will be borne by the project.

16.3.2 Non-agricultural Titleholders

The determination of replacement cost of the homestead/residential/commercial land


will be done as per the procedure. The replacement cost of the residential or
commercial structure (part or full), will be calculated as per the prevailing basic
schedule of rates without depreciation, subject to relevant “quality standards” of
Schedule of Rates as maintained by Government/ Local Bodies/ Authorities. The
evaluation of assets will be done by the NGO with the help of a registered Government
approved valuer. If the compensation for the structures decided by the competent
authority is less than the replacement cost, the difference will be paid to the EP in the
form of assistance.

The EPs under this category will be given the transitional assistance per month in the
form of grant to cover a maximum nine months rental accommodation. A lump sum
shifting allowance will also be paid to the EPs. The EPs loosing temporary structures will
also be compensated at appropriate rates as may be decided by the competent
authority. Those loosing semi-permanent and permanent structures will be paid
proportionately higher compensations respectively. The EPs will have the right to take
away the salvaged materials from the demolished structure. The absentee landlords will
receive only the compensation at “replacement cost” (the ADB guidelines could be
referred to in this context for fixing the quanta of compensation in each case).

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All the EPs who lose their commercial properties (and hence their livelihood) would be
provided training for upgradation of skills at an appropriate rate per family. Vulnerable
persons amongst such EPs would also be provided one-time Economic Rehabilitation
Grant (ERG), in the form of productive assets. In cases where the property is under
mortgage, the outstanding amount will be paid to the lending agency from the
entitlements due to this.

16.3.3 Tenants

The tenants will be compensated for any structure that they might have erected on the
property of the landlord. They will also be paid the amount of deposit or advance
payment paid by them to the landlord or the remaining amount at the time of
expropriation. All such amounts paid to the tenants will be deducted from the payment
due to the landlord. The tenants will also be entitled for a sum equal to nine months
rental at appropriate rate per month in consideration of disruption caused to them. A
lump-sum shifting allowance will also be paid to them for shifting their assets.

All the tenants whose livelihood activity is affected would be provided training for
upgradation of skills. Vulnerable persons amongst such EPs would also be provided
one-time ERG in the form of productive assets.

16.3.4 Wage earners and Share-croppers

Wage earners and share-croppers are whose livelihood is affected due to the
displacement of the employer. Therefore, they will be paid a flat sum towards
transitional assistance. If the wage earner is willing to undertake training for acquiring
new skill or for upgradation of skills then he/she will be provided financial compensation
at a fixed rate by the government. In cases of vulnerable groups, one time ERG will also
be provided in the form of assets.

16.3.5 Encroachers

Encroachers will be notified in time, preferable two months in advance for removing
their assets (except trees) and harvest their crops. The encroachers will receive no
compensation for land. The vulnerable encroachers will be paid Compensation for
structures at replacement cost, calculated by the method described above. All the
encroachers will have right to salvage their materials from the demolished structures.

All the encroachers, whose commercial structures are demolished for the project, would
be provided training for upgradation of skills. Vulnerable person amongst such EPs
would also be provided one-time ERG in the form of productive assets.

16.3.6 Squatters

The squatters will receive no compensation for land. They will, however, be
Compensated for loss of structures at replacement cost. A lump sum shifting allowance
will also be paid to the squatters. The EPs under this category will also be given a lump-
sum transitional assistance.

All the squatters, whose commercial structures are demolished for the project, would be
provided training for up gradation of skills. Vulnerable persons amongst such EPs would
also be provided one-time ERG.

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16.3.7 Kiosks
Ambulatory vendors will be considered as kiosks. They will receive lump sum shifting
assistance as appropriate.

16.3.8 Common properties


During the design phase, all efforts shall be made to avoid acquisition of common
properties. However, in unavoidable cases, some common properties may have to be
acquired for the project. All such properties that can be replaced, will be relocated at
the nearest available site, in consultation with the local communities. The loss of
common properties, like forest areas, which are impossible to relocate, will be
compensated as per the established Government procedures. Efforts will be made to
enhance the relocated common properties, and also other such properties abetting
the expressway.

In case where common properties are to be located with assistance from local bodies
the government will provide replacement cost of the common properties to these
bodies.

16.3.9 Disposal of Acquired Properties and Eviction of the SBEs / households


The acquired land and properties would vest with the project paying compensation for
such lands / properties. However, the AP’s will be allowed to take away the materials
salvaged from their houses and shops etc. A notice to that effect will be issued to take
away the materials so salvaged within 48 hours of their demolition. If the material is not
removed within the stipulated time the project authority, without giving further notice,
will dispose of the same.

After the expiry of the deadline, the project authority can take action to demolish
structures on the project corridor. The project authorities can also evict structures on the
corridor of impact if it is established that those were constructed on the ROW after the
“cut-off” date. Any grievances and objections will be referred to the Grievances
Redressal Committee.

16.4 Resettlement site


All the displaced title holders and squatters losing residential/commercial properties
may opt for resettlement sites. The DPs will be resettled preferably in a place close to
the area where they were residing prior to the project. The resettlement plan will
address the requirement for residential plots of all squatters. This will be implemented on
the basis of providing options for relocation which include:

• Option 1 - Squatters may choose self- relocation with compensation for their structures
and related assistance
• Option 2 - For squatters who are unable to self-relocate, PIU/NGO will examine on a
case by case basis each household’s access and ability to find appropriate
replacement land for dwelling and if they are unable to find or afford land themselves,
the project authority will provide the required suitable land for this purpose.
• In case the group has already identified a potential site, NGO shall visit the site along
with representatives of the community for assessing the adequacy and suitability of the
site. NGO shall also collect information regarding its title and availability from local
revenue department. In case the identified land is government/community land, NGO
shall have to obtain No Objection Certificate from Revenue Dept.

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• NGO will also collect information on Government/community land available in the


vicinity of project road, from the office of Circle Officer/ Circle Inspector.
• NGO shall prepare a consolidated village wise list of government and community land.
For relocation of DPs, NGO shall ensure that DPs are relocated along with their peers so
as to maintain the existing social fabric.
• The size of the plots will be equal to 35 Sq. mtr. for houses and 15 Sq. mtr. for shops (or
as appropriate).
• Site selection will be assisted from the point of view of the impact on host communities.
Issues like land quality, carrying capacity of the site, common property resources, social
infrastructure will be considered for selection of the site.
• Prior to acquisition of the land, a resettlement plan will be developed and the consent
of the DPs will be taken in writing.
• In case where government land is not available the certificate for the same will be
obtained from the District Collector and the project authority will purchase land for
development of resettlement site/shopping complex.
• At the new settlement centers, civic amenities like drinking water, internal link roads,
drains, electricity will be provided along with any other amenities which the DPs had at
their abandoned place. Any facilities provided by the government and all common
resources properties being availed by the displaced and affected persons prior to the
project will, as far as possible, be provided/continued at government cost at the new
place of their resettlement or at the old place, as the case may be.
• If the construction of shops/houses at the resettlement sites is done through the project
authority, the NGOs will facilitate the process of arranging loans for DPs through
financial institutions for meeting the expenditure of the houses/shops over and above
the entitlement amount. The financial institution will provide loan to the individual DPs,
and the loan recovery will be done by the institution, as per the arrangement agreed
between the DPs and the financial institution.
• The other option will be to do the plotting on the resettlement site and providing
infrastructure facilities. The construction of house and shops will then be left the DPs.
NGO will facilitate the process of arranging loans through financial institutions for the
DPs.
• Once the site is developed, then the houses/shops/plots will be distributed to the DPs on
the basis of local draw in presence of EPs.
• As a yet another alternative, wherever possible, DPs may be resettled in colonies being
developed by local Government agencies. In this case also the additional amount over
and above the entitlements may be borrowed by the DPs from the financial institutions
with the help of the NGOs.
• As described above, plots for houses/shops at the new resettlement sites will be
provided to the DPs on payment basis except for the vulnerable person. The allotment
of plot for house/shop will be in the joint name of husband and wife. Cost of
registration to that effect would be borne by the project authority.
• Customary right and land tenure system of the tribal DPs and APs would be protected.
• Any facilities provided by the government and all common resource properties being
availed by the displaced and affected persons prior to the project will as far as possible
be provided/continued at project cost at the new place of their resettlement or at the
old place, as the case may be. All resettlement planning would consider increased
costs resulting from relocation. Such cost may be related to changes in occupation,
absence of subsistence crops transportation.

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Legal and Administrative Frame Work 17


17.1 Legal and administrative frame work

Though the primary responsibility of the project rests with the MoRT&H, Govt. of India, a
brief discussion on the various institutions involved and their levels of responsibility in the
project implementation is presented in the following sections.

17.2 Institutional setting for the project

The National Expressway Authority of India (NEAI)

The mandate for the planning, design, implementation and maintenance of the 18,000
km and more of National Expressway (NE) network in India rests with the Ministry of Road
Transport and Highway (MoRT&H), Government of India that works as the nodal Ministry
for such purposes.

To plan and implement projects on a fast track and (and thereafter to maintain the
facilities with continued monitoring of progress) it may be desirable to institute a
National Expressway Authority of India (NEAI) much in the lines of the NHAI. Broadly, at
the national scale, the project cost could be anywhere upwards of Rs. 250,000 crores to
be spent over the next 15 years. Obviously such a huge task would call for undivided
attention.

Under the present system of administration, there could be an option of making the
NHAI as the umbrella implementing agency with the NE component being integrated in
terms of additional units. But then such a system is likely to become too huge (and
possibly unmanageable) for efficient functioning.

One has to also keep in view the fact that there is some scope for a debate on whether
or not to further upgrade the existing NH network. In case a decision is taken not to add
more capacities to the existing NH network, the NHAI shall be left primarily with the task
of maintenance of the existing assets in due course of time. The emphasis of the NHAI at
that stage would be on installation of ITS, improving safety and in routine maintenance.
Perhaps that will give an opportunity to downsize the NHAI in future.

With the advent of the NE network and, with the formation of the NEAI, it should be
possible to procure personnel to man the authority (through lateral movement from
NHAI and otherwise) without much problem while at the same time, ensuring efficient
implementation of the schemes.

Two activities which are going to be of paramount importance in the case of NE


network would be Land Acquisition and obtaining Environmental Clearances (being
Green Field Projects). These will require sustained effort at all levels (centre and states).
The NEAI therefore, must have in-house arrangements to resolve issues arising out of
these activities. Appointment of a Commissioner (Lands) has thus been mentioned
elsewhere in this Report.

The project implementation mechanism including formation of PIUs and involvement of


state PWDs could follow the same pattern as in the case of the NHAI. The states could in
fact form project specific units that could be entirely dedicated to expressway

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development within the state. Obviously such units shall have to function in tandem
with the proposed NEAI.

Several of the proposed NE segments become financially viable during the base time
slab itself. There is thus, urgency in forming the NEAI at the soonest.

The structure of the NEAI shall be need based and could follow the same pattern as
that of NHAI.

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Environmental Impact Assessment 18


This being a Master Plan level study, details of environmental impact assessment is not
required to be discussed. However, it must be recognized that large scale green field
infrastructure projects are bound to have very significant impact on the environment
and the same must not go unnoticed. The NEAI shall have to follow the regular drill that
is necessary for obtaining environmental clearances from the concerned authorities.
The various Acts that would guide this process are stated in Table 18.1

Table 18.1: Summary of Relevant Acts and Guidelines


Responsible Applicability
Act Year Objective
Institution to Project
Environmental 1986 To protect and MOEF,DOF,CP Yes/No
(Protection) Act improve the overall CB,SPCB
environment
Notification on 1994 To Provide MOEF,DOF,CP Yes/No
Environment environmental CB,SPCB
Impact clearance to new
Assessment of development
Development activities following
Project (and environmental
amendments) Impact assessment
(referred as the
Notification on
Environmental
Clearance
Water 1974 To control water SPCB Yes/No
(Prevention and pollution by
Control of controlling
Pollution) Act discharge of
(and subsequent pollutants as per the
amendments) prescribed
standards
Air (Prevention 1981 To control air SPCB & Yes/No
and Control of pollution by Transport
Pollution)Act controlling emission Department
(and subsequent of air pollutants as
amendments) per the prescribed
standards
Public Hearing 1997 To Provide SPCB Yes/No
notification of procedure of public
MOEF of 10th hearing
April, 1997
National 1956 To acquire land NEAI Yes/No
Highways Act
Wildlife 1972 To protect wildlife in State Wildlife Yes/No
(Protection) Act general and Division,
particular to Forests
National Parks and Department
Sanctuaries
Ancient 1938 Conservation of Archaeologic Yes/No
Monuments and Cultural and al Survey of
Archaeological historical remains India and
Sites and found in India State
Remains Act Department ,
of
Archaeology

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Conclusions and Recommendations 19


19.1 Conclusions

The study brings out clearly the urgency of developing an expressway network in India
in a phased manner by the year 2022. The present National Highway System cannot
cope with the current and anticipated traffic requirements as is already evident from
the levels of congestion along the existing arterials. By all indications road will continue
to remain the back bone of the inland transportation system.

The study having considered the existing and already proposed expressway segments in
different states, revealed the need to construct 18,637 kms of expressway network (as
against a target of 15,600 kms. set by the Ministry) spanning the length and breadth of
the country. The network so developed shall be both supplementary and
complimentary to the existing arterial network including the North – South and East –
West Corridors and the GQ (besides the well laid out network of National Highways).

The expressway network will offer the highest level of service and would connect major
economic hubs in a purposive manner thereby facilitating faster economic
development. It will not involve up-gradation of any of the existing corridors and
instead, would be the Primary Road Transport Network developed entirely as a “Green
Field” Project.

Development of expressways in the said manner would call for large scale land
acquisition effort by the government. By and large, the network is proposed to be
developed on PPP model except in cases where connectivity warrants could dictate
construction of expressway links on Annuity basis.

It is recognized that the States would be major stake holders in this entire exercise. State
level inputs and involvements would be a mandatory requirement for successful
implementation of the project. However, till the time of finalizing this report, reactions
from only a few states had become available for consideration.

This is a Master Plan level study and the objective is to translate a “Vision Statement”
into a physical plan on the basis of Map Study and data gathered largely from
secondary sources. This is therefore, not a detailed feasibility study and thus, the
corridor alignments shall have to be examined critically during Feasibility Study/
Detailed design stages. For the same reason, this study is not in a position to exactly
define the capacity requirements of each separate expressway link. However, since the
prioritization of expressway segments takes into account the base year and estimated
design year traffic volumes, it could be said that all the links to be constructed on PPP
model shall have at least 4 lane divided carriageway cross section. The Right of Way
(ROW) shall of course, be a uniform 90m. It will be a Toll Expressway Network with toll
rates as per the Ministry’s Guidelines (2008). The prioritized segments are to be
constructed in three phases for which the Viability Gap Funding would be to the extent
of 20% and the concession period 20 years.

Construction of this network over the next decade would call for the creation of a
separate authority, much in the lines of the NHAI. The new authority so created could
be named as the National Expressway Authority of India (NEAI). This shall have

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appropriate state/project units for coordinating various project activities. The


Consultants have emphasized the creation of a Commissionerate (Lands) within the
NEAI for easing the task of land acquisition. Suitable amendments in the Land
Acquisition Act have also been visualized by the consultants.

19.2 Recommendations

Following are the recommendations that could be drawn from the study:

1 The present study, being only a Master Plan Level Study, must be adequately
supplemented by detailed feasibility/design studies before project packages could
actually be taken up for implementation.
2 Towards successful implementation of the project, formation of a separate authority
that would be dedicated to this task shall be absolutely essential. This separate
body could be called the National Expressway Authority of India (NEAI)
3 A separate cell (Commissionerate) must be formed within the NEAI for overseeing
the Land acquisition process. Following the DMRC Act, even developers/builders
could be authorized to undertake land acquisition and its utilization for
decentralizing the whole process. In addition to the usual stake holders, the PAPs
must lo be made stake holders in the project.
4 Considering the fact that the expressway network shall have to be totally access
controlled, it must have a level difference with the natural ground level (NGL). The
optimum level should be +3.5m above the NGL.
5 Expressway shall have no at – grade intersections. All such intersections with
National and State Highways shall be developed into interchanges. There shall be
no intersections with roads of lower hierarchy.
6 A reserved ROW of 90m must be uniformly provided over the entire network except
in hill sections/other sensitive areas where the ROW could be suitably modified if
absolutely necessary.
7 For best results the entire length of 18,637 kms of the expressway network must be
constructed following the prioritization scheme as detailed elsewhere in this report.
8 Construction of new expressway links is likely to result in certain changes in the
existing travel pattern. This is likely to be significant for some of the hitherto less
trafficked segments that have been proposed to be taken up for construction on
annuity basis. It is recommended that data on traffic volumes etc. along these links
be recorded on a regular basis towards revalidation of priorities for some of these
(and other related) segments.
9 Certain schematic interchange plans have been proposed by the Consultants.
Efforts must be made to make best use of the land confined within the interchange
ramps for development of way side amenities so that best value for land is
obtained.
10 Service roads, wherever necessary, shall have to be provided as an integral part of
the total project.
11 Being a Green Field Project, the expressway network is most likely to have significant
environmental impacts. All mandatory clearances therefore, must be obtained
before proceeding with actual execution of the projects. The NEAI must have a
separate cell to expedite actions on this.
12 Wherever necessary conflict free pedestrian crossings and cattle crossings must be
provided across the expressway segments in a realistic manner.

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Beyond the Master Plan 20

The Master Plan as developed by the CRAPHTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd. at the instance
of the Ministry of Road transport and Highways of the Government of India, gives the
broad network of expressways that the country should have by the Horizon Year of 2022.
It must be conceded that the alignments of the various network segments are more
connectivity oriented than being site specific as may be revealed through detailed
feasibility studies that may be initiated by the client agency (ies) in due course of time.

Since this is going to be a Green Field Project, the concerned authorities shall have to
first devise a principle / policy for land acquisition as the success of this scheme shall
rest on this. Since the entire network is going to be access controlled this may cause
additional problems for the local habitats. The best way to circumvent the resultant
problems would be to make the PAPs as stake holders in the project through continued
assistance towards meaningful rehabilitation as indicated earlier in this Report. The role
of the NGOs could be very effective in such efforts.

Feasibility studies and preparation of DPR must be initiated in right earnest once the
land policies are finalized and vetted by appropriate authorities. These studies could
even form an integral part of “Design and Build” mode of construction.

Prioritization of expressway segments has been done on the basis of a host of


parameters including financial viability of each segment as could be ascertained under
a given set of assumptions. Depending on the thinking of the time, it may become
necessary to revisit the financial analysis particularly in terms of VGF and Concession
Period that may be on offer at a particular time. The extent of compensation that could
be realized through additional means (that could not be quantified in the course of the
present study) would also have an impact on the financial viability. This is important as
each state may have its own policies in regard to such development projects.

Development of the expressway network is going to be a massive civil construction


project. The environmental impacts are going to be very significant in most instances.
Besides ecological and other associated impacts, the sources of construction materials
are also going to be heavily taxed as a result of this. Perhaps that opens up a window
towards introducing innovative construction materials and methodology. Such
possibilities must be adequately explored.

The entire activity shall demand a hugely organized effort. The first step towards this will
be formation of the NEAI with suitable powers and an efficient delivery system up to the
PIU level.

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Annexure – I

Macro Economic Matrix and


Ranking of States

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Annexure – II

Comments Received from States

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