Hydraulics Lab Sheet

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Hydraulics Lab Sheet

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 10

Programme: BACHELOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING WITH HONOURS

Course/Code: MATERIALS AND FLUID LABORATORY/ BFC20601

Experiment

FLOW IN PIPES

Title:

Assessed by:

Section:

Student 1.

names: 2.

3.

4.

5.

Excellent

V.Poor

Good

Poor

Fair

CLO 1: Explain the results of fluid experiments based on relevant standard and theories. [PLO4, C2]

Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score

Lab work aim/purposes Identify the lab purpose C1 1

and materials used List and include all lab materials C1 1

Report Use appropriate List and include all lab procedures C1 1

methodology and results

to interpret procedures Answer and discuss relevant questions,

C2 1

used equations and techniques

Development of Interpret proper results C2 0.5

Presentation methodology and

assumptions in study Discuss the use of materials and equations C2 0.5

Total 5

CLO 2: Display high quality of technical and interpretation skills in solving the assign problems. [PLO2, P4]

Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score

Descriptions of the lab work needs P1 0.5

Perform on-site lab work Correct use of measurement technique

P2 1.5

and equipments

Report Discussion on the Describe correct and precise data

applications of the lab P2 1.5

collection

work with measurement

techniques and Analyse and discuss the data trends and

P3 1.5

equations patterns using correct graphs

Solve the applications of equations with

P3 1

Use/adapt appropriate correct and accurate analyses

measurement 3 sets data measurement for accuracy P4 0.7

Presentation

technique/concept and

results Investigate, discuss and relate the use of

P4 0.8

lab work with real site situation

Total 7.5

CLO 3: Describe the laboratory testing procedures among group members throughout the experiments. [PLO5, A2]

Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score

Format of report follows given format A1 1.5

Convey information in

Report Team work: contribution from all members A1 1.5

group

Follows the field work instructions A2 1.5

Demonstrate importance of lab works,

A2 2

able to answers open ended questions

Convey spoken ideas in

Presentation

group Organisation of group presentation A2 0.7

Total 7.5

Total (%)

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

STUDENTS’ ETHICAL CODE (SEC)

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

“I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also

declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and

make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true”

……………………………………….

(STUDENT SIGNATURE)

NAME :………………………………

MATRIC NO :……………………………….

DATE :…………………………..…..

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

PAGE NO :

ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1

ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016

TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

1.0 OBJECTIVE

To verify total energy head losses in pipe flow due to frictional resistance in the pipeline.

At the end of this experiment, students are able to:

i) To evaluate the frictional resistance to flow along a long straight pipe with smooth walls.

ii) To calculate the additional head and the rate of flow along an existing pipeline.

iii) Measure the losses at various fittings, typical of those which are used frequently in pipe

systems.

3.0 THEORY

When fluid flows in a pipe, whether smooth or rough pipe, there would be frictional losses. Friction loss is

due to frictional resistance at the pipe wall and frictional resistance between fluid molecules. Therefore,

there would be a reduction in energy head hf. Minor head losses such as occurs at valves, pipe inlet and

outlet, and bends is considered to be negligible in the test.

1. For fully developed flow along a circular pipe, head loss due to friction (in mH2O) is given as:

Lv

2

hf f

d 2g

where L = length between points of pressure measurement (m) = 1 meter for all pipes

v = mean velocity of flow m s

g = gravity acceleration 9.81 m s 2

d = internal pipe diameter m

f = pipe friction factor

Note: When Reynolds number Re of a flow is known, then f is obtainable from Moody diagram

ρvd

Re

μ

where, μ = viscosity of fluid

= 1.15 × 10-3 Ns m 2 at 15 C

ρ = density of fluid = 1000 kg m 3 at 15 C

2. For expansion and contraction in pipe, head loss due to friction (in mH2O) is given as:

kv2

hf

2g

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

PAGE NO :

ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1

ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016

TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

.

And the losses coficient value, k refer table 3.1 & 3.2

d2

1.0 1.25 1.75 2.0 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.0

d1

d1 v d2 0.0 0.32 1.56 9.0 16.5 27.6 43.1

km

64.0

3.1 Expansion Pipe

d2

1.0 0.80 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25

d1

v 0.0 0.22 0.35 0.40 0.44 0.45 0.47

d1 d2 km

0.48

3.2 Contraction Pipe

3. For smooth pipe with bend of θ, head loss due friction (in mH 2O) is given as:

kv2

hf

2g

r α

d

90° 60° 45° 22.5°

a

5.0 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.03

above

3.3 Bend Pipe

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

PAGE NO :

ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1

ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016

TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

4.0 EQUIPMENTS

a. Apparatus for measuring head loss along a pipe

b. Stop watch

.

5.0 PROCEDURES

1. Fill the pipe system with water. Make sure there is no trapped air in the pipe under test (smaller

diameter pipe).

2. Open the inlet valve of the smaller diameter pipe and make sure all other inlet valve is remained

closed. Make sure the cover to supply tank of the hydraulic bench is open

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

PAGE NO :

ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1

ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016

TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

will be raised hB or depressed hA. Record the readings in

column head loss H in Table 6.1 (for enlargement of smaller

pipe, manometer 7 and 8). Make sure the difference of hB - hA

is not less than 10 mmHg. Close the bottom of the hydraulic

bench to collect water of desired volume and record the time

needed for the collection. Record the readings in Table 6.1.

time in Table 6.2 (for contraction of smaller diameter pipe,

manometer 9 and 10).

open the right inlet valve and record the readings in Table 6.3.

10. Close the control valve and switch off the pump.

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

PAGE NO :

ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1

ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016

TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

All readings should be recorded in the tables below.

Table 6.1: For smaller diameter of smooth pipe, pipe expansion (manometer 7 and 8)

Discharge

Q Reynolds Head loss,

Diameter Velocity

m s

number

v m s

Volume Head loss, H

Re

Time 3

V T

of pipe

d f hf mmHg

liter (sec)

V 10 3

m

4Q

ρud mH 2 O (h A h B )

πd 2

T μ

Table 6.2: For bigger diameter of smooth pipe, pipe contraction (manometer 9 and10)

Discharge

Q Reynolds Head loss,

Diameter Velocity

m s

number

v m s

Volume Masa Head loss, H

Re

3

V T

of pipe

d f hf mmHg

liter (sec)

V 10 3

m

4Q

2

ρud mH 2 O (h A h B )

T πd μ

Discharge

Q Reynolds Head loss,

Diameter Velocity

m s

number

v m s

Volume Head loss, H

Time

Re

3

V T

of pipe

d f hf mmHg

liter (sec)

V 10 3

m

4Q

ρud mH 2 O (h A h B )

πd 2

T μ

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

PAGE NO :

ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1

ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016

TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

Table 6.4: For smooth pipe with bend of 90o (manometer 1 and 2)

Discharge

Q Reynolds Head loss,

Diameter Velocity

m s

number

v m s

Volume Head loss, H

Time

Re

3

V T

of pipe

d f hf mmHg

liter (sec)

V 10 3

m

4Q

ρud mH 2 O (h A h B )

πd 2

T μ

7.0 QUESTIONS

1. Based on the data obtained, calculate flow rate Q, velocity u, Reynolds number NR and head loss

h in Table 6.1 (pipe expansion) and Table 6.2 (pipe contraction).

2. Calculate the difference for hA - hB in the column for head loss H (mmHg).

3. Compare the computed head loss readings with the head loss of manometer readings.

5. Question by lecturer

6. Question by lecturer

8.0 ANSWER

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Dr Hartini Kasmin Asc Prof Dr. Mohd Adib bin Mohammad Razi

Signature: Signature:

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