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Lab Report Assessment Rubrics

Faculty: FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


Programme: BACHELOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING WITH HONOURS
Course/Code: MATERIALS AND FLUID LABORATORY/ BFC20601
Experiment
FLOW IN PIPES
Title:
Assessed by:
Section:
Student 1.
names: 2.
3.
4.
5.

Excellent
V.Poor

Good
Poor

Fair
CLO 1: Explain the results of fluid experiments based on relevant standard and theories. [PLO4, C2]
Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score
Lab work aim/purposes Identify the lab purpose C1 1
and materials used List and include all lab materials C1 1
Report Use appropriate List and include all lab procedures C1 1
methodology and results
to interpret procedures Answer and discuss relevant questions,
C2 1
used equations and techniques
Development of Interpret proper results C2 0.5
Presentation methodology and
assumptions in study Discuss the use of materials and equations C2 0.5
Total 5
CLO 2: Display high quality of technical and interpretation skills in solving the assign problems. [PLO2, P4]
Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score
Descriptions of the lab work needs P1 0.5
Perform on-site lab work Correct use of measurement technique
P2 1.5
and equipments
Report Discussion on the Describe correct and precise data
applications of the lab P2 1.5
collection
work with measurement
techniques and Analyse and discuss the data trends and
P3 1.5
equations patterns using correct graphs
Solve the applications of equations with
P3 1
Use/adapt appropriate correct and accurate analyses
measurement 3 sets data measurement for accuracy P4 0.7
Presentation
technique/concept and
results Investigate, discuss and relate the use of
P4 0.8
lab work with real site situation
Total 7.5
CLO 3: Describe the laboratory testing procedures among group members throughout the experiments. [PLO5, A2]
Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score
Format of report follows given format A1 1.5
Convey information in
Report Team work: contribution from all members A1 1.5
group
Follows the field work instructions A2 1.5
Demonstrate importance of lab works,
A2 2
able to answers open ended questions
Convey spoken ideas in
Presentation
group Organisation of group presentation A2 0.7

Support members in Q&A session A2 0.3

Total 7.5

Total (%)
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY

LABORATORY PAPER INSTRUCTION

Subject Code BFC 20601

Experiment Code MMB – 02

Experiment Title FLOW IN PIPES

Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
STUDENTS’ ETHICAL CODE (SEC)

DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

“I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also
declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and
make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true”

……………………………………….
(STUDENT SIGNATURE)

NAME :………………………………
MATRIC NO :……………………………….
DATE :…………………………..…..

*This SEC sheet/student is compulsory compiles in this report


FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
PAGE NO :
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1
ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1
FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016
TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

PART B: FLOW IN PIPES

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To verify total energy head losses in pipe flow due to frictional resistance in the pipeline.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


At the end of this experiment, students are able to:
i) To evaluate the frictional resistance to flow along a long straight pipe with smooth walls.
ii) To calculate the additional head and the rate of flow along an existing pipeline.
iii) Measure the losses at various fittings, typical of those which are used frequently in pipe
systems.

3.0 THEORY

When fluid flows in a pipe, whether smooth or rough pipe, there would be frictional losses. Friction loss is
due to frictional resistance at the pipe wall and frictional resistance between fluid molecules. Therefore,
there would be a reduction in energy head hf. Minor head losses such as occurs at valves, pipe inlet and
outlet, and bends is considered to be negligible in the test.

3.1 FLOW IN PIPES ANALYSIS CALCULATION EXAMPLES

1. For fully developed flow along a circular pipe, head loss due to friction (in mH2O) is given as:
Lv
2
hf  f  
 d  2g
where L = length between points of pressure measurement (m) = 1 meter for all pipes
v = mean velocity of flow m s 

g = gravity acceleration 9.81 m s 2 
d = internal pipe diameter m 
f = pipe friction factor
Note: When Reynolds number Re of a flow is known, then f is obtainable from Moody diagram

ρvd
Re 
μ
where, μ = viscosity of fluid
= 1.15 × 10-3 Ns m 2 at 15  C
ρ = density of fluid = 1000 kg m 3 at 15  C
2. For expansion and contraction in pipe, head loss due to friction (in mH2O) is given as:
kv2
hf 
2g
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
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DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1
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FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016
TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016
.
And the losses coficient value, k refer table 3.1 & 3.2
d2
1.0 1.25 1.75 2.0 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.0
d1
d1 v d2 0.0 0.32 1.56 9.0 16.5 27.6 43.1
km
64.0
3.1 Expansion Pipe

d2
1.0 0.80 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25
d1
v 0.0 0.22 0.35 0.40 0.44 0.45 0.47
d1 d2 km
0.48
3.2 Contraction Pipe

3. For smooth pipe with bend of θ, head loss due friction (in mH 2O) is given as:

kv2
hf 
2g

And losses coficient value k, refer table 3.3

r α
d
90° 60° 45° 22.5°

1.0 0.30 0.25 0.21 0.13

2.0 0.16 0.13 0.11 0.05

3.0 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.04

r 4.0 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.04


a
5.0 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.03

d 6.0 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.03


above
3.3 Bend Pipe
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
PAGE NO :
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1
ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1
FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016
TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

Figure 3.1: Moody Diagram

4.0 EQUIPMENTS
a. Apparatus for measuring head loss along a pipe
b. Stop watch
.

5.0 PROCEDURES
1. Fill the pipe system with water. Make sure there is no trapped air in the pipe under test (smaller
diameter pipe).
2. Open the inlet valve of the smaller diameter pipe and make sure all other inlet valve is remained
closed. Make sure the cover to supply tank of the hydraulic bench is open
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
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DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1
ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1
FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016
TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

3. Switch on the pump to start the experiment.

4. The control valve is partly and water level in the manometer


will be raised hB or depressed hA. Record the readings in
column head loss H in Table 6.1 (for enlargement of smaller
pipe, manometer 7 and 8). Make sure the difference of hB - hA
is not less than 10 mmHg. Close the bottom of the hydraulic
bench to collect water of desired volume and record the time
needed for the collection. Record the readings in Table 6.1.

5. Repeat steps 4 to 6 for 2nd and 3rd trial.

6. Close the control valve and turn OFF the pump.

7. Open the inlet valve of smaller diameter pipe.

8. Repeat steps 2 to 6 and record the readings of head loss and


time in Table 6.2 (for contraction of smaller diameter pipe,
manometer 9 and 10).

9. For test of pipe having bend of 90o (manometer 5 and 6),


open the right inlet valve and record the readings in Table 6.3.

10. Close the control valve and switch off the pump.

11. Close the pipe inlet valve.


FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
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ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1
ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1
FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016
TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATIONS


All readings should be recorded in the tables below.

Table 6.1: For smaller diameter of smooth pipe, pipe expansion (manometer 7 and 8)

Discharge
Q Reynolds Head loss,
Diameter Velocity
m s
number
v m s 
Volume Head loss, H
Re 
Time 3
V T
of pipe
d f hf mmHg 
liter  (sec)

V  10 3
m  
4Q
ρud mH 2 O   (h A  h B )
πd 2 
T μ

Table 6.2: For bigger diameter of smooth pipe, pipe contraction (manometer 9 and10)

Discharge
Q Reynolds Head loss,
Diameter Velocity
m s
number
v m s 
Volume Masa Head loss, H
Re 
3
V T
of pipe
d f hf mmHg 
liter  (sec)

V  10 3
m 
4Q
 2

ρud mH 2 O   (h A  h B )
T πd μ

Table 6.3: For smooth pipe, straight pipe (manometer 5 and 6)

Discharge
Q Reynolds Head loss,
Diameter Velocity
m s
number
v m s 
Volume Head loss, H
Time
Re 
3
V T
of pipe
d f hf mmHg 
liter  (sec)

V  10 3
m  
4Q
ρud mH 2 O   (h A  h B )
πd 2 
T μ
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DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL EDITION : 1
ENGINEERING REVIEW NO : 1
FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2016
TITLE : FLOW IN PIPES AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2016

Table 6.4: For smooth pipe with bend of 90o (manometer 1 and 2)

Discharge
Q Reynolds Head loss,
Diameter Velocity
m s
number
v m s 
Volume Head loss, H
Time
Re 
3
V T
of pipe
d f hf mmHg 
liter  (sec)

V  10 3
m  
4Q
ρud mH 2 O   (h A  h B )
πd 2 
T μ

7.0 QUESTIONS

1. Based on the data obtained, calculate flow rate Q, velocity u, Reynolds number NR and head loss
h in Table 6.1 (pipe expansion) and Table 6.2 (pipe contraction).

2. Calculate the difference for hA - hB in the column for head loss H (mmHg).

3. Compare the computed head loss readings with the head loss of manometer readings.

4. Write a conclusion for the experiment.

5. Question by lecturer

6. Question by lecturer

8.0 ANSWER

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Prepared by: Approved by:

Dr Hartini Kasmin Asc Prof Dr. Mohd Adib bin Mohammad Razi

Signature: Signature:

Date: 26 January 2016 Date: 27 January 2016