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CONTENTS

Vol 01 No 6 May 2018 Pages72 MARKET


Chairman of the Board

Viveck Goenka SCALABLE AUTOMATION


Sr Vice President - BPD

Neil Viegas
14 SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL
SIZE TO BIG SIZE
MUNICIPALITIES & PLANTS
Editor

Mayur Sharma*
16 WE FOLLOW THE MANTRA
OF ‘MAKE IN INDIA’
DESIGN

National Design Editor 18 AIMING TO SETUP 1,000


WATER ATMS BY THE END
Bivash Barua OF 2018-19
Assistant Art Director

Pravin Temble
Chief Designer

Prasad Tate
PROJECTS
Senior Designer
DEVELOPING RIVER BASIN
Rekha Bisht MODELS AND WATER
23 SHARING POLICY IN THE

CUTTING OUR LOSSES -


Graphic Designer

Gauri Deorukhkar UPPER GODAVARI

URBAN WATER
DIGITAL TEAM

Head of Internet

NRW
Viraj Mehta
Web Developer 100RC AND NIUA
Dhaval Das
Senior Executive - Online
48 ANNOUNCE NATIONAL
LEVEL EFFORT FOR URBAN
RESILIENCE IN INDIA
Pushkar Worlikar
Executive - Online

Salil Sule
Water must be managed efficiently since there are OUT OF THE BOX
already regions where water is a scarce resource. Water
SCHEDULING & COORDINATION

Santosh Lokare
experts join us to chalk out an effective NRW (non- 51 ADDRESSING INDIA’S
WATER PROBLEMS
Photo Editor revenue water) reduction plan.
Sandeep Patil

MARKETING

Kailash Shirodkar
19-26 KNOWLEDGE
CIRCULATION KNOWLEDGE OF NUTRIENTS
POLLUTION AMONGST
Mohan Varadakar

PRODUCTION
52 ENVIRONMENTAL AGENCIES
AND MUNICIPAL
INSTITUTIONS IS CRUCIAL
General Manager

B R Tipnis
Manager
TECH TALK GROUND REALITY
Bhadresh Valia
TM
Express Water GROUNDWATER
REGD. WITH RNI NO. MAHENG/2017/74894.
13 ANGLIAN WATER
SUCCESSFULLY TRIALS
ARVIA TECHNOLOGY 54 DEPLETION IN FATEHGARH
SAHIB, PUNJAB: A CASE
Printed by The Indian Express (P) Ltd. STUDY
and published by Ms Vaidehi Thakar on
behalf of The Indian Express Press, Plot
No. EL-208, TTC Industrial Area,
P06 : EDITOR’S NOTE MUNICIPAL WATER
Mahape, Navi Mumbai - 400710 and
Published from Express Towers, 1st
P08 : IN THE NEWS WATER REUSE RECLAIM
Floor, Nariman Point, Mumbai - 400021.
(Editorial & Administrative Offices: 56 WATER FOR PUBLIC WATER
SUPPLIES
Express Towers, 1st Floor, Nariman P67 : BUSINESS AVENUES
Point, Mumbai – 400021)

Copyright © 2017
The Indian Express (P) Limited. All rights reserved throughout the world. Reproduction in any manner, electronic or otherwise, in whole or in part, without prior written permission is prohibited.
*Responsible for selection of news under PRB Act

4 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


EDITOR’S NOTE

CUTTING OUR LOSSES


With more cities nearing "Day Zero," the world ing big data and predictive-analysis technology.
may soon be looking at the grim picture of a drier fu- India’s capital, Delhi has an installed capacity for
ture. The available water must be managed efficiently the supply of 900 MGD (million gallons/day). As per
now since there are already many regions where wa- estimates, the water loss during transmission and
ter is a scarce resource. This month’s Express Water distribution is around 45%. The Delhi Jal Board
issue intends to present and discuss the latest strate- (DJB) has started installing flow meters on its pri-
gies, techniques, and applications of best practices in mary and secondary underground reservoirs. The
the Non-Revenue Water (NRW) management. state government has allocated INR 2,777.5 crore for
A 2016 World Bank study puts the global estimate water supply & sewage treatment for 2018-19.
of physical water losses at 32 billion cubic meters per Around 3,000 bulk meters will be installed to check
year, half of which occurs in developing countries. If the amount of water being supplied to residential ar-
the water losses in developing countries could be eas. The use of these flow meters will make it possible
halved, the saved water would be enough to supply to track the actual losses. Accordingly, steps could
around 90 million people. be taken to resolve the issue.
According to the EPA, every year in the US up to As per a BCC Research report, the efforts to re-
USD 1.41 billion is lost to inefficient energy practices in duce the amount of non-revenue water will be helping
the water and wastewater industries. And approxi- the global water meter market to see 5.3% annual
mately USD 9 Billion worth of non-revenue water is growth through 2022. The Asia-Pacific region is ex-
lost due to leaks or unbilled usage, of which up to 75% pecting corresponding growth in the water mater
is recoverable. India’s official non-revenue water rate market for advanced meter reading, with a value of
of 34% is slightly above the global average of 28% and USD 867 million. This shows a clear opportunity for
is deemed to be higher. smart water network companies, suppliers, and wa-
As per a new audit of water pipelines and findings
“Water is H2O,hydrogen ter utilities to come together and work towards re-
of an expert committee, the Brihanmumbai Munici- two parts,oxygen one,but ducing NRW levels further.
pal Corporation (BMC) has been able to bring down there is also a third thing, In our next issue (June 2018), we will focus on
the Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in India’s economic “Seawater Desalination” and “Pumping and Piping
capital Mumbai by only 5% in the last five years that makes water and Technologies”. I welcome editorial contributions on
(down to 22 from 27 percentage NRW). However, nobody knows what that is.” these and all other topics which you find significant
some of the recent initiatives by the stakeholders in- for the water sector.
volved seem to have brought on the silver lining. - D.H. Lawrence, Pansies,
The Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board 1929
(BWSSB) has been able to bring down its non-rev-
MAYUR SHARMA
enue water by 12 percent, to 37%. This was achieved Editor
with the help of new automated command center mayur.sharma@expressindia.com
which monitors city’s water distribution system us- @TheExpressWater

HEAD OFFICE - MUMBAI Important:Whilst care is


HYDERABAD AHMEDABAD taken prior to acceptance
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6 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


IN THE NEWS

SPMLInfra Among World’s Top Citic Envirotech Won RMB


300 Million PPPProject in
50 Private Water Companies Xiaogan City,China
survey of world water compa- gap between water supply and EW Staff water and 30% industrial
nies. In more than 3 decades, sewage treatment is another China wastewater to grade 1A level.
SPML has executed over 600 area of great concern and we A new subsidiary Novo
water projects and has helped are not treating more than 72 THE BOARD OF Envirotech (Xiaogan) Co., Ltd
water utilities to deliver safe percent of used water before its DIRECTORS of CITIC with a registered capital of
and clean drinking water to disposal to rivers and water Envirotech Ltd has announced RMB 99.66 million has been set
about 40 million people of India. bodies causing contamination that the Group was awarded a up and is 90% owned by CEL
Subhash Sethi, Chairman - in groundwater sources. Water Public-Private-Partnership and 10% owned by the local
SPML Infra Limited, during a loss and non-revenue water project in Xiaogan City, Hubei municipal government.
conversation with Express account for as much as 70 per- Province, China. The PPP proj- Construction of the BOT proj-
Water on being part of world’s cent of the total water supply at ect involves an investment of ect will commence immediately
Subhash Sethi, Chairman, SPML top 50 private water companies, many places and it needs an RMB 300 million in a 40,000 and is expected to be complet-
Infra Limited said, “SPML Infra has been pro- urgent attention from all stake- m3/day Build-Operate- ed by 2018.
moting sustainable water man- holders. For a diverse country Transfer wastewater treat- MBR is a very efficient technol-
Mayur Sharma agement for decades now and like India, the integrated water ment facility. ogy as it only requires 20-30%
India has completed more than 600 management approach will be The project involves the of land area occupied by con-
water projects across the coun- better solutions to all water design, construction and oper- ventional wastewater treat-
SPML INFRA LIMITED is try. We are happy that our com- woes. We are happy that SPML ation of the wastewater treat- ment plant. CITIC is confident
among the World’s Top 50 pany is continuously featuring Infra has contributed immense- ment plant and piping work that MBR technology will
Private Water Companies as among the global top private ly to India’s water infrastruc- stretching 12.2 kilometers. The become widely adopted across
per the latest research conduct- management companies. As per ture development and presently company will apply its propri- China. As an integrated mem-
ed by Global Water Intelligence, estimates, only 31 percent of we are executing about 32 such etary Membrane Bioreactor brane-based water solutions
London. SPML Infra has been rural and 70 percent of urban projects to provide drinking (MBR) technology for the provider with excellent track
continuously featuring for the households are connected with water facilities to millions of wastewater treatment plant to record, CITIC is well poised to
past 6 years in the bi-annual piped water supply. The huge people of our country.” treat 70% municipal waste- benefit from this trend.

AquaVenture Holdings Announces Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2017


Earnings Results
EW Staff pared to a net loss of $20.5 mil- year period. Quench and Seven Seas Water. Seven Seas Water's first ven-
USA lion in the prior year. Net loss "We achieved strong growth in On the Quench side of the busi- ture into Africa and we look for-
per share for 2017 was ($0.98). both our fourth quarter and full ness, we completed three acqui- ward to working with the proj-
AQUAVENTURE HOLDINGS There were no ordinary shares year 2017 financial results. We sitions in 2017, and we have exe- ect stakeholders in managing
Limited, a leader in Water-as-a- outstanding prior to October 6, continue to benefit from our cuted agreements for three through the various closing con-
Service™ (WAAS™) solutions, 2016, and, therefore, no loss per operational expertise and cus- more acquisitions already dur- ditions to bring this to comple-
has reported financial results share information has been pre- tomer-centric focus delivering ing the first quarter of 2018, tion. We believe 2018 is off to a
for the quarter and full year sented for any period prior to Adjusted EBITDA plus cash with two of these closed in great start and we are well-
ended December 31, 2017. that date. The adjusted EBIT- collected on the Peru construc- January and the third anticipat- positioned to build upon our
For the full year ended on DA was $38.1 million, a 6.0% tion contract growth of 22.2% in ed to close later today. These 2017 performance."
December 31, 2017, the total rev- increase over the prior year. the fourth quarter and 23.9% for acquisitions will bring Quench's The impacts of the binding
enues of $121.2 million reflected Adjusted EBITDA Margin of the full year," said Doug Brown, total installed rental unit base agreement with Abengoa Water
a 6.2% increase over the prior 31.5% was flat compared to the AquaVenture's Chairman and to over 100,000 units. In addi- to purchase a majority interest
year, comprised of 7.8% and prior year. The adjusted EBIT- Chief Executive Officer. "I am tion, we are excited about our in a desalination plant in Accra,
4.5% increases in the Quench DA plus cash collected on the pleased with the progress we recently announced agreement Ghana have been not been
and Seven Seas Water seg- Peru construction contract have made in our first full year to purchase a majority interest included in the 2018 outlook due
ments, respectively. The net increased 23.9% to $46.2 million as a public company with posi- in a desalination plant in Accra, to the pending conditions
loss was $25.8 million, com- from $37.3 million in the prior tive developments in both Ghana. This will represent precedent.

8 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


IN THE NEWS

Consolidated Water Provides Update on Rosarito Project in Mexico


EW Staff Mexico. subsidiary of SUEZ Under the terms of the Project, which when completed
Cayman Islands The agreement calls for NSC International, S.A.S. (SUEZ), Agreement, Suez will design will be one of the largest seawa-
to retain a minimum of 25% of with the option to purchase and construct the project, ter desalination facilities in the
CONSOLIDATED WATER the equity in Aguas de Rosarito 20% of the equity of AdR. If while a joint venture company Western Hemisphere. Our
CO. LTD., a leading developer S.A.P.I. de C.V. (AdR), the spe- Suez does not exercise this between NSC and Suez will focus now shifts to meeting the
and operator of seawater cial purpose company formed option, NSC will retain 35% of operate the project. various conditions precedent
desalination plants, has report- to own the Project. One or the equity of AdR and "We are delighted that our two for the effectiveness of the APP
ed that its wholly-owned more affiliates of Greenfield Greenfield will acquire 65% of partners, SUEZ, a global Contract, which include among
Mexican subsidiary N.S.C. SPV VII, S.A.P.I. de C.V. the equity of AdR. The agree- leader in water treatment, and other things, completing the
Agua, S.A. de C.V. (NSC), has (Greenfield), a Mexico compa- ment will become effective Greenfield, an affiliate of a negotiation and execution of
executed a subscription agree- ny managed by an affiliate of a when additional conditions leading U.S. asset management the debt financing agreements,
ment for the equity funding leading U.S. asset manager, will related to the Project are met, firm, have joined us in the as well as obtaining all out-
required to construct and acquire a minimum of 55% of including but not limited to Rosarito, Mexico project. This standing permits from the fed-
operate a desalination plant AdR. The agreement also pro- those conditions previously equity partnership agreement eral, state and municipal
and accompanying pipeline in vides Suez Medio Ambiente discussed in CWCO's public fil- marks another major mile- authorities," said Rick
Rosarito, Baja California, México, S.A. de C.V., (Suez) a ings. stone in the development of the McTaggart, President & CEO.

Hyflux Awarded Contract for a Seawater Reverse Osmosis


Desalination Package in Bandar Abbas, Iran
EW Staff supply a seawater reverse osmosis water per day, and will form one out of MW power plant. When completed,
Singapore desalination package in Iran. The proj- five desalination plants which AWDEC the SAKO Desalination and Power
ect excludes local marine, civil and plans to build as part of the proposed Plant will address the growing domes-
HYFLUX LTD HAS announced that structural works, and is valued at Saghi Kosar (SAKO) Desalination and tic water scarcity in Iran and serve
its wholly owned subsidiary, Hyflux approximately EUR 68.7 million, with Power Plant in Bandar Abbas, Iran. industries in the South East of Iran.
International Pte Ltd, has been award- an additional EUR 10.5 million for The SAKO Desalination and Power The contract is to be fulfilled over 2 to
ed a contract by Asia Water optional add-ons. Plant will feature five desalination 3 years, and is expected to contribute
Development Engineering Company The desalination plant is designed plants able to produce 1,000,000 cubic to the financials of Hyflux for the finan-
(AWDEC) to design, manufacture and to produce 200,000 cubic metres of metres of water per day, and a 300-400 cial year ending 31 December 2018.

Aquarion Group Gets 15 Million Euro Convertible Loan Notes


from Sustainable Growth Fund
EW Staff acquisitions to increase gin of more than 10%. be in the position to complete Aquarion obtains a partner
Switzerland Aquarion Group’s revenues to Aquarion Group’s immedi- an IPO in 2019. who understands our business
more than 100 million Euros ate focus will be on procuring Karl Michael Millauer, very well. With a planned IPO
THE SUSTAINABLE and achieve an EBITDA mar- ownership of a disruptive CEO of Aquarion AG, said, in 2019, we will have the
GROWTH Fund (SGF), a technology for treatment of “Securing this growth capital opportunity to get consider-
Convertible Loan Note heavily contaminated waste- is an important step in ably more equity capital,
provider, has signed a deal waters, for access to new geo- advancing Aquarion’s plan to which will enable us to contin-
with Aquarion AG (Aquarion graphic markets, and to become a bigger international ue to grow. I also highly appre-
Group) in which Aquarion will expand its products and sys- player in the industrial water ciate the support we have got-
get funding of 15 million Euros tems portfolio in order to sector. I am extremely excited ten from GGF and Green
to accelerate its growth. The increase the company’s recur- and motivated by this devel- Shoots to get the capital basis
funds will be used for project ring revenue stream. opment and the new relation- for the scheduled expansion
financing and working capital Karl Michael Millauer, CEO, With this in place, ship with SGF, a fund focused and see this as trust and confi-
but predominantly to fund Aquarion Group Aquarion Group then aims to on growth capital. With SGF, dence in our future success.”

10 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


IN THE NEWS

Biotech Pioneers, Bruce Rittmann and Mark Van


Loosdrecht,Win 2018 Stockholm Water Prize
Nominating Committee rec- the possibilities to remove Rittmann is Regents’
ognizes Professors Rittmann harmful contaminants from Professor of Environmental
and van Loosdrecht for “pio- water, cut wastewater treat- Engineering and Director of
neering and leading the ment costs, reduce energy the Biodesign Swette Center
development of environmen- consumption, and even recov- for Environmental
tal biotechnology-based er chemicals and nutrients Biotechnology at the
processes for water and for recycling. Biodesign Institute, Arizona
wastewater treatment. They Their pioneering research State University, USA.
have revolutionized treat- and innovations have led to a “Together, Professors
ment of water for safe drink- new generation of energy- Rittmann and van
ing, and refined purification efficient water treatment Loosdrecht are leading, illu-
(Left to Right) Bruce Rittmann and Mark Van Loosdrech of polluted water for release processes that can effectively minating and demonstrating
or reuse - all while minimiz- extract nutrients and other the path forward in one of the
EW Staff Water Association, have been ing the energy footprint”. chemicals - both valuable and most challenging human
Sweden named the 2018 Stockholm Revolutionizing microbio- harmful - from wastewater. enterprises on this planet –
Water Prize Laureates for logical-based technologies in Mark van Loosdrecht is that of providing clean and
PROFESSORS BRUCE revolutionizing water and water and wastewater treat- Professor in Environmental safe water for humans, indus-
RITTMANN and Mark van wastewater treatment. ment, Professors Mark van Biotechnology at Delft try, and ecosystems,” says
Loosdrecht, both prominent In its citation, the Loosdrecht and Bruce University of Technology, SIWI’s Executive Director
members of the International Stockholm Water Prize Rittmann have demonstrated The Netherlands. Bruce Torgny Holmgren.

ABB Launches Collaborative SUEZ Expands its Activity in


Operations for the Power Generation Southeast Asia with a New
Contract in Vietnam
and Water Industries
EW Staff discharged untreated into the
EW Staff and security, reduced risk and business. The collaborative Vietnam Xang Xa No canal, one of the
Denmark lower costs. operations employs ABB tech- city’s drinking water supply
The push toward digitali- nologies, software and servic- SUEZ HAS BEEN AWARD- sources. This system leads to
ABB HAS LAUNCHED ABB zation has increased the es to automatically gather and ED a contract by the local environmental risks.
Ability™ Collaborative amount of data available to analyze information on assets, water authority HAWASUCO1 The contract covers the
Operations for Power customers. ABB Ability processes and risks. Through to supply sanitation services construction of a 3,000
Generation & Water. Driven Collaborative Operations uses these analytics, performance to Vi Thanh, the capital of m3/day wastewater treatment
from a new ABB Ability this data to provide more improvement areas are auto- Vietnam’s southern province plant and a 41-km sewer net-
Collaborative Operations value to customers through matically identified, catego- of Hau Giang. work with 1,400 household
Center in Genoa, Italy, the information analytics, making rized and prioritized so that This €9.5 million contract connections. Works are
new operating model enables this data more useful for driv- customers at operating sites, includes the construction of a expected to start in late 2018
leading power generation and ing decisions that optimize working with ABB experts in wastewater treatment plant and will last for 30 months.
water companies to improve plant and fleet performance. Collaborative Operations and a sewerage network to Financed by Danish
operations and maintenance “ABB Ability Collaborative Centers, can take actions to improve the living standards International Development
using digital technologies to Operations will help us bring ensure that each plant is oper- of over 6,500 inhabitants. Agency (DANIDA Business
collaborate with dedicated, the benefits of digitalization to ating within regulatory, load, Rapid population growth Finance), the project is a new
co-located operations experts. our customers in power gen- environmental and cyber has caused environmental benchmark for SUEZ in
The Collaborative Operations eration and water by giving security requirements. issues in the city of Vi Thanh, Vietnam, where the Group is
Center delivers information them information insights Collaboration is scalable to located 200 km southwest of currently responsible for
insights that can increase cus- that lead to better business customer needs, capable of Ho Chi Minh City. Currently, building two 3,000 m3/day
tomers’ profitability and pro- decisions,” said Kevin Kosisko, being applied at a device or Vi Thanh’s wastewater and wastewater treatment plants
ductivity through better asset Managing Director of ABB’s process level, up to plant and rainwater, collected by a com- and sanitation services in
performance, higher safety power generation and water enterprise-wide operations. bined drainage system, are cities of Ba Don and Ha Giang.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 11


IN THE NEWS

GUTERMANN and TaKaDu Combine Data-Driven


Technologies for Heightened Water Efficiency
TaKaDu’s Event Management platform is now integrated with GUTERMANN’s acoustic leak
detection system to provide a comprehensive solution for water loss reduction.

EW Staff both systems. Receiving age a central theme for utility


Israel alerts from two different managers and to facilitate a
sources will increase opera- more transparent and holistic
TAKADU, A GLOBAL tional confidence about each view on leaks and pipe bursts
leader in Integrated Event event, save time and provide and how they are handled.”
Management solutions for information for better deci- “We’re delighted to collabo-
the water industry, and sion making - enabling opera- rate with GUTERMANN,
GUTERMANN, a world tional teams to validate and which provides a critical data
leader in acoustic leak detec- find the location of leaks source and event detection
tion technology, are teaming more easily. for leakage events. Our com-
up to deliver a comprehen- Uri Gutermann, Head of bined solution is showing
sive data-driven solution for Business Development & excellent results at Mei
improving efficiency. gy, leveraging TaKaDu’s abili- For joint customers, CFO, GUTERMANN, said Carmel in Haifa, Israel, and
TaKaDu’s platform is being ty to integrate network TaKaDu’s Integrated Event “Our collaboration with we’re also seeing huge poten-
seamlessly integrated with events from external systems Management platform can TaKaDu is another stepping tial worldwide.” said Amir
GUTERMANN’s fixed net- as well as from its own ana- act as the central layer for all stone in GUTERMANN’s Peleg, Founder & CEO,
work leak detection technolo- lytics engine. network events detected by strategy to make water leak- TaKaDu.

WABAG Wins INR 773 Crores Worth of Orders Prime Minister of India Lays
Under Namami Gange Scheme and Repeat Foundation Stone for Four Sewerage
Order from KMDA and HMEL (Oil & Gas) Projects Worth INR 1111.56 Crore

Mayur Sharma review, redesign and build AMRUT scheme and includes EW Staff Earlier, on 14th October
India new sewerage system along operation & maintenance for India 2017, the Prime Minister Mr.
with a pumping station and 12 months. Modi had laid the foundation
VA TECH WABAG Limited operation and maintenance of WABAG has also secured PRIME MINISTER OF India stone for four projects in
has been awarded an order for 10 years at Karmalichak, an order worth INR 290 Mr. Narendra Modi has laid Patna at Mokama in Bihar.
INR 147 crores by the Bihar Patna. crores from HPCL - Mittal the foundation stone for four The total awarded cost of
Urban Infrastructure Both projects will be jointly Energy Limited (HMEL), sewerage projects worth INR these projects was Rs. 738.04
Development Corporation financed by World Bank and towards design and build of 1111.56 crore in Patna city. crore. They will create STP
Ltd, under the Namami Gange NMCG. Effluent Treatment Plant These projects will create new capacity of 140 MLD and lay
scheme (National Mission for WABAG has also won a (ETP) at Guru Gobindh Singh Sewage Treatment Plant 422.88 km of sewerage net-
Clean Ganga - NMCG) repeat order for INR 83 crores Refinery, Bathinda, Punjab. capacity of 60 MLD and lay work.
towards design, build and towards design, build and Commenting on these the sewer network of 376.12 The above 11 projects in
operate 60 MLD Sewage operation of 124 MLD Water developments, Pankaj km in Saidpur and Pahari Patna worth Rs 3237.69 crore
Treatment Plant (STP) at Treatment Plant (WTP) at Sachdeva, CEO - India Cluster sewerage zones of Patna. will create total of 350 MLD
Pahari, Patna. Rajpur-Sonarpur in Kolkata said, “I am very happy to note In addition to the above, sewage treatment capacity
The company has been (West Bengal) from Kolkata that we are winning projects three more projects are and lay down 1140.26 km of
awarded another order for Metropolitan Development under the prestigious scheduled to start soon in sewerage lines. The expected
INR 253 crores by Bihar Authority (KMDA). Namami Gange scheme and Patna to create a total of 150 sewage load for the city by
Urban Infrastructure The plant will be designed from key clients in Oil & Gas MLD STP capacity and lay 2035 is 320 MLD. Besides
Development Corporation Ltd using space-saving plate set- sector. These wins bear the 534.54 km of sewerage net- these, a total of 29 projects
(BUIDCO), under the Namami tler technology with rapid testimony of WABAG’s tech- work. Two of these three proj- worth Rs 5042.11 crore are
Gange scheme. gravity filters. The project has nological capabilities and con- ects are under Hybrid ongoing in Bihar under
The scope includes survey, been awarded under the tinued customer confidence.” Annuity-based PPP mode. Namami Gange programme.

12 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


TECH TALK

Anglian Water SuccessfullyTrials Arvia


Technology
• UK utility pilots tertiary treatment combining oxidation and adsorption
• Effective removal rates achieved for a number of substances investigated
• Opportunity to compare the Arvia process to others on the market
By Express Water Bureau

scaled-up, with the construc- and full scale - technologies


tion of a Nyex 7-50a pilot sys- capable of removing trace
tem on the site of 16,000 popu- substances such as pharma-
lation equivalent wastewater ceuticals and natural hor-
treatment plant owned and mones. Anglian Water took
operated by Anglian Water. the opportunity to trial Arvia’s
The onsite trial aimed to Nyex process alongside water
assess the system’s perform- companies trialing a variety of
ance in treating a side-stream other technologies.
of real effluent containing a
range of 60 selected trace sub- Targeted Solution
stances over a 12-month peri- Arvia chief executive Mike
od in 2016-17. Anglian Water Lodge said: “Nyex treatment
carried out analysis on water offers a targeted and cost-
samples pre- and post- treat- effective solution against per-
ment throughout the demon- sistent micro-pollutants in
Internal View of the Full-Scale stration period. wastewater - which is an
Nyex 7-50a System As part of the UK water increasingly important issue The Arvia Nyex Unit is Installed at the Wastewater Treatment Plant for
industry’s undertaking to for utilities.” the Technology’s Utility Demonstration Trial
TRIALS OF AN ADVANCED achieve tighter water quality Arvia’s Nyex treatment
tertiary water and waste- targets, a UK Water Industry systems combine adsorption micro-pollutants in tertiary process, it uses comparatively
water treatment system have Research (UKWIR) collabora- with advanced oxidation in a treatment. little energy.”
proven its effectiveness in tive programme of work is single, scalable unit. Trace “Results from the technol- Nyex™ Treatment Systems
removing several trace sub- underway. The Chemicals organics are concentrated on ogy trials have already been provide a recognized solution
stances from wastewater final Investigation Programme 2 is the surface of Arvia’s propri- used to cost a range of full-size against micro-pollutants and
effluent. being led by the water utilities etary media, which is non- systems from 2,000 to emerging contaminants. The
A laboratory-scale version and environmental regulators porous with high electrical 500,000 PE as part of the util- flexible, modular nature of the
of Arvia Technology’s Nyex and seeks to investigate the conductivity. This patented ity’s preparations for PR19 - systems allows them to be opti-
treatment system was initially sources of trace substances, adsorbent media allows for the regulatory price controls mized to treat water and waste-
tested in partnership with where they occur and their targeted and continuous oxi- for water companies in water in changing volumes and
Anglian Water at Arvia’s in- removal from final waste- dation. England and Wales which ensures treatment is future-
house facility. The capabilities water effluents. Unlike granular activated come into play in 2020.” proof against tightening stan-
proved by Arvia’s Nyex 1-20a One part of the investiga- carbon, Nyex media is effec- dards. Its patented Nyex™
resulted in the project being tion was to assess - at the pilot tively regenerated in situ and Water Industry Partner- media benefits from regenera-
the process can continue with- ships tion in-situ which means the
out interruption or replace- Arvia co-founder Nigel avoidance of expensive off-site
ment. Results are achieved Brown said: “Arvia is continu- trucking for regeneration or
without chemical dosing or ing to build partnerships with incineration. The operational
the generation of sludge, utilities and industrial compa- costs are further reduced as
reducing costs in terms of nies and we are delighted with energy use for the removal of
transport of chemicals and the success of this project. micro-pollutants to below regu-
specialist waste disposal. Our technology is practical, latory limits averages 0.1 to 0.3
cost-efficient and scientifical- kWh/m³. This is around half of
Mike Lodge says, “Nyex ly sound. There are no inter- the energy required for compa-
has fully demonstrated its nal moving parts and although rable advanced oxidation
The Nyex Unit was Used to Test for 60 Priority Substances During the Trial usefulness for the removal of electricity is part of the processes such as ozone.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 13


MARKET

Scalable Automation Solutions for Small


Size to Big Size Municipalities & Plants
Sajiv Nath is the Managing Director of Yokogawa India Limited. Yokogawa provides control
solutions for sustainable water production. It supports water control applications in both the
municipal and industrial water markets. Mayur Sharma talked to him about his new role at
Yokogawa India, and their plans and strategies for the municipal and industrial water projects.

regions that will face water wastewater treatment plants.


shortage in future) and this is The complete portfolio for giv-
set to rise to 3.9 billion by ing a “one stop solution” for
2030. An investigation by these sectors are in house
Asian Development Bank available at Yokogawa. The
(2007) finds that water defi- portfolio includes DCS,
ciencies in a few sections of RTU/PLC, SCADA, Field
the world have as of now turn instruments- Transmitters,
out to be severe to the point Flow meters, analyzers etc.
that city authorities are start- We feel that even after few
ing to constrain new improve- successful implementation of
ment in zones lacking water water demand management
and have stressed upon activi- strategies in India, it is impor-
ties, for example, utilising less tant to balance rising demand
and reusing more as a way to with limited supplies of water,
bail out Asia's water crisis. there are regions around the
The journey so far is good world where water manage-
as Yokogawa is pioneer in pro- ment is required and we will
viding Industrial Water be able to cater to these
Management solutions in demands with our new-edge
Process Plants including technology.
WTP and STP. Yokogawa has
started looking into promising Please share with our read-
sectors of water distribution ers some of the interna-
and District Water manage- tional project success sto-
ment based on international ries of Yokogawa in the
experiences. The company water management seg-
has rich experience in these ment.
sector(s). My thrust at Mr. Nath: A 2016 World
Yokogawa will be to cater to Bank study claims physical
these sectors with available / water loss to be around 32 bil-
existing product portfolio/ lion cubic meters every year;
rich experience in these sec- with nearly a half of it being
tor(s) internationally. contributed by the developing
world. India’s official non-rev-
Can you give our readers a enue water rate of 34% is
How has been your journey the expansion of population water withdrawal is relied primer on your product slightly above the global aver-
in the water sector so far? along with the growth in upon to develop by about 10- portfolio? How are they age of 28% and is deemed to
Please shed some light on industries and urbanization. 12% at regular intervals and is unique from their counter- be higher.
your new role in Yokogawa This rising level of water estimated to reach a whop- parts? As a gist on international
India. demand is directly impacting ping 5,240 km3 (or an Mr. Nath: Yokogawa has success stories, need to be
Mr. Nath: Water assumes the worldwide shortage of increase of 1.38 times since presence in implementing shared that Yokogawa has
a vital role in the human water. 1995) by 2025.The World water treatment plants, successfully automated
framework, farming, and Global demand for water is Economic Forum gauges that wastewater treatment plants, desalination plants in Middle
industry. The twentieth centu- presently developing by 64 bil- 2.8 billion individuals effec- desalination plants, water dis- East, Water distribution and
ry saw an enormous rise in the lion m3 (2.2 trillion ft3) per tively live in zones of high tribution and pipeline man- management sector in South
demand for fresh water due to annum, and yearly global water pressure (i.e., the agement and industrial water/ East Asian countries,

14 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


MARKET

Australia and New Zealend can provide an integrated Mr. Nath: At present as Are you looking at both There appears to be some
and water treatment plants water management platform exist, there is neither automa- government as well as the way to go before automation
across the globe. It will be in to operate and monitor the tion in this sector nor water private projects? starts to make a significant
order to place that more than plant from Smart Control management being available Mr. Nath: We at Yokogawa impact in the water industry,
400+ installation in this sector room including integration of in any of the district(s). Water look forward for providing but the scope of work contin-
are in Japan and 800+ instal- various water treatments being a precious commodity, solution for requirements, ues to change quickly.
lations across the globe are plants across cities. loss and leakage in water whether it comes from Intriguingly, and perhaps
automated by Yokogawa’s result in non-revenue and is a Government or private play- counter-intuitively, it seems
solution(s). Are there still gaps be- challenge. From Yokogawa’s ers. In our opinion, we feel automation will impact posi-
tween what utilities need solution, same can be that district level manage- tively in curtailing NRW.
For Yokogawa, the first or- and what current tech- addressed and in a better ment will be more of district
der from a water munici- nologies are providing? fashion same can be adminis- authorities/ State govt The larger municipalities
pality in India was for your Mr. Nath: By 2030 there tered and monitored. Further, requirements. We at have already stared adopt-
SCADA software and con- will be a 50% increase in we at Yokogawa feel that Yokogawa are, as solution ing various control and au-
trol system in Bangalore demand for energy and water, Water treatment plants and provider open for either case. tomation solutions, and
city’s Centralized SCADA requiring a water infrastruc- wastewater treatment plants are now reaping its bene-
Monitoring Center. Tell us ture capital investment of in any district need to be inte- Will ‘automation’ really be fits as well. However, do
about that. three times the current level grated so that in a nutshell on the ‘Future of the Indus- you think the automation
Mr. Nath: Our first experi- and these analysis by World a dashboard in Control room, try’? What is your opinion? will really pay off in the
ence in India as rightly placed Water Council need to be availability and usage of water Mr. Nath: Water is a pre- smaller municipalities as
by you, was in Supplying heeded seriously. can be monitored in real time cious commodity of present well?
SCADA and telecom for water Normally, current technol- and/ or on a cumulative basis. and future, any water loss Mr. Nath: Reduction in the
pipeline project for Bangalore ogy available can cater to the Numerous water utilities needs to be answered and NRW is the key to smart
city. Further we automated by needs of Utilities. However, as in Asia practice aloof spillage addressed as we cannot afford water management in India.
extending it to pumping sta- technology is always innovat- control, implying that they further water losses. Without We can learn from the success
tions, integrating same with ing and smarter ideas come repair just those leakages that automation, it will be near to of public utilities that have
wastewater treatment plants through, Yokogawa has always are obvious. This is obviously difficult to learn about the drastically curtailed NRW
and provide Bangalore city believed in “Co-innovating insufficient since 90% of the losses and almost impossible losses, achieved through the
with integrated water man- Tomorrow” and Yokogawa’s breaks are normally not to find out the reason for the right management and politi-
agement improvement sys- endeavor is to provide the lat- noticeable at first glance. This losses and control the same. cal backing namely,
tem. est technology to their implies it takes extremely Having said that automation Cambodia’s Phnom Penh
esteemed customers devel- long, years, until the point will also lead to billing to each Water Supply Authority that
What are your plans for oped across the globe based when the utility is even notic- consumer automatically and managed to bring down its
‘Smart City projects’ in In- on the requirement from any ing that there is a break. Since also have an insight plan on NRW from about 73% in 1993
dia? What do you want part of world. This is so as the time taken to notice water consumption pattern and can to 6% in 2010, and the Hai
Smart City CEOs to know Yokogawa has always believed loss from pipe bursts, utilities help plan better for water Phong Water Supply
about Yokogawa India? in Co-innovating technology need to be more alert and needs in future as the dis- Company in Vietnam reduc-
Mr. Nath: As per recent with the needs and require- adopt technology that not only trict/cities flourish. ing waste from 73% in 1993 to
report by World Water ment of customers. reduces the volume of water The automation future in 25% in 2008, with an eight-fold
Council by 2030 more than loss but also lessens the time Industry is very bright. As increase in water connections
40% of the world’s population What do you plan to offer taken to notice such faults. rightly conveyed, considering to the public.
will live in river basins under to the Indian market in The most conventional and Water as precious commodity Recently, water governing
severe water stress and 20% terms of advanced tech- fundamental strategy is to of present and future, any bodies of various state govern-
of the population will be at nologies and solutions to have a group of leak identifica- water loss need to be ments like Rajasthan, are
risk from floods. The Smart the ever-existing issue of tion authorities who check all answered and address as we implementing automation for
City initiative by the ‘water loss and leakage’ to channels all the time. Since the cannot afford to have water reduction of NRW under the
Government needs technolo- reduce NRW (non revenue sound of leaking can be recog- losses. Without automation initiative of smart city. The
gy advancements and we are water)? nized, this work is finished neither we will be able to uniqueness in Yokogawa’s
equipped to cater to the Mr. Nath: Water Loss and with an extensive variety of lis- know the reason of losses nor solution is that the automa-
demand. leakage is the prime reason tening gadgets, going from we will be able to control tion solution is scalable, that is
Yokogawa has ambitious cited for any automation as straightforward mechanical same. More so automation will Yokogawa can provide solu-
plans looking into SMART “Save Water” is the campaign listening sticks to electronic also lead to billing to each con- tion for smaller to big require-
City projects being a reality. and need of an hour. Yokogawa ground amplifiers or even sumer automatically and also ment.
These projects are looking at has water loss and leakage break clamor correlators. have an insight plan on con- Depending on the require-
integrated approach of water management solution imple- Spillage examiners utilize this sumption pattern and can ment we can address the solu-
management, water distribu- mented at the district level gear to tune in to the system plan for water needs in future tion for small size municipali-
tion, water leakage manage- water management. This can and distinguish issues, much as district/ cities grow. ty to a bigger size municipali-
ment, Water hydraulics and ensure reduction in non-rev- like specialists utilize stetho- Automation is most likely ty. Our objective will be to be
analyitics, Water meter read- enue of water. scopes. In order to measure to impact the water industry part of “Save Water” cam-
ing and billing coupled with the amount of water loss there in the short term. In the paign and would like to associ-
security solutions and axis In your opinion, what are should be automated system longer term, as the industry ate for same in fashion of
controls - on a single integrat- India's water needs and installed at discrete zones that moves away from enhanced automation solution provider.
ed platform. We can provide how much is currently be- will keep a tab on the volume of capital schemes, and pressure In nutshell because of technol-
“one stop solution” for all ing fulfilled in water treat- spillage in each zone and aid to reduce customer bills ogy benefits of automation
these requirements to ment, desalination, and on-site engineers to check and increases, automation will can be reaped by user irre-
SMART City project(s) and wastewater management? correct a possible leak. become more prevalent. spective of their size.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 15


MARKET

We Follow the Mantra of ‘Make in India’


Abhijeet Puranik is a mechanical engineer with 25 years of experience in sales and
application engineering of various industrial products such as mechanical seals, pumps, and
advanced membrane products like UF, MBR and EDI. Currently, he is General Manager -
Global Sales & Marketing, QUA Group (a company headquartered in USA and engaged in the
development and manufacturing of advanced membrane products). In this conversation with
Mayur Sharma, he talks about QUA’s market performance, FEDI technology, and their recent
projects including a wastewater recycle plant at Mumbai International Airport in India.

treatment. Our very strong has been a major success in


background and experience in Indian market. We have also
research and development started making inroads in
has meant that all of our prod- China now. We will continue to
ucts are the result of exten- expand our footprint globally,
sive research for over a typically for this sector.
decade at its R&D centre. Our Q-SEP UF mem-
We currently have the fol- branes have been treating
lowing high performance water and wastewater in all
membrane products in the the challenging applications,
global market: Polymeric (Q- spanning the entire spectrum
SEP) and ceramic (CeraQ) of the industry, be it power, be
ultrafiltration membranes, it refineries, textile industry,
electrodeionization (FEDI), pharmaceutical or infrastruc-
and submerged membranes ture. We will continue to build
for MBR application (EnviQ) - more success stories in all of
specifically designed for ultra- these industries.
pure process water, seawater EnviQ, with a very com-
desalination, potable water pact and easy to maintain
purification, and wastewater design, has proven a sunrise
recycle/reuse applications. We product for us. With our
also have FEDI-Rx specifically installation base in USA grow-
for the high purity required by ing, we expect a rapid growth
the Pharmaceutical sector. in this product all across the
QUA’s innovative mem- globe.
branes have been developed
by water treatment experts What were the achieve-
who have extensive experi- ments of QUA in 2017-18?
ence in engineering, con- How has the company
structing and operating com- grown?
plex water treatment facili- Mr. Puranik: 2017 has
ties. This has resulted in cut- been the most successful year
ting edge products, which in QUA’s journey till date. We
make the water treatment have supplied our Q-SEP
systems built around our membranes to a huge refinery
products easy to operate and project in Kuwait, which is
maintain peak performance. expected to get commissioned
in 2018. Our FEDI installation
Which are the three most for 300 m³/hr, for a power
important target markets project in Oman is likely to go
Please shed some light on products that meet the most best practices in R&D, innova- for you currently (pharma, live in May 2018. Our desalina-
the product and services demanding water purification tion, quality, and customer chemicals etc)? What are tion installation, supplied in
portfolio of your company. system requirements. service. the unique requirements 2017, has been commissioned
Which are the new Headquartered in the USA, With our core value of and challenges of each of and has already clocked 5
launches that you have QUA provides global cus- Pure Technology, QUA has them? months of successful perform-
come up with recently? tomers and OEM partners in always been at the forefront in Mr. Puranik: Our FEDI- ance. The EnviQ installation
Mr. Puranik: QUA manu- industrial, manufacturing, and introducing innovative prod- Rx, the next generation EDI at a pharmaceutical facility in
factures superior membrane infrastructure markets with ucts for water and wastewater for Pharmaceutical Industry, Western India, treating sur-

16 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


MARKET

face water, has clocked almost Technology’, our tagline, separation, hardness is the ing the advantages of our sistently very low at less than
a year of successful operation. explains QUA’s DNA. Our scaling component and the products and patronizing our 0.04 NTU. SDI has been less
Besides this, our footprint has R&D has been the backbone main limiting factor for feed products for major projects, than 3, and the Q-SEP mem-
been growing globally. We of all our products. The cut- conditions in a conventional we will take our project suc- brane cleaning is done by reg-
have posted a double digit ting edge research over EDI. By incorporating a two- cess of the last two years to a ular backwashes and CEBs.
growth in our revenue and our decades has enabled us to stage separation process with different level in the years to CIP has not been required
exports have grown by 30%. manufacture state of the art different voltages the FEDI® come. since the start-up of the UF
products. The development of process is able to achieve a membranes.
In order to stay ahead of R&D capabilities has been a higher hardness tolerance by In an earlier project for a We have again supplied Q-
the market curve, what are journey for us and not the des- having distinctly different Wastewater Recycle Plant SEP modules to CSIA in 2017,
the strategies and plans tination. We have and will con- concentrate chambers with at Mumbai International for their expansion project at
that QUA is looking for- tinue to strengthen the same. separate reject streams and Airport, your Q-SEP mod- the same site.
ward to? thus reducing the potential of ules were used. How has
Mr. Puranik: QUA’s Tell us about your hardness scaling. It optimizes been their performance? Finally, what are your
strengths have been its inno- patented Fractional Elec- power consumption by using Mr. Puranik: The growth and expansion
vative solutions and products trodeionization (FEDI) higher electrical current only Chhatrapati Shivaji plans for the next 5 years?
which are always ahead of technology. How is it dif- where required. And it International Airport, And which factors do you
other manufacturers. We will ferent from the conven- ensures the best water quality, Mumbai (CSIA) project is a see as major drivers in the
continue to bring new state of tional EDI process? continuously & consistently landmark project for QUA, industrial water & process
the art products to the mar- Mr. Puranik: With its by removing a major part of and a lighthouse reference. water market in the com-
ket, consolidating our current patented dual voltage tech- the deionization load in the QUA is very proud to be asso- ing years?
product portfolio. Technical nology, QUA’s FEDI 'hardness removal zone', ciated with such a prominent Mr. Puranik: Our growth
support has been and will (Fractional Electro- while residual ionic impurities and respected end-user and has been significant in last few
remain our core focus activity. Deionization) technology is are effectively removed in the industry. With the successful years, thanks to the confi-
We will continue to develop the next generation EDI tech- 'silica removal zone', which and reliable performance dence shown and support
and strengthen the partner- nology for production of high stays in a polishing mode. demonstrated by our Q-SEP extended by our valued cus-
ships with our valued OEMs purity water. Developed tak- membranes, we have subse- tomers and business partners.
and our channel partners ing into account the limita- What are some of QUA’s quently won the expansion While we do cherish these
across the world. tions of conventional EDI, major orders won in last project for the same site. moments of success, our
At QUA, innovation is a FEDI improves the reliability two years? QUA’s Q-SEP system has never dying hunger will lead
journey. QUA owns the intel- of EDI for the production of Mr. Puranik: As explained been running successfully for us to raise the bar. We would
lectual property behind all its high purity water for power earlier, we have implemented more than 3 years now at like to expand our footprint in
products. It has a high level of and semiconductor applica- a major desalination project in CSIA. the other regions of the world
commitment to quality with tions. Unlike conventional India and a large refinery The CSIA has an on-site and will continue to strength-
stringent quality controls, as EDI, FEDI stacks are able to effluent project in Kuwait for wastewater and sewage treat- en our position in current
is evident with its various tolerate more hardness in the our Q-SEP membranes. Our ment plant (STP), to recycle markets.
awards and certifications. Our feed water. FEDI project in Oman will be and reuses the treated water We expect an additional
products have US patents for As a result, FEDI can be at the top of the list of notable for operations such as horti- manufacturing facility in next
manufacturing. Getting used after single pass RO achievements. Our three culture, HVAC cooling make- couple of years. I am sure it
patents for manufacturing, in without the need for soften- FEDI projects in China are up water, and flushing. QUA’s will be a challenge for us, but
spite of many players already ing, or second pass RO, on more than 100 M³/Hr. UF membranes Q-SEP® suc- taking up new challenges and
existing global market, itself is most feed waters. FEDI elim- Besides this, we have had cessfully provided the airport conquering those, has been
the manifestation of the supe- inates the use of chemicals phenomenal success in mid- STP with a robust RO pre- the reason for our success.
riority of our products and and treatment of chemical size projects. Q-SEP has been treatment component to ‘Pure Technology’ and the
technology. And we do follow laden waste water, as the preferred choice of the ensure a long term solution conquering of seemingly
the mantra of make in India. required by the conventional OEMs and end users, with for their effluent recycling insurmountable challenges
QUA® products are of truly process. Thus it is a green modules supplied for projects system. have been the values which we
global quality. And our state- technology which reduces the in Russia, Romania, USA, Since the feed to the RO breathe and nurture.
of-the-art manufacturing environmental foot print. Middle East, Africa and India. pre-treatment system was With the water stress
facility at Pune is the only Each FEDI stack is QUA’s EnviQ has been the sewage wastewater, it needed increasing, leading to the
facility for manufacturing for equipped with two sets of choice of the OEMs in USA, to be designed to handle vari- increased focus of end users
our global operations. This is electrodes. FEDI’s dual volt- and we have won a major able water qualities and and governments on the
an added advantage to our age technology allows for a order for supplying more than extremely high turbidity lev- wastewater treatment around
valued Indian customers. The higher flexibility to inlet water 200 cartridges. We have also els, the objective being to the world, the focus on clean
major projects that QUA has conditions, thus lowering the won a major order for our reduce the silt density index and green technologies will be
executed within the short risk of scaling and improving CeraQ membranes for a proj- (SDI) and turbidity of the feed the key market drivers. These
span of few years is recogni- reliability. Hardness and the ect in USA. water to a point where RO factors will be QUA’s growth
tion of the superiority of our majority of the other ions are cleaning would be minimized. drivers.
products, accepted by cus- removed in the first stage of Tell us about the various Q-SEP modules success- Every user looks for a reli-
tomers globally. the stack at low current densi- projects of QUA which are fully fit the plant’s require- able, low cost of ownership
ty and low scaling conditions, in the pipeline. What is ments due to their large sur- products, which augurs well
How have you developed while the final product water their individual progress? face area and high operating with our innovative designs.
your R&D (research and polishing takes place in the Mr. Puranik: We have a efficiency. The UF TMP has The perfect synergy between
development) capabilities second stage of the stack, at very healthy projects pipeline been below 0.4 bar on average, customer’s requirements and
in past few years? high current density. for all the products. With and the average product our product features will be
Mr. Puranik: ‘Pure In the FEDI® two-stage many important OEMs realiz- water turbidity has been con- the key to our success.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 17


MARKET

Aiming to Set-up 1,000 Water ATMs by the


End of 2018-19
Dr. Vibha Tripathi is the Managing Director & Founder at Swajal. She is a physicist and PhD
from IIT Kanpur and a social entrepreneur working in the energy/water segment. Swajal is an
award-winning IoT-enabled water purification solutions provider. The company offers
mineralized purified water with ultra-filtration and RO. It has diversified its solutions and
product offerings into RFID-based Water Purification Systems, Water ATM Machines, Solar
Powered Water Purification Systems, Water Huts, Solar Submersible Pumps, RO Systems,
and large Drinking Water Plants with tracked water bottles. She talks to Mayur Sharma about
her journey in the water sector, the much-talked about IoT-enabled Water ATMs, and the
community water market in India.

The most exciting


projects for us have
been the CSR
projects for schools
and villages.
Schools used to
face the challenge
of absenteeism and
half-day leaves due
to wide-ranging
health problems.
Such cases had
been reduced by
about 90 percent
after the Swajal
purification
Tell us about yourself. How in Electrical Engineering. The urban slum dwellers nearby impact on us and in 2014 the machines were
did you enter the water in- idea of providing people with could collect the same. But the idea of providing people with installed.
dustry? How did the idea clean drinking water came queue at this water purifier clean drinking water took off
of Swajal come up? across when Advait was grew with every day that the ground in the form of
Dr. Tripathi: I am a social deeply moved by the plight of passed and at times tensions Swajal. remotely-controlled drinking
entrepreneur working in ener- workers that faced consider- heightened, highlighting the Swajal works with commu- water stations. Constantly
gy/water segment along with able challenge while collecting need of clean water in India. nities where technological evolving from being a mere
my son Advait Kumar, an ex- drinkable water on a day-to- One of my cousins had also intervention alleviates critical concept, Swajal is now active-
banker from J. P. Morgan and day basis. We had earlier died due to Diarrhoea at a issues regarding water. Our ly providing clean drinking
also a Penn State University installed a water purifier out- very young age. These two machines, therefore, are solar- water to over 5 lakh people
graduate with specialization side our home so that the incidences had a lasting powered, automated, and daily and is responsible for

18 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


MARKET

Nations Development ures specifically related to tle for filling water – prevent-
Key Highlights of Swajal Programme (UNDP) and community water market are ing about 5,000 tons of plastic
• In 2015, Swajal raised USD 1.2M from Abhishek Gupta and Renewable Energy and unavailable, the market at coming to street annually.
other investors. Energy Efficiency present is estimated to be This obviously is in addition to
• Swajal serves about 2,00,000 people across India daily. Partnership (REEEP). This around $1.5 billion. It is fur- 5 lakh lives that we touch
• Swajal Water ATMs have 9-stage cleaning process. helped the company in build- ther expected to become everyday by providing access
• The RFID enabled card can be pre-loaded for water payments ing prototypes and conduct- worth $4 billion by 2024 expe- to affordable and clean drink-
and coin acceptor in these Water ATMs. ing a pilot and market survey riencing a CAGR ing water.
• The company offers products like QR code tracked water bot- to develop the business model. (Compounded Annual Growth
tles and remote sensing water purification systems as well. The brand also raised an angel Rate) of 15.4 percent accord- Please tell us about some
investment of $1.2 million in ing to Transparency Market of your most exciting proj-
keeping more than 5,000 tons enabled us to use the power of 2015. In the following year, we Research. But we expect the ects? What were the chal-
of plastic off the streets every cloud to our advantage. Our setup our own in-house manu- market to be become greater lenges?
year. The social venture has Water ATMs feature an facturing unit and won several than that. Dr. Tripathi: The most
simultaneously generated award-winning IoT frame- awards and accolades includ- India, a country of 1.3 billion exciting projects for us have
employment for more than work that Swajal’s R&D team ing “Millennium Alliance people, is currently facing a been the CSR projects for
150 people at the grass-root has built from the ground up. Award 2016”. In 2017, Swajal looming water crisis. As per schools and villages. Schools
level. IoT-based monitoring on was yet again felicitated with the recent figures released by used to face the challenge of
We envision solving prob- cloud platform allows us to “IT Adoption and Innovation the World Bank, more than 75 absenteeism and half-day
lems for the marginalized sec- remotely manage, update, and percent of communicable dis- leaves due to wide-ranging
tion of our society using inno- repair each system. Our IoT eases in India are directly health problems. Such cases
vative technologies and hope framework can automatically related to water. Also, over 63 had been reduced by about 90
that through our initiative, we conduct a root cause analysis million of Indians across rural percent after the Swajal
will be able to inspire many and take the relevant actions areas don’t have access to purification machines were
others to join hands and if any machine faces an issue. clean drinking water. Urban installed in one of the schools
change the drinking water We, moreover, have systems IoT has enabled us cities, which are expected to be in Mewat, Haryana. Deploying
scenario in India. installed in remote areas, to use the power of home to 600 million people by clean drinking water systems
rural slums, and villages. The 2030, are not faring any better at schools and in villages have
Please explain to us the IoT technology has made us cloud to our either and this situation is only been the most satisfying expe-
technology used in Swajal capable of measuring the advantage. Our going to aggravate in the rience for us.
Water ATMs? impact even across remote future. Major metropolitan
Dr. Tripathi: Swajal Water areas in real-time. Water ATMs cities including Bangalore and What are your growth and
ATMs are solar-ready and Tell us about the costs feature an award- Chennai are already nearing a expansion plans for the
provide access to clean drink- involved in the installation of Day Zero situation and this next 5 years? Which fac-
ing water through the brand’s one water ATM. winning IoT water deficit in our country is tors do you see as major
state-of-the-art water purifi- The cost of one unit varies framework that expected to reach 50 percent drivers in the community
cation mechanism as well as from Rs. 4 to 10 lakhs. by 2030. If anything has to be water market in the com-
an array of technologies Swajal’s R&D team done, it has to be done right ing years?
including IoT, cloud, and How do you ensure that has built from the now, otherwise it will be too Dr. Tripathi: To accelerate
Artificial Intelligence. IoT and the water quality remains late to make any difference to the company’s growth, we are
cloud enable us to remotely the same? Is there a certi- ground up. IoT- the nation that houses more aiming to setup 1,000 water
anticipate maintenance fication or audit process based monitoring than a billion lives. ATMs by the end of 2018-19.
requirement, which essential- involved? Swajal operates on a fran-
ly ensures zero to minimal Dr. Tripathi: The alert is on cloud platform What is the social impact chisee-based business model.
downtime, and gather data for triggered based on multiple allows us to of Water ATMs in your The company works in part-
predictive analysis. On the predefined parameters. Even opinion? nership with local vendors
other hand, Artificial a slightest variation from the remotely manage, Dr. Tripathi: One of the and shop owners to promote
Intelligence and Machine expected normal gets docu- update, and repair biggest social impacts, apart local entrepreneurship and to
Learning are leveraged to run mented and relevant data is from providing clean RO- allow locally-generated rev-
predictive maintenance algo- sent across to the centre of each system. based water, is that these enue to be absorbed by the
rithms that enable us to fore- operations. Since each ATMs generate hundreds of local economy. We want to
cast system failure before it machine is remotely moni- for Spirit of Manufacturing livelihood by hiring local oper- grow and consolidate in India
occurs. Our award-winning tored, Swajal’s IoT (Industrial Award” by TiE as well as “IoT ators at the machine. This and also explore broader mar-
machines are based on our Internet of things) platform Startup Award” (2017) from employment gets simultane- ket opportunities, such as
proprietary design as well as constantly examines each sys- IoT India Congress for its pru- ously generated for techni- larger purification systems
in-house manufacturing and tem and the quality of water dent and cost-effective devel- cians and other individuals that can cater to a complete
are capable of dealing with the that gets dispensed every opment IoT (Industrial that contribute to the value town. Moving forward, we
widest range of ground water time. Internet of things). chain. A Life Cycle envision to generate 100s of
contaminants. Assessment (LCA) study livelihood and providing water
Please shed some light on What is the current size of shows that a two litre bottled to millions everyday through
What is the role of IoT in the milestones that Swajal the overall community wa- water creates a similar carbon our environment-friendly
your Water ATMs? And why has achieved. How has the ter market in India and footprint in a year as that of a approach. Innovation-driven
IoT? company grown recently? what are the forecasts? car driven for 500 miles. We, smart water initiatives are
Dr. Tripathi: At Swajal, we Dr. Tripathi: In 2014, Can you give us some fact therefore, discourage plastic going to evidently drive the
stay at the forefront of innova- Swajal was recognized and and figures? and ask people to get their community water market in
tion and technology. IoT has supported by the United Dr. Tripathi: Though fig- own utensils or reuse the bot- the years to come.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 19


MARKET

Thermosift Successfully Completes Test


Run of TS-30™ System
The Indian start-up, Thermosift
“With positive Engineering Private Limited, is
outcome, we hope ambitious to get its first commercial
pilot project. A technology-based
to commercialize company registered in India,
our TS-30™ system Thermosift is in the process of
in the near future.” setting up its subsidiary in
Singapore. It is the developer and
manufacturer of innovative Joule
Thompson Effect (JTE) based
thermal membrane process,
separation system TS-30™, and
vapour transfer membrane
STOMATE™.
Dr. J Antony Prince

be addressed. sensitive to acid and organic ble TS-30™ system has many
Zero liquid discharge that will alter the membrane other advantages such as very
(ZLD) will be a potential solu- surface that could be easily high water recovery at a mini-
tion for this issue. wetted. mum energy consumption,
In general, conventional If the membrane under- small footprint and minimum
thermal separation processes goes wetting, it will allow the capital cost compared to the
such as, mechanical vapour salt to pass through the mem- conventional thermal separa-
recompression (MVR) evapo- brane and hence this process tion systems.
rator and crystallizer are has operational limitation in Recently, Thermosift
being used as a post RO the field especially to treat Engineering Private Limited
process to recover more industrial wastewater. has successfully completed
water and to reach ZLD. In order to address the the test run of their TS-30™
It should be pointed out above issues, Thermosift has system for the hydrometallur-
that the current evaporation developed a patented Joule gical process wastewater with
methods are highly energy Thompson Effect (JTE) based an European partner for the
intensive. thermal membrane process salty effluent treatment.
The TS-30™ System Illustration Membrane Distillation is a (TS-30™) which is capable of It has been proved that the
fairly new process which may producing up to 30 liters of innovative Joule Thompson
DISCHARGING THE MIN- this technology is that the lim- address this issue as it is being water per meter square mem- Effect (JTE) based TS-30™
ING industry wastewater itation of recovery due to con- considered worldwide as a low brane. system helps to treat the high
with high salinity into the centration polarization or cost, energy-saving alterna- The TS-30™ system is a saline (TDS: 35,000ppm to
sewer or sea is prohibited to higher osmotic strength (the tive to conventional separa- perfect option to treat the 350,000ppm) water and
prevent overloading at the limitation in recovery is also tion processes such as distilla- wastewater containing high recover the valuable inorganic
treatment plant or destruc- due to the mechanical tion and multi stage evapora- salinity or inorganic contents. salt from the hydro-metallur-
tion to the marine lives strength of polymeric RO tion. The main advantage of the gical process.
respectively. membranes and the high cost However, it has limitation system is that it operates at With the positive outcome,
Reverse osmosis (RO) is of energy used for the highly to treat industrial wastewater relatively low pressure and Thermosift hopes to commer-
one of the major technology, pressurized system). containing high organic con- temperature compared to the cialize their TS-30™ system in
which has been used to treat Disposing the brine to the tent. conventional thermal based the near future. The Indian
saline water. sea or sewer is another envi- Moreover, membrane dis- separation process. start-up is ambitious to get its
However, the drawback of ronmental issue that needs to tillation membranes are very Moreover, the highly scala- first commercial pilot project.

20 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


MARKET

Express Water Exclusive


Mayur Sharma interacted with Dr. J Antony Prince, Non-Executive Director at Thermosift
Engineering Private Limited about their new start-up.

Please tell us about the brine issues to protect the economically viable for many There are several thermal dis- Indian University to set up a
idea behind your technol- environment, save water for small companies. This tillation, membrane distilla- joint research facility and to
ogy-based start-up. reuse & recycling and recover gap/challenge in the industry tion, evaporation and crystal- explore possible applications
Dr. Prince: Studies shows valuable resources. is the reason and inception of lization technologies are avail- for this novel JTE based TS-
that the industries are the Nowadays, everyone Thermosift to develop eco- able but none of them is based 30™ system.
major user of fresh water and knows about the climate nomically viable sustainable on this concept. We are foreseeing several
they are recycling only <20% change, water demand and technologies to address the applications for this novel
of the used water and the the importance of water. brine issues to protect the In terms of energy-effi- JTE based TS-30™ system.
remaining >80% of the indus- However, many of us do not do environment, save water for ciency and cost-savings However, our primary focus
trial wastewater are dumped the necessary things to pro- reuse & recycling and recover (on the basis of test-runs), will be on the brine (RO
into the sewer which pollute tect the environment and save valuable resources. This how do see your products' reject) treatment and zero liq-
the water bodies and create water. Studies shows that the gap/challenge in the industry performance? uid discharge (ZLD) to treat
huge environmental impact industries are the major user is the reason and inception of Dr. Prince: Based on the the industrial wastewater and
which affect the aquatic ani- of fresh water and they are Thermosift to develop eco- preliminary study, the system recover precious metal and
mals and human food chain. recycling only <20% of the nomically viable sustainable consume only 50% of the ener- valuable resource from indus-
Even though, some of the used water and the remaining technologies to address the gy compared to conventional trial wastewater. We believe,
industries are trying to treat >80% of the industrial waste- brine issues to protect the thermal desalination systems. this will help to solve the envi-
their wastewater to meet the water are dumped into the environment, save water for In addition, the innovative TS- ronmental issues arising from
stringent legislation, they are sewer which pollute the water reuse & recycling and recover 30™ system is capable of the industrial wastewater dis-
facing challenges in getting bodies and create huge envi- valuable resources. recovering >95% water at 50% charge. We are planning to do
right solution. It is mainly ronmental impact which less footprint (STOMATE™ this through decentralized
because of lack in awareness affect the aquatic animals and What is the Joule Thomp- capillaries help to increase TS-30™ systems with the
of available technologies or its human food chain. Even son Effect (JTE)? surface area per unit volume). capacity of 1m3/day to
high cost. Most of the indus- though, some of the industries Dr. Prince: The Joule As the system is made up of 500m3/day. Perhaps, current-
tries like Power Plants, textile, are trying to treat their waste- Thompson Effect (JTE) is the plastic materials, the capital ly, we are in discussion with an
Pharma, Tanneries Pulp & water to meet the stringent change in temperature of a cost can be reduced signifi- Indian University to set up a
Paper, Food, Chemicals etc., legislation, they are facing fluid upon expansion (i.e., cantly. Moreover, the highly joint research facility and to
generate wastewater with challenges in getting right pressure decrease) in a steady scalable JTE based process is explore possible applications
high salinity which includes solution. It is mainly because flow process involving no heat independent of salt concentra- for this novel JTE based TS-
heavy metals and valuable of lack in awareness of avail- transfer nor work or must not tion in the feed water and it 30™ system.
resources. Conventional treat- able technologies or its high be expanded through a tur- required very less pre-treat- Recently, we have complet-
ment processes (chemical and cost. Most of the industries bine (i.e., at constant ment. ed a test run on the hydromet-
biological) does not remove like Power Plants, textile, enthalpy). This occurs in allurgical process wastewater
salinity and the pressure driv- Pharma, Tanneries Pulp & "throttling" type processes Tell us more about the ap- with an European partner and
en membrane process Paper, Food, Chemicals etc., such as adiabatic flow through plication areas of your hope to do a commercial pilot
(Reverse Osmosis - RO) has generate wastewater with a porous plug or an expansion products? with them for the field trial.
its own limitation on the high salinity which includes valve. In our TS-30™ system, Dr. Prince: We are fore- After the completion of the
recovery (RO is limited in heavy metals and valuable we are using our propitiatory seeing several applications for field trial, we will commercial-
recovery due to osmotic resources. Conventional treat- microporous membrane this novel JTE based TS-30™ ize the TS-30 system for the
strength) and some time it ment processes (chemical and STOMAT™ as a ‘throttling system. However, our primary high saline waste water treat-
makes the scenario even biological) does not remove device’ that will work as the focus will be on the brine (RO ment for hydrometallurgical
worse due to the discharge of salinity and the pressure driv- porous plug or the expansion reject) treatment and zero liq- and mining industries.
brine (Concentrated RO en membrane process valve. This JTE process helps uid discharge (ZLD) to treat On the other hand, we are
reject) to the sewer. (reverse osmosis -RO) has its to increase the mass transfer the industrial wastewater and in discussion with a Saudi
Conventional evaporation and own limitation on the recovery due to heat loss and our prod- recover precious metal and Arabian company and explor-
crystallization technologies (RO is limited in recovery due uct design helps to recover valuable resource from indus- ing partnership agreement to
are the right solution in treat- to osmotic strength) and some the heat, which in turn trial wastewater. We believe, represent the TS-30™ system
ing high strength industrial time it makes the scenario improves the thermal efficien- this will help to solve the envi- in the GCC region.
effluent. However, it is not even worse due to the dis- cy of the entire TS-30™ sys- ronmental issues arising from Apart from these, we are
economically viable for many charge of brine (Concentrated tem and reduce the desalina- the industrial wastewater dis- also in discussion with an
small companies. This RO reject) to the sewer. tion energy by up to 50%. To charge. We are planning to do Indian University to set up a
gap/challenge in the industry Conventional evaporation and the best of our knowledge, this this through decentralized joint research facility at the
is the reason and inception of crystallization technologies is the first thermal membrane TS-30™ systems with the University campus to further
Thermosift to develop eco- are the right solution in treat- process based on JTE and capacity of 1m3/day to develop our products and
nomically viable sustainable ing high strength industrial Thermosift has own the 500m3/day. Perhaps, current- explore possible applications
technologies to address the effluent. However, it is not Patent on this technology. ly, we are in discussion with an for our products.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 21


MARKET

Gradiant Corporation Establishes Indian Subsidiary


G R A D I A N T neering support will remain water for many industries.” based on life-cycle cost and
CORPORATION, A leader in within the parent, Gradiant Gradiant Corporation simplicity of operation.
innovative solutions for indus- Corporation. Leading the local began commercialization “We are proud to partner
trial wastewater treatment team as managing director efforts in India in 2017 provid- with customers in India to
and desalination, has will be Ravi Selvaraj. He has ing end-to-end water solu- treat complex industrial
announced the establishment more than 30 years of experi- tions, including its flagship wastewaters in an increasing-
of its Indian subsidiary follow- ence in water and wastewater humidification-dehumidifica- ly stringent regulatory envi-
ing the successful commer- treatment having worked at tion system known as Carrier ronment,” stated Anurag
cialization of products in the major corporations in India Gas Extraction (CGE). This Bajpayee, CEO of Gradiant
region. The division, called and the Asia Pacific Region. evaporator alternative, which Corporation. “Our recent suc-
Gradiant India Pvt. Ltd., will “With ZLD requirements mimics nature’s rain cycle to cess in this market was a
provide zero liquid discharge in place for wastewater pro- reduce the cost of treatment major catalyst in our decision
(ZLD) and water footprint ducers across India, innova- while increasing reliability, is to invest more in our growth
reduction solutions for textile tive solutions have gained in designed to transform the by following a similar model
processors, dye stuff manu- popularity as facilities most challenging industrial as our oilfield services sub-
factures, pharmaceutical throughout the country seek waste streams into valuable sidiary”, he concludes.
companies, and other indus- cost-effective options,” said water resources. Most recent- Gradiant Corporation has
trial facilities. Selvaraj. “We are excited to ly, the technology was select- invested in the establishment
(From Left to Right) Prakash Gradiant India will provide help solve these issues using ed over conventional evapora- of Gradiant India and will
Govindan, CTO and Anurag local leadership, sales and Gradiant’s technologies, tive technologies for textile finalize an initial round of
Bajpayee, CEO - Gradiant service personnel, while prod- which reduce the life-cycle manufacturing wastewater funding with local and strate-
Corporation uct development and engi- cost to treat and recover treatment in Tamil Nadu gic partners in May 2018.

Express Water Exclusive


Mayur Sharma interacted with the Gradiant team (Anurag Bajpayee, CEO and Prakash
Govindan, CTO - Gradiant Corporation; and Ravi Selvaraj, MD - Gradiant India) about the
establishment of their Indian subsidiary.

Carrier Gas Extraction (CGE). tion, desalination, and crystal- tions and increased cost for requirements for discharge.
The system employs humidifi- lization are incorporated into fresh water have resulted in a We are also participating in
cation-dehumidification to full solutions as per applica- greater focus on the use of wastewater treatment proj-
reduce the total cost to recov- tion and customer need. alternative resources and to ects in the food and beverage
er high salinity feeds. This reduce water footprint. These industry. This industry is
breakthrough technology How do you see the growth dynamics created an opportu- increasingly focused on reduc-
mimics nature’s hydrologic prospects of Grandiant's nity for Gradaint to bring its ing their water footprint.
cycle, much like how a cloud is business in the coming technologically advanced
formed and releases fresh year? solutions to the Indian mar- Please tell us in brief about
Ravi Selvaraj, MD - Gradiant India water back to earth, eliminat- Gradiant Team: There is ketplace. your recent successful in-
ing many of the concerns significant opportunity for ternational projects.
Can you first give our read- associated with thermal evap- ZLD due to increasingly strin- What markets do you see Gradiant Team: GES
ers a primer on your prod- orators while increasing over- gent regulations for industrial most important in the operates dozens of mobile
uct portfolio? all reliability. discharge. Gradiant offers coming years for Gradiant, assets treating produced
Gradiant Team: Gradiant Gradiant also offers per- solutions that are simple to and why? water in the Permian Basin.
offers a broad portfolio of manent and mobile clarifica- operate and achieve a lower Gradiant Team: The ini- Gradiant has also commis-
solutions for water reuse and tion units, called Selective total cost of ownership in tial markets for Gradiant’s sioned the CGE system for
zero liquid discharge (ZLD). Chemical Extraction (SCE), comparison to conventional ZLD and water reuse solu- coal-fired power flue gas
Our flagship product, which designed to remove solids, technologies. In addition, tions are textile processing, desulfurization wastewater
was developed at the grease, heavy metals and there is a general shortage of pharmaceuticals and primary treatment in China. In total,
Massachusetts Institute of harmful contaminants. fresh water in many locations, metals. Projects in these Gradiant has treated more
Technology (MIT), is an evap- Additional technologies for driving higher cost of this industries are often similar than 5 billion gallons of indus-
orator-alternative called biological treatment, disinfec- resource. Combined, regula- scale and have similar trial wastewater.

22 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


PROJECTS

Developing River Basin Models and Water


Sharing Policyin the Upper Godavari
Dr. Carl Daamen is the Principal Hydrologist at eWater. In this interview, he discusses
Maharashtra and the work eWater has engaged in the Upper Godavari River.
By Shaleen Chinenere, IWC for the Australian Water Partnership (AWP)

acceptable to all of the people agreed and then eWater was


in the basin. engaged by New South Wales
In 2012, it reached crisis to assist with the execution of
point because a lot of the dams the project.
and the upstream of the catch-
ment had a lot of water in What were the deep-de-
them and the large dam at the sired outcomes of the proj-
base of the catchment had ect?
nothing in it and the, obvious- Mr. Daamen: The desired
ly, the downstream people outcomes were to use the
we’re not happy and they said, tools, the eWater Source River
we would like you to release Basin Modelling Tool to sup-
some water so that we have at port decision making with
least a small amount in our regards to the sharing of
lower dam; and the upstream water. We used the scientific
people said, but we don’t have method to evaluate what the
a lot of water this year we options were for sharing water
need it all, sort of thing. There between the upstream reser-
was a bit of a conversation and voirs and the downstream
in India that usually results in reservoir, basically.
when it gets… when the dis-
cussions get tough, it ends up With any project there are
in court and this is what hap- challenges that come
pened in this case, there was a about, so were there any
big court case and eventually challenges that came from
the High Court, eventually, figuring this out and bring-
well one of the management ing the whole project to-
agencies made a decision to gether?
release water and that was Mr. Daamen: Yeah, defi-
challenged, but the High Court nitely. I think it was a big
upheld the decision of this change in perspective for the
management, this manage- Department of Water
ment of authority, the Resources in Maharashtra,
Maharashtra Water they hadn’t done this sort of
Resources Regulatory work before, and mostly, the
Authority maintained their reservoirs are managed on a
right to order the release of reservoir-by-reservoir basis,
Talking about the develop- through an MOU between the it’s the second largest basin, water and the water was not at a basin scale. That was a
ment of a science to policy Government of New South second only to the Ganga and released. big challenge just to, I guess,
modelling framework to Wales and the Government of we are working in the head But out of all of that and one of the obvious things
support the development Maharashtra. They signed this waters of the Upper Godavari. process came this need to that have been difficult is the
of an integrated Water Re- MOU in 2012, and following on So, the reason approaching understand the catchment gathering of data in one cen-
source Management Plan from that, there was a water came about was because the better and to manage it better tral location to build a model,
for the Upper Godavari sur- crisis in Maharashtra, so the sharing of water between and that’s really what sparked we had a lot of administrative
face, how did the project basin that we ended up work- upstream water users and the project. In the middle of challenges as well because
come about? ing in is the Upper Godavari. downstream water users with- this crisis or towards the end there hadn’t been a lot of pre-
Mr. Daamen: Well, the Godavari River is one of the in this sub-basin was not hap- of this crisis the project speci- vious projects within the
project came about partly larger rivers in India, I think pening in a way that was fication was written and Water Resources Department

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 23


PROJECTS

Management across the state one optimum and outcome Australia, I’d like to see in
of Maharashtra. downstream stakeholders Maharashtra, a regular cycle
have another optimum out- of planning and as well as that
What role does modelling come, so the model helps the use of the model for opera-
play in the development of stakeholders talk to each tional decisions. Maharashtra
the Upper Godavari? other and also helps us come is very dominated by a single
Mr. Daamen: Modelling is up with a scientifically based season of rainfall, the Kharif
very important because one of solution that will help the leg- season, the monsoon season is
the big issues in any River islators put in a policy or a the only season when there’s
Basin Management Study is guideline that will come up any rainfall or any significant
having all of your stakeholders with a fairer way of sharing rainfall, and what happens
agree, and if they don’t agree the resource. that towards the end of that
(Left to Right) Meryl McKerrow, Partnerships Manager, eWater; VM then at least to be able to season in the middle of
Kulkarni, Member (Engineering), Maharashtra Water Resources understand why a particular Modelling is important for October they quite often make
Regulatory Authority; Amit Patjoshi, KPMG, Mumbai; RB Shukla, Deputy decision is being made. River robust decision making, decisions about how they’re
Secretary and Superintending Engineer, Water Resources Department, basin modelling is very good to what could be the long- going to share that water
Govt. of Maharashtra; Dr. Carl Daamen, Principal Hydrologist, eWater; assist with that, to a large term strategy for integrat- resource.
KP Bakshi, Chairman, Maharashtra Water Resources Regulatory degree, if you build your model ing modelling into decision In October, we could apply
Authority; IS Chahal, Principal Secretary (Water Resources), Water well it can be an objective support systems for Maha- the model or run the model
Resources Department; Karina Redpath, Senior Hydrologist, eWater; assessment of different man- rashtra? under a range of different con-
Avinash Surve, Executive Director, Vidarbha Irrigation Development agement options. Mr. Daamen: Well the ditions… well under a range of
Corporation, Nagpur; Prasad Narvekar, Superintending Engineer, The Maharashtra team has long-term strategy, I guess, if different water release strate-
Gosikhurd Lift Irrigation Project Division, Bhandara already come up with a set of we follow the example that’s gies should I say we could look
options for sharing water been said in Australia there at the effects of those different
with an international input to Excellence for Integrated between the upstream reser- might be a management cycle, release strategies under fol-
those projects, so the adminis- Water Resource Management voirs and the downstream so we might, in Australia quite lowing conditions of climate
trative details of how an inter- and we’re hoping we ‘ll be able reservoir, they’re quite a com- often we might have a and under different scenarios
national project would be run to support Maharashtra in the plicated set of rules that we’ve Catchment Management Plan within each part of the catch-
were also one of the challenges establishment of that center put into our river basin model. or a River Basin Management ment.
that the project was presented and potentially have the We’re now looking at those Plan that is renewed every ten So they’re the two ways;
with. opportunity to take groups of results and we’re seeing that years or so. Every ten years river basin modelling is a part
But we worked through all experts from New South in some cases it seems that you go back and you have a of a long-term planning strate-
of that, it’s taken a bit longer Wales or from Australia more perhaps they’re releasing too look, and you see the set of gy and it’s updated and
than we wanted but we’re in a broadly to share their under- much water, and in other water sharing rules…are they renewed and also using the
very good position now and standing and also share the cases, it’s looking like the rules working OK or are there con- river basin model for opera-
we’re actually hosting a group troubles they’ve had in manag- are going well. We can use the ditions under which they are tional use in the sense of test-
of Maharashtra officials. ing their water resources so model to test different options, not working or perhaps the ing different release scenarios
As we speak they are in that Maharashtra can learn to adjust the rules so that we irrigators are growing a new in reservoirs from reservoirs.
Australia and I’m going to join form those experiences and can optimise the outcomes; crop that wasn’t previously The Australian Water
them in Sydney tonight and through this center of excel- and the optimum outcome is considered in the model. Partnership (AWP) is an
we’re going to tour some of lence then there’ll be a focus not, obviously, is not some- There are always things to Australian Government develop-
Australia’s sort of Irrigation group, if you like, that will thing you can just assume any- change in a model and there ment initiative enhancing the
Management Agencies but know what the best practice is body knows because the are always improvements to sustainable management of
also go to an irrigation area for Water Resource upstream stakeholders have make. So, as we do in water across the Indo-Pacific.
and show them how it’s done
in Australia, or how we’d like
things to be done in Australia. The Background empty) and this resulted in legal action. professional capability.
eWater has been working with the Around this time, the Government of eWater is working with NSW to
What do you see for the fu- Water Resources Department of State Maharashtra, India, established a progress these outcomes. It has sup-
ture of Maharashtra and Government of Maharashtra in India to Sister State relationship through a ported the establishment of long-term
eWater? build capacity in the use of tools to Memorandum of Understanding with modelling capability in Maharashtra
Mr. Daamen: Well, we are improve water management in the the Government of New South Wales using Source (Australia’s National
very keen to maintain our rela- Upper Godavari basin. The Godavari (NSW), Australia. NSW (and Australia Hydrological Modelling Platform) as
tionship with the government river basin is the second largest in more generally) is in a unique position the river basin modelling tool. eWater
of Maharashtra, we think India and is a key area for irrigated to help Maharashtra drawing on its helped to navigate data collection,
we’ve made some good strides agriculture in Maharashtra. Recently experience of the water reform administration, and model building
forward in terms of developing in Maharashtra, the total rainfall and process. This includes helping capacity during the establishment of
some understanding and good the timing of Kharif rainfall are becom- Maharashtra: the Government of Maharashtra
personal relationships, but ing more variable and this is causing • Develop a better understanding of IWRM modelling team and were on
also a change in attitude distress in the catchment. their water resource base, hand to lead model conceptualization,
towards management in the A recent water shortage in the • Implement robust basin-scale plan- calibration and scenario studies using
basin, at basin level really. Upper Godavari basin increased pres- ning, the Source river basin model. These
We’re coming to the end of our sure on the sharing of water between • Enact governance reforms support- models are now being used to support
current project but there’s the upstream water users (with reser- ed by innovative policy and legal the development of water sharing poli-
been a lot of discussion of per- voirs nearly full) and downstream frameworks, cy for upstream and downstream
haps formation of a Center of water users (with reservoirs nearly • Strengthen institutions and build reservoirs.

24 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


COVER STORY CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW


Water must be managed efficiently since there are already many regions
where water is a scarce resource. Water experts join us to chalk out an effective
NRW (non-revenue water) reduction plan.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 25


COVER STORY

Water Loss Management -


Necessityof Time
Water has become a serious economic, social and political issue with increased importance.
Every day, this new oil of future is on the headlines amongst the biggest stories of our era. We
need to think deeply about the challenges and work towards enduring solutions.
By Subhash Sethi

lated and it is projected to very of water utilities as a conse- natural disasters were over, the
soon overtake the availability of quence of increased urbaniza- interest in water basically evap-
water. The water demand will tion, higher demand, increased orated and plans made during
continue to grow and by the prices and ageing and dilapidat- the challenging times put to
year 2025, it is expected to ed distribution networks. In rest.
increase by over 20 percent, India, the non-revenue water
fueled by the industrial require- level is quite high which results Water Loss Management
ments which are projected to in huge volumes of treated The water utilities in India
double from 23.2 trillion liters at water being lost during trans- are struggling to provide clean
present to 47 trillion liters. mission and distribution that drinking water due to ever-
Domestic demand is expected affects the financial capability increasing populations, expand-
to grow by around 40 percent of water utilities through lost ing service areas and high level
from 41 to 55 trillion liters while revenues and increased opera- of water loss. Reducing water
irrigation will require 14 per- tional costs. A high level of losses is critical to efficient
cent more to 592 trillion liters NRW indicates that our water resource utilization, efficient
up from 517 trillion liters cur- utilities are poorly managed utility management, enhanced
rently. The water ministry pre- with governance issues, lacks in consumer satisfaction, and
dicts that per capita water accountability and technical reduction in capital-intensive
availability will reduce by 36 and managerial skills necessary capacity addition. The costs of
percent in 2025 and by about 60 to provide reliable service to water service are much lower
percent in 2050 from the level their citizens. when undertaken through
of 2001. While agriculture will In western countries, urban- investments in reducing water
remain to be the major water ization took place when their losses rather than through
user in India, the challenges economic conditions were investments in capital projects
posed by growing urbanization improving steadily, and over a to augment supply capacities.
on water requirement calls for a significantly longer period. The The utility, which has initiated
monumental shift in response cities were planned with ade- and sustained water loss man-
from all stakeholders. quate funds and expertise to agement programs, has signifi-
develop required infrastructure cantly gained in terms of finan-
Non-Revenue Water to manage their water and cial returns and better con-
One of the major issues wastewater properly. In con- sumer services.
affecting water utilities in India trast, the magnitude of India’s An example is Bangalore
Subhash Sethi, Chairman, SPML Infra Limited is the considerable loss of water increasing population and lev- water loss management project
from the amount of water put els of urbanization simply over-
into the distribution system and whelmed the financial and man-
IN INDIA, ALMOST one-third treatment, water quality and the actual water billed to con- agement capacities of the cities,
of the population lives in cities public health. sumers. A phenomenon called including their water supply
and this is set to grow to half of With increasing population as non-revenue water (NRW), a and wastewater management
the population in the decades to and rising consumption level, well-known issue that results in systems. The problems have
come. With economic growth, India is sooner than later going large volumes of water being been further aggravated
the urbanization is happening to be confronted with a serious lost through leaks in the supply because the policymakers have
rapidly and resulting in major resource challenge. The avail- system and not being invoiced been interested in water-relat-
pressure on water supplies, able resource has reduced over to customers. It is a very real ed issues only when droughts Damaged Supply Line in
wastewater collection and the years but the demand esca- challenge faced by the majority and floods occur. Once these Bengaluru

26 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

feasibility of our water utilities pening. Water scarcity has 11,456 villages in Gujarat to region of Rajasthan to cater
but it is hard to understand why become real, the long dry spell address the scarcity of drink- to the complete water
efforts to improve the situation that has sent farm production ing water. requirement of Sawai
have been so limited. Cities like plummeting, depleted and dried • SPML Infra is executing Madhopur and Karauli.
Singapore, Manila and Phnom ground wells, dams, reservoirs, urban water supply projects • The 108 kilometers water
Penh have successfully imple- and several rivers are dying and for improvement in water dis- pipeline linkage project in
mented water loss management trickling into the sand. The tribution network in Delhi for Pali, Rajasthan has resolved
programs to reduce NRW to water distribution is also not Mehrauli & Vasant Vihar and the water crisis of Pali city,
below 20 percent levels. In India even across the country. adjoining areas covering benefiting 531 villages and 10
Mechanical Joint in Supply a few successful examples of Gujarat and Rajasthan are around 50,000 house service towns having over 8 lac popu-
Pipeline in Bengaluru NRW Project utilities (e.g. BWSSB) and some among the most water-deprived connections, non-revenue lations.
places where serious actions for states with respect to rainfall water management, installa- • Bisalpur-Jaipur water supply
which was initiated by the water loss management have at and per capita water availabili- tion of AMR & Non AMR project with additional 200
Bangalore Water Supply and least started. For all water utili- ty. They face acute water scarci- water meters, 24x7 consumer MLD water treatment plant
Sewerage Board. This JICA ties in India, reducing NRW ty challenges as rainfall pat- care centre, metering, and at Surajpura is constructed
funded project was awarded to should be the top priority to fol- terns are impacted by climate billing including operations & to augment water supply
SPML Infra in consortium with low when addressing the change. Increasing agricultural maintenance for 10 years. services to Jaipur city and
Suez. By using innovative tech- increased demand for piped and industrial demand is plac- • SPML Infra is also executing other areas to reduce the
nology of helium leak detection water supply. Expanding water ing additional pressure on 6 important ADB funded city’s dependence on existing
to accurately identify and locate networks without addressing dwindling water resources. 24X7 urban water supply groundwater sources.
hidden leaks in large and small water losses will only lead to a Over the years, the unrestricted projects in Karnataka in the • Ramganjmandi Pachpahar
pipes, the NRW reduced signifi- cycle of waste and inefficiency. exploitation of groundwater cities: Bellary, Raichur, water supply project is
cantly from 61 percent at the The high rate of NRW is also across the country has led to Haveri, Hospet, Gadag- designed to provide drinking
beginning of the project to 33 related to poor energy efficien- aquifers no longer being able to Betageri, and Sindhanur to water facilities to 220 villages
percent thus saving 16.5 MLD of cy since water transported in naturally replenish themselves. serve a combined population of and 4 towns catering to
drinking water. In a busy city the distribution system is In the absence of surface water of about 1.3 million. The work water needs of lacs of people
like Bangalore, executing water loaded with energy through the resources in major parts of the involves rehabilitation and of the area.
loss management project in distribution and treatment country, drinking water is development of water distri- • The Gagreen water supply
central part was an engineering processes. Thus, energy is lost drawn either from underground bution network; over 2500 project is designed to provide
challenge due to very high traf- along with the water. Therefore, sources or physically transport- km of water supply pipelines, drinking water facilities to
fic volume combined with nar- reducing NRW is important to ed over long distances. For such rehabilitation, and replace- more than 6 lac populations
row streets of thickly populated overall efficiency and financial areas, water is not free and ment of 2,50,000 house serv- residing in 315 villages and 36
areas and business hubs. The sustainability of the utilities, maybe even more precious than ice connections with installa- dhanies of Jhalawar district.
works also executed in areas since it provides additional rev- oil due to huge challenges in tion of advanced water • Chambal-Sawaimadhopur-
with the maximum number of getting it. meters, non-revenue water Nadauti water supply project
slums posing as a tough chal- SPML Infra has contributed management, 24x7 consumer is being executed to provide
lenge to bring down the water immensely in developing robust care center, metering, billing drinking water facilities to
loss from the existing levels to and sustainable water infra- including operations & main- 926 villages and 3 towns of
the present levels. The project structure in Gujarat, tenance in all cities for 5 Gangapur, Karauli, and
has already covered major Karnataka, Rajasthan and years. Sawaimadhopur for the bene-
areas where 50-60-year-old other states over the last three • SPML Infra has earlier com- fit of several lac residents of
pipes are replaced with new decades which has helped in pleted Cauvery Water Supply the area.
pipes, leakage has been sealed providing clean drinking water Scheme for Bengaluru City • Integrated water supply proj-
and electronic district meters facilities to millions of people with 500 MLD modern ect for Laxmangarh-
suitable for GSM/GPRS com- Split Collar to Repair Barrel Crack across the country. The number pumping station that has Fatehpur & Ratangarh-
munication for measuring flow in Bengaluru NRW Project of projects executed by SPML helped the water utility to Sujangarh is designed for the
and pressure control are Infra has also helped the water provide drinking water facili- extension of existing water
installed. The project is under enues and reduces costs. utilities in saving on cost in ties to over two million resi- infrastructure to augment
execution and we envisage that Although it is not feasible for terms of water loss manage- dents of new Bengaluru the drinking water supply to
water loss level will be further water utilities to eliminate the ment and better supply services areas. Ratangarh-Sujangarh &
reduced to get a standard city NRW completely, even reducing and connecting new areas with • Pokhran Water Supply Fatehpur-Laxmangarh towns
level by the time project is com- it by half the current level of piped water supply. Project is executed to provide in Churu district. This proj-
pleted. From the 16.5 million losses in cities appears a realis- Some of the key drinking a sustainable source of clean ect envisaged to provide
liters of water saved by this tic target. If we can achieve this water projects executed by drinking water to over 12 lac drinking water to 6 towns &
water loss management project, much reduction, the utilities SPML Infra in the country are: populations residing in 580 431 villages of Churu district
the government of Karnataka can save a good amount of • Phase 2 of Saurashtra- villages of Jaisalmer and and 13 villages of Jhunjhunu
has implemented a scheme to money every year from both Narmada Avtaran Irrigation Barmer districts and nearby district. These districts are
provide 10,000 liters free water increased revenues and (SAUNI) Yojana that envis- towns of Pokaran, Falsoond, well known for ground brack-
each month to every household reduced costs and can service ages to irrigate 1.8 million Balotra and Siwana and ish water which was the only
with the regularized connection additional population without hectares of land in along with bulk water source of water for them
to the economically poor, SC any new investments in produc- Saurashtra, Kutch, and north demands of industries and which has also affected the
and ST families. tion facilities nor drawing fur- Gujarat; benefiting millions of defence forces. health of a large number of
The need for water loss ther on scarce water resources. farmers and supplying • SPML Infra has executed the residents.
management is so important to In more and more states in potable water to 39 million water supply project in the • Bharatpur water supply proj-
the operational and financial India, the unthinkable is hap- people across 132 towns and drought-prone south-east ect envisages to develop a

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 27


COVER STORY

regional water supply infra- Delivery Efficiency with service would require cost opti-
structure for the 246 villages Technology mization together with cost
(and their NRVs and dhanies Water delivery mechanism recovery strategies. This can be
of Kaman and Pahari tehsils should be accurate as a fully done through transparent, well-
and 63 villages), and other functional consumer metering targeted subsidies for the poor,
habitant of Nadouti tehsil system can limit drinking water both to help obtain proper con-
(and 46 en-route villages of wastage and enforce conserva- nections to service and to
Gangapur and Karouli towns) tion. Bulk metering for all water encourage the consumption of a
in Rajasthan. sources should go with con- minimum quantity of water.
Water being a common sumer metering for domestic,
resource is not properly regu- industrial, and agricultural use. Capacity Building
lated and hence subject to sev- In the absence of a well-planned Capacity building in urban
eral market and system fail- and rigorous framework, water supply and sanitation
ures, both from the supply and despite government’s good sector is an important step. A
user sides. With a target to pro- intentions by way of policy doc- professional association of serv-
vide access to sustainable water uments, annual plans, and ice providers could play a key
supply to the people, the water heavy central and state subsi- role in disseminating best prac-
utilities can consider the follow- dies, adoption of relevant tech- tices, implementing full scale
ing very important aspects to nologies by consumers and benchmarking, and providing
mitigate their water losses and farmers are inadequate. The training and certification for
manage the vital resources in a stringent legislation can help sector professionals. Training
much better way. streamline equipment supply institutions would need to
by discouraging production of adapt their programs, currently
Equitable Water Distribution inefficient conventional devices. focused mainly on technical
The World Bank report design issues, to the new needs
found that up to 80 percent of Groundwater Management of the urban sector. Special
subsidies in the country went to In many states of India, the information programs would
medium and large farmers groundwater withdrawal has need to be developed for key
whereas the most affected by surpassed recharge capabili- stakeholders including local
falling water tables are the ties. In a state like Rajasthan politicians, consumers, decision
rural poor and marginal farm- with 90 percent dependence on makers, engineers and the non-
ers who lack the means to deep- groundwater, the water situa- government organizations with
en their wells and install more tion will soon become dis- a special interest in water sup-
powerful pumps. Make regula- tressed. In many parts of the ply and sanitation. In the rural
tion to delinking water rights state physical transportation of sector, special training pro-
from land rights and treat water is the only solution to grams would also need to be
groundwater a common meet drinking water needs, an developed to build the capacity The water utilities in India are
resource so that the overex- unsustainable practice. Every of local municipalities and pan-
ploitation can be controlled. At effort to help recharge under- chayats. struggling to provide us clean
the same time, start the process
of recharging aquifers through
ground aquifers across the
country needs to be made, Way Forward
drinking water due to ever-
both natural processes and including micro watershed Water is paramount to a increasing populations, tha
human efforts. planning and restoration of tra-
ditional water bodies.
city’s sustainability, but too
often it is being wasted, pollut-
expanding service areas and high
Demand Management and ed and taken for granted. levels of water loss.
Tariff Reform Water Harvesting Utilities which carefully and
With ever-growing demand Rainfall during the monsoon creatively use their water
and widening gap in supply can is very limited in several parts assets for strategic urban competitive over the coming three decades, he worked relent-
only be controlled with an of the country. Groundwater is advantage will ultimately be decades. lessly with his mission to create
appropriate pricing of water not an option due to depletion more sustainable and competi- sThe good news is there are enduring value and wealth for the
backed by legislation and insti- or high total dissolved solids tive. To succeed in an increas- inspirational efforts currently country and the organization.
tutional support. The tariff (TDS). With surface water also ingly complex water situation, in place in many of our cities to Under his leadership, SPML Infra
reform must be combined with not available, rainwater har- the utilities need to focus on an improve the provision of water. went on to establish itself as a
water delivery mechanism that vesting is the most viable solu- alternative way for a more effi- We need to prioritize greater leading Engineering and
consistently works and elimi- tion to meet drinking water cient water management and investment and move faster Infrastructure Development
nates inefficiencies such as needs. Rainwater harvesting the opportunities new technolo- from the strategizing and goal organization in India with over
transmission losses and theft of must be a part of the micro- gy is offering in maintaining setting into actions that 600 completed projects in the
water. For agriculture, the ideal watershed planning and under- municipal water systems. improve the availability of domains of Water, Power,
policy is to promote water-sav- taken in all rural and urban set- A strategic and pragmatic water with quality. Sanitation, Environment, and
ing crop and adoption of new tings to meet the demand for approach, based on real-time Civil Infrastructure. The sustain-
irrigation technologies. The tar- drinking, domestic, agriculture, data and business processes About the Author able infrastructure created by
iff structure that truly works and industrial water. analysis has to be implemented Subhash Sethi is Chairman SPML Infra helps water utilities
for domestic, agricultural, and in order to address properly of SPML Infra Limited, a listed to deliver safe and clean drinking
industrial users needs to be Improving Affordability some of the key challenges if infrastructure development com- water to about 40 million people
considered Improving affordability of they are to thrive and remain pany in India. In the past over of India.

28 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

Water Loss: Tuning in on a Vital Resource


Problem
By AVK Holding A/S

imum without affecting the consumers the most common and cost-effective is
and then to keep this pressure as sta- by the use of pressure reducing valves.
ble as possible. Also, there is simply no A pressure reducing valve reduces a
point in keeping the same high water higher inlet pressure to a lower outlet
pressure in the network during night- pressure regardless of changes in flow
time as has been defined for daytime, rate or inlet pressure, and should then
so this is an intelligent way of cutting be installed at strategic points in the
off unnecessary efforts. network. By adding intelligence to
valve, the pressure in the zone can be
Why Aim for a Low, Stable Pres- adjusted according to real-time data
ONLY ONE PERCENT of the world’s which occurs in developing countries. sure? collected at the critical points, thus
freshwater is readily accessible for our Could these water losses be halved, it Pressure management is consid- adjusting to the demand from the con-
use. A scarcity in itself, but by adding would be enough to supply around 90 ered the single most beneficial, impor- sumers. In this way the pipe network is
inadequate water distribution, we are million people. tant and cost-effective leakage man- protected from pressure fluctuation,
faced with a more invisible, yet critical The aspiration should be to reduce agement activity. Most pipe bursts overload, and stress, resulting in less
matter: water loss. An issue only con- NRW to the economic level of leakage, occur not only because of high pres- pipe burst.
tributing to the situation of one-third an ideal level defined by the sure but rather due to ongoing pres- By using noise loggers, integrated
of the world’s population living in so- International Water Association sure fluctuations that force the pipe to into ground-level surface boxes, it is
called “water-stressed” countries, (IWA), with a view to maximizing ben- continually expand and contract, possible to detect leaks more efficient-
where the water consumption ratio efits. Not only is it good for the envi- resulting in stress fractures. There is a ly. The loggers pick up on noise creat-
surpasses the actual supply. But what ronment, it is a simply good business. physical relationship between leakage ed from leaks, enabling operators to
is actually meant by water loss, and In the long run, a sustainable approach flow rate and pressure, and the fre- set in exactly when and where needed.
why does it occur? to clean water distribution does not quency of new bursts is also a result of This, together with speedy repair, can
cost money - it saves money, for utili- pressure: the higher or lower the pres- limit the total volume of water loss to a
Lost Somewhere in the System ties as well as for consumers. sure, the higher or lower the leakage. minimum. For pipe bursts, repair
Water loss, often referred to as The relationship is complex, but clamps can be installed outside the
NRW (Non-Revenue Water), is water Strategic Planning and Advanced utility managers should initially broken pipe, securing quick repair and
that is lost somewhere in the distribu- Technology Saves Time, Money - a minimum disturbance of the network
tion system, before it reaches its final and Water customers. By investing in a targeted
customer. This means clean water that Handling NRW in an open system leak detection program, it is in most
is produced but never finally used or would be working in a reactive, passive places possible to reduce the overall
paid for, affecting both local economies manner, where activities are initiated leakage in the distribution system by
and the resources available. only when the loss becomes visible or at least 40-50%.
This is a universal problem, ranging is reported. Therefore, dividing the
from an NRW level of 5% to as much as distribution network into smaller sec- Additional Benefits
80% in specific areas. The reasons to tions called district metering areas Reduced stress on the area’s water
water losses are many, but can, in gen- (DMA) is a more efficient technique, as resources will allow more people to be
eral, be summed up in two main cate- it is possible to calculate the losses served by the same water source, and
gories; apparent losses, caused by individually. It can be precisely deter- the more stable supply will secure con-
metering inaccuracies or illegal con- mined how much water goes into the tinuity of distribution - 24 hours a day,
nections (theft), or by physical losses, DMA (using a water meter), and too 7 days a week. Additionally, the quality
such as outflows through leaking measured how much is sold. As these of the water will be improved, as chlo-
valves or cracks in pipes. are small manageable areas, the rea- rine content can be better controlled,
Physical losses are primarily sons for the loss can easily be traced assume a linear relationship; and risks of pollution due to bursts will
caused by bad quality equipment, poor and resolved, enabling network opera- • 10 % less pressure = 10 % less leak- be reduced.
workmanship, system deterioration or tors to manage the total system more age. The AVK Group is a privately owned
corrosion of materials, or from poor effectively and to better prioritize Additionally, stable pressure industrial group that comprises 90+ com-
water pressure management. their efforts. increases the lifetime of the entire panies. Its core business is the production
A World Bank study puts the global By using DMAs, it is also possible to pipeline system. of valves, hydrants, and accessories for
estimate of physical water losses at 32 manage zone pressure. Here, the aim There are various methods of the water & gas distribution networks,
billion cubic meters each year, half of should be to reduce pressure to a min- reducing and managing pressure, but sewage treatment, and fire protection.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 29


COVER STORY

Fixing Leaks and Preventing Systemic Water


Loss Should Be ACompulsoryActivity!
Uri Gutermann is CFO and Head of Business Development at Gutermann AG, a leading
manufacturer of acoustic leak detection technology and intelligent water loss solutions,
based in Switzerland. Uri holds a Masters degree in international business from the
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, and an MBA from INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France.
Established in 1948, GUTERMANN is a recognized global technology leader and innovator in
intelligent water loss management technologies. He talks to Mayur Sharma about the water
loss scenario, network asset management, new projects of leak detection, and viability of
smart cities.

companies worldwide left that leak locator with correlation UK, Switzerland, and Germany.
is entirely focussed on water and listening functions run with Thanks to a close relationship
leak detection. Everything we an Android app, and c) the joint with Veolia in France we contin-
do is with a view to help utili- cloud platform for various ue to equip sizeable towns with
ties, contractors, and even stand-alone and permanently permanent leak detection sys-
plumbers identify and pinpoint installed leak detection prod- tems. Also, North America is
leaks in pressurized water ucts. developing nicely. We recently
pipes and we do so in all parts of won ZONESCAN ALPHA proj-
the world. Traditionally, we What were the achieve- ects both in Canada (Toronto)
started with measuring instru- ments of Gutermann in and in the USA.
ments that will help a utility 2017-18? How has the com-
worker find a suspected leak pany grown? What other innovations
using acoustic microphones Mr. Gutermann: We have have you introduced to im-
and sensors. In the early 2000s, won a few more awards in the prove network asset man-
the company started focusing past 18 months, amongst them a agement?
on developing technologies for commendation as “Smart Mr. Gutermann: We have a
the permanent monitoring of Water Company of the Year” team of dedicated software
water pipes and networks. The and - of particular interest for engineers in Stuttgart working
Water Loss/NRW is an im- solving their problems with idea behind that was to enable you, maybe - Water Digest full-time on the improvement
portant issue throughout ageing infrastructure and insuf- utilities to get ahead of their India’s award as “Best and further development of our
the global water sector. ficient water efficiency. In some leakage problems and alert Innovative Solution Provider in cloud platform GUTERMANN
What are your views on it? countries, this development will them of new leaks as soon as Leak Detection & to Reduce CLOUD where several of our
Give us some facts and fig- be driven by the regulator (eg. they emerge. Unidentified leaks Water Loss”. Since the start of products upload measurement
ures to support it. France, UK, USA) and in other and long leak run rates of 2017, we have grown in double- data to. Customers are able to
Mr. Gutermann: We see the countries simply out of necessi- known and unknown leaks are digit percentage points both in display and store their leakage
water loss and NRW gaining ty or pressure by the con- the largest part of a network’s staff numbers and in sales data and view it on a Google
importance for sure. sumers. In California and non-revenue water percentage. turnover. Maps (and Street View) inter-
Unfortunately, we can’t put this Spain, there is increasing water Automatic leak identification face, giving them a neat tool to
in facts and figures. In fact, scarcity, Cape Town is sched- and localization also reduces What are some of Guter- manage their assets and take
existing market studies trying uled to run out of water in the human intervention and there- mann’s major orders won in informed leakage intervention
to assess the size and the coming weeks. In the UK, water fore costs and room for inter- last two years? and asset replacement deci-
growth rate of our small sector leakage is the number one issue pretation or human error. Our Mr. Gutermann: We usually sions. Our cloud solution now
are usually not well researched for consumers. fixed network system ZONES- don’t talk too openly about spe- offers a simple event manage-
and only based on information CAN ALPHA has probably cific customers. Several areas ment tool, allowing users to iso-
found in the public domain. Please shed some light on established itself as the leading are probably noteworthy: our late different types of events
From Gutermann’s perspective the product and services product in this segment. UK team has won several larger (correlations or noisy pipe sec-
though we get clear signals portfolio of your company More recently, we have orders for correlators and cor- tions) and follow their own
from the marketplace that utili- which helps fixing the water launched products in the areas relating loggers. We have won workflow steps until the events
ties are more and more aware losses. of a) permanent trunk main several very nice permanent can be classified as resolved or
of the issue and also willing to Mr. Gutermann: leak detection and pinpointing leak monitoring system proj- fixed.
put some serious money behind Gutermann is one of the only with hydrophones, b) all-in-one ects, many of them in France, We have also recently

30 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

entered an agreement with EASYSCAN. It’s a compact ment. The result is plenty of resolution of these images is too judging the results as much as
TaKaDu, an Event device that consists of two false positives (i.e. the noise log- small (50m per pixel) and there- possible. Our ZONESCAN
Management Cloud provider acoustic sensors that can be gers generate an alarm even fore not accurate enough. Also, ALPHA permanent leak moni-
for water utilities. For joint cus- used for correlation and there- though there is no leak any- the failure rate (false positives toring system has been the first
tomers, our leakage events can fore pinpointing leaks on specif- where near) and even more and negatives) is too high and fully automatic and fully corre-
be fed into TaKaDu’s cloud plat- ic pipe segments. Any of those false negatives (i.e. leaks that the used satellite images often a lating leak monitoring system
form and displayed on their two sensors can then be also won’t be identified by the log- few months old. Having said and today there are over 200
event management dashboard used as an electronic listening gers due to ambient noise this, the right approach to installations all over the world.
along with other events from stick or small ground micro- around the logger). The auto- urban leak detection could well HISCAN now emulates the
third-party sensors and SCADA phone to validate the exact matic correlation function be a combination of different same benefits for trunk main
systems. position of that leak using allows a central processing unit methods and technologies, systems and transportation
acoustic amplification. The (such as our cloud servers) to depending on specific situations pipelines. We are believers of
Any suggestions to help wa- device is controlled using an compare time-synchronized and needs. This can include converging the data on the
ter utilities and municipal Android phone or tablet and a sound recordings, thereby fil- satellite images and drones, as same cloud platform and have
agencies address non-rev- very easy-to-use app which tering out any noise that does well as acoustic leak detection implemented this now for sev-
enue-water effectively and guides the user through the not make it to both loggers on methods and sensors. And it eral of our fixed and mobile
at relatively low cost? process. Free offline mapping either side. The longer you can can also include combining products. This facilitates cen-
Mr. Gutermann: “Low cost” material assists the operator in correlate and the more data you acoustic data with non-acoustic tral management of the data
is relative. The cheapest is the correlation process and the have, the better the correlation data, such as pressure and flow and of the assets and thus
always to do nothing. But the visual representation of the result. This is why in our cloud data if it is available in a dense allows taking better decisions
real value of water which is lost results. Those results can then solution an operator can accu- enough granularity. about infrastructure mainte-
through leaky pipes is not also be uploaded to a personal- mulate measurements from nance and investments.
determined properly in our ized cloud account so that the many consecutive nights in Many countries (including
view. Fixing leaks and prevent- operators or their managers order to increase the ability of India) are spending a lot on Finally, what are your
ing systemic water loss to us can later review the measure- the system to detect even the ‘Smart Cities’ projects. growth and expansion plans
should be a compulsory activity ments or print off reports. The quietest leaks in the network. What would you like the for the next 5 years?
for any water company. Fresh, device is priced at a very low The other benefit of correlation, Heads and CEOs of these Mr. Gutermann: We are a
potable water is a limited good price level and it appeals to of course, is the accurate pin- smart cities projects to third-generation family busi-
which people should have the individuals or teams who need pointing of the noise source. know about you? ness. We want to continue
right to have access to as much one device for most of the leak Mr. Gutermann: The growing, but not at all costs. We
as they need. So, the significant detection activities. In the past, leakages were “Smart Cities” concept is a aspire to remain technological
physical water loss in the distri- discovered by direct listen- much talked about but little- leaders and pioneers and we
bution network should not be Could you tell us about ing to the pipes, and now implemented concept of the value our long-term staff mem-
tolerated as a matter of princi- some of the most interest- there are technologies that past years. What makes a city bers, some of whom have been
ple. It’s clear though that ing water loss related proj- can “discover” these leak- smart? I believe that the funda- with us for more than 20 years.
municipalities and utilities want ects that you participated ages using the drones and mental idea of a smart city is to We will continue to improve our
to see a return on their invest- in? What conditions and the satellites. What do you collect as much relevant data fixed network monitoring offer-
ments in leakage reduction ini- challenges did you en- think is the direction for the from a variety of public depart- ing, both for the distribution
tiatives and equipment. counter? future? Will we be able to ments as possible, combine it and the trunk main networks,
The answer to your very Mr. Gutermann: There are accurately locate leakages with data from other sources with a focus on increasing the
valid question depends on so plenty of interesting cases, but I solely using computer soft- (eg. weather forecasts, traffic functionality of the cloud soft-
many factors though. The one wouldn’t want to name singular ware? information, etc.) and create a ware and the value to the cus-
thing I would say is that I customers or cities. Generally, Mr. Gutermann: I think platform on which special algo- tomers. We also plan to over-
wouldn’t go for half-baked solu- our monitoring technology those upcoming big-data-only rithms create new information haul our range of correlators to
tions. Any approach to NRW excels in the most difficult envi- and leak-detection-from-space for city managers that will increase the functionality and
has to take a long-term view ronments which can be any start-ups and technologies have increase the efficiency of public make them fit into our strategy
and be sustainable. The key, in combination of the following: their merits, absolutely. We services and the public infra- of “convergence”, ie., connectiv-
the context, is that a municipal- 24/7 traffic noise, deep valve closely follow their progress structure, and improve the ity and big data. Another big
ity or utility build up in-house chambers, intermittent supply, and think about how we can quality of life and the security step will be the onset of
capabilities and create special- low water pressure, significant work together (as exemplified for the population. “Internet of Things” platforms
ists for the subject in order to electric interference and noise by our collaboration with In the context of smart that will be suitable for the data
choose and implement the right (such as from air conditioners) TaKaDu). Having said this, we water management and partic- acquired underground to be
strategy that works best for any on the pipe network etc. What are believers that you can never ularly smart water loss man- directly sent to cloud process-
given water distribution net- we have been preaching for quite beat the quality of data agement Achim Hugger, our ing facilities. We are working on
work. Technology can assist in many years already is that any gathered directly at the source, CTO, has recently published a a next-generation correlating
the process, but methodology permanently installed system i.e., in close intervals directly on white paper on where we see noise sensor that will be more
and skill are still the foundation of sensors can only overcome the pipe. We have looked at the technology going so that we easily and universally deploy-
of a successful non-revenue those issues if the collected data drone technologies and we meet the criteria of Smart City. able, collect more data and be
water strategy. can be correlated automatically. think that their application for GUTERMANN has long been a much cheaper to source than
Having said this, GUTER- Noise loggers which can either our purposes (eg. collecting pioneer in developing technolo- today’s generation. The result
MANN has developed and is not correlate at all or which can sensor data) is complicated and gy that is future oriented. For will be that a broad roll-out of
marketing a product that would only correlate when manually will probably be obsolete when us, leak detection technology the technology will appeal to a
actually suit the more cost- triggered will not be able to iso- data transmission technologies has to be as automatic and real- much wider group of utilities,
aware countries and municipal- late the leak noise within the are advanced enough. The issue time as possible and remove both in terms of size and in
ities quite well, the “sea of noises” in a city environ- with satellite imaging is that the human error and ambiguity in terms of geographic location.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 31


COVER STORY

Successful Water Loss Projects Using


Hydraulic Modeling Technology
Even though there are many benefits to reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW), water loss
reduction is not a simple task.
By Bentley Systems

model was used to prepare Despite two inflows with high


pipe quantities and cost esti- pressure, network piping
mates for tender. Pre-con- couldn’t deliver enough water
struction, scenario modeling or pressure to meet customer
helped to optimize the pipe demands. Maynilad needed to
diameters and associated identify leaks and head losses
costs. Post-construction, throughout the piping net-
model calibration helped to work. Various approaches to
monitor pressure and flow in identify them had failed, so
the field. Water hammer was they needed to take a fresh
also analyzed. approach.

Project: Remote Leak De- Solution


tection through Hy- Maynilad deployed
draulic Modeling WaterGEMS to build a
Maynilad, the Philippines’ hydraulic model of the area
water service company for and calibrate it according to
western Manila, needed to the existing condition of the
improve service levels in a dis- network.
trict metered area of The model showed man-
Tinajeros in Malabon City. agement where leaks would
Network Analysis of DMAs This area, which had long most likely be located
been tagged as a problem throughout the piping net-
EVEN THOUGH THERE are percent dependency on Outcome area, serves 2,183 water serv- work, saving the maintenance
many benefits to reducing groundwater has been deplet- Installation of a bulk meter ice connections to primarily and repair team a great deal
non-revenue water (NRW), ing the water table by 2 to 3 and pressure gauge has residential customers. of time and effort – and
water loss reduction is not a meters per year. The objective enabled DWASA to remotely
simple task. of this USD 212 million project monitor pressure and flow
This article reviews how was to reduce NRW by estab- within the DMAs. Field data is
projects have successfully lishing hydraulic models with now transferred via SCADA
used a calibrated hydraulic DMAs to better monitor con- and GIS, both of which are
model in various ways, includ- ditions. integrated with WaterGEMS
ing active leakage identifica- to identify water loss. With a
tion, pressure management, Solution goal of reducing dependency
and district metered areas DWASA used Bentley’s on groundwater by 70 percent
(DMAs) management. WaterGEMS to model the and NRW by 20 percent, the
water distribution system, DMA implementation contin-
Project: Establishment of resulting in the construction ues to reduce overall opera-
District Metered Area to of an optimized pipe network tional costs. Leakages and
Improve Water Supply Sys- based on three future supply fraudulent connections are
tem scenarios: surface water only, quickly identified and
The 50-year-old Dhaka groundwater only, and con- resolved.
Water Supply and Sewerage junctive use of two sources.
Authority (DWASA) serves a The two-source option would Software
population of 12.5 million and reduce operating costs while Direct import of the GIS
manages 3,000 kilometers of maintaining water pressure database saved time in the
network services in Dhaka, and reducing water loss to creation of the digitized water
Bangladesh. The region’s 80 less than 15 percent. network. The WaterGEMS The Cause of the Leak

32 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

Billed water exported

Billed authorized Billed metered consumption Revenue


consumption water
Authorized Billed unmetered consumption
consumption
Unbilled metered consumption
Unbilled authorized
consumption Unbilled
System unmetered consumption
input
volume Unauthorized consumption
The WaterGEMS Model is Shown from Within ArcGIS Apparent losses Non-revenue
Customer meter inaccuracies water
enabling them to focus on teamed with Nihon Suido Leakage on transmission and
repairs that will significantly Consultants Co. and NJS Water distribution mains
improve customer service lev- Consultants Co. to introduce losses
Leakage and overflows at
els. DMA sectorization into the storage tanks
Real losses
existing water distribution
Leakage on service
Outcome network. The project team connections up to point of
Using WaterGEMS, the modeled and analyzed net- customer meter
calibration and simulation of work hydraulics, and identi-
the water model to identify fied opportunities to reduce Source: International Water Association (IWA) “Best Practice” Standard Water Balance
hotspots or probable leak NRW to 18 percent from the
locations, took just three days prevailing rate of 40 to 50 per- Software to WaterGEMS and similarly Bentley Systems is a soft-
- and when staff investigated, cent. The interoperability capa- from ArcGIS to WaterGEMS. ware development company
they found that the entire 6 bilities of WaterGEMS The integration of that supports the professional
linear meter area of the 200- Solution enabled the integration of the WaterGEMS and GIS also needs of those responsible for
millimeter pipe was busted Ceywater’s team used hydraulic model with an enabled the use of existing creating and managing the
longitudinally, causing the WaterGEMS in conjunction ArcGIS database. satellite images and other GIS world’s infrastructure, includ-
huge pressure drop. Once with the NWSDB’s GIS to This seamless information data for modeling purposes, ing roadways, bridges, airports,
repaired, pressures signifi- model the existing network, mobility and interoperability by minimizing the need for the skyscrapers, industrial and
cantly improved, eliminating identify optimal zones for the allowed modelers to extract costly and time-consuming power plants as well as utility
need for an immediate, costly DMAs, and pinpoint suitable data from AutoCAD drawings manual site surveys. networks.
and time-consuming total locations for new valves. GIS
pipe replacement. The leak integration with WaterGEMS
repair cost just USD 1,160, eliminated the need to feed Reducing Real Water Losses Rejuvenating Aging Infrastructure
mitigated the costly alterna- data into the network models. One-off investments in fixing leaks and Bentley’s water applications address
tives. It also allowed hydraulic mod- replacing meters are not enough; being reac- many elements of a proactive water loss plan
This success resulted in eling specialists and GIS pro- tive (when a leak is reported) is much less and help you accomplish the following:
new best practice: using a cal- fessionals to work on models efficient than being proactive - such as con- • Develop a District Metered Area (DMA)
ibrated hydraulic model to simultaneously, saving consid- tinuously identifying hidden leaks, optimiz- strategy
find hard-to-detect leaks in erable time and reduced pos- ing repair functions, and upgrading distribu- • Locate any type of water loss (leaks, water
areas with very deep sible errors. tion infrastructure before its useful life ends theft, etc.), save water, and increase rev-
pipelines. - where all the components of a water loss enues
Outcome program are coordinated to reduce overall • Design surge protection devices and
Software Demand allocation among losses. reduce pipe breakages caused by high-
The Darwin Calibrator the DMAs was based on pre- Once utilities have conducted a water pressure transients
capability of WaterGEMS vailing water consumption audit by applying the IWA Best Practice • Reduce and stabilize pressures to
played a key role in identifying rates. Low-pressure zones Water Balance Accounting System, they can decrease leakage volume
potential locations of leakages prone to water intrusion were start planning for the best ways to reduce • Evaluate the consequence of failure across
in the water model. This made recommended for pipe real losses (or water leakage) to an accept- your entire system
leak detection easier and replacement or rehabilitation. able level called the “unavoidable annual real • Select the pipe break response that will
enabled staff to prioritize The reduction of NRW will loss”. ensure minimal impact on your system
locations for further, on-site eventually improve the Engineers can improve customer service, • Identify areas to be shut down to repair
investigation. NWSDB’s revenue, reduce the reduce non-revenue water, and generate a leaks, areas that will be affected if leaks
waste of potable water, and comprehensive and proactive plan to manage are not repaired, and areas that will be
Project: Non-Revenue Wa- conserve Sri Lanka’s valued water leakage strategically. offline during repairs
ter Reduction Project for water resources. The savings Bentley’s water applications can be • Plan capital investment strategically
Colombo Municipal Area realized as a result of this applied to the IWA Best Practices, which • Make long-term plans for repair, renewal,
In this USD 400 million project will enable the combine four strategies to address the prob- and rehabilitation
project for the National Water NWSDB to address the lem and challnges of water leakage: Active • Report on leaks for an area or the entire
Supply and Drainage Board demand for water among pop- Leakage Control, Pressure Management, network
(NWSDB) in Colombo, Sri ulations that have not been Speed and Quality of Repairs, and • Manage assets using historical data for
Lanka, Ceywater Consultants served previously. Infrastructure Management. water leakage

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 33


COVER STORY

Leakage Detection Under Intermittent


Water Supply Conditions
There are many difficulties when conducting active leakage control in areas of intermittent
supply and many parameters that ought to be considered prior to starting any leakage
activities.
By Stuart Hamilton

the roof tanks. The process of similar water supply situation Conduct walk route of
ball valve installation was in as in Case Study - I but in this mains to look for any obvious
full swing, however, by the end instance, a different approach leaks from fittings, connec-
of the day the street was lit- was adopted for moving for- tions or leaks that are now
tered with taps and ball valves ward with an Active Leakage showing on the surface,
as the customers had Control (ALC) program. Conduct an acoustic sur-
removed them. The customer Instead of installing ball vey preferably with an elec-
protested that for many years valves to customer roof tanks tronic listening device but can
they were accustomed to the it was decided to manage the be completed with a tradition-
tanks overflowing and that situation in a much different al listening stick and record
was a sound indication and way and to temporarily isolate areas of interest for follow up.
they knew that the tanks were the supply to customers in Conduct a correlation sur-
full ensuring that they had order to deal with leakage in vey to check areas of interest
water. To install ball valves, the mains and service connec- and to narrow down to small-
the customers felt that they tions. To do this all customer er areas to use the listening
Intermittent Water Supply considered when dealing with wouldn’t have the usual visual service connections were device to pinpoint the position
Intermittent Water Supply leakage under IWS. indication that their tanks located and turned off on a of leaks. If a correlator is not
is a piped water supply serv- were full and this made them day that the consumers were available then the surface
ice delivering water to users Case Study - I nervous, disgruntled and not to be supplied with water. above the pipe should be lis-
for less than 24 hours in one An area in this city was on wanted to go back to the old The mains distribution sys- tened on every 1 meter listen-
day, and is used when the intermittent supply and there ways. After this leakage tem was pressurized allowing ing for the sound that would
available supply or the was a plan to move the area to detection was postponed until mains side leakage activities be transferred to the surface
hydraulic capacities of the 24x7 supply and to conduct a consumer awareness and to take place and to locate from the leak.
water supply system are not leakage detection. The area educational campaign pro-
sufficient to keep the system was supplied with water for 4 gram was introduced showing
pressurized, Intermittent hrs per day every 3 days. The the benefits of controlling
drinking water supply is com- consumers used roof tanks to water losses and the type of
mon in low and middle- store water, as is the case in control devices used to do this
income countries throughout most intermittent supply situ- as well as the benefits of tran-
the world and can cause water ations. Since the supply was sitioning from IWS to 24x7
quality to degrade within the erratic the consumers had no supply and the project contin-
distribution system making it control valves in their roof ued some months later allow-
non-potable for human con- tanks in order to ensure that ing a leakage detection to take
sumption without causing they had their water tanks full place. It is strongly recom-
some illnesses. and had a visual indication of mended that communication
There are many difficulties that by observing that the roof with consumers is of the
when conducting active leak- tank was overflowing. utmost importance and must Leak on a Service Connection Identified Through a Visual Inspection of
age control in areas of inter- As part of transitioning to take place early on in the proj- the System
mittent supply and many 24x7, it was decided that as a ect informing the consumers
parameters that ought to be first step it would be appropri- of the changes that will take leaks adopting a traditional Case Study - III
considered prior to starting ate to install ball valves in all place in the water supply approach for repair by the In this case study, the city
any leakage activities. To illus- customer roof tanks in order regime and the benefits that maintenance crews. The steps was located in an extremely
trate this set out below are to control overflows and these changes will bring. followed are set out below and hot geographical area and
some simple case studies wastage. A team of plumbers should be adopted when work- water was scarce with inter-
highlighting issues that could was sent into the area to Case Study - II ing in a system that was on mittent regime being the nor-
be experienced and should be install ball valves and taps to This case study had a very IWS and moved to 24x7: mal supply situation. The

34 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

mains and service connec- maximum apart and wait so that when full there is no
tions were in relatively good for 10 seconds. flow through the customer
condition and customer serv- • If gas was present an alarm service connection.
ice connection to each proper- was activated and the only The method of gas injec-
ty was fitted with a working way it made its way to the tion is an alternative to the
isolating valve. surface was via a hole or acoustic methods but it is
Despite the network being crack of some sort in the more costly, requires a signifi-
in a good condition conduct- water main. cant amount of gas to cover a
ing an acoustic leakage survey • Gas will permeate through system, is not readily available
was deemed to be impossible all materials including con- and requires experienced
under the intermittent supply crete. operators. Usually, this serv-
regime so the alternative of • Gas is expensive so it needs ice is provided by specialized
gas injection was used into the to be controlled entering contractors who have the
dry (empty) water mains. The the pipe and only uses the Walking the Planned Walk Route appropriate equipment, tech-
process was such that all smallest amount necessary. nology, and know-how.
property connections were • Gas can be injected into a the leak to be located via walk-route The alternative of visual
turned off and areas of the wet main and use the water acoustic methods. This was an • Walk the main checking for leakage activity requires no
system under test were as the carrier of the gas to extreme and difficult exercise any visual leaks experience and no technology
enclosed to control the area of the leak or if in a dry main but did allow the leak to be • Check all household con- and is probably always the
the network worked in. Gas then a compressor can be located with success. In areas nections checking for leaks first approach to be adopted
with a very low level of used to mix the gas with air of the system that has not up to the meter of boundary and should only be carried out
Hydrogen (welding gas could - using gas alone would take been moved to 24x7, this • Check the household for when the water is turned on
be used) was injected along large quantities. approach can be used if there any internal leaks present as described in Case Study - V
with air from a compressor • There is no restriction on is not sufficient water for • Record all findings on a above.
and the process to find leaks the size of the pipe or mate- ALC. The main priority is to sheet and present for repair
using this method was con- rial when using gas. control the area, bring it down or to be dealt with using the
ducted. The methodology • The process was successful to a street level if possible, and company procedure
used as follows: in finding several leaks how- not to try to use this approach
• The area to check for leaks ever it was not suggested in an open system. Conclusion
was isolated to a length of that this would find every It should be understood
pipe that could be managed. leak. This is a successful Case Study - V that when conducting leakage
• The service connections method of finding leaks in a The pressure in this city activities in intermittent sup-
were isolated. dry system. was low and the system was plies using acoustic methods
• The gas was injected into relatively old with very few it is imperative that the sys-
the main via an existing Case Study - IV house connections visible. It tem must have some pressure
connection such as a fire The city was supplied by a was decided that a visual leak- and the higher the better. For
hydrant or through a serv- very low-pressure system, less age survey should be conduct- mains that are shallow, a
ice connection. than 5m pressure, and it was ed in the first instance. The lower pressure of 5 meters
• A fitting at the end of the practically impossible to visual survey was conducted will be sufficient to show
pipe was opened and a ‘gas locate leaks with acoustic during the time that the net- water on the surface in many
sniffer’ device was held over methods. What was tried with work was supplied with water instances but on mains that
the opened fitting to regis- success in these areas was to and relatively pressurized. are deep and are buried at
ter gas presence. locate areas of leakage using a This simple method identified least 1 meter deep then a pres-
• The fitting was closed when step test locating the street numerous leaks from mains sure of at leaks 10 meters is
gas presence was registered that had the problem and then and service connections as desirable. This pressure will
by the “gas sniffer” device isolate the street from the sys- well as leakage from open pipe let the energy from the leak
indicating that the main tem. With the use of a tanker ends. On average it was calcu- point along the pipeline trans-
was full of gas. lorry pump water into the lated that a leak was located mit to the receiving acoustic About the Author
• The ‘sniffer’ was placed on street via a fire hydrant to at every 100m of main pipes. equipment. All property serv- Stuart Hamilton has over
the ground every 1-meter pressurize the street to enable It is highly recommended that ice connections must be 35 years of experience in water
this procedure, visual survey turned off or stop drawing loss control and water manage-
of the network, is adopted in water into the property other- ment. Stuart is the Managing
most cases as a first step wise it would interfere with Director of Hydro Tec, a leading
before climbing the ladder of the acoustic process indica- water management organiza-
leakage identification and tion showing that each prop- tion providing consultancy serv-
location prior to the introduc- erty has a potential leak on it ices to water utilities and pri-
tion of any technology. and would have to be investi- vate business sectors globally.
This procedure is simple, gated hence causing ‘Active He is an expert in advanced
inexpensive and can be con- Leakage Control’ to be a long water management control
ducted with limited training and non-productive process. approaches and specialist tech-
and will identify many leaks. The water supply has to be in niques in acoustic technology.
The process of work is: the system long enough to fill Stuart has managed large water
• Identify area that has water all customers tanks and each loss management projects and
and is pressurized tank has to be controlled via a resources throughout the world
• Identify a map and plan a ball valve or other mechanism in 30 different countries.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 35


COVER STORY

We Are Busy Creating The Future Of Digital


Water Supply
Suneel Bhambere is the Director, Kamstrup - India Operations. He has over 24 years of
experience heading various business functions of sales, marketing, and operations of several
companies in automation and instrumentation industry. He has been the country manager of
Kamstrup Indian operations for seven years. Here, he discusses the problems of non-revenue
water, solutions for water loss, and their recent big-ticket projects with Mayur Sharma.

results in large volumes of a potential need for expanding


water being lost. It is a chal- the capacity.
lenge faced by the majority of A key challenge in water
water utilities because of delivery is the high rate of
increased urbanization, high- Non-Revenue Water (NRW)
er demand, increased prices among utilities across the
and ageing distribution net- world. Approximately 28 per
works. India records one of cent of water is lost to unde-
the highest percentage of non- tected leaks in water infra-
revenue water across the structure, failure to accurate-
globe. The most common rea- ly meter usage and in some
sons observed for such high cases theft. Hence, it is neces-
levels of water loss are bursts sary to prioritize the work in
due to pressure surges, inac- preventing water loss. This
curate meter readings, and can be done by categorizing
leaks or burst resulting from a the losses in the distribution
high pressure, ageing infra- mains so that municipalities the product and services burst, reverse flow detection
Water Loss/NRW is an im- structure, illegal connections can assess the methods that portfolio of your company and tamper notification.
portant issue throughout to the network, theft, etc. This can be used, and determine which help fixing the water Longevity of the meter (up to
the global water sector. can lead to larger impact like which initiatives can be put losses. Which are the new 16 years battery life) along
What are your views on it? loss of earnings and higher into place to fight water loss launches that you have with minimum operating
Mr. Bhambere: Non- operational costs, leaks neces- as effectively as possible. come up with recently? costs ensures the most cost-
Revenue Water is a well- sitate expensive reparations Mr. Bhambere: Kamstrup effective solution as compared
known global problem that of the infrastructure as well as Please shed some light on offers a full product portfolio to any other metering solution
enabling water utility’s core in the market. Furthermore,
tasks in fighting water loss our meter reading system,
while securing the highest READy - a unique solution for
level of control, efficiency, and utilities for reading meters
flexibility on the ground. We remotely can easily be adjust-
consistently create innovative ed to meet different needs and
solutions encompassing of expand with the change in
product ranges of hardware, need. Regardless of whether
software, and services, includ- you choose a solution for read-
ing; consumption meters, ing via mobile or network, the
communication infrastruc- handling of your meters and
ture, meter data management meter data takes place in the
systems, smart grid applica- PC program, READy
tions, hosted solutions and Manager.
tools for data analysis. Kamstrup has recently
Combining newest ultra- launched a new analysis plat-
sonic technology with remote form that will assist the water
reading, FlowIQ®2101 our utility sector to better control
household water meter allows their distribution network and
measurement for precise effectively intervene to stop
According to the World Bank, Globally, the Level of Non-Revenue Water is Between 30 and 35%. In Some accuracy, flow monitoring and water loss and unforeseen
Areas, it is As High As 50-60% (Image Source: IBNET, GWI, Frost & Sullivan) smart alarms for the leak, incidents in their supply

36 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

installed base of over 20,000


meters in cities, metros,
towns, and villages, we proud-
ly take credit for generating
awareness on the importance
of smart water metering in
revenue management and
reducing non-revenue water.
A remarkable example of
Kamstrup’ s smart metering
application is Kapil Gram
Panchayat, near Kolhapur in
Maharashtra where installa-
tion of around 450 ultrasonic
AMR meters is helping the
consumers of entire village
experience tangible improve-
ments in their daily life.
processes. The first two prod- MID approval. The factory “During bulk supply, con-
ucts targeting water works has the highest certification sumers had to wait from 6 AM
are called Incidents and within the environmental till night, not knowing when
Water Intelligence. The safety and quality like ISO the water will come or how Maintenance. Kamstrup’s with working meters.
municipal administration will 9001, ISO 14001, and OHSAS much there will be. This has smart meters have vastly Erroneous meter readings
now be able to substantially 18001, Information Security been always unknown. Now aided the council to under- were recorded in mechanical
increase the value of collected certification: ISO/IEC 27001 consumers don’t need to store stand the difference in water meters due to low-pressure
meter data, as the data will and Accredited calibration their water and don’t need to consumption of residential flow and no flow durations. On
now be automatically organ- laboratories: ISO 17025. waste water,’’ says Mr. K. R. and commercial consumers the contrary, Kamstrup
ized, visualized and analyzed - Otari, Sub Div. Engineer at and highlight stark variations meters presented pinpoint
with only a few clicks. Hence, What were the achieve- Maharashtra state water sup- in consumption during peak accuracy and delivered
giving a precise overview of ments of Kamstrup in ply. The water meters log and non-peak hours. This will insights into untapped and
water waste and leaks in the 2017-18? How has the com- daily consumption data and help municipality bill their inequitable consumption in
grid system. The engineers pany grown? events such as leak, tamper consumers suitably without
and technicians will be able to Mr. Bhambere: Kamstrup and reverse flow for 460 days compromising on its revenue
monitor developments in their is the pioneer to bring static and monthly data for 36 and reduce any water loss.
pipelines zone-wise and auto- metering technology in the months. Kapil is one of its The benefits of minimal oper-
matically receive alarms water sector in India for mass kind 24X7 water supply ations and maintenance are
about technical incidents or application. We started our scheme in India running from anticipated once their billing
irregularities for timely trou- journey in the market domi- last 4 year and has set exam- system is up and running in Non-Revenue
bleshooting. nated by mechanical meters ples for sustainable develop- April 2018.
and least consideration for ment not only for villages but
Water is the
Kamstrup is known around water loss at domestic level. for cities too. Tell us about some of the difference between
the world for its auto- There has been a recent most interesting water produced water
mated production development in the demand What are some of Kam- loss related projects that
processes. Tell us more for digital solutions that can strup’s major orders won you have participated in. and billed water.
about it. How does it re- help municipalities manage in last two years? What conditions and chal- For utilities, finding
flect in high precision the water loss to the last mile Mr. Bhambere: In the past lenges did you encounter?
rates of meters? and improve their operations 2 years, we have seen a surge Mr. Bhambere: This one is the source of water
Mr. Bhambere: To main- and maintenance. With an in the tenders released on very interesting and close to loss can be like
tain quality throughout our Static metering and our heart as it was one of the
delivery process, we have a Ultrasonic water meters. first projects we did for any looking for a needle
state-of-the-art fully automat- Though it does not account for Smart Cities. Last year, we in a haystack due to
ic production unit at our any wins, we definitely consid- were invited to assess NRW in
Headquarter in Denmark. er it as a success in shaping Udaipur walled city where we the limited
Robots operate the modern the market and its evolution conducted a comparison knowledge of what
factory and human effort is for digital and smart solu- study between the perform-
limited to administration and tions. ance of existing mechanical is actually going on
management only. This helps One of the feathers in our meters for commercial con- in the distribution
minimize any faults and offers cap has been the Shirpur nections against Kamstrup’ s
precision and consistency in Warwade municipal council in ultrasonic smart water network.
our production. Hence, we can Maharashtra where 12000 meters. The study identified
be sure that the Kamstrup flowIQ® 2101 meters are being many of the existing meters the area. The flexible mount-
meter anywhere in the world installed in the entire city. The (mechanical) that were in ing of our smart meters was a
is of the same quality and council opted for a drive-by non-working conditions and game changer since mechani-
offers utmost reliability. All meter reading system with 10 an average NRW of 31% was cal meters can only be
Kamstrup meters come with years of Operations & observed in the connections installed horizontally.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 37


COVER STORY

Furthermore, the remote Finally, what are your


reading system with a drive- growth and expansion
by solution (AMR) provided plans for the next 5 years?
data from inaccessible meter Mr. Bhambere: Our vision
sites. Since manual readings is to be the world’s leading
were not possible to conduct, supplier of intelligent meter-
it was always marked as lost ing solutions for energy and
revenue earlier. water consumption. In our
As a result, Udaipur Smart endeavor of developing and
City included the report in delivering more intelligent,
their DPR and released a ten- reliable and cost-effective
der requesting proposal for ways to measure and manage
installation of ultrasonic the supply of energy and
smart water meters for the water, we will continue invest-
commercial connections in ing in research and develop-
the walled city. ment and innovation. Our
approach to cultivating holis-
Any suggestions to help tic solutions in smart water
water utilities and munici- management has enabled us
pal agencies address non- to launch our own analytics
revenue-water effectively platform that provides water
and at relatively low cost? intelligence and incident man-
Mr. Bhambere: Non- agement. We plan to build on
Revenue Water is the differ- this portfolio with avenues
ence between produced water like pressure management,
and billed water. For utilities, and resolve field issues. Data maintenance issues etc. There gies and accuracy. Most of the temperature sensors, smart
finding the source of water is delivered automatically or is a need for smart solutions Smart Cities have put the valves etc.
loss can be like looking for a via drive-by reading and pro- and intelligent water net- impetus on water conserva- Software as a service
needle in a haystack due to vides the necessary overview works to manage water con- tion and NRW reduction. (SaaS) is already an integral
the limited knowledge of what to find unexpected sources of sumption. Metering itself does not part of Kamstrup’s offerings.
is actually going on in the dis- water loss. The adaptation of static resolve the NRW issue, but Data hosting, server mainte-
tribution network. It is essential for water metering is gaining momen- smart metering provides the nance, system updates, and
With smart metering, it utilities and municipal agen- tum and we are seeing more municipalities with a real- back-ups etc. do not necessar-
becomes so much easier and cies to perceive smart meter- and more utilities accepting time view of their mains, ily need to be part of a munic-
efficient for them to get access ing as the futuristic invest- the outcomes of using ultra- enabling them to make well- ipality’s key competencies. If
to the right knowledge at the ment in helping them improve sonic technology. It is expect- informed decisions about the necessary, data is made avail-
right time. The utilities not revenue management, ed that smart metering will most efficient way of working. able in a cloud-based environ-
only get information about the increase operational efficien- become an integral part of At Kamstrup, we define ment, the municipality can
operational status of the cy and asset management, water management system success by the progress we focus on what they do best:
mains, but it lights up the dis- thereby reaping benefits in and Kamstrup will be at the create for others. Our indus- ensuring that their customers
tribution network making it the long run in terms of cost forefront in delivering innova- try knowledge and holistic have access to safe and clean
transparent, allowing them to reduction and better service tive and intelligent solutions. approach to working with water and that they are fairly
localize different kinds of non- quality. multiple stakeholders not only billed based on their con-
revenue water and reduce Kamstrup was a part of the brings in a larger perspective sumption. We can make life
water loss. They can optimize How do you see the future Danish Business Delega- but also enables us to serve easier for the water supply
their leakage localization and of smart metering solu- tion last year, to support utilities with innovative and departments by safely hosting
prioritize where to take action tions in India? the agenda of building long-lasting solutions. We are data in our cloud. Our cus-
based on knowledge instead of Mr. Bhambere: In a report smart and liveable cities in seen as a trusted partner with tomers who use this option
theoretical models and released by Northeast Group, India. What would you like contractors and project man- have yearly subscriptions to
assumptions. The savings the global water metering the Heads and CEOs of agement consultants and are software for meter data man-
come in the form of identify- market is expected to grow Smart Cities Projects to always eager to offer support agement, data analytics, and
ing leakages inside homes, from $3.7 bn in 2016 to $7.5 bn know about Kamstrup? and expertise in smart water end-user (consumer) tools.
incorrect manual meter read- by 2026. The research firm Mr. Bhambere: India is management. Kamstrup con- In the past 2 years, we have
ings, theft, inaccurate notes that through modern- the biggest consumption mar- tinues to invest heavily in been actively engaged with
mechanical meters and ization efforts, including the ket where energy conserva- product development and various smart cities in devel-
unmetered water use. deployment of smart water tion and water management innovation and we are proud oping best practices and gain-
Kamstrup smart meters metering, communications are the key challenges for the of being the only smart meter- ing insights into their water
accurately measure consump- and software can reduce the government. Accounting for ing company producing digital management. We continue to
tion along with the notifica- amount of water lost. In India, over 18 percent of world popu- solutions exclusively for more do so in a phased manner and
tions for any unforeseen we have seen mechanical lation, India seems to be on than 25 years. Therefore, aim to be their partner for
events like leak or burst, meters used in households for the verge of a serious water smart cities can trust our intelligent water delivery solu-
thereby enabling water supply a very long time, which have crisis in the coming years, as deep customer understanding tions. At Kamstrup, we do not
departments to be proactive many shortcomings like, inac- too much water is lost to across the globe, superior just talk about the future of
before any damage occurs and curacy, early wear & tear, air leaks. Managing consumption quality and reliability in our digital water supply. We are
quickly identify, troubleshoot measurement, tampering, requires effective methodolo- solutions. busy creating it.

38 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

Water Loss: Smart Water Network Case Studies


By converting raw data into knowledge, TaKaDu provides visibility and actionable insights for
increased operational efficiency and water loss reduction.
By TaKaDu

Case: Unitywater’s all network visibility and effi- high level of visibility and be noted that following the identified thereby reducing
Journey to Become a ciency, reduce water loss and focus, not just looking for trial, the System Loss team certain types of leaks and
Smart Water Network save energy costs, Unitywater leaks but also for other types created an additional 90 breaks.
Unitywater and TaKaDu established a dedicated team of asset failures (telemetry, DMAs within 12 months. In addition, the system
have been working together to manage a 12-month trial. meters, etc.). We used the There was a clear value in planners were able to better
since June 2013 when Following this successful macro information we were measuring more areas. develop new areas and imple-
Unitywater commenced a trial, Unitywater deployed gaining to understand the During the trial, weekly ment solutions in existing
long-term engagement with TaKaDu throughout its net- types of assets which were meetings between Unitywater areas to reduce asset failure
TaKaDu to improve network work in July 2014. causing the leaks, the water and Jacobs were held to dis- frequency.
visibility and efficiency, reduc- pressure we were providing in cuss project status, issues, Unitywater started to
ing costs and water losses, People certain areas, and the overall deliverables, and reports to monitor and analyze TaKaDu
and improving customer serv- A new team was estab- impact on the operation. We management. on a daily basis. The process,
ice. lished to act as a central dis- could understand what is These meetings were also which continues today, includ-
Since then, Unitywater has patch desk for all network important and not just what is used to explore proactively ed:
been recognized as an indus- events detected by the urgent, across all types of how the information generat- • 5-days a week monitoring of
try leader in innovation and TaKaDu system. Adrian Bird problems.” ed by TaKaDu and being the events detected by the
technology. This case study was appointed by Unitywater As part of the implementa- processed by the central team software
discusses the PPT (People, as a System Loss Engineer to tion, Unitywater also recruit- could be used by the repair • An initial analysis under-
Processes, and Technology) oversee the new team. This ed additional field staff to teams in a timely manner. taken of every event:
strategy involved in the team, which would work respond faster to network Later in the process, the team - Receiving the initial event
TaKaDu implementation and alongside existing field crews, events detected by TaKaDu also explored how it could and reviewing it against
the resulting benefits to received training from and handled by their central improve processes and impact work orders and known
Unitywater’s network per- TaKaDu and its local partner, team. positively on other areas of events
formance and operations. Jacobs. the organization, such as asset - Monitoring the event for a
Towards the end of the Processes management. short period to confirm an
Business Need trial, a cross-departmental The initial task was to With a larger team dedi- actual event occurred, not
In 2013, Unitywater was NRW Working Group was establish 25 DMAs, with a tar- cated to TaKaDu, Unitywater a short-term usage event
recording significant non-rev- formed comprising of person- get of increasing the number was able to investigate and • Categorising actionable
enue water (NRW) loss. nel from a diverse range of to 40 within a month. deal more quickly with net- events, providing suggested
The manual process of business units within the The System Loss team work events. The team evalu- actions, and transmitting
identifying leaks using organization, from retail and ensured that the TaKaDu ated equipment, assets and advice to management for
acoustic sounding systems asset management through to event management system future planning relating to consideration
was proving slow and ineffi- planning and maintenance obtained data from the appro- water flows, pressure and • Updating system events
cient. The compounding crews. priate data points inside the break events. For example, with actions taken
issues were that the areas Working group members network, such as flow meters appropriate water pressure • Monitoring changes in the
covered were too large, there quickly recognized that and pressure gauges. It should levels in specific areas were event and providing
were not enough district TaKaDu’s event management
metered areas (DMAs) and offered more than simply leak
there were too few meters detection. TaKaDu provided a
monitoring the system. Faulty focal point to collect data not
asset repairs were also taking only on the performance of
too long and it was hard for the network but also on other
maintenance teams to locate areas of the business.
hidden leaks. The working group, which
Unitywater identified a continues to meet monthly,
business need for a compre- began to look at proactive
hensive technological solution ways to reduce asset failure
and consequently evaluated rates and identify areas with
TaKaDu’s Integrated Event high unmetered consumption
Management system, an IoT i.e. areas with fairly high NRW
cloud-based software solution which hadn’t been billed.
using big data analytics. Adrian Bird explained,
With aims to improve over- “TaKaDu gave the business a TaKaDu - Management Dashboard

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 39


COVER STORY

updates, as required used to transfer data to pare network performance on benefit analysis, working serves as an efficient manage-
• Closing events that were no TaKaDu: cloud-based data an area basis, so that events closely with asset manage- ment and information system
longer active logging systems and graphical could be prioritized per area ment colleagues. This analysis for gathering and disseminat-
• Providing monthly report- information systems (GIS) in against specific indicators, enabled Unitywater’s asset ing data, improving business
ing to management on: order to map the DMAs and such as nightline, technical managers to examine the rela- processes and procedures and
- Outcomes of actioned infrastructure locations. The efficiency etc. They could also tionship between asset fail- reducing operational costs.
events data logging system recorded be customized with specific ures and NRW loss, based on Adrian Bird continued,
- Savings in non-revenue the average flow/pressure area characteristics. the types and age of assets. “With the knowledge generat-
water every minute and transferred Based on automated statis- Recording and analyzing ed by TaKaDu, we can better
- Asset failures the data to TaKaDu on an tical algorithms, TaKaDu’s TaKaDu events also helped to understand our network oper-
• Providing detailed quarter- hourly basis. software generated flexible build a more intelligent busi- ations, planning and service
ly reporting on: Other sources of raw data reports, based on event han- ness system. The cost savings levels. We’ve also worked with
- System findings: data included water quality sen- dling by status, locations, type delivered by the TaKaDu sys- TaKaDu to introduce new fea-
availability, number of sors, reservoir levels, and etc., as well as anomaly and tem prompted a decision to tures in the system to give us
events and type, water PRVs (pressure reducing patterns detection, historic fully implement the system the results we required, for
balance reported by DMA valves). and network-based predic- across the entire network example, an automated water
and by region. These were We believe that, over the tions, and more. over the next two years. balance software. It originally
tailored to report any next few years, the amount of The Management took five working days to
other items noted by the raw data will dramatically Dashboard enabled the team Full Implementation work out the amount of water
system that were not leak- increase as the price of sen- to zoom in and out of areas of Following full TaKaDu going in vs the water being
age related but showed sors goes down as well as the interest and the managers to implementation, there was an billed, we can now see it at a
system anomalies, communication layers. track and report the net- immediate, high volume, touch of a button.”
- Resolutions: summary There will be more data, work’s performance easily. reduction in NRW loss. The “TaKaDu’s system has
paragraph, supported by from more measuring points, more areas that were moni- helped us achieve $16 million
charts and graphs that in a higher measuring fre- Results tored, the greater the results. in savings from hidden
demonstrated actions and quency. 12-Month Trial Unitywater was able to reduce (underground) leaks and pre-
benefits of the implemen- On 1 November 2013, all 40 its reactive maintenance, vented 6.5 billion liters of
tation. Tailored for man- Analytics DMAs were operational, one break and leak events, NRW water loss based on an annu-
agement requirements. TaKaDu’s solution offered week earlier than planned. As loss, and asset failure while alized calculation,” Adrian
in-depth visibility and quick an example of TaKaDu’s also gaining improvements in said.
This process remains cen- insights into types of events, immediate impact, the first pressure management. “There has also been a 60%
tral to the day-to-day opera- such as pressure/flow trends, alert received led to the dis- Collaboration across improvement in reactive
tions and the way Unitywater faulty assets, hidden leakage, covery of a pipe on a property departments through the response times to leak, break
handles incidents in its net- supply interruptions, repair that had potentially been leak- NRW Working Group has and pressure faults in the
work, leveraging the ‘real verification, water quality ing for more than two years. impacted the whole organiza- water supply network. The
time’ visibility provided by issues and early warning of The economic and the tion in previously unexpected system has learned how our
TaKaDu and its event man- anomalies. Events were auto- engineering benefits of the ways. network operates and has
agement features. matically supplemented with TaKaDu trial were instantly Billing data can now be helped us avoid major water
the start time, type, magni- realized. As an added advan- compared with NRW ensur- outages, identify the cause of
Technology tude, water loss, during, and tage, the longer the data was ing that properties are cor- dirty water complaints, identi-
Data end-time. Each event was pri- in the TaKaDu system, the rectly metered and billing is fy pump faults that cause
There was a need to collect oritized and assigned an event more accurate the alerts. accurate. bursts before they happen and
raw data in real-time and in a owner. Towards the end of the Importantly, TaKaDu has track the status of events
higher resolution. The Areas View allowed trial, Unitywater’s System helped to improve customer from start to finish.”
Two main systems were the team to visualize and com- Loss team conducted a cost- service. Contact center staff
can respond to customer Next Steps
inquiries and issues about By combining the PPT -
water supply and water pres- People, Processes,
sure with greater ease and Technology - strategy,
accuracy. TaKaDu has also Unitywater was able to suc-
helped to reduce reactive cessfully optimize its network
maintenance call outs and efficiency, reduce its costs and
enabled a faster crew improve its customer service.
response time to issues. In Unitywater and TaKaDu
addition, TaKaDu has posi- are now collaborating to offer
tively affected capital expen- TaKaDu’s IoT cloud-based
diture programmes, allowing solution to other water utili-
Unitywater to achieve a better ties across Queensland. This
return on investment and offer provides network moni-
defer unnecessary expendi- toring, leak detection, and net-
ture. work prediction services to
TaKaDu now covers small water utilities (those
around 90% of Unitywater’s with less than 2000 km of the
network. With its multi- pipeline). These smaller utili-
TaKaDu - Event Management dimensional impact, TaKaDu ties are able to leverage the

40 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

benefits of Unitywater’s size where the entire water distri- achieve goals broader than use,” said Ted Tyree, the hardware configurations,
and familiarity with TaKaDu bution data is stored. As a total water loss. Engineer, Water Systems solidified KUB’s implementa-
by adding their service area to result, KUB is generating a • Share network perform- Engineering at KUB. “Almost tion of the DMAs.
Unitywater’s TaKaDu system. huge amount of data that pro- ance data between co-work- immediately, our engineers Before TaKaDu, KUB engi-
The offer also promotes col- vides the performance signa- ers and other work groups. could ‘see’ the water distribu- neers had to talk to data
laboration across Queensland ture of the network base on tion network and understand experts to access SCADA
water utilities, a key objective individual sensor readings The TaKaDu Event Manage- where potential problems data.
of the Queensland Water over hours, days, and months ment Solution exist, the type, and the magni- TaKaDu has made the data
Directorate. of continuous monitoring. KUB tapped TaKaDu tude. With that snapshot, we accessible to staff throughout
Analyzing the sensor data through Matchpoint to meet could easily determine KUB directly to see events,
Case Study: Leverag- can identify network perform- its system management objec- whether to monitor or act on view comments from others,
ing Water Network ance anomalies, specifically tives and harness the vast each one.” and share information across
Data for System Man- levels of water loss. KUB’s data volumes to present Managing the water net- work shifts. Users can access
agement Prioritiza- basis for implementing the KUB’s system performance work operations, fixing leaks, the system directly and not
tion system was to evaluate areas characteristics in meaningful and engineering network have to physically talk to peo-
Knoxville Utilities Board of water loss through DMA ways. TaKaDu uses IoT cloud- changes had historically been ple to understand the current
(KUB) is an independent level analysis and prioritize based technology that pro- accomplished with basic net- event and system perform-
agency of the US City of leak detection and repair. vides an event management work information and a set of ance characteristics (although
Knoxville, Tennessee, provid- With a few DMAs and sen- solution, and Matchpoint is assumptions. A welcome reve- the direct discussions will
ing electric, natural gas, sors, KUB could process the one of TaKaDu’s distributors lation was the significant continue and remain valu-
water, and wastewater servic- data using spreadsheets to in the North American region. insights provided by TaKaDu, able).
es to more than 453,000 cus- evaluate the sensor data and As a big data solution, which helped quickly to clari- TaKaDu events enable
tomers in Knoxville and parts DMA performance. As 102 TaKaDu’s event management fy issues and characteristics KUB engineers to drill down
of seven surrounding coun- sensors incrementally came capabilities consume and ana- of specific areas of the system. and associate network per-
ties. online, however, evaluating lyze the sensor and meter Tyree continued, “It formance data and to identify
KUB's water system has the growing data became data with advanced analytics became evident that water the root causes of issues and
experienced 30 percent to 35 much more difficult. to automatically detect, ana- engineering required a data how to act on them. The event
percent non-revenue water lyze and manage various types management and analysis management tools allow KUB
over the past 10 years; hard- The Need for Data Analyt- of water network events. solution. TaKaDu’s solution is to define an action, priorities
to-find underground leaks are ics Events include leaks, bursts, based on data science; its and assign them to teams so
the big culprit. Reducing leaks KUB identified objectives pressure transients, faulty engineers and system deploy- that we are working on the top
improves customer service, and expectations for using assets, and telemetry network ment specialists are data priority items without losing
increases operational efficien- data to manage water loss and integrity. TaKaDu evaluates experts bringing skills to KUB track of less important events.
cy, reduces expenses for overall system performance. all sensor data over months of that enable our engineers to KUB also has a better under-
chemicals and power, and has • Highest cost water loss readings to identify events by have much greater insight standing of event lifecycles
other benefits. management approach is correlating data from multiple into the water system.” where pipe leaks may
pipe replacement. KUB sensors and DMAs along with progress to busts through
Background - Addressing decided to use a data ana- SCADA production data. Benefits & Results progressive leaking or pres-
Water Loss lytics strategy to gain Event detection is an auto- “They committed to sure increases.
In a water loss reduction greater insights into areas matic process. deployment within eight “This data-driven insight
initiative, KUB invested in the and alternative methods for An event is characterized weeks, providing configura- will help us proactively reduce
implementation of District water loss reduction. by its type, its size, and trends; tion, training, and ongoing emergency events that we
Metered Areas (DMAs) work- • Comparison of DMAs to TaKaDu’s data solution auto- support for KUB to ensure the previously had no forewarning
ing with Matchpoint Water find DMAs that have high matically identifies correla- full range of the TaKaDu solu- of, added Tyree. “It’s surpris-
Asset Management Inc. water loss to best manage tions with other events, such tion is understood and ing how quickly KUB has
(Matchpoint), a water system leakage. as main break or pressure applied. With the system begun to rely on data for its
management firm. • Focus leak detection and drop. deployed in eight weeks, system management. Our
KUB engaged Matchpoint reduction on a few DMAs to Event notification is auto- immediately we could see how motivation for using TaKaDu
in a 3-year agreement to man- drive water loss down. matically sent to KUB person- our 102 sensors, meters, and is for overall optimization of
age supply, implementation, • Prior efforts tended to stop nel based on their roles and SCADA devices were per- the water network and our
and maintenance of KUB’s the rising leaks, but not responsibilities. Events are forming. This simple view of staff resources. It is far
DMA’s assets. DMAs parti- reduce the total level of relevant and actionable for our data stream allowed our beyond water loss manage-
tioned the water network into leaks. The goal was to sys- KUB because of their discrete team to identify a variety of ment.”
44 small areas serving no tematically drive the leak classification and characteris- telemetry and sensor installa- TaKaDu is a global soft-
more than 3,000 customers, levels downward through tics. Using TaKaDu’s solution, tion issues that then became a ware provider of Integrated
making it easier to find the detection, repair, and other KUB reviews the event loca- primary focus for completing Event Management solutions
leaks. Matchpoint installed a management methods. tions, magnitude and trends our DMA buildout,” said for the water industry.
total of 102 pressure sensors • Use of complete water cost to prioritize, monitor and Tyree. Its automated cloud-based
and flow meters to monitor by DMA to help prioritize resolve the events. Furthermore, TaKaDu service enables utilities to
the network within each zones including the basic “TaKaDu’s event manage- determined where DMAs, detect, analyze and manage
DMA. water production, energy, ment paradigm has trans- meters, and sensors were not network events and incidents
Flow and pressure sensors communication, engineer- formed the flood of incompre- associated properly or where such as leaks, bursts, faulty
record measurements every ing, operations costs. hensible data into meaningful DMAs were not, in fact, closed assets, telemetry and data
15 minutes and transmit the Complete water costs could information that the KUB areas. Addressing these issues, operational failures,
data daily to a central server help with priority setting to organization can effectively TaKaDu findings, along with etc.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 41


COVER STORY

Non-Revenue Water Needs to be Understood


to be Recognized as a Serious Global Issue
Gary Wyeth is the SE Asia Regional Manager for Singer, a Mueller brand. Gary has 26 years of
experience in the water industry, primarily in South-East Asia. He is a member of the
Chartered Institution of Water & Environmental Management and the IWA Water Loss
Specialist Group. Here, he discusses the significance of water loss and NRW as a global issue
with Mayur Sharma.

What is NRW? Please de- answer to why controlling result in a reduction of water important to control? International Water
fine it for our readers. NRW levels is important, is being treated. Mr. Wyeth: All compo- Association (IWA).
Mr. Wyeth: Non-Revenue that it will improve the finan- • Distribution leakage nents have an effect on the Whoever undertakes the
Water (NRW) in its simplest cial status of the water utility • Reservoir overflows level of NRW and the magni- NRW audit needs to have a
form can be defined by the fol- by increasing revenues from • Trunk main leakage tude of each component can complete understanding of
lowing formula: improved billing and reducing • Leakage on customer con- be different for each water the different components of
NRW = Total Volume of expenditure from lower treat- nections (Up to the meter) utility. It is therefore impor- NRW so that they can visit all
Treated Water - Total Volume ment volumes and less leak & the required departments
of Sold Water pipe burst repairs. within the water utility and
Essentially it is the volume However, there are many ask the correct questions.
of water that the water utility other benefits including: They also need to be impartial
spends money on treating and • Reduction in illegal connec- and willing to ask tough ques-
distributing that is not paid tions or faulty meters creat- tions and report their findings
for by billed customers. The ing greater fairness truthfully, often directly to the
NRW level of a water utility is between customers. senior management in the
therefore often used as an • More efficient operation, utility. For this reason, water
indicator of efficiency-per- fewer disruptions, means utilities usually hire an inde-
formance of the utility as a improved customer service; pendent consultant to come in
whole. improved cash flow can lead and review their existing
In 2006, the World Bank to further investments in NRW management activities
reported that more than 32 improving operational sys- and to produce a detailed
Billion m3 of treated water tems and assets. report, which will be more
was lost globally through dis- • Water is a precious honest and open on what is
tribution system leakage and resource necessary for the currently being undertaken
a further 16 Billion m3 was survival of all living things and accomplished.
delivered to customers but and with less than 1% of Although the magnitude of
not billed. Based on these water on earth being fresh each component of NRW will
numbers a conservative esti- and usable, we cannot be vary from water utility to
mate of the annual cost of wasteful. water utility, it is important to
water lost is US$ 14 Billion. In addition, many water look at all components when
This problem of excessive utilities are public listed com- developing a company-wide
water loss has continued to panies and improvements in NRW management program.
grow, as water utilities contin- NRW can mean an increase in These holistic NRW manage-
ue to allow aging infrastruc- stock prices and thus ment programs will help to
tures to age further, often due increased company value. reduce the physical losses,
to a lack of funding in infra- whilst at the same time identi-
structure rehabilitation, and What are the different fy commercial loss issues.
as greater customer demands components of NRW? Commercial Losses: tant to ascertain the level of Often the commercial loss
increase the stress on the Mr. Wyeth: NRW is divid- Where the loss is due to a each component by undertak- component is significantly
already overloaded pipe net- ed into many different compo- measurement error. ing an NRW audit. less than the physical loss
works. nents, but these can be • Production meter errors This NRW audit will result component, due to aging pipes
grouped into two main com- • Customer meter errors in a simple table that will iden- and assets, which are left in
Why is controlling NRW an ponents. • Illegal or unmeasured use tify the level of NRW within place well past their lifespan.
important aspect of any Physical Losses: Where • Billing errors each component of NRW. An Having said this, it is impor-
water utility? water is physically lost and example is the one shown tant to tackle the commercial
Mr. Wyeth: The obvious fixing these issues would Which component is more below developed by the loss components, no matter

42 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

ponent. This will enable the water util-


ity to determine which components to
tackle first and which would give the
best results financially and on the
NRW level itself.
It is also important to develop an It is also important to
understanding of the economic level of
NRW within the water utility itself. develop an
This, in a simplistic way, is balancing understanding of the
the cost of managing NRW to the cost
of the NRW losses. You don’t want to economic level of NRW
be spending more than you will save within the water utility
and you don’t want to lose more than
how small the component, as resolving trolled. you are spending. So, it is a case of itself.This, in a simplistic
these will have a direct impact on the Some utilities are even using timer looking at both costs and figuring out way, is balancing the
income of the water utility and thus systems with multiple pilots to set where each water utility’s NRW eco-
increase its financial capability to multiple pressure settings throughout nomic balance point is. This economic
cost of managing NRW
tackle the physical loss components. a 24-hour period. Singer Valve has level will depend on water tariffs, to the cost of the NRW
developed a new mechanical version of chemical costs, staff costs, equipment
How can control valves assist in this valve, which gives high pressure and vehicle costs, etc. It is quite a com-
losses.You don’t want to
the management of NRW? during high demand and low pressure plex process to determine what a be spending more than
Mr. Wyeth: Control valves have during low demand. water utility’s economic NRW level is,
been used for many years to help con- Another bonus in installing PRVs is but a necessary one as a wrongly set
you will save and you
trol NRW levels and are still an essen- the effect of reducing burst frequency target can cause many problems later. don’t want to lose more
tial part of any NRW management pro- in old pipelines. Often the main reason Once the utility understands the
gram. for a water utility experiencing high starting level of NRW, the magnitude
than you are spending.
Altitude and float valves are auto- leak and burst frequencies is the aging of the various NRW components and
matic mechanical control valves, used pipe network that has been asked to the achievable economic NRW level, The plan should identify all tasks to be
to control the level in reservoirs or work beyond its expected lifespan. they can then start to develop an NRW undertaken and try to include a realis-
tanks. These control valves are used to This means that these pipes are weak- management plan. tic target, within a realistic timeframe
ensure the reservoirs or tanks do not er than what they were designed for This NRW management plan at an acceptable cost.
overflow and lose water down the and thus any high spikes in pressure should try to be as holistic as possible Images courtesy of Mueller & IWA
drain. can cause bursts to occur on a regular and cover many NRW components. Waterloss Specialist Group.
Pressure is proven to have an basis.
increased effect on leakage volumes This table shows tests undertaken
and pipe burst frequency. The relation- on actual distribution systems around
ship between pressure increase and the world show a decrease in burst fre-
leakage volume is quite complicated quency ranging from 20 to 80% and
and depends on pipe material, soil con- these results have shown to be true
ditions, and age of pipe. But the ratio even 5 to 10 years after the PRVs were
can be anywhere from 1:1 to 1:3 mean- installed.
ing, in the latter case, a 10% increase in
pressure would see a 30% increase in What are the first steps that a Wa-
leakage volumes. ter Utility should undertake to
Pressure reducing valves (PRVs) start understanding and manag-
are often used to control system pres- ing their NRW levels?
sures, allowing acceptable pressures Mr. Wyeth: The first step as men-
to meet customer demands while tioned above is to undertake an NRW
maintaining a maximum pressure audit to ascertain the correct level of
limit ensuring leakage levels are con- NRW and the magnitude of each com-

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 43


COVER STORY

Addressing Non-Revenue Water and


Wastewater Challenges in American Samoa -
Insights from ASPA
Will Spitzenberg has been working as the Chief Water Engineer at the American Samoa
Power Authority Water Division for four years. In this Interview, he unpacks the challenges of
responding to non-revenue water losses that affect the American Samoa Power Authority
(ASPA).
Jason Jaskowiak is the Wastewater Chief at the American Samoa Power Authority. He has
Associates, Bachelors and Masters degree in Science, Environmental Engineering and Civil
Engineering, respectively.
By Karen Delfau, IWC for the Australian Water Partnership (AWP)

The crazy thing is that the leaks We are seeing improvement in the fixing these losses and what are
may be as much as 200 gallons a volumes of non-revenue water in the some of the costs?
minute but they don't show on the areas we focusing on. For example, in Will: ASPA has been replacing the
ground surface. The water is pouring one case we have reduced the water old water metering system so as to
down into the lava rock, and the pipes loss from over 150 gallons a minute to improve the way we manage the pro-
are buried about four to five feet deep, 50 gallons a minute. The leak detection duction and pressures. The EPA has
so our leak-detection team has to use crew found a leak on the main line that been funding that project. There are
an acoustic device to listen for the they estimated was losing about 80 52 production wells in American
leaks. When the crew finds a leak they gallons a minute. After repair, our Samoa and we are progressively
report it and then the construction analysis of the in-line water metering replacing all their meters: the highest
Water loss/ non-revenue water is crew comes, a day or two later, and data showed a tremendous cut in that producing wells were done first.
an important issue throughout the repairs it. Most of our mains pipes are flow. Our new Mag Meters and Variable
Asia-Pacific. How does ASPA de- under the road, so they often do the There is a small ‘silver lining’ to this Frequency Drives (VFDs) are working
tect and deal with this matter? leak detection at night to avoid the situation in that 99% of American well. (VFDs are sometimes called
Will: ‘Non-revenue water’ is water traffic in the morning. Sometimes cus- Samoa’s water resources come from VSDs -possibly short for varying speed
in the piping system which for some tomers call to report a leak, and we groundwater, so you could say these drive). With these devices, we can con-
reason is not being paid for by cus- have two plumbing contractors that water leaks into the lava rock are act- trol the flow from the production wells
tomers - either because of losses ASPA has hired to fix those leaks - one ing as recharge - very expensive as well as the pressure in the system,
through leakage or because of meter for the east of the island and one for recharge water! and that helps alleviate the water ham-
errors or theft. We estimate approxi- the west. Non-revenue water is going to be a mer that happens when the pressure
mately 60% of water in ASPA’s pipes is Non-revenue water is also lost problem for a long time and we have to fluctuates too much and causes new
being lost, largely because of leaks when household meters are inopera- keep on top of it continuously. You leaks.
from the old piping system. ASPA has tive for any reason. We have another can't just hire someone to do a one-off The VFDs actually save us money
about 150 miles of water mains and team that checks the water meters in fix and go away again because leaks on the electric side as well as saving
about 150 miles of service laterals, and the villages - they may be buried or will recur. Instead, ASPA aims to min- water. We set the VFDs so they speed
most were put in over 60 years ago. may not be working properly - and imize the losses and the inconvenience up (or ‘wake up’) the pumping rate if
Our asbestos-cement pipes in par- replaces those meters. This team to the residents by (i) having its own the water pressure drops to a certain
ticular (they were put in around 1960) reports illegal connections they find, detection teams - one going around the point, let's say 30psi. Then once the
are losing large volumes of water where families are tapping into the households and one out listening; and pressure reaches, say, 50psi, the motor
through leaks at the pipe-joints (every water without a meter. ASPA identifies (ii) repairing the leak within 24 hours is set to turn off again (‘go to sleep’).
12-13ft).We shut the valves and empty a the household through its electricity of discovery if possible, and with the For certain areas we can isolate the
length of pipe to repair a leak, but then account and imposes a fine (minimum water shut off for no more than 4 section of pipe that we're working on,
re-pressurizing the system introduces of US$ 1000). If the household asks for hours during the work. so we just shut a valve and not the
water hammer in these old pipes and a reconnection, our team puts in a entire system. The VFD will sense that
creates more leaks along the line. It's back-flow preventer before installing What types and brands of equip- the pressure has increased because
an ongoing problem. the new meter. ment and materials do you use for the valve is closed, so it will slow down

44 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

the motor. How is sewage managed on Ameri- for bacteriological concentrations in where the water is coming from and
We are using a smart meter called can Samoa? our discharged wastewater. In the the areas it’s going to, and then do a
an iPerl, which reads water-use and Jason: American Samoa is one of past, there had been issues with the water balance. The American Water
has the advantage that it collects data the few places in the United States levels of Enterococci, the bacteria that Works Association has a water balance
every hour and we can download that that still has a waiver for secondary survive better in salt water. spreadsheet, for example; the Pacific
to check on the hourly usage. The iPerl treatment. So, we actually only need to ASPA expects we, along with other Water and Wastes Association may
is a little bit more expensive than the have primary wastewater treatment. places, will lose the waiver of second- have something similar.
old pipe meters, but we think the However, ASPA recently installed two ary treatment in the foreseeable First, they need to do the sub-divid-
investment will pay off itself in a few UV reactors, one in each of our waste- future. Five years ago, ASPA contract- ing on their map, based on the infor-
years. We are also hoping to start water treatment plants. These are now ed an assessment of secondary treat- mation they already have. Then they
using AMI (Advanced Metering providing disinfection, whereas a year ment possibilities, but the product can go out and test it by closing valves,
Infrastructure). That will mean we can ago there was no disinfection of our offered them then (fine bubbles diffu- and seeing what happens to the pres-
network our meters and see all the wastewater. sion at a cost of US$ 80 million) was sure along the line as a result, and then
data in real time. That's more expen- About 40% of people are serviced unsuitable. It wasn’t innovative and it opening the valves and making sure
sive again, and it’s the next step. A by the sewerage system, and we are was unsuited to the limitations and the that the water serves certain areas.
company called SENSUS makes the continually working to expand that cost of electricity here. That way they can home in on the
iPerl and they also supply and help system. Of the remainder of the popu- Instead, I have designed a much areas where the water seems to be
install an AMI system. lation (though we don’t have accurate more easily operated and cheaper going.
Once we have the AMI operating data), possibly 30% have proper septic method of achieving secondary treat- Then when money is available they
we will be able to use a SENSUS sys- tanks and the rest have a traditional ment, using our existing infrastructure can start installing in-line meters, like
tem called SCADA1or a similar online cesspool, which is a hole in the ground and just modifying it with the addition we're doing, to get more information.
program for integrating control and that the toilets run into. A cesspool of some screening up front. The key is The in-line meters record a flow every
data acquisition. We will be able to see doesn't provide containment or treat- to use two stages of screening to hour, and that helps us see if the flow
how much water is AWP going to any ment for the raw sewage. replace primary clarification, and then going to a given area is increasing or
given area, and how much the con- In the last three years, we have use those existing primary clarifiers decreasing, and how much water is
sumers are using. The difference will been modifying households’ onsite for biological treatment and secondary going to this area. Since we already
be the leaks, and we will be able to treatment. If a household is not on the clarification. know the number of customers in that
send out the leak-detection crew to sewer systems, we would like them to The first stage is called the step area and their water use per month or
find it. It helps when the areas are have a septic tank, and we are encour- screen: it has about a half-inch open- per day, we can then see how much
smaller because we can find leaks aging the family owners to build one. ing, and all the wastewater goes water we're losing in that area and
faster in a small length of pipe than a While they’re building it we come out through that screen. This type of send in our leak detection crew to try
long one, and it also should mean less to the site three to four times and screen cleans itself: the screen looks to find the leak.
of the pipe system needs to be shut off inspect it and lend assistance to make like a small escalator and it’s constant- But first you must have some good
for the repair. sure the system is constructed proper- ly moving and it cleans itself as it rolls information, a good collection of data,
For leak detection, the field crews ly. around. The second stage screen - to help you sub-divide the system
use small devices that look like metal Unlike on the US mainland, water which will be funded only when we down to smaller enough units. Of
detectors. You can buy them from a drains out of many onsite systems think the waiver is about to be course, to do this, each customer in the
number of different companies very, very fast and can negatively removed - will be even finer. It will be target areas must have a meter or else
throughout the world: for example, in impact our unconfined aquifers unless like a drum screen and provide an even this method will not work so well.
the US, New Zealand, Australia, it is constructed appropriately. better output. • Sub-divide the system into subsec-
Germany. There is plenty of informa- Systems which drain too fast do not Screened effluent will go into a tions in order to have really good
tion online about them. They are rela- allow time for proper microbial treat- trickling filter for biological treatment; data to be able to focus and target
tively expensive, costing up to US$ ment, which means nitrogen and then our existing clarifiers will clarify your efforts.
20,000 or US$ 30,000 per unit, potentially E.coli could be contaminat- that secondary effluent; and finally • Do the water balance: the AWWA or
depending on the model you get, but ing the groundwater aquifers. that output will go into the UV reac- PWWA water balance spreadsheet
not expensive compared to hiring an Our solution is to change the way tors and out. The trickling filter could can help you grasp the way the
off-island crew. The investment is well the septic systems are installed. Here be an MVVR, which is sort of a trick- water is flowing.
worth it. They are easy for a trained we deliberately create a barrier under- ling filter that’s filled full of water, but • Put in as many meters as you can,
team to use. neath the leach-field, by digging deep- that type requires more energy than suitable for each of the parts of the
We are also replacing the old er and creating a barrier using special others, and a little more maintenance, system: not only the in-line meters
asbestos-cement pipes, at a cost of material which is then compacted. and blowers and things like that, so the collecting flow every hour but also
US$ 100 million. The old HTPE pipe This layer slows down the percolation decision is not yet made. We hope the meters at the household level.
also needs replacing, and that will cost to a suitable rate that is slow enough to better quality wastewater passing out • And have a dedicated team making
another US$ 100million. There is facilitate the growth of a biofilm and of this secondary system will reduce ongoing effort to continually address
about 50-miles of pipe to be replaced, provide treatment in those onsite sys- the amount of labor needed to main- non-revenue water. Don’t give up on
and we are using PVC at the moment tems. tain the UV reactors. non-revenue water even though it is
for that, on the basis that they should frustrating to work on a section and
last at least 50 years. There is a new How is ASPA achieving compliant Any suggestions to help other Pa- then on your return there to find
piping material being used in New wastewater treatment? cific agencies address non-rev- that the losses have gone up again.
Zealand and other areas, called PVCO. Jason: As noted earlier (Q4), enue water effectively and at rela- It’s an ongoing thing.
It's better than PVC and we shall be American Samoa has one of the few tively low cost? The Australian Water Partnership
using that in the future. For all the new remaining waivers on secondary treat- Will: Having data is very impor- (AWP) is an Australian Government
pipes, of course, we also have to make ment. tant. They could sub-divide their development initiative enhancing the sus-
sure they are bedded in properly for The UV reactors have enabled us to water system into smaller and smaller tainable management of water across the
good support. meet all of our permit requirements areas, so they can see more easily Indo-Pacific.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 45


COVER STORY

The Path to Mastery in Water Loss


Management
Your personal success is most important, and out of it only the benefits for your company and
for society (especially considering poor state of water infrastructure in India) will rise.
By Jurica Kovac

(Western Balkan, Southeast meant to accomplish in the ings), you must enter the most the world around you, every-
Europe - former Yugoslavia, time that you have to live. The critical phase - a second, prac- thing is important to you; peo-
for older readers who still first move toward mastery is tical education known as - The ple, company organization,
remember this state). always inward - learning who Apprenticeship. You must culture, habits, communica-
You, dear readers, I you really are and reconnect- learn the lessons and follow tion, of course, water system
believe, are more or less famil- ing with that innate force. the path established by the itself (technology, practice,
iar with the water loss topic Knowing it with clarity, you greatest masters - past and knowledge, methodologies),
(methodologies and technolo- will find your way to the prop- present. In the process (sys- how it works, mistakes, etc.
gies), especially if you are er career path and everything tems!, remember) you will Most importantly, analyze
already interested in this else will fall into place. It is master the necessary skills, working environment - in
aspect of water networks never too late to start this discipline your mind, and other words, “this is how we
operations and maintenance, process. transform yourself into an do things here” and further-
so, the purpose of this article You must understand the independent thinker, pre- more the power relationships
is more philosophical in following: In order to master a pared for the creative chal- that exist within groups: who
nature, in order to present field, you must love the sub- lenges on the way to mastery has real control, who is on the
you what attitude leads to suc- ject and feel a profound con- in water loss management rise and who is on the decline.
cess. (for sure you who will nection to it. (maybe even life as a whole, You are not there to change
decide to dive deeper into my When you are faced with why not!). that culture, and if oppressing,
Introduction article). deficiencies instead of To follow precisely the lead you can only get fired. Later,
Water Loss Management is My intention is following; strengths and inclinations, of others or advice from a when you attain power and
part of my life and my occupa- to present you with my per- this is the strategy you must book is self-defeating. To avoid mastery, you will be the one to
tion for the last 20 years (and spective (proven in practice, assume: ignore your weak- too many mistakes and disap- rewrite or change the rules.
my age now is 44), with anoth- recently discovered with clear nesses and resist the tempta- pointments you must under- Remember this: in most
er 5 years (my first job) being explanations in one great tion to be more like others. stand human psychology and cases, water losses are high
an employee in one public book) what should be the Instead, direct yourself how the brain itself functions. just because water utility
water utility (working as tech- foundation pillars in the path toward the small things you There is one overarching prin- companies are managed inef-
nician in operation and main- toward success in your life as are good at. Do not dream or ciple in this phase: The goal of ficiently, with insufficient
tenance department), what an expert, or better to say, make grand plans for the an apprenticeship is not competencies or/and demoti-
was a valuable experience, master in water loss manage- future, but instead concen- money, a good position, a title, vated staff.
crucial for later phase in my ment. In fact, your personal trate on becoming proficient or a diploma, but rather the Next step is Skills
professional life. success is most important, at these simple and immediate transformation of your mind Acquisition (The Practice
Today, my occupation is and out of it only the benefits skills. This will bring you con- and character. This has a sim- Mode): At some point, as you
most of the time related with for your company and for soci- fidence and become a base ple consequence: you must progress through observation,
education of employees in ety (especially considering from which you can expand to choose greatest possibilities you will enter the most critical
public water utilities, since I poor state of water infrastruc- other pursuits. Proceeding in for learning (and for sure part of the apprenticeship:
had the privilege and opportu- ture in India) will rise. this way, step by step, you will actively working in, for exam- practice toward the acquisi-
nity to study and practice While describing these pil- get what you want. Have in ple, water utility, gives you a tion of skills. Every human
practically all aspects of water lars, I will use (borrow) some mind following advice: goals great environment for learn- activity involves the master-
loss management (from basic lines from few books and doc- are for losers, systems are for ing and practical experimen- ing of skills, like operating a
leak detection, through meas- uments I have found particu- winners. tation). Practical knowledge is tool or machinery, creating
urements, pressure control, larly interesting and most the ultimate commodity and is something physical or mental
repair, GIS, remote monitor- importantly, inspiring, at least Pillar 2: The Apprentice- what will pay you dividends exercise like creative thinking
ing, up to the analyses, invest- in my life. ship for decades to come. and problem-solving. In
ments planning, projects After your formal educa- The Apprenticeships acquiring any kind of skill,
implementation and national Pillar 1: Know Yourself tion (or in case of water loss Phase - The Three Steps there exists a natural process
legislation change), and with You possess an inner force management, in addition by Have in mind three essen- that coincides with the func-
active presence in various that seeks to guide you toward studying available literature, tial steps: Deep Observation tioning of our brains. First, it
countries in my region your life’s task - what you are attending seminars or train- (The Passive Mode) - observe is essential that you begin

46 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CUTTING OUR LOSSES - NRW

with one skill that you can We have entered the informa- ance, you can waste valuable our own emotional needs and associations between different
master and that serves as the tion and technology age, but years trying to gain knowl- desires of the moment. We ideas. You must experiment
foundation for acquiring oth- this will not make our lives edge and practice from vari- misread their intentions and and look at problems from all
ers. You must avoid at all costs simpler, but just the opposite, ous sources. Instead, you react in ways that cause con- possible angles. As your think-
the idea that you can manage we are entering times of must follow the example set fusion or conflict. Social intel- ing grows more fluid, your
learning several skills at the increased complexity. In all by Masters throughout the ligence is the ability to see mind will become increasingly
same time. Second, boredom areas, the human brain is ages and find a proper mentor. people in the most realistic dimensional, seeing more and
we experience in the initial asked to do and handle more The mentor-protege relation- light possible. By moving past more aspects of reality (or to
stage of learning toughens our than ever before. What this ship is the most efficient and our usual self-absorption, we say, all different aspects of
minds, much like physical means is that all of us must productive form of learning. can learn to focus deeply on complexity in dealing with
exercise (what you must over- possess different forms of The right mentors know others, reading their behavior water loss control).
come). The process of acquir- knowledge and an array of where to focus your attention at the moment, seeing what I would advise you to learn
ing new skill (especially prac- skills in different fields, and and how to challenge you. motivates them, and discern- how creative thinking works
tical part) has a profound have minds that are capable of Their knowledge and experi- ing any possible manipulative and in this field it is particu-
influence on our brain, what is organizing large amounts of ence become yours. They pro- tendencies. Navigating larly interesting to explore the
today called neuroplasticity information. Take, just for vide immediate and realistic smoothly the social environ- technique of mind mapping
(in short, creation and example, the particular topic feedback on your work, so you ment, we have more time and (for problem-solving, making
strengthening new neural of water loss management - can improve more rapidly. energy to focus on learning notes, planning, etc.).
pathways - brain rewiring). everything in water distribu- Choose the mentor who best and acquiring skills. The suc-
Although it might seem that tion systems management has fits your needs and who con- cess attained without this Pillar 6: Fuse the Intuitive
the time necessary to master some relevance and influence nects you to your task. Your intelligence is not true mas- with the Rational - Mastery
the requisite skills and attain on water losses, from design, goal is always to surpass your tery, and will not last. All of us have access to a
a level of expertise would construction up to daily main- mentors in mastery and bril- The knowledge, that is higher form of intelligence,
depend on the field and your tenance, materials, measur- liance. often neglected and underval- one that can allow us to see
own talent level, those who ing, control, know-how, com- Here I can advise you in ued, is the understanding of more of the world, to antici-
have researched the subject pany organization, employees India (and elsewhere) the fol- human behavior. This should pate trends, to respond with
repeatedly come up with the motivation, competences, lowing, regarding water loss be one of your constant areas speed and accuracy to any cir-
number of 10,000 hours (7-10 communication, etc. management: identify those of interest not only in profes- cumstance. This intelligence
years of sustained, solid prac- The future belongs to who have reached high-level sional but also private life. is cultivated by deeply
tice). In other words, concen- those who learn more skills, of expertise and experience This way you have the oppor- immersing ourselves in a field
trated practice over time can- no matter how virtual, and attract them to become tunity to learn fundaments of study and staying true to
not fail but produce results. remains the same. In the mentors to others. In the mar- about yourself and about all our inclinations, no matter
The Third step is future, the great division will ket for water supply, we others. Remember one fact: it how unconventional our
Experimentation (The be between those who have already have an environment is not conscious mind that approach seems to others.
Active Mode): This is the trained themselves to handle of non-competition (since drives peoples lives, but an When we fuse this intuitive
shortest part of the process, these complexities and those each utility has a natural unconscious one. feel with rational processes,
but a critical component who are overwhelmed by monopoly in own area of influ- we expand our minds to the
nonetheless. As you gain in them. The Apprenticeship ence - population or territory). Pillar 5: The Creative - Ac- outer limits of our potential
skill and confidence, you must Phase is more relevant and The good way forward is to tive and are able to see into the
make a move to a more active important than ever, and establish regular yearly gath- As you accumulate more secret core of life itself. We
mode of experimentation. those who discount this notion erings of people interested in skills and internalize the rules then come to have powers that
This could mean taking more will almost certainly be left similar activities (for example that govern your filed, your approximate the instinctive
responsibility, doing work that behind. water loss, but this can be also mind will want to become force and speed of animals,
exposes you to the criticism of In general, no matter your in other fields of expertise) of more active, seeking to use but with the added reach that
peers or even the public. You field, you must think of your- neighboring utilities. It can be this knowledge in ways that our human consciousness
are observing yourself in self as a builder, using actual only one-day meeting, in a are more suited to your incli- brings us. This power is what
action and seeing how you materials and ideas. You are relaxed atmosphere, and nations. What will impede this our brains were designed to
respond to the judgments of producing something tangible where people can talk, natural creative dynamic from attain, and we will be natural-
others (can you take criticism in your work, something that exchange experiences and flourishing is not a lack of tal- ly led to this type of intelli-
and use it constructively?). affects people in some direct, learn from those who are the ent, but your attitude. Feeling gence if we follow our inclina-
Most people wait too long to concrete way. You are crafts- best. anxious and insecure, you will tions to their ultimate ends.
take this step (if ever), gener- man learning to adhere to the tend to turn conservative with
ally out of fear. highest standards. For all of Pillar 4: Social Intelligence your knowledge, preferring to Conclusion
Many people might find the this, you must go through a - See People As They Are fit into the group and sticking I hope this article will gain
notion of an apprenticeship careful apprenticeship. You Often the greatest obstacle to the procedures you have your interest to proceed fur-
and skill acquisition as quaint cannot make anything worth- to our pursuit of mastery learned. Instead, you must ther in reading and learning
relics of bygone eras when while in this world unless you comes from the emotional force yourself into the oppo- about mastery. I had my own
work meant making things have first developed and drain we experience in dealing site direction. As you emerge path in attaining skills related
(but considering my brief transformed yourself. with people around us. If we from your apprenticeship, you to water loss management.
experience from visiting India are not careful, our mind gets must become increasingly About the Author
in 2016, during IWA Water Pillar 3: Absorb the Mas- absorbed in endless intrigues bold. Instead of feeling com- Jurica Kovac is a consult-
Loss conference in Bangalore, ter’s Power and battles. The principal placent about what you know, ant in water loss management.
and witnessing countless little Life is short, and your time problem we face in social you must expand your knowl- He is current Secretary of the
shops and craftsmen, I think for learning and creativity is arena is our own naive ten- edge to related fields, giving IWA Water Loss Specialist
this spirit still lives with you). limited. Without any guid- dency to project onto people your mind fuel to make new Group and lives in Croatia.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 47


URBAN WATER 100 RESILIENT CITIES

100RC and NIUAAnnounce National Level


Effort for Urban Resilience in India

(Left to Right) Amit Prothi, Head of India National Strategy, 100 Resilient Cities; Dr. M. Ravi Kanth (IAS) Chairman & MD, HUDCO; Michael Berkowitz, President, 100 Resilient Cities;
Hardeep Singh Puri, Union Minister of State with Independent Charge in the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs; and Prof. Jagan Shah, Director, NIUA

THE 100 RESILIENT Cities MoHUA and the Government MoHUA, philanthropies, pri- will seek to help us better tenacity to the resilience agen-
(100RC) - pioneered by the of India to promote and sup- vate sector, multilateral finan- define what urban resilience da at the national and state lev-
Rockefeller Foundation - and port the development of cial institutes, and other urban means in an Indian context els,” said Jagan Shah, Director,
the National Institute of Urban resilient cities across the coun- experts to build strong part- and how it can support the NIUA. “Bringing a holistic per-
Affairs (NIUA) have try. To lead this work, NIUA nerships for advocating development of India’s fast- spective and a deeper under-
announced a formal partner- and 100RC are looking for can- resilience in Indian cities and growing cities. This partner- standing to bear on the subject
ship to expand collaborative didates to fill the newly creat- incorporating urban resilience ship will deepen our impact in of resilience, the Resilience
resilience-building efforts in ed position of Resilience Chair. into the India@75 agenda. the four cities we’re already Chair will serve as our leading
India. Earlier this year at the The partnership brings Amit Prothi, Head of India operating in and will help us expert, providing direction on
World Urban Forum, Minister together theoretical frame- National Strategy, 100 spread the practice of our work in the larger urban
for Housing and Urban Affairs works and practical city- Resilient Cities, said “This resilience to other cities and sector in India and maximizing
Hardeep Singh Puri oversaw assessments to build local partnership will build on the states supported by robust the impact of our collaboration
the signing of a letter of intent capacity and embed resilience work 100RC has been doing in data and critical stakeholder with 100 Resilient Cities. This
for the two organisations to into the heart of urban dis- partnership with Chief engagement.” partnership represents a
collaborate to develop evi- course. Resilience Officers and munic- “With this partnership and remarkable milestone for
dence and policy frameworks This will include convening ipal government in Surat, new Resilience Chair Unit, NIUA on its journey towards
that can be used by the urban planning institutes, Pune, Chennai, and Jaipur and NIUA seeks to bring focus and building resilience in India.”

48 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


URBAN WATER 100 RESILIENT CITIES

Express Water Exclusive


Resilience Officer in June ational areas along the river, river, and Tapi River Vision
2017. In February 2018, the the restoration of ecosystems 2030.
city announced the comple- in the river’s buffer areas, and Surat’s Tapi River has
tion of its Preliminary improvements to the river’s deteriorated over the years
Resilience Assessment to pin- accessibility. Through the due to the presence of pollu-
point the areas of focus for CRO teams in both cities, tion and untreated sewage,
Chennai and outline city pri- Surat has built a successful which have affected the river
orities moving forward. The partnership with Rotterdam itself as well as the Mindhola
PRA revealed six ‘Discovery and have signed a series of river nearby. A project to
areas’ for the next phase of MOUs for cooperation. clean up the river will restore
the resilience-building efforts Rotterdam will be sharing its the population’s source of
– Water Systems, Metro water expertise and experi- fresh drinking water and
Governance, Civic ence with Surat to review its ecosystems in the nearby
Engagement, Service delivery upcoming water-related proj- areas. The project aims to
to Vulnerable and Low- ects (canal redevelopment, target the sewage at its
income Groups, Healthy and water supply, wastewater source by enhancing sewage
Planned Urbanization, and treatment, etc) and particu- treatment facilities and incor-
Financing Urban Resilience. larly advancing the Surat porating cogeneration plants
Pune was selected to be a Tapi River Clean-up and into the city’s river cleaning
part of the 100RC network in River Masterplan project. strategies. These measures
2016. The city is working on Jaipur was selected to the will increase the efficacy of
finalizing its Preliminary 100RC network in 2016. The current clean-up efforts with
Resilience Assessment under city held its Agenda-Setting place-based interventions
the leadership of CRO Workshop in October 2017 to throughout the course of the
Mahesh Harhare. Following highlight its main challenges Tapi river.
Amit Prothi, Head of India National Strategy, 100 Resilient Cities initial community and gov- as one of the oldest planned Building on the momen-
ernment engagement and a cities in India. These include tum from the clean-up proj-
Mayur Sharma interact- network, formed in 2013, was thorough perceptions audit, infrastructural challenges in ect, the next step for Surat
ed with Amit Prothi, Head of an attempt to ground learn- the city will focus future work transportation and sanitation will be the Tapi River Vision
India National Strategy, 100 ings from ACCCRN and to on exploring how to overcome and a high risk of infectious 2030, restoring the river’s
Resilient Cities about the sta- build local capacity to develop challenges related to mobility, disease. The city will appoint potential as a key source of
tus of 100RC project in India, resilience toward the acute the natural environment, its first Chief Resilience water and the lifeblood of
and the partnership and chronic shocks faced by planning for urban growth, Officer later this month, and trade, while being a source of
announced between 100RC these cities. Four cities in and job creation and youth from there, will work to bal- public enjoyment and ensur-
and the National Institute of India - Pune (Maharashtra), empowerment. Former ance the challenges of creat- ing the health of the river
Urban Affairs (NIUA). Jaipur (Rajasthan), Surat Commissioner Kunal Kumar ing a modern and liveable city continues to improve over
(Gujarat) and Chennai (Tamil has been a vocal advocate for while preserving and protect- time. With the addition of fea-
Please update us on the Nadu) - competed to receive resilience building efforts in ing Jaipur’s historic land- tures such as sewer drain fil-
overall progress of 100 Re- support in the form of a Chief the city and a key leader on marks and cultural heritage. ters and recreational and
silient Cities (100RC) proj- Resilience Officer (CRO) who the steering committee. With landscape elements, the revi-
ect so far in India. acts as a nodal person for the his move to Delhi as the new What is the scope of water talization of the River
Mr. Prothi: 100 Resilient city’s efforts and a strategy Director of the Smart Cities & wastewater treatment through an inclusive, innova-
Cities - Pioneered by the partner (consulting firm) that Mission, we hope to be able to technologies and solu- tive, and integrated strategy
Rockefeller Foundation supports the city to prepare a drive opportunities for collab- tions in the 100RC proj- has the potential to transform
(100RC) is dedicated to help- Resilience Strategy. The oration and learning between ect? the lives of millions of Surtis.
ing cities around the world CROs are working with the the two programs to help Mr. Prothi: Surat’s River
become more resilient to the municipal corporations to India’s cities become smart Tapi Clean-up project is an What are the economic
physical, social, and economic create city resilience strate- and resilient. excellent example of a project challenges for resilient
challenges that are a growing gies (CRS) for the necessary The city of Surat released focusing on water treatment cities, in your opinion?
part of the 21st century. The adaptations and other solu- its Resilience Strategy in and management, which is Mr. Prothi: Cities can no
Asian Cities for Climate tions that the city must April 2017 and is now focus- one of 100RC’s two key strate- longer have the resources or
Change Resilience Network undergo to become resilient ing on delivering a major ini- gy-pillars. Following the the time to be able to solve
(ACCCRN) and the Urban towards natural and man- tiative to clean up the River release of the city’s Resilience one problem at a time. Cities
Climate Change Resilience made challenges. Tapi. This project will trans- Strategy, Surat held its Surat need to be comfortable plan-
(UCCR) project supported by The city of Chennai was form Surtis’ relationship with Resilience Academy, to dis- ning for uncertainty - prepar-
the Rockefeller Foundation in selected to join the 100RC their primary body of water. cuss implementation strate- ing for what they can predict
various South and South- network in 2014. In 2016, the Resulting benefits will gies for projects in the priori- and strengthening for what
East Asian countries has city hosted the urban flooding include the long-term provi- ty areas identified by both they can’t. This work requires
resulted in a vast body of summit, which was followed sion of clean drinking water 100RC and city representa- political will and a new level
knowledge about resilience in by the announcement of R for millions of citizens, tives. Among others, these of collaboration that cities
the Asian context. The 100RC Krishna Mohan as its Chief enhanced potential for recre- include cleaning the Tapi aren’t used to. Building

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 49


URBAN WATER WATER REUSE

beginning - 100RC’s partner- lenges of scope, scale, and modelling resilience sce-
ship with NIUA represents depth. While the narios in the city and the
100RC’s commitment to sup- Government of India has immediate region.
port resilience efforts on the been dedicated to the devel- • Building the capacity of
national level, across the opment of resilient and sus- the Chief Resilience
country. India is urbanizing tainable cities, the urban sec- Officers (CROs) in existing
rapidly, with over 8000 cities tor still requires well-docu- 100RC cities in India
located in different geo-cli- mented evidence, practical • Training material for the
matic and socio-economic knowledge and good prac- training of city govern-
conditions. Resource inten- tices that can be built on in ment and agency staff
sive, unplanned and unregu- order to embed resilience across all sectors: plan-
lated growth characterizes into the urban discourse. The ning, engineering, finance,
the country’s urban trajecto- number of cities and the administration
ry, creating risk for urban many complexities in urban
inhabitants and making them planning and governance As NIUA and 100RC are
prone to shocks and strains only add scale to the chal- looking for candidates for
caused by climate change lenge. Indian cities need to the newly created posi-
and related phenomena. develop in-depth assess- tion of Resilience Chair,
The efforts of the Ministry ments of their physical, what are the job require-
of Environment, Forest and social, economic and environ- ments and scope of work?
Climate Change (MoEFCC), mental risks and vulnerabili- Mr. Prothi: The
the National Disaster ty, such that they can prepare Resilience Chair will be an
Management Authority adaptation strategies and international/national expert
(NDMA) and the Ministry of develop resilient infrastruc- who heads the Resilience
Housing and Urban Affair ture. Chair Unit at NIUA and will
(MoHUA), earlier the The CROs in the four provide the overall direction
Ministry of Urban cities in the 100RC network to its work, and represent the
Development, have been and the broader network of work in the larger urban sec-
focused on developing the ACCCRN partners across tor in India. The Resilience
governance and management the country are significant Chair will convene urban
frameworks for resilience, assets for research and advo- planning institutes, MoHUA,
but cities are still missing the cacy. However, there is a philanthropies, private sector,
practical evidence necessary need for concerted efforts to multilateral financial insti-
for city administrations to build the coalition and create tutes, and other urban
Prof. Jagan Shah, Director, NIUA and Michael Berkowitz, President, take action. As part of our momentum that can embed experts to build strong part-
100 Resilient Cities commitment to our network, resilience discourse into nerships for advocating
100RC provides cities with national and state level poli- resilience in Indian cities and
resilience demands a new multiple benefits is critical. access to tools, service cies and programmatic initia- embedding resilience into
kind of thinking and planning providers, and partners from tives. This partnership their urban agendas. The
with foresight that goes How can more Indian the private, public, and non- between 100RC and NIUA is Chair will ground efforts to
beyond election cycles. cities get involved in the profit sectors who can help a suitably-positioned national build resilience through the
Sometimes this can also 100RC project? cities develop and implement level initiative that would be development of evidence and
mean investing more time Mr. Prothi: The four their resilience strategies. able to address this need. policy frameworks that the
and more resources now to cities selected to the 100RC 100RC also facilitates work- The priorities for this part- MoHUA and the Government
ensure better outcomes in network represent anchor shops, learning exchanges nership include various meas- of India can use to promote
the future. Getting decision- cities where resilience-build- and knowledge sharing ures to develop tangible and support the development
makers and funders to ing programs have been opportunities for CROs to means and practical evidence of resilient cities across the
understand this is a key chal- taken up by the communities share best practices, solve that are meaningful for city country. Throughout the
lenge. The Asian to tackle the particular chal- problems collectively, and administrations. These process, they will document
Development Bank estimates lenges that face each city. In learn from each other and include: knowledge to bring greater
that this region will need to each of these cities, these from other resilience experts. • Methods, tools and meas- focus on the theme of
invest US$1.7 trillion per year efforts have been led by a urement systems to embed resilience in India’s approach
through 2030 to meet infra- Chief Resilience Officer Tell us about your recent resilience in each city’s to urban and regional plan-
structure needs. We’re facing (CRO), a position established partnership with the Na- development agenda ning, and assist in creating
a huge infrastructure gap, a with the financial and logisti- tional Institute of Urban • Evidence for the ‘cost of suitable curricular improve-
huge need for investment and cal guidance of 100RC. The Affairs (NIUA). How will it resilience’ required across ments that explore the theme
a rapidly growing urban pop- CRO leads the city’s help in the resilience- the urban sector of urban resilience from dif-
ulation. It’s going to be enor- resilience efforts and con- building efforts in India? • Analytical frameworks and ferent perspectives. The
mously difficult to makeup venes stakeholders in the Mr. Prothi: To build data protocols for GIS- Resilience Chair will be sup-
deficits and plan for and development of a city resilience in Indian cities, based systems for urban ported by a highly qualified
meet emerging needs at the Resilience Strategy, which there is a need for localiza- resilience team, the Resilience Chair
same time. This is why smart serves as the city’s roadmap tion of know-how and skills in • ‘Data observatories’ to Unit, to bring focus and
investment into thoughtful to resilience. the diverse urban conditions capture relevant data and tenacity to the resilience
solutions that are designed The work that has started across the Indian subconti- perform necessary analyt- agenda at the national & state
for future needs and deliver in these cities is only the nent, which poses the chal- ics and visualization for levels.

50 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


OUT OF THE BOX

Addressing India’s Water Problems


In most areas of the world, and especially in India, there are growing efforts to reduce water
consumption in public restrooms. And we should note that reducing water consumption also
helps reduce energy consumption and protects the environment.
By Klaus Reichardt

No Response the amount of energy neces- a new type of toilet that uses
Ever heard of the vagus sary, helping to protect natu- far less water than traditional
nerve? The vagus nerve is one ral resources and release or dual-flush toilets. Referred
of the largest nerves in the fewer greenhouse gases. to as “bio-toilets,” these toilets
body. When someone sits on a So, what steps are being use specific types of bacteria
toilet for a prolonged period, taken today and in the future which consume waste materi-
the vagus nerve can respond to reduce water consumption al and convert it into water
by slowing down the heart. in public restrooms? Many are that is clean, but not for
This can trigger cardiac happening right now in India. human or animal consump-
arrest. Heart attacks and In fact, in some respects, India tion, and gas. This is why these
other health problems are rel- is now playing a leadership toilets are often referred to as
atively common in public rest- role in reducing the amount of “bio-digesters.”
rooms. If the VA detects a water used in public rest-
problem, an attendant will be rooms, especially when it Water Security
THE WORLD OF water is The one-restroom/one-per- called in to check the restroom comes to urinals and toilets. India is playing a leader-
changing and with it, the pub- son concept is designed to pre- to see if someone needs help. For instance: ship role when it comes to
lic restroom. This is true in vent this from happening. And reducing water consumption
India as well as many other to do this, the Atlanta public Lost and Found No-Water Urinals and finding ways to use water
areas of the world. restrooms use virtual assis- Restroom users frequently Waterless urinals are at the more efficiently and there is a
And one of the ways it is tants (VAs). In some cases, leave things behind in public top of the list and are expected very good reason for this.
changing is in how public rest- these VAs are human - a restrooms. This Atlanta rest- to play a significant role in Water security is a growing
rooms are designed and oper- remotely-based attendant or room has scanners that notify helping India reduce water concern throughout India.
ated. We are starting to get a administrator that is always administrators if they see consumption in public rest- Climate change is making
glimpse of what the future on duty - but often they are something has been left rooms. However, we should large parts of India more vul-
holds for public restrooms electronic devices that use behind. point out that some of the ear- nerable to water-related prob-
based on new public rest- sensors and cameras to moni- liest installations of waterless lems than many other coun-
rooms recently installed in an tor restroom activities. The Focus is on Water urinals were not as successful tries of the world. According
Atlanta, GA, subway station. Among the tasks carried We are not sure whether as the industry had hoped. A to some studies, what is hap-
Atlanta is a city located in the out by these VAs include the the loo of the future will look closer examination of what pening is that some areas of
southeastern section of the following: like this or not. However, some has occurred reveals that the country are receiving far
U.S. of these systems are already many cleaning workers and less water than in the past and
One of the first things to Entry Control showing up in restrooms others were not adequately other areas are getting much
note is that these new “loos” To help ensure only one around the world. But, one trained on how to clean and more. This situation is not only
are not large restrooms with person uses the restroom at a thing we can be sure of is that maintain the no-water urinals. impacting large urban areas
lots of fixtures and designed time (except parents with chil- restrooms of the future will be Studies have shown that when where millions of people live,
for many people to use at one dren), users need to hit a call very focused on water, or more properly cleaned and main- but it is also playing havoc in
time. Instead, these subway button. A virtual assistant, specifically, on ways to reduce tained, not only can each of the agriculture sector.
station restrooms have been human or electronic, sees water consumption. these urinals save as much as Finding ways to adjust to
designed to accommodate one them, because there is an In most areas of the world, 113,563 liters of water annually, these changes, in the form of
person at a time, more if fami- overhead camera, and buzzes and especially in India, there they are often more odor-free building new water infrastruc-
ly members. them in. are growing efforts to reduce and hygienic than traditional ture and developing new ways
This way, they can address water consumption in public water-using urinals. to better manage water con-
some very specific issues asso- Timed Use restrooms. And we should sumption and use water more
ciated with public restrooms, As soon as someone is note that reducing water con- Toilets efficiently, as discussed here,
especially those located in admitted to a restroom, a sumption also helps reduce By now, most of us know are critical to India’s future.
large public areas such as sub- timer begins. Usually, users energy consumption and pro- today’s toilets use far less About the Author
way stations, railway stations, are given 10 minutes to use the tects the environment. The water per flush than those Klaus Reichardt is a fre-
etc., and used by scores of peo- restroom. After that, they are delivery and removal of water made a decade or more ago. quent speaker and author on
ple throughout the day. notified in one way or another for public restrooms take And dual-flush toilets, com- water conservation issues, Klaus
Frequently, these restrooms that time is up. However, if energy. Usually, this energy is mon in Indian restrooms, use Reichardt is Founder and CEO
must contend with vandalism, necessary, the user can produced by oil, gas, or coal. even less. But the Indian of Waterless Co. Inc., based in
loitering, or unlawful activity. request a few more minutes. Less water needed reduces Railway system is now testing Vista, California, USA.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 51


KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge of Nutrients Pollution


Amongst Environmental Agencies and
Municipal Institutions is Crucial
Nutrients pollution in waterways is the buzz word of water industry these days. Indeed, the
problem is complex, global and carries greater significance towards the community’s well-
being. As professionals, it is important for us to understand the extent and gravity of such
environmental issue. Mayur Sharma had an opportunity to talk with Archis Ambulkar, an
international water expert, to gain more insights into this nutrients pollution topic. With
significant contributions in this area, he agreed to discuss with us about this pollution
problem in details. Interview contemplates on many aspects of nutrients contamination in
the waterways including social impacts, ecological and economic setbacks, potential
pollution sources, mitigation measures and future directions.

many other sectors that are waterways. Such phenome- resources for their day-to-day sophisticated techniques,
directly or indirectly depend- non, typically known as activities. Domestic, agricul- infrastructures, and systems
ent upon the affected water- eutrophication, results in tural, industrial and commer- across the globe.
bodies. Such contamination depleted oxygen levels, cial sectors are the major Industrialization and urban-
has a far-reaching influence reduced sunlight, foul smells, water consumers. Growing ization are a result of these
on community’s social, eco- aquatic mortalities and deteri- population and urbanization rising demands. Such social
nomic, ecological, health and oration of the water quality. are further increasing and technological changes are
hygienic aspects. Above state- Damaging ecological conse- demands and pressures for causing exploitation of natural
ment speaks of the extent and quences as a result of high adequate water supplies. On resources as well as the gener-
intensity of this issue. nutrients concentration in the other hand, climate ation of pollutants that are
Compared to advanced coun- water are typically referred to change and varying weather affecting the environment.
Nutrient pollution of wa- tries, nutrients pollution prob- as nutrients pollution in patterns are affecting nature’s One such pollutant originating
terways is the “single lems are more severe and waterways. Major nutrients water cycle in many regions from anthropogenic activities
greatest challenge to our aggravated in the developing contributors are typically and complicating water avail- is the nutrients contamina-
nation’s water quality,” ac- worlds. Hence, it is important classified as point and non- ability. While humanity is tion. Excessive nutrients dis-
cording to the United to understand the true nature point sources. Point sources experiencing these grave chal- charges are experienced in
States Environmental Pro- of this environmental problem refer to specific dischargers lenges, nutrients pollution in several lakes, rivers, and
tection Agency (EPA). and implement mitigation such as municipal wastewater waterways can worsen situa- streams leading to eutrophi-
What are your views? strategies before it is too late. treatment plants, industrial tions and greatly limit its cation process thus becoming
Mr. Ambulkar: Without a effluents whereas non-point usability. Hence, as responsi- a global problem. The gravity
doubt, nutrients pollution in Can you describe nutrients sources are discrete discharg- ble citizens, it is important of such pollution problem
waterways is one of the key pollution and its major ers like agricultural lands and that we are concerned and varies widely across different
challenges water industry has contributors to waterbod- stormwater runoffs. Nutrients well-aware of nutrients prob- parts of the world.
faced in recent times. It car- ies? are typically carried to water- lems. People shall support and
ries great significance Mr. Ambulkar: Both min- ways from such originators actively participate in the pol- What inspired you to un-
towards the sustainable use of eral and non-mineral nutri- via surface or groundwater. lution control measures. dertake waterways nutri-
available water resources ents are essential for the exis- ents pollution as an area of
around the world. Apart from tence and growth of aquatic What are the main reasons Why has the nutrients con- expertise?
the water quality issues, nutri- plants. However, the presence people should be con- tamination become a Mr. Ambulkar: I am work-
ents pollution can adversely of excess nutrients (such as cerned about nutrients global issue now? ing in the environmental sec-
impact aquatic life, surround- nitrogen and phosphorus) pollution? Mr. Ambulkar: To achieve tor for many years and water
ing environment, recreational may lead to an aggressive Mr. Ambulkar: Water is improved quality of life and pollution prevention has been
businesses, tourism industry, growth of biomass that can an integral part of life. Human comfort levels, societies are the main forte of my profes-
property values, fisheries and spread widely across the beings rely on water promoting the development of sion. However, as the experi-

52 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


KNOWLEDGE

ence and knowledge grew I organizations are spending a mal farming staff can help to What changes will this lead stituents that are gaining
was drawn towards the nutri- significant amount of time, cut down on non-point nutri- to in wastewater treat- major attention worldwide for
ents pollution area remark- funds and efforts towards ents discharges via fertilizer ment in the near future? their recovery and reuse in
ably. While several kinds of developing sustainable solu- and manure management. Mr. Ambulkar: Changing the farming and agricultural
pollutants exist in the environ- tions to tackle and mitigate Prioritization of government paradigms towards handling fields as substitutes for com-
ment, I realized the unique this problem. The advent of and private funding towards nutrients at wastewater treat- mercial fertilizers. Successful
nature and significance of wastewater biological nutri- promoting nutrients-pollution ment facilities are already evi- recovery processes will not
nutrients contamination ents removal technologies, mitigation projects via loans, dent. New biological nutrient only help to minimize nutri-
towards communities. resource recovery processes, grants and other means at removal (BNR) and enhanced ents pollution in the water-
Evolving environmental regu- pre-treatment programs will federal, state and local levels nutrient removal (ENR) tech- ways but also potentially gen-
lations and government prior- help to reduce nutrient pollu- can provide the necessary nologies are emerging rapidly. erate income for wastewater
ities towards this problem tion from point sources. impetus towards these initia- In addition, sewage treatment facilities by selling recovered
emboldened my thoughts that Whereas, implementation of tives. Overall, public, govern- facilities are exploring the nutrient-rich products, thus
this issue will have a major best management practices, ments, industries and envi- possibilities of recovering becoming financially more
impact on water industry’s education & training, opti- ronmental professionals nutrients (especially nitrogen self-reliant. Growing ambi-
future and hence requires mization of fertilizers use, would need to work hand-in- and phosphorous) from tions, cut-throat research and
proper attention. As a result, I development of riparian zones hand and make a collaborative wastewater. Such efforts are a development (R&D) work fol-
was inspired to focus my and other innovative effort towards reducing part of resource recovery ini- lowed by the emergence of
efforts towards the nutrients approaches can serve as effec- waterways nutrients pollution tiatives taken up by many new technologies can make
pollution topic. tive tools for reducing non- via comprehensive programs. wastewater entities world- this nutrients recovery
point nutrients discharges to wide. Concepts like economic process economically viable.
Can you tell us about the waterbodies. Also, projects Water and pollution agen- nutrients recovery from
work that you do on the re- undertaken to improve the cies are challenged by a sewage and selling of resulting Your final thoughts for the
duction of nutrients pollu- water quality of already pol- lack of information needed products in sustainable mar- global water professional
tion from wastewater? luted waterbodies via bio- to better understand the kets are making rounds within community?
Mr. Ambulkar: Till now, I manipulation, sediments nutrients problem. Very the wastewater industry. Mr. Ambulkar: Amongst
have made several valuable dredging, application of chem- few municipal facilities Finally, either as a pollutant or many challenges, our progeny
contributions towards nutri- icals, oxygenation and other have enforceable limits on resource, nutrients are bound are surely expected to face the
ents pollution related topics evolving technologies, will nitrogen and phosphorus to play a major role in shaping nutrients pollution problems.
including a recent prominent assist to restore water quality discharges, and even less up wastewater industry’s Within the given social,
publication “Nutrient and aquatic environment in are required to monitor the future. political, technological and
Pollution and Wastewater affected countries. Several Nitrogen and Phosphorus financial constraints, environ-
Treatment Systems” for success stories for water qual- pollution. How can we Can you elaborate more on mental experts can provide
Oxford University’s Research ity restoration are document- solve this issue? the wastewater resource right directions to public, reg-
Encyclopedia. Consulting ed across the globe, while oth- Mr. Ambulkar: Knowledge recovery concept? ulators, and governments
work has involved working on ers are in the process of allevi- of nutrients pollution amongst Mr. Ambulkar: To mini- towards alleviating nutrients
several municipal wastewater ating nutrients pollution prob- environmental agencies and mize exploitation of natural issues.
treatment projects for nitro- lems. municipal institutions is cru- resources and at the same As a global professional
gen and phosphorus removal. cial for handling this problem time meet growing communi- community, let’s take positive
It included a wide range of What are the other most on a broader scale. This ty needs, many sectors have steps necessary to make pollu-
technologies starting from challenging issues from understanding varies greatly started looking into the reuse tion mitigation process a
simpler eco-friendly systems your point of view - to re- for different areas, regions, and recycling of available ground reality.
like floating islands, con- duce the nutrient load - and countries. Available tech- resources. Such steps help to Archis Ambulkar is an
structed wetlands all the way which will need to be ad- nical know-how, staff profi- curb down on further environ- International Water Expert
to more complex biological dressed in the near future? ciencies, government capabili- mental degradation and pro- based in Ohio, USA. He is a
systems. As part of various Mr. Ambulkar: Apart ties, environmental programs mote optimum utilization of renowned environmental profes-
technical task-force commit- from technological advance- and financial incentives can already extracted natural sional with significant contribu-
tees, I have assisted with ments, public awareness is an greatly impact how municipal sources that are in-use or tions towards water and waste-
developing industry reference important factor that cannot facilities and administrations rejected forms. water fields. He is the author of
manuals on nutrients topic as be ignored. It can significantly approach these problems. Environmental field is Oxford University’s Research
well as authored case studies help to curb nutrients pollu- Appropriate education, catching up fast with these Encyclopedia for the topic
and expert columns in envi- tion via source reduction. training, and orientation are concepts and wastewater sec- “Nutrient Pollution and
ronmental periodicals and Wastewater is generated as a necessary to bring staff upto tor is no exception. Raw Wastewater Treatment
trade magazines focused on result of used water by com- the speed on nutrients issues. sewage is rich in many con- Systems” and a well-received
related subjects. munities as well as deter- Governments and regulatory stituents such as metals, book “Guidance for Professional
gents, cosmetics, food and staff shall develop new rules organics, specialty chemicals, Development in Drinking Water
What are the methods that other chemicals dumped from and regulations to meet local nutrients, and so on. Rather and Wastewater Industry”, pub-
can be used to tackle and industries into the sewer sys- and regional needs. This will than merely treating, water lished by International Water
mitigate the issue of nutri- tems. By educating people, help to limit, monitor as well experts have started realizing Association. He has served as an
ents pollution? quantities of nutrient-rich as treat nutrient pollutants the significant potential for expert on prestigious global
Mr. Ambulkar: Nutrients substances disposed of in prior to being discharged to recovering such valuables. platforms including United
pollution is a global phenome- wastewater can be minimized. waterways. Apart from devel- Recovery can be in the Nations (UN) World Ocean
non and a complex problem to This will reduce the burden on oping stringent regulations, form of re-usable water, ener- Assessment Program and UN
manage. However, treatment systems and associ- effective implementation gy or quality chemicals. Food and Agriculture
researchers, academic institu- ated purification costs. Also, strategies are necessary to Nitrogen and phosphorus are Organization’s Global Soil
tions, and governmental training agricultural and ani- ensure success. two key wastewater con- Partnership.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 53


GROUND REALITY

Groundwater Depletion in Fatehgarh


Sahib,Punjab: ACase Study
The groundwater resources can be exhausted if no proper governance is done to safeguard
their future.
By Dr. Prashant Kumar

GROUNDWATER IS A criti- and various aspects pertain- ing from 29-30 meters below conservation of shortages, might lead to a higher rate of
cal resource and people gen- ing to the research based on ground level in the last scarcity, and depletion of surface run-off resulting into
erally take it for granted and the groundwater. However, decade. The reasons for groundwater level. lesser recharge. Artificial
consume it without having any governance of the groundwa- groundwater decline are recharge is good for flatter
consideration to its replenish- ter has largely been ignored in increased installation of sub- Artificial Recharge regions. There are several
ment and consequences in the last several decades. As a mersible pumps by every Natural replenishment of advantages of artificial
future. However, groundwater result, it has become quite landowner due to small land groundwater is a slow work recharge such as the increase
resources can be exhausted if crucial to bring out certain holding, excessive pumping of and often, it can’t match up in subsurface storage of
no proper governance is done initiatives for better gover- groundwater by several sub- the rate of consumption and groundwater, negligible evap-
to safeguard their future. nance of natural resource like mersible pumps at a time due exploitation of groundwater. oration, water quality
Population bursting and groundwater. Worldwide, var- to limited Power Supply, sub- Artificial recharge refers to improvement by infiltration
industrialization have caused ious strategies corresponding mersible pumps vs hand the transfer of surface water through permeable vadose
immense damage to the to water conservation tech- pumps, routine cultivation, to subsurface aquifers by zone elements, and maintain-
aquifer systems and as a nologies are being adopted and geopolitical reasons such human interference via civil ing the land, thereby, counter-
result, groundwater resources and in 2011, UNESCO’s as Sutlez-Yamuna Link. engineering techniques. This ing the land-subsidence.
are facing severe danger from International Hydrological integrates the source water to
the perspectives of both quali- Programme has come out Recommendations to Aug- groundwater reservoir and is Scientific Disposal of Waste
ty and quantity. The rural with certain initiatives to be ment the Depleting Water purely dependent on the Unscientific disposal of
areas are also not in good implemented across the world Table hydro-geological settings of industrial effluents causes sig-
state and facing severe for better groundwater gover- Though agencies responsi- the concerned area. It is use- nificant surface runoff of rain-
groundwater decline because nance. The pilot study area for ble for systematic efforts for ful for saving the surface run- fall thereby limiting the scope
aquifer systems are connected our analysis is Fatehgarh pushing the better gover- off and increasing the buffer of elevation of groundwater
systems across the whole Sahib district of Punjab, India nance of groundwater can’t be of groundwater below the level below the earth surface.
earth. which is facing a severe underestimated, it would still earth surface. Surface gradi-
Though, there have been groundwater decline. It is an be required to have a strong ent plays a very significant Season-Based Cultivation for
several studies related to the over-exploited district with groundwater governance role in artificial recharge Reduced Evapotranspiration
groundwater flow dynamics the depth of water table rang- framework for management, because a higher gradient Optimal crop pattern can

54 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


GROUND REALITY

have a significant impact on tor. It facilitates farmers to Crop rotation can be a very also, many of the African efit analysis conclude that
irrigation of the crops in vari- cultivate with any water useful method for countering countries similar water situa- crop rotation and drip irriga-
ous seasons. In order to sus- stress even under water the declining levels of ground- tions have started using drip tion system are the most suit-
tain the groundwater, water- scarce situations, subsequent- water in Fatehgarh Sahib dis- irrigation system for better able techniques for increasing
intensive crops such as paddy, ly enhancing the productivity. trict because it would involve groundwater utilization. the groundwater reserve. The
sugarcane, and onions should rotation among several crops According to the report of major reasons for the adop-
be grown with less water The Solution for Fatehgarh from high water-intensive to hydro-climatic situations for tion of drip irrigation system
requiring crops depending Sahib District low water-intensive (vegeta- the hunger goal by UN are obviating the moisture
upon the season. This is done All the methods listed bles, groundnut etc.) and vice Millennium Development stress to crops, precise water
to reduce the use of scarce above have their own advan- versa. This method, if Project, most of the develop- supply to the root zones of the
underground water resources tages and shortcomings. employed in a disciplined ing countries are facing crops preventing the water to
during the critical period Every method is unique in the manner, could augment the hunger alleviation challenges flow other parts of the land,
when recharge would be less sense that there are environ- groundwater level in 3-5 years and drip irrigation will contin- leading to a reduction in weed
or nil, as compared to the mental conditions which favor to a reasonably low depth ue to play an important role in growth. Further, regulated
actual use or requirement. the application of a particular where farmers won’t have to feeding the world population. water supply lets the crops
Water demand should match method at a particular use very high power motors to absorb the fertilizers without
with water availability, and region/site. extract water from the The Cost-Benefit Analysis any loss through evaporation
must be decided on the basis The very basic prerequi- ground. Another aspect of Fatehgarh Sahib district is leading to a better yield in
of relative returns from crops site for the application of arti- crop rotation is the scientific a fertile land and the socio- crop production. The govern-
using water, especially during ficial recharge is the availabil- usage of fertilizers and pests economic aspects of ment agencies should help in
the critical period of under- ity of surplus source water which will indirectly conserve Fatehgarh Sahib district are purchase and installation of
ground water availability. resources. It is assessed in the groundwater by not let- reasonably good. The imple- irrigation equipment by grant-
terms of surplus monsoon ting the roots of the crops mentation of Drip irrigation ing loans to the farmers at a
Scientific Usage of rainfall pattern, its frequency, access more subsurface water system can be encouraged by subsidized rate. Farmers
Fertilizers and Pests number of rainy days and its than what is required for a the government agencies by should also be given training
Fertilizers and pesticides variation in space and time. In satisfactory yield as a result of giving subsidies in the pur- on efficient irrigation tech-
have an indirect role in order to build the recharge photosynthesis. Further, the chase of equipment required nologies for the adoption of
groundwater decline. The structure, a detailed analysis application of compost or for the drip irrigation system. more scientific agricultural
excessive application of fertil- of hydro-geological features organic fertilizers improves Drip irrigation will definitely practices.
izers and pesticides is such as hydraulic boundaries, the soil structure by enhanc- increase the profitability and
required to supply the food to storage capacity, porosity, ing its water holding capacity. productivity of the farmers in
our bursting population. In hydraulic conductivity, natu- Organic materials such as the longer term. Studies con-
order to produce a larger ral recharge etc. of the site is wood chips, dung, and straw - ducted in similar regions in
amount of food on the limited needed. The site selection is all break down into compost Maharashtra shows that drip
farmland, people use fertiliz- one of the most crucial task and increase the soil’s ability irrigation reduces the cost of
ers/pesticide. Well-fertilized and often those aquifers are to hold water. cultivation, particularly in the
crops have more vigorous and selected which absorb large Since Fatehgarh Sahib dis- labor-intensive farming works
extensive roots systems that quantities of water and hold it trict is facing a severe water- such as weeding, irrigation,
go deeper into the soil to for a longer duration. scarce situation, it would be and ploughing. As per the
access more stored water. The Artificial recharge might not very much prudent to accept available scientific results,
extra water allows transpira- be a very good way to aug- the usefulness of one of the cost of cultivation for drip irri-
tion to continue longer so ment the depleting level of most efficient water conserva- gated crops per acre is 29%
more photosynthesis can groundwater because of tion technique i.e. drip irriga- lower than what is for non- About the Author
occur. Adequate plant nutri- unavailability of any major tion system also known as drip irrigated cultivation in Dr. Prashant Kumar is a
tion also enables crops to river water sources. Though micro-irrigation system. It the same area for crops like Scientist in Central Scientific
establish roots more quickly there is a Sutlez-Yamuna link, delivers water directly to a Chillies and so on. This also Instruments Organisation,
to access water before it per- it is not operational due to plant’s roots and reduces the leads to saving of operation Chandigarh which is a national
colates from the soil profile. geopolitical reasons and the unnecessary evaporation. It costs such as irrigation, weed- laboratory under CSIR. He also
matter being subjudice. could further be complement- ing, and fertilizers. Water con- holds a concurrent position of
Sprinkler Systems Various water-scarce ed with smart irrigation servation due to the imple- Honorary Assistant Professor at
Sprinkler irrigation sprays regions have implemented scheduling which is a part of mentation of drip irrigation is Academy of Scientific &
water into the air through per- optimal crop rotation and smart water management sys- almost 63 percent over flood Innovative Research - an insti-
forated pipes or nozzles. For have shown that irrigation tem. In order to prevent irrigation. Also, the electricity tute of national importance and
row crops, this system poses water use during vital periods wastage of water through consumption in drip irrigation a meta-university under CSIR.
the least risk to groundwater could be cut down to half of overwatering the crops, irri- system is significantly low- He has done B.Tech from
because water can be applied the normal usage. The agricul- gation schedulers could be ered over the conventional Manipal Institute of Technology,
more precisely than with flood ture of Fatehgarh Sahib dis- installed to monitor the water irrigation system. All these Manipal, Karnataka followed
or furrow irrigation. trict is mainly based on the requirement of the crops. cost benefits of drip irrigation by M.Tech and Ph.D from
Throughout the world, sprin- cultivation of paddy and sug- Several of Maharashtra system supersede the use of AcSIR. He is a recipient of the
kler irrigation is probably the arcane which are water-inten- regions have been facing simi- flood irrigation system. PGRPE Fellowship of CSIR
most important use of water. sive crops. Farmers in this vil- lar situations of water scarcity from 2010-2012. His research
Drip sprinkler system has lage are not motivated to and water level decline and Conclusion interests include soft computing,
been introduced to reduce change their cultivation pat- they have adopted drip irriga- The feasibility assessment water resource management,
water consumption in the tern due to lack of financial tion system for efficient use of of aforementioned techniques remote sensing, decision analy-
agriculture sector, leading to support (MSP) provided by water and conserve the for groundwater level aug- sis, and environmental model-
the sustainability of this sec- the government agencies. groundwater. Internationally mentation and their cost-ben- ling.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 55


MUNICIPAL WATER WATER REUSE

Water Reuse Reclaim Water For Public


Water Supplies
When properly treated to appropriate standards, high-quality reclaimed wastewater can be a
sustainable supplement to any water utility’s supply portfolio. Reclaiming water from
wastewater systems for irrigation, industrial, ecological, and municipal uses has been
successful in many places and may hold promise for many others.
By Alex Gerling

lowing terms are commonly forms of potable reuse:


used to describe the types and • Indirect potable reuse (IPR)
purposes of water reuse: introduces purified water
• Recycled or reclaimed into an environmental
water is water that has been buffer (e.g., a groundwater
used more than once. aquifer or a surface water
• De facto reuse occurs when reservoir, lake, or river)
downstream communities before the blended water is
use a drinking water source introduced into a water sup-
surface water that has been ply system (Figure 2).
subjected to upstream • Direct potable reuse (DPR)
wastewater discharges introduces purified water
(Figure 1). directly into an existing
• Non-potable reuse refers to water supply system
recycled or reclaimed water (Figure 3).
that isn’t used for drinking Many IPR projects have
but is safe to use for irriga- been established in the United
tion or industrial processes. States. Generally, they involve
• Potable reuse refers to recy- using reclaimed water to
cled or reclaimed water recharge groundwater
that’s safe for drinking. aquifers and augment surface
Advanced purification water reservoirs used as
processes are proven tech- drinking water supplies.
A Good Example of Indirect Potable Reuse is the Nine-Acre South Los Angeles Wetlands Park, an Innovative nologies that transform treat- Two different approaches
Project that Collects Urban Runoff from a Storm Drain, Removes Trash and Pollutants, and Sends the Water ed wastewater into the high- to implementing DPR can be
Through Constructed Wetlands for Treatment. quality water - or purified taken. Both apply additional
water - for potable reuse. advanced treatment to the
WATER AND WASTE- meet future water demands, from homes and businesses is Purified water surpasses used water but differ in the
WATER utilities worldwide ensure public health, and pro- highly treated and used to state and federal drinking location of blending. In one
are finding the quality and vide economic and environ- augment public water sup- water standards as well as approach, the purified water
quantity of their conventional mental sustainability. Besides plies. additional water quality objec- is blended with the raw water
water supplies increasingly working to increase water tives. In general, non-potable supplies (e.g., surface water or
affected by population conservation, many communi- What is Water Reuse? reuse involves treatment that groundwater) before undergo-
growth, urbanization, pro- ties are seeking new strate- Water reuse involves using doesn’t meet drinking water ing additional process treat-
longed and severe droughts, gies to develop sustainable water more than once to standards, and water quality ment in a drinking water
and climate change. In addi- water supplies for the future. expand a community’s avail- objectives may vary depend- plant. The other approach
tion, opportunities to develop Accordingly, there’s a clear able water supply. The prac- ing on the end use and risk for involves blending the purified
new groundwater or surface need to use existing local tice of water reuse occurs in human exposure. Potable and water directly into the potable
water sources have become water resources effectively to various forms throughout the non-potable reuse are prac- water distribution system
more challenging to discover produce and provide reliable world. The latest advances in ticed in the United States, and downstream of the drinking
and act upon. high-quality water. One viable water technology allow com- de facto reuse is relatively water plant (i.e., pipe-to-pipe
Such increased pressure approach to address existing munities to reuse water for a common. or direct-to-distribution
on a water system may make a and anticipated water short- variety of purposes, including DPR). Although DPR and IPR
diversified water sources ages is to implement water drinking, irrigation, and Indirect vs. Direct Reuse provide significant additions
portfolio a requirement to reuse, in which used water industrial processes. The fol- In general, there are two to local water supplies, nei-

56 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


MUNICIPAL WATER WATER REUSE

guidelines specifically for the minimum quality stan-


potable reuse, most will still dards for drinking water and
consider potable reuse proj- requires all public water sup-
ects on a case-by-case basis. A pliers to comply with those
summary of each state’s water standards.
Drinking water reuse requirements (not spe- Further, source water for
treatment facility cific to potable reuse) is pro- potable reuse is also regulated
Community 1 Community 2 vided in the US further upstream. The Clean
Environmental Protection Water Act (CWA), established
Agency (USEPA) 2012 docu- in 1972, regulates pollutant
Drinking water
ment Guidelines for Water discharges and allows USEPA
treatment facility
R e u s e to set quality standards for
(https://nepis.epa.gov/Adobe/ US surface waters. The CWA
PDF/P100FS7K.pdf), along was integral for protecting
with recommendations for and improving the quality of
water reuse opportunities, source waters throughout the
technical guidance, and key nation, thereby making
considerations for implement- potable water reuse attain-
Community Wastewater ing reuse projects. able. Building on these two
treatment facility Wastewater Additionally, in a collabora- critical pieces of legislation,
treatment facility tive effort, AWWA, the the water industry can use
WateReuse Research potable reuse to augment pub-
Foundation, Water lic water supplies in a manner
Environment Federation, and that protects public health.
National Water Research Potable reuse is also grow-
Figure 1: De Facto Reuse - This Refers to Unplanned Potable Reuse. For Example, a Wastewater Treatment Plant Institute developed a DPR ing in popularity in Canada
from One City Discharges Effluents to a River that Another City Downstream Uses for its Drinking Water framework document that and Mexico. However, specific
Supply. provides information about potable reuse regulations
the value of DPR as a water haven’t been developed in
ther can meet all potable Potable Reuse Benefits Thus, state and local agencies supply option and the funda- either country, and potable
water demands. Because potable reuse pro- are responsible for setting mental components to imple- reuse projects are considered
vides especially high-quality potable reuse standards. Most menting a DPR program. on a case-by-case basis where
Water Resources Planning water, the end-uses are more states have established regu- Regardless of the source, appropriate.
To maximize resources, diverse than for other types of lations or guidelines for water all water distributed to US
many water managers are reclaimed water. reuse, and state regulations communities as potable water Potable Reuse Treatment
attempting to achieve a Environmentally, potable are expected to be regularly must meet drinking water Public health protection is
diverse portfolio of water reuse provides a more sus- updated and developed as quality standards derived at the forefront of potable
sources as part of a long-term tainable water supply, using states gain experience and from the Safe Drinking Water reuse. A wide range of estab-
strategy. Public water sup- existing water supplies more confidence in water reuse. Act (SDWA). Established in lished treatment options and
plies in North America come efficiently by recycling a Although few states have 1974, SDWA provides the process combinations is avail-
from various sources, includ- resource that would otherwise established regulations or framework for USEPA to set able to ensure potable reuse
ing surface water, groundwa- be discharged. Potable reuse
ter, desalinated seawater and may also decrease the amount
brackish groundwater, and of water imported to urban
Advanced water
reused water. areas (some from long dis- treatment facility
Planning and managing tances), reduce groundwater
water resources become extraction, and minimize
increasingly complex as sur- wastewater discharges to the
face water and groundwater environment. In turn, energy
supplies in many regions are costs may be lowered, ground-
stressed. Additionally, desali- water overdrafts limited, and
nating seawater or brackish the health of aquatic ecosys-
groundwater isn’t always eco- tems that receive wastewater Wastewater
nomically feasible. Importing effluent improved. Finally, Community treatment facility
water from other communi- potable reuse uses a local
ties also has a high price tag. resource that’s accessible for
As a result, many communi- many water systems, unlike
ties are incorporating potable sources such as seawater and Drinking water
reuse into their integrated brackish groundwater, which treatment facility
water resources plan as a may not be available depend-
practical solution to ensure ing on geography and geology.
future reliable water sources. Surface water or groundwater supply
Potable reuse offers many Potable Reuse Regulations
benefits in addition to playing Federal potable reuse reg-
an integral role in a water ulations haven’t been devel- Figure 2: Indirect Potable Reuse: It Means That, After Extensive Treatment, Water Spends Time in an
portfolio. oped in the United States. Environmental Buffer Before Undergoing Additional Treatment and Entering the Potable Distribution System.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 57


MUNICIPAL WATER WATER REUSE

water supplies prior to a sub- media. The successful imple-


sequent drinking water plant, mentation and ongoing suc-
the engineered storage buffer cess of potable reuse projects
occurs between the advanced rely on educating and encour-
Engineered and drinking water treatment aging local communities to
storage plants. For pipe-to-pipe DPR, gain support.
buffer the engineered storage buffer
occurs between the advanced The Future of Potable
Advanced water treatment treatment plant and potable Reuse
facility water distribution system. Water is a precious, yet
* limited, resource that must be
Wastewater
treatment facility Public Education and Out- used more efficiently. It’s
Community reach imperative that supplies
Public engagement is criti- remain available and pre-
cal to the success of potable served for future generations.
reuse projects. As water Potable reuse is a viable and
Drinking water treatment facility stressors continue to grow environmentally friendly
and potable reuse expands, it’s strategy for achieving
necessary to provide trans- improved efficiency, and it will
Surface water or groundwater supply
parent communication, build undoubtedly play a significant
consumer confidence, and role in water supply portfolios
Figure 3: Direct Potable Reuse: It Eliminates the Environmental Buffer Associated with Indirect Potable Reuse, address public concerns, all of in the future.
Relying on More Robust and Redundant Treatment. which require a comprehen- To implement and expand
sive program of public and potable reuse projects, guid-
produces the best water qual- combination of advanced Processes used to achieve political involvement and edu- ance and standards must be
ity that protects against processes in the second point significant pathogen disin- cation. continually enhanced, process
adverse health effects from of treatment. A comprehen- fection and break down First, it’s essential to control must be refined as
contaminant exposure. Public sive summary of advanced organic contaminants, inform communities in a treatment technologies and
health concerns are a driving treatment options is provided including pharmaceuticals; proactive manner, addressing strategies evolve, and cus-
force to advance research in the aforementioned DPR examples include ozone or key questions: Where does tomized operator training and
efforts, develop new regula- framework document, includ- ultraviolet light in combina- your water come from? Why certification must be devel-
tions, enhance treatment ing the following: tion with hydrogen perox- do we need alternative water oped.
technologies, and train skilled • Biological Treatment: The ide. sources? Answering these Additionally, as more
water operators. use of bacteria and other An advanced treatment questions for consumers will municipalities and water
microorganisms to con- plant for potable reuse will improve public understanding agencies embrace the benefits
First Treatment Points sume and remove organic include many of these of water supply and treat- of potable reuse, it’s increas-
As many as four different materials and nutrients in processes in combination to ment, which is crucial to ingly critical to mitigate con-
treatment points are associat- the water; examples include achieve water quality goals as informed decision making. It’s cerns and promote public con-
ed with potable reuse. First, biologically active media fil- well as provide resilient, also important to make the fidence about potable reuse.
all wastewater is treated ters and anaerobic denitri- redundant, and robust treat- natural water cycle a part of
before discharge using one or fying filters (specifically for ment in a multiple-barrier the conversation. All water on About the Author
more of the following steps: removing nitrate and approach to contaminant Earth is used and reused, over Alex Gerling is a water
• Preliminary Treatment: nitrite). removal. and over. reuse engineer with AWWA,
Removal of suspended and • Membrane Filtration: Water reuse happens daily Denver.
floating particles that may Processes that use a mem- Third Treatment Point all over the world. When a Source: This article original-
cause operational or main- brane barrier with micro- In addition to the waste- community’s treated used ly appeared in the January 2018
tenance problems with sub- scopic pores to remove sus- water and advanced potable water is discharged into rivers issue of Opflow, the water indus-
sequent treatment process- pended particles and patho- reuse treatment described and streams, downstream try’s most popular resource on
es. genic microorganisms; here, IPR also uses an envi- users clean and reuse that operations issues published by
• Primary Treatment: examples include microfil- ronmental buffer either before water. the American Water Works
Removal of a portion of the tration and ultrafiltration. or after advanced treatment Collaborative and coopera- Association (AWWA). The
suspended solids and organ- • Membrane Desalination: as the third point of treat- tive outreach with a uniform award-winning monthly maga-
ic matter. Processes that use a non- ment. The environmental message and consistent termi- zine presents new and estab-
• Secondary Treatment: porous, semi-permeable buffer may be a groundwater nology are needed for public lished technologies and ideas
Removal of most of the sus- membrane barrier to aquifer, surface water reser- acceptance of potable reuse that readers can apply to water
pended solids and organic remove salts, pharmaceuti- voir, or even natural or con- projects. Accordingly, it’s ben- treatment and distribution as
matter. cals, and other dissolved structed wetlands, providing eficial to initiate community well as wastewater operations.
• Tertiary Treatment: contaminants; examples storage, hydraulic transport, and media outreach several Opflow is a benefit for members
Removal of targeted dis- include reverse osmosis and and an additional barrier for years before construction of of AWWAIndia and a valued
solved solids and finer sus- nanofiltration. protecting public health. potable reuse treatment facili- resource for water professionals
pended materials. • Ozone: A powerful oxidant Although DPR doesn’t include ties is scheduled to begin. around the world. To join
used for disinfection and an environmental barrier, it Project success requires suffi- AWWAIndia, visit
Second Treatment Points breaking down organic con- does use an engineered stor- cient time to create rapport, awwaindia.org. To view the
This treated wastewater taminants, including phar- age buffer. If the DPR build trust, and establish original article, see
becomes the source of supply maceuticals. approach involves blending effective communication https://doi.org/10.5991/OPF.201
for potable reuse, which uses a • Advanced Oxidation: the purified water with raw strategies with the public and 8.44.0001.

58 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


MARKET

POSTEVENT
NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER SECURITY
IN TAMIL NADU

THE 1-DAY “NATIONAL Velumani, Hon’ble Minister for straints in meeting its demand resources availability, enue water and progressively
Conference on Water Security Municipal Administration & for water. Therefore, continued • Ways to mitigate vulnerabili- shift to 24x7 supply,
in Tamil Nadu” was recently Rural Development, focus on progressive policies, a ty arising from monsoon fail- • What technological options
organized jointly by the State Implementation of Special creation of strong capable insti- ures, are available for greater use
Government of Tamil Nadu Programmes. tutions and innovative project • Scaling up Systems of Rice of wastewater in the domes-
(India), IIT Madras, Madras The State Government of interventions are critical to Intensification, tic sector,
School of Economics and Tamil Tamil Nadu’s Vision TN 2023 attaining water security and • Treatment and re-use of • Introducing user charges for
Nadu Water Investment lays a credible infrastructure universally accessible and wastewater for agriculture, enhancing the sustainable
Initiative, to mark the impor- agenda and recognizes the need affordable water across all user • Involvement of local commu- provision of water,
tance of the World Water Day to achieve universal and afford- groups and sections of society. nities in water conservation, • Adoption of a mission mode
(22nd March 2018) and to flag able water access for all sec- This conference was and to eliminate “Open
the joint initiative of various tions of society as a key goal. It restricted to the challenges and • Enhance industry-govern- Defecation” and to achieve
institutions and stakeholders to is one of the few states to initi- opportunities in achieving ment-academia interactions “Total Sanitation” in Chennai
discuss and suggest technologi- ate large-scale projects includ- “Water Security for Agriculture to improve water use efficien- City.
cal and policy options to achiev- ing sea-water desalination while in TN, and for domestic sector cy in agriculture. The conference had several
ing water security in Tamil also addressing grass-root ini- in Chennai City”, as envisioned Likewise, the conference eminent speakers, from Govt.,
Nadu. tiatives which includes success- in Vision TN 2023 document. also deliberated on several chal- academia, and agricultural
The conference was inaugu- ful awareness creation and With regard to agriculture, the lenges in meeting the require- communities, specialists in
rated by Thiru D. Jayakumar, implementation efforts with conference deliberated on sev- ment of domestic water with water technologies, social sci-
Hon’ble Minister for Fisheries rainwater harvesting. Despite eral challenges such as: specific reference to Chennai entists, urban planners, and
& Personnel, Administrative these initiatives, Tamil Nadu City: NGOs from Tamil Nadu and
Reforms, and Thiru S.P. continues to face serious con- • Ways to augment water • How do we reduce non-rev- other states of India.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 59


MARKET

POSTEVENT
1-DAYNATIONALWORKSHOP - AROADMAP FOR
SMALL-SCALE STPS IN INDIA: FULFILLING THEIR
POTENTIALFOR HEALTHYAND WATER-SECURE CITIES
The aim of this event was to present the results of a two year research project and to discuss
with participants how to take small-scale sanitation forward in India.
By Lukas Ulrich

Evidence-Based Policy Rec- to discuss the prerequisites for clear responsibilities and
ommendations for More a successful scale-up of SSS adequate human resources
Sustainable Small-Scale systems that ensures public is needed, starting with a
Sanitation health, environmental protec- centralised, geo-referenced
In view of these challenges, tion, and safe water reuse. database for planning and
a research project called monitoring of SSS systems.
“Small-Scale Sanitation The Way Forward • An online database could
Scaling Up” (4S) was launched The scale-up of SSS is boost the market for treated
in 2016. The Bill and Melinda already a reality in India. An water by matching produc-
Gates Foundation-funded estimated 20,000 systems ers with potential users.
study is supported by the have been built to date, provid- • Technology choice should
ON 5 APRIL, a national work- to protect the environment, Ministry of Housing and ing an alternative to conven- follow a more systematic
shop on small-scale sewage improve public health and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and tional large-scale STPs. The process, ensuring the con-
treatment plants was organ- relieve water stress in urban aims to evaluate the current 4S results show that the neces- sideration of lifecycle costs
ized in New Delhi by Eawag, India, SSS systems have a key experience with small-scale sary treatment performance of systems.
BORDA, IIT Madras, and CDD role to play. STPs. Over the last two years, for water reuse can be • Design guidelines and mini-
Society, etc. The benefits of such sys- the research consortium con- achieved by a wide range of mum standards for small
Ever-growing Indian cities tems, typically serving 10 to sisting of Eawag (Switzerland), suitable technologies available STPs are required to ensure
are facing enormous water and 1000 households, have long IIT Madras, BORDA on the market. However, an units are able to reach per-
sanitation challenges, ranging been recognised. These sys- (Germany), and CDD Society array of practical challenges formance expectations.
from supply of sufficient quan- tems allow for stage-wise, studied more than 300 existing currently hinders systems • Adequate training, certifica-
tities and qualities of water, modular and flexible imple- SSS systems and their from fulfilling important sus- tion and accreditation mech-
treatment of used water and mentation and thus, cost-effec- enabling environment. The tainability requirements. This anisms are needed to capac-
sludge, and protection of tive local wastewater treat- final project goal is to provide leads to a large number of itate and support operators.
aquatic environments. For ment and reuse. Small-scale policy recommendations to underperforming systems that • Technology providers and
wastewater management STPs are therefore gaining increase the success rate of are unable to fulfil their pur- designers should provide
alone, huge financial resources interest and the number of these systems so they can fulfil pose. What is currently miss- operational support and
are needed to build and oper- units installed in India is grow- their potential. ing is a strategic management take responsibility for good
ate the required infrastruc- ing fast. However, a majority of and regulation of the scale-up performance during the first
ture. these systems are underper- A National Workshop on process. In other words, suit- years of operation.
Besides underground forming owing to poor plan- Small-Scale STPs able policy and institutional • There is a need for pragmat-
drainage and large-scale ning and weak monitoring sys- At the workshop held in frameworks have to be estab- ic water quality standards
sewage treatment plants tems, poorly trained personnel New Delhi the research con- lished to facilitate and support for small STPs, taking into
(STPs), small-scale sanitation and other reasons. In some sortium presented the results the planning, implementation, account different reuse
(SSS) systems are becoming Indian cities this has recently of their field study to a nation- handover and long-term opera- options.
increasingly important. Such made the headlines as new al audience. 120 participants tion of well-designed systems. • The right financial incen-
systems consist of small-scale STP and water reuse policies attended the event, including Several key recommenda- tives should be provided to
sewerage networks and STPs, faced the wrath of building stakeholders from govern- tions emerged from the work- stakeholders, such as property
allowing for treatment and owners and apartment associ- ment, utilities, industry, acade- shop presentations and discus- tax rebates for apartment
recycling of used water near ations, highlighting the need mia, donors and NGOs. The sions: owners who correctly operate
its point of generation. In order for pragmatic solutions. workshop provided a platform • A management system with STPs.

60 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


MARKET

POSTEVENT
RAAHATSANITATION CONFERENCE 2018
The event aimed at bringing together the experience and expertise of sanitation
entrepreneurs who are working towards tackling obstacles that are confronting the industry.
By EW News Bureau

vided them with a hands-on


experience on designing sensi-
tisation strategies.
In appreciation of this ini-
tiative, Dr. Harsh Vardhan and
Suresh Prabhu sent their
choicest wishes to the team.
The word of wisdom and
appreciation by Smt. Shubha
Bhambhani, ITS Officer,
Ministry of Communication
anf Information
Telecommunication, served to
motivate all present at the con-
ference.
TO CELEBRATE THE highlight the exemplary ing affordability of instru- inducing social change is intro- The eventful conference
achievements and the efforts change that Project Raahat ments conducted conducively ducing a behavioral shift in the was brought to a remarkable
made in the sanitation sphere, has brought about in all the by Smita Kulkarni (Founder, community. This workshop end, creating a resonating
Project Raahat hosted the communities in which it has Stonesoup.in), Anju Bisht (Co- witnessed an engrossing dis- impact on the minds of all
Raahat Sanitation Conference, intervened and the consisten- Director, Amrita SeRVe), Anju cussion on the same, which present there.
in partnership with Garv cy with which they remain the Arora (Founder, NARI) and was followed by a discussion Enactus is an international
Toilets on the occasion of the sector leaders. Kavya Menon (Co-Founder, on the various measures of not-for-profit organization
World Water Day, March 22, The first panel discussion Sustainable Menstrual impact assessment. The panel, which aims to take entrepreneur-
2018. was based on the freshwater Collectives, Kerala). It provid- head by Dr. Roshan Lal, ial action for social empower-
The event was organized to crisis in the country.The dis- ed useful insights into various Department of Psychology and ment with its chapters across 36
acknowledge the spirit of inno- cussion was held by esteemed substitutes for the contempo- Sidharth Das, Programme countries. One such chapter of
vation, ideation and collabora- panelists in the form of Mr. rary sanitary napkins. Leader, India Sanitation Enactus works in Shaheed
tion. It aimed at bringing Parag Aggarwal (Founder and The third panel emphasised Coalition, believed in commu- Sukhdev College of Business
together the experience and CMD,Janajal), Ms. Jyoti on ‘Build-Maintain-Treat’. It nity engagement and rein- Studies, which is the parent body
expertise of sanitation entre- Sharma (President, FORCE) was a discussion on infrastruc- forcement activities for suc- of Project Raahat, and works
preneurs who are working and Mr. Ranjan K Panda ture of toilets, its maintenance cessful sensitisation. An inter- towards providing digital litera-
towards tackling obstacles (WaterMan of Odisha). It and faecal sludge management active activity was carried out cy and eradicating open defeca-
that are confronting the indus- addressed the solutions for the between Mayank Midha with the audience which pro- tion across the country.
try and providing sustainable same and talked about har- (Founder, Garv Toilets),
solutions for the same. It also nessing natural resources for Venugopal Gupta (Director,
brought to light new technolo- proper sanitation. The pan- Toilet Board Coalition) and
gies that can be adequately elists ardently believed that Bhawna Prakash (Director,
adopted to increase impact the solution for water treat- Ernst and Young LLP). It
and efficiency in the sector. ment was available in the posed the essential question of
In order to provide an on- nature and that we must whether free usage of public
ground insight on the practi- attempt to solve the issues that and community toilets would
calities regarding urban slum confront this sector using its be beneficial for the govern-
sanitation, Project Raahat great potential. ment in the long run or not.
invited their slum sanitation The second panel discus- The panelists firmly refuted
entrepreneurs to narrate their sion touched upon ‘Menstrual the belief that free usage
experiences by way of an Hygiene’, an integral part of results in over-utilisation and
extremely heartfelt account. personal health and sanitation. vandalism.
Their life experiences not only It was a discussion on methods These were followed by a
moved but also inspired all the of tackling the taboo plaguing workshop on behavioral
attendees. They went on to menstrual hygiene and ensur- change, as the key element of

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 61


MARKET

POSTEVENT
INNOVATION SUMMIT
Schneider Electric India organized sessions on future of energy, disruptive technology,
product innovation captivate participants with a commitment to make the new India energy
positive at the global tour of its Innovation Summit.
By EW News Bureau

technology tools leading to “Schneider Electric’s technolo-


efficiency in business. The gies are powering businesses
summit also reiterated and key government pro-
Schneider Electric’s commit- grammes including Make in
ment to a sustainability agen- India, Smart Cities Mission
da and complete alignment and Electric Mobility. Nearly
with the Indian government’s 15% per cent of India’s solar
long-term goal of bringing capacity is based on Schneider
down carbon footprint. technology. Digitisation and
Addressing the plenary, IoT are going to transform
Amitabh Kant, CEO of Niti India’s energy ecosystem so
Aayog, said the country is that all citizens have access to Anil Chaudhry, Zone President & MD, Schneider Electric India
poised for paradigm shifts with uninterrupted electricity at
huge disruptions in physical affordable rates.” played its new range of IoT The event showcased the
infrastructure. “We are creat- The event featured strate- enabled smart home solutions integrated command centre of
ing 100 smart cities with gic discussions and interactive called ‘Connected Homes’. It the Naya Raipur smart city.
another 50 cities which will be deep-dive sessions among over ran digital demos bringing the Schneider Electric is develop-
Amitabh Kant, CEO, Niti Aayog connected by metro and a few 50 expert speakers from innovative platforms closer to ing the country’s first green
connected with bullet trains. Schneider Electric besides a its customers as well as to a field smart city at Naya Raipur
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC, The government is converging diverse group of customers broader audience. in Chhattisgarh. The integrat-
THE global leader in digital physical infrastructure with and partners from India and Given the huge potential in ed project for Naya Raipur
transformation of energy man- biometric-based digital infra- across the Asia Pacific region. the electric vehicle charging Development Authority
agement and automation, host- structure to improve human It was designed to further space, Schneider Electric also (NRDA) will cover the entire
ed its first Innovation Summit lives with uninterrupted water accelerate digital solutions to displayed its EV charging gamut of public services like
in India on March 19 and 20 in and electricity supplies, effi- make New India Energy infrastructure named transportation, surveillance,
New Delhi. The summit cient public transportation, Positive. The expert sessions EVLinks. EVLinks is already citizen applications, end-to-
brought together more than quality education and health- included those on intuitive available in different markets end smart grid solutions, end-
2,000 customers, policy mak- care services.” industries, living spaces of the across the world and the com- to-end water management sys-
ers and industry leaders. Opening the plenary ses- future, leveraging IoT in man- pany is keen to tap into the tem and integrated building
Leaders shared critical sion of the summit, Anil ufacturing facilities, enabling nascent Indian market for the management system. It will
insights on how automation Chaudhry, Zone President and digital hospitals, re-imagining same. The EV charging plat- have a centralised command
and digitisation are helping to Managing Director of data centres for a connected form can be installed both at and control centre to manage
manage energy with disruptive Schneider Electric India said, tomorrow, empowering indus- homes as well as public places. emergency responses as well.
trial OEMs for the digital era,
inclusive growth of India
through skill development and
rural electrification.
The summit also show-
cased Schneider Electric’s
Innovation Hub, an exhibition
of the company's rich portfolio
of software, solutions and serv-
ices. The integrated zone dis-
played its next-generation
EcoStruxure™ architecture
and platform that delivers IoT-
enabled open and interopera-
ble solutions across user seg-
The Innovation Hub ments. The company also dis- The Panel Discussion

62 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


COLUMN MARKET INSIGHTS

Global Decentralized Packaged/Containerized


Water Treatment Systems Market
- Frost & Sullivan

WATER STRESS, SCARCI- (MBR), Membrane Aerated treatment systems is APAC brought decentralized solu- have presence in multiple
TY across the globe coupled Bioreactor (MABR), Moving region which is set to grow at tions to a spotlight in Europe. regions and mostly cater to
with stringent regulations has Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR), a CAGR of 9.6% on the back of The Middle East and industrial and commercial
spurred the demand for fast, Submerged Aerated Filter strong demand from India Africa are emerging markets end users.
sustainable and economical (SAF), Sequential Bioreactor and China. Water stress or for decentralized treatment Compact, modular, easily
solutions. Decentralization of (SBR), Rotating Biological scarcity is the key growth fac- systems. Gulf countries are transportable and scalable
water and wastewater treat- Contactor (RBC), and other tor. India has made a signifi- increasingly diversifying their features of decentralized
ment systems has emerged as technologies such as sludge cant investment in river industrial base to reduce their packaged/containerized treat-
an economical alternative to dewatering equipment and clean-up projects and urban reliance on oil & gas. This will ment systems has given rise
conventional centralized anaerobic treatment systems. development projects such as lead to increased adoption of to the adoption of new busi-
treatment systems. The key drivers for decen- Namami Gange and Atal decentralized treatment solu- ness models such as Water as
Most urban regions have tralized packaged/container- Mission for Rural and Urban tions to serve industrial a Service (WaaS) and pay for
preferred conventional cen- ized treatment systems are Transformation (AMRUT). needs. African governments performance. Companies like
tralized treatment systems in rapid urbanization and indus- Both these projects envision are looking towards desalina- Clearford Inc. have success-
the past, as it has a long proj- trialization coupled with the need for 100% water and tion, recycling, and reuse of fully implemented the pay for
ect cycle and requires a large enforcement of regulations. sanitation coverage in target- water to mitigate water performance model for a sub-
footprint. It is often charac- New or revised water policies ed towns and cities. These scarcity. urban community in Canada.
terized by challenges like lack across the globe are aiming at projects are exploring decen- The resurgence of manu- These innovative business
of efficiency, high operation, a circular economy approach tralized water and wastewater facturing industries and the models prove highly beneficial
and maintenance cost. to mitigate water stress or treatment solutions. growth of shale gas explo- for both end user and the
Additionally, a centralized scarcity and achieve high lev- Industries in China have come ration and production have manufacturer especially when
treatment system requires an els of sustainability through under pressure to comply provided significant opportu- the end user does not have the
extensive piping network with decentralization. Smart city with the stringent regulation nities in North America, requisite funding.
expensive pumping station policies especially in Asia - or face closure and are thus whereas increasing pressure Additionally, it incentivizes
infrastructure and related Pacific (APAC) and Europe adopting decentralized pack- from the international organi- treatment efficiency and pro-
energy cost. exclusively calls for imple- aged/containerized treatment zations to safeguard the envi- motes the development of sus-
D e c e n t r a l i z e d mentation of decentralized system as a stop-gap solution. ronment is gradually pushing tainable technologies.
packaged/containerized treat- treatment systems in both Europe is currently the Latin American countries to Smart-IoT enabled process
ment system has a compact, urban & rural centers with an largest market for decentral- adopt decentralized solutions. control and management is
modular construction (with aim to reduce extensive piping ized packaged/containerized Countries such as Brazil, the future of the decentralized
plug & play characteristics) network and provide onsite treatment systems. The EU’s Chile, Mexico, Columbia, and packaged/containerized treat-
which allows for easy trans- recycling & reuse benefits. urban wastewater treatment Argentina are exploring ment systems. AI and cloud
portation and installation in a Frost & Sullivan estimates directive implies the need for decentralized solutions for computing are set to play a
short period of time. It is also that the global market for discharge standards to be met municipal and industrial significant role in the efficient
easily scalable, has a smaller decentralized packaged /con- even by small communities or requirements. and fully automated operation
footprint, and is highly effi- tainerized water and waste- settlements. More than 200 The decentralized treat- of the treatment system.
cient with lower energy con- water treatment systems European cities are currently ment systems market is highly
sumption. market is 3.09 Billion USD in being developed as smart fragmented and end-users are
The predominantly used 2016. And it is expected to cities, new semi-urban and relatively price-sensitive.
technologies for water treat- reach 6.08 Billion USD by suburban communities are Veolia and Suez are the global
ment are a combination of 2023, growing at a CAGR of being connected with decen- market leaders with a large
Reverse Osmosis (RO), Ultra 6.2%. Industries are the major tralized treatment systems. municipal and industrial cus-
Filtration (UF) or end users of the decentralized This has helped reduce cost tomer base. Fluence, EEC
Microfiltration (MF), Media packaged/containerized water and keep pace with urbaniza- Global, MENA Water,
based filtration systems, Ion and wastewater treatment tion without stress on the WesTech, and WPL are some
exchange treatment systems systems constituting almost existing infrastructure. of the leading Tier-II compa-
and Dissolved Air Flotation 48% of the market followed by Horizon 2020, an EU funded nies that have a strong region-
(DAF). Disinfection units are the municipal and commercial program for research and al presence with a significant About the Author
add-ons to the treatment sys- end users who constitute innovation emphases the need installed base in America, Paul Hudson is a Senior
tems. The treatment tech- 27.2% and 24.7% respectively. for innovation in water man- Europe, and the Middle East. Research Analyst at Frost &
nologies commonly used for The fastest growing mar- agement and efficiency in Other companies like Delphin, Sullivan
wastewater treatment are ket for decentralized pack- water infrastructure to miti- Devise Engineering S.A,
Membrane Bio Reactor aged/containerized water gate water stress. This has Aqwise and Ion Exchange @FrostSullivanEE

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 63


COLUMN MARKET INSIGHTS

The Case for Valuing Water in the Philippines


Discussing the importance of valuing water, as well as the development of economic and
policy frameworks developed by Aither for the Australian Water Partnership designed to
improve resource governance.
By Yang Villa, IWC for the Australian Water Partnership (AWP)

which consider the contextual which accounts and compares tion and CBA to aid invest-
nature of water use and not all economic costs and bene- ment decisions. We compare
merely its type of use. When fits to society. This whole-of- baseline (business-as-usual)
resource allocation decisions society approach lends case with the proposed proj-
consider these values, water is greater weight to overall ect case to determine under
able to (quite literally) flow to social impact than typical which scenario the benefici-
users who place higher impor- investment methods such as ary community is better or
tance on available water capital budgeting which uses worse off.
resources at any given time. metrics such as payback peri- Economic CBA is useful in
Huw (Foreground, Back Turned) Presenting to Government Officials For example, during cropping od and return on investment this case because it identifies
During Our Meeting with NWRB in 2017 seasons farmers place a high- to measure a project’s impact multiple ways that the project
er value on water relative to only to the investor. can benefit the community.
WHILE LISTENING TO this The example of the the use-value for domestic Economic CBA can help When the project’s benefits
interview, I was reminded of a National Water Resources potable water. Thus, this decision-makers - whether exceed costs, the resulting
feeling I get at any major Board (NWRB), the agency approach enables flexibility they are project proponents, “net benefits” helps justify the
water conference that there responsible for allocating and compromise in order to approving bodies, regulators, need for the project. Even a
are not enough economists water extraction and use in optimize water allocation. or special interest groups - CBA that initially results in
present. Economics, after all, the Philippines, reflects the make informed decisions by “net costs” is helpful because
is the study of maximizing and importance of economic valu- Why Economic Valuation is presenting a broad and bal- it guides the project propo-
allocating welfare given ation when allocating water. Important anced view that considers nent to re-calibrate the proj-
scarce resources – the prob- Guided by the Water Code of Economic valuation is the project impact to a greater ect in such a way that it
lem of optimization. There the Philippines, the NWRB process of identifying, quanti- number of stakeholders. results in a net benefit.
needs to be more discussion implements a rigid allocation fying, and comparing values of It also "gives voice" to non- On the policy front, I am
about optimized allocation protocol governed by type of one good to another, or the human stakeholders such as also working with Huw to
given all the talk about water water use. In decreasing multiple uses of a single prod- animals, natural ecosystems, introduce economic valuation
scarcity at these events. order, the hierarchy of water uct. It is used as a tool for and biodiversity. Techniques to Philippine regulatory bod-
When public policy on use prioritizes domestic making decisions about such as shadow pricing, natu- ies, including the NWRB,
water resources is developed, potable use before irrigation, resource allocation. Flexible ral capital valuation, and will- using Aither's WaterGuide.
it is also often the case that power generation, industrial water allocation regimes, as ingness-to-pay can enhance This is timely because the
the economic viewpoint is use, and then recreation and described above, require eco- the value of maintaining NWRB has recently conduct-
either not represented or fully other non-essential uses. This nomic valuation in order to ecosystem services, thereby ed a series of national consul-
understood. In the hierarchy is strictly observed optimize resources at any promoting protection and tations which will lead to the
Philippines, where I work, regardless of seasonal condi- given time. conservation rather than development of a National
regulatory bodies are domi- tions, physical constraints, or In his Kini interview, Huw extraction or degradation. In Water Security Roadmap. We
nated by technical experts user demand. Pohlner suggested that there the case of NWRB's allocation hope this will be shaped and
whose contributions are no On several occasions, this is a need to inform resource decisions, economic CBA guided by the concepts and
doubt essential to the function rigidity has given rise to con- governance with economic might actually reflect the need tools of economic valuation.
of public agencies. However, flict among competing water valuation. According to Huw, to allocate more volume for Yang Villa is Senior
without the work of econo- users. For example, farmers in economic valuation provides environmental flow relative to Manager for Public-Private
mists to weigh values, manage the Province of Bulacan have governments with a “risk- currently allowed extraction Partnerships & Lead for
trade-offs, and design incen- claimed damages against the based approach to volumes. Industry Innovation, Metro
tive structures, the policies decision of the Metropolitan identify...the core problems of Pacific Water and Co-Founder,
and programs arising from Waterworks and Sewerage their water management poli- Applying Economic Valua- Philippines Young Water
the good work of technical System to increase domestic cy, so that they can identify tion in the Philippines Professionals.
professionals may be blind to bulk water allocations for opportunities to maximize the Through a partnership The Australian Water
a myriad of socio-economic Metropolitan Manila from the resources that are available to between Metro Pacific Water Partnership (AWP) is an
factors affecting resource gov- Angat Dam at the expense of them.” and Aither, foreshadowed in Australian Government devel-
ernance. irrigators. Valuation is also useful on Huw’s Kini interview, I have opment initiative enhancing the
In cases such as this, econ- the project level. One method been working with Huw to sustainable management of
The Need for Economic omists can contribute to poli- employed to make decisions evaluate a water supply proj- water across the Indo-Pacific.
Valuation in Resource Gov- cymaking by evaluating and on the project level is econom- ect in the Philippines where
ernance weighing water-use values, ic cost-benefit analysis (CBA), we employ economic valua- @WaterPartnersAU

64 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


COLUMN WATER WISE

HowDo We Ensure Social AccountabilityIn Water


Sector: Lessons From AThinkShop
By Avinash Kumar

day event ‘Think Shop’ in Dar- vantaged and marginalized to this regard is thanks to the with technical support from
es-Salaam (Tanzania) in express voice, claim rights financial devolution imple- WaterAid used the tool of
March 2018. The event was and balance power relation- mented in the wake of 14th Citizen Report Cards (CRCs)
co-hosted by Water Witness ships, lead to better gover- Finance Commission recom- in two states of Tamil Nadu
International, Shahidi Wa nance, development, and mendations. The very process and Odisha on water and san-
Maji, University of Glasgow, democracy through greater of Gram Panchayat develop- itation services.
University of Dar-es-Salaam, transparency and integrity ment plans which are merging Two CRCs were conducted
Oxfam, WaterAid and Water within public institutions and as key documents for village within a gap of two years’ time
Integrity Network. efficient last mile delivery of level annual budgeting will in the same locations to (a)
The overall event frame- quality services. need to be engaged with pro- compare the performance of
work was to organize these While numerous thought- actively by CSOs. It will also the districts currently under
thoughts under ‘social provoking examples of social need a huge amount of invest- Swachh Bharat Mission -
accountability’, a term that accountability measures were ment in developing Rural or SBM-G, (b) assess
has increasingly gained coin in shared at the workshop, in my Panchayats’ capacities to whether any of the issues and
development practitioner’s opinion, three of them stood identify issues, prioritize them bottlenecks flagged in the first
world. According to a World out, especially for the Indian and ensure a robust planning phase showed any improve-
Bank e-guide, ‘Social context. The first pertains to and tracking of their budgets. ment, and (c) measure citizen
IN MY LAST COLUMN, I Accountability (SA) is an budget advocacy. A standout The second interesting case engagement and satisfaction
talked about the centuries-old approach to governance that story was from Kenya where was also from Kenya, which of the beneficiaries with the
vision of community-based involves citizens and Civil consistent advocacy for peo- highlights how new technology process of building individual
water management practices, Society Organizations (CSOs) ple’s participation in the budg- is not only there to command household latrines under
which can still enrich us pro- in public decision making. SA eting process has led to the and control but also to monitor SBM-G.
vided we take lessons from it. interventions can enable citi- government issuing formal and hold agencies accountable. While the findings brought
However, today the world has zens and civil society actors to guidelines for public partici- An app-based real-time feed- forth critical gaps in the
been evolving into far more articulate their needs to gov- pation in the budgeting back mechanism on water framework and implementa-
complex structures. The state ernments and service process and also public shar- services, its availability and tion of the government
is now playing a far more cen- providers on policy-making, ing of quarterly budget quality directly fed by people scheme, its applicability at a
tral role in our lives, where the management of public spends. What came out very in Nairobi on a pilot basis is larger scale on a regular basis
societies have formalized a finances and resources, serv- clearly is that budget advoca- leading to positive responses needs to be explored further.
comprehensive contract with ice delivery and also partici- cy needs to cover all levels, from the public services Citizen Report Cards,
the same. As a result, the state pate in monitoring the public from national to local and all authorities in real time too. All Social Audits are among tools
has become the ultimate duty sector and giving feedback on relevant institutions. of this goes to a server, which which various social sector
bearer to the people in terms government performance.’ Hence, while the Finance in turn is monitored by the organizations have been exper-
of providing basic services If we have to look at the rel- Ministry may be in charge of government agencies while the imenting with across sectors
including water. What does it evance of SA, then how do we allocations, it will be impor- local CSO provides them the for a while. It is here that the
mean in terms of real transla- ensure that it does not merely tant to engage relevant com- data, ensuring a transparent mandated Panchayati Raj
tion of this social contract? happen at the top, through a mittees or technical working third-party monitoring mecha- Committees like Village Water
Does it simply mean an organ- political process, but ensures groups of which would need to nism. A larger scale-up of the and Sanitation Committee’s
ized delivery of services over- everyday institutionalization be advised towards budget pilot is already being planned. role becomes critical to ensure
seen by the state or does it of such practices on the asks. A critical group, which is In India, it could be a game innovative community-based
also mean that people do have ground. It would also mean a often missed out from the changer for the larger swathes planning, management and
a role to play in it? If the latter critical shift in the role of non- oversight of CSOs is that of of rural India if technology monitoring of services. A good
is true, then how do we ensure profit organizations and civil audit agencies who are man- could be simplified further to amount of such work has hap-
that? What kind of institution- society practitioners, who in dated to conduct periodic include basic and not just pened in the health sector and
al structures, tools, and prac- many circumstances have audits of all the public servic- smartphones. After all, data in education. Perhaps, now is
tices could make that happen, been comfortable delivering es. The institutionalization of already says that there are the time to ensure the same for
so that this does not remain a services rather than helping this process has already many more phones in India water.
pipe dream, literally! people to ask questions. shown positive results in than toilets. Avinash Kumar is Director -
With these questions in The implicit belief in this terms of greater transparency The third presentation Programme, and Policy at
mind, more than 80 practi- framework is that it will lead and prioritization of people’s worth mentioning here is WaterAid India.
tioners and researchers from to increased citizen empower- needs. A recent entry point from India itself presented by
20 countries attended a three- ment by enabling the disad- that has emerged in India in Public Affairs Centre, which @Avinashkoomar

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 65


COLUMN URBAN WATER

PolicyTools to Achieve Urban Water Security


By Robert C Brears

with the price increasing with Pilot Program to provide com- including restricting water wastewater network as fast as
each successive block, or two- mercial, mixed-use, and multi- levels during droughts as well they can. This fun and educa-
part tariff systems which con- family residential property as for ensuring new develop- tional game takes users on a
tain a fixed charge and vari- owners with incentives to ments and renovations imple- journey building the water
able charge. Subsidies and install water reuse systems. ment water-efficient fixtures supply and wastewater net-
rebates meanwhile are used to Grants are available for water and appliances. Meanwhile, works from the source to tap
encourage water users to reuse systems at the individ- education and public aware- and then the wastewater back
make sustainable consump- ual building and district level, ness are important to gener- to the natural environment.
tion choices, for instance, sub- with district-scale projects ate an understanding of water The “Clean It Up” game lets
sidies are commonly used to involving two or more parcels scarcity and create the users discover the treatment
encourage the uptake of of land such as a housing acceptance of the need to stages at a wastewater treat-
water-saving devices and development, where the proj- implement water conserva- ment plant with players taken
water-efficient appliances or ect reduces demand in the tion programmes. through two key stages in a
technologies while rebates are shared distribution system. plant: the screening stage and
commonly used to accelerate Individual building-scale proj- City of Lancaster’s the activated sludge stage.
TRADITIONALLY, URBAN the replacement of old water- ects can receive up to Ordinances to Combat Finally, the “Pumping Station”
WATER managers, faced with using fixtures and appliances. $250,000 in reimbursement Water Wastage game involves users control-
increasing demand for water Overall, positive incentives for a system designed to save The City of Lancaster in ling the water supply to all the
alongside varying levels of are found to be more effective at least 32,000 gallons per day Canada has adopted two ordi- people living in a block of flats
supplies, have relied on large- than disincentives in promot- (GPD), and district-scale proj- nances to conserve local with users experiencing the
scale, supply-side infrastruc- ing water conservation. ects are eligible to receive up water resources and protect effort and energy required to
tural projects, such as dams to $500,000 in reimbursement the city from future shortages. supply clean tap water. As
and reservoirs, to meet Cape Town Hiking Its Water for a system designed to save The first ordinance is the more people use the water, the
increased demands for water. Tariffs at least 94,000 GPD. The NYC ‘Prohibition of Wasting Water’ more water needs supplying,
This supply-side approach, The City of Cape Town has Construction Code regulates which cautions residents but users will have to make
however, is under increasing a block rate tariff structure two types of on-site water against misusing water that is sure they are not using too
pressure from climate change, for water consumption. Due to reuse systems that can be supplied by a public water much energy in the process.
rapid population and econom- the drought, the city has installed: wastewater reuse system. The code identifies a To achieve water security,
ic growth and even land-use announced it is increasing its systems (black water, grey range of acts that wastewater urban water utilities can use a
changes impacting the avail- water prices in a bid to reduce water, rainwater) for non- including allowing a faucet to variety of fiscal and non-fiscal
ability of good quality water of water consumption. The price potable uses including flush- leak after having been told to demand management tools to
sufficient quantities. for water will increase by 27% ing of toilets and urinals, laun- fix the problem by a public balance rising demand with
To enhance urban water from July 1, 2018, and increase dry, and subsurface drip irri- official and allowing water to limited and at times variable
security, water managers are by another 30.45% in 2019 fol- gation systems and rainwater leak for an unreasonable supplies.
turning towards demand-side lowed by a 22% rise in reuse systems for non-potable length of time. The second Cities, for instance, can
management which aims to 2020/2021. This will result in uses including subsurface drip ordinance, called ‘Water develop water pricing struc-
improve the provisions of the price of water more than irrigation. Efficient Landscape’ restricts tures to encourage water con-
existing water supplies before doubling between July 1, 2018, the planting of trees and other servation and offer financial
new supplies are developed. and July 1, 2020. In the first Non-Fiscal Tools to plants that use large amounts incentives to install water-sav-
There are two types of policy round of tariff increases, the Achieve Urban Water Secu- of water and requires the use ing technologies such as water
tools available to achieve new tariffs on a monthly bill rity of ‘smart’ irrigation con- reuse systems.
urban water security: fiscal for non-indigent persons will Urban water managers trollers on new development They can also use a variety
tools and non-fiscal tools. range from R179.58 for the often rely on a range of non- contracts. This ensures land- of non-fiscal tools to encour-
first 6 kilolitres of water con- fiscal tools to achieve urban scape designs are appropriate age water conservation and
Fiscal Tools to Achieve Ur- sumed (with indigent people water security including regu- to the city’s climate and efficiency such as ordinances
ban Water Security receiving the first 6 kilolitres lations as well as education resources. to ensure water is not wasted
Fiscal tools include water free per month) to R20,365.56 and public awareness. as well as educational pro-
pricing and the use of subsi- for consumption over 50 kilo- Regulations often used Scottish Water’s Water and grammes to encourage young
dies and rebates to modify litres. include permanent and tem- Wastewater-Related Games people to understand the
water users’ behavior in a pre- porary ordinances that Scottish Water has devel- water cycle and use water
dictable, cost-effective way. New York City’s On-Site restrict certain types of water oped three fun water and wisely.
Urban water managers typi- Water Reuse Grant Pilot use during specified times wastewater-related games as Robert Brears is the author
cally price water using Program and/or restrict the level of part of its “Making It Clear” of Urban Water Security,
increasing block tariff rates, New York City’s water use to a specific programme. The “Pipeline Founder of Mitidaption, and
which contain different prices Department of Environmental amount. Temporary and per- Challenge” lets the players lay Our Future Water."
for two or more pre-specified Protection has launched its manent ordinances are often water supply and sewer pipes
quantities (blocks) of water On-Site Water Reuse Grant used for a variety of purposes to complete a water and @Mitidaption

66 May, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


PRODUCTS

Endress+Hauser
KSB SE & Co. KGaA
Endress+Hauser has
introduced the water projects, KSB SE & Co. ing pumps in back pull-out
Proline Prosonic KGaA, Frankenthal, Germany, design. Depending on the fluid
Flow E 100 ultrasonic has significantly extended its handled they can be fitted with a
flowmeters for meas- range of large dry-installed variety of impeller types, such as
urement of flow, tem- wastewater pumps. The pump multi-channel impellers and
perature, and volume manufacturer has developed an free-flow impellers or single-
of process water - extra 15 sizes to add to its vane impellers.
regardless of conduc- Sewatec Pumps series. The A worldwide trend towards larg-
tivity, pressure, densi- maximum flow rate of the largest er and larger wastewater proj-
ty or temperature. version will be up to 33, 000 ects, for example in Mexico City
The Prosonic Flow E 100 is ideal for use in industrial, m³/h with a drive rating exceed- or London, sees gigantic tunnels
process, power utility, fresh water, steam circuits and ing one megawatt. of unprecedented dimensions
boiler feedwater systems. It can measure flow in both The Sewatec type series com- being built. This has given rise to
directions as well as water temperature, making it In response to the worldwide prises horizontally or vertically a demand for larger and larger
ideal for measuring demineralized water in boiler increase in extra large waste- installed, single-stage volute cas- wastewater pumps.
condensate return lines, or monitoring and control-
ling feedwater temperature. It can also measure flow
in water containing magnetite, often found in closed a new mobile app, ModuleTrac, for water treatment features has been added
hot water systems for nuclear reactors, wet central to this renowned circu-
heating systems, and boilers. Heartbeat Technology lator for residential
is integrated into the flowmeter, providing self-diag- buildings. In addition to
nostics, extensive monitoring of the values measured, energy performance,
and a certified and metrologically traceable verifica- ease of use also plays a
tion during operation. The operator does not need to major role: Its new fea-
be present in the field for most commissioning and tures reinforce the tra-
operations activities, improving safety. The Prosonic ditional qualities.
Flow E 100 also has the HistoROM function, which Thanks to the Green
ensures maximum data safety before, during and Button Technology and
after a service call. All calibration data and transmit- to the use of symbols, it is simple for the customer to
ter parameters are stored securely on the HistoROM set the pump. A push button has been added to sepa-
data memory and are automatically reloaded after a rate the setting operation and the functions activa-
maintenance event. tion. Together with the new functions, the compact-
plant operators to track, monitor and analyze their ness of Wilo-Yonos PICO has been dramatically
ZeeWeed ultrafiltration membranes. The app is the improved to make it easy to install and use in any
Mueller Water Products latest offering in SUEZ’s set of digital solutions, application. Front access to motor screws and the
The Mueller® which aim to improve customer operations and out- Wilo connector position, contribute to the adaptabil-
Encoder Eight comes using data and analytics. ModuleTrac drives ity of the pump in any installation. The new ease of
(ME-8) Register efficiency and productivity for drinking water and use functions makes its maintenance far easier.
combines proven wastewater treatment plant operators by simplifying
reliable mechanical data collection and record-keeping activities related
components with to ZeeWeed membranes. It also provides enhanced Xylem
an innovative new visibility into data at the module, cassette and train Xylem Inc. has launched
automated data levels through InSight, a secure Asset Performance a compact submersible
acquisition system Management (APM) solution for monitoring and wastewater mixer fea-
that improves optimizing water treatment systems. The turing easily adaptable
meter accuracy ModuleTrac app uses an operator’s mobile device to output capabilities and
and functionality scan and track the location and maintenance history delivering energy sav-
for utilities. of ZeeWeed membranes using a unique barcode ings of approximately 50
Utilizing a heat-treated tempered glass lens and cor- placed on each module. This information is then fed percent. Xylem’s new
rosion resistant copper can house the register light into InSight, which analyzes, archives and reports on Flygt 4220 Mixers enhance the resilience and sus-
tubes, electronics, self-lubricating gearing and drive the data at a train, cassette or module level. From tainability of wastewater treatment plants, enabling
magnet, the ME-8 register is designed to provide 20 there, users can view data, run reports and create operators to easily manage the mixing conditions by
years of dependable service with no maintenance graphics and charts to monitor and optimize their simply adjusting the mixer output. As the Flygt 4220
required. It is available for use on all current Mueller water treatment systems. Available for iOS and can be controlled to deliver only the output required,
Systems positive displacement meters from 5/8” Android devices, the app also utilizes an “offline” a plant’s energy consumption can be significantly
through 2” sizes. The ME-8 register delivers extraor- mode to capture data without an Internet connec- reduced. The Flygt 4220 mixer is based on Xylem’s
dinary functionality and value when paired with the tion, offering users the additional flexibility to work Flygt Dirigo platform of integrated power electron-
latest Mueller Systems metrology and AMR/AMI anytime, anywhere. ics, including an IE4 super premium efficiency motor
solutions. that delivers market-leading efficiency, and is avail-
able in 1.5, two, three and four horsepower versions.
WILO Flygt 4220 also offers lower investment for rebuild or
SUEZ Wilo is bringing a new generation of Wilo-Yonos replacement as it can be redeployed across different
SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions has unveiled PICO series pumps to the market. A range of new tanks and applications.

EXPRESS WATER May, 2018 67


REGD.NO.MCS/219/2018-20, PUBLISHED ON 5TH OF EVERY MONTH & POSTED AT MUMBAI PATRIKA CHANNEL
SORTING OFFICE, DUE DATE 07, 08 & 09 OF EVERY MONTH, REGD. WITH RNI UNDER NO. MAHENG/2017/74894