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DEVELOPING BONE OF NAILS

Nails development resembles that of hair but involve the formation of plates rather than
cylinders.

Toenails and fingernails begin to develop at the tips of the digits at about 10 weeks of
gestation.

Primordial of nails appear as thickened areas or field of epidermis at the tip of each digit. Later
these nail fields migrate into the dorsal surface, carrying their innervation from the ventral
surface.

The nail fields are surrounded laterally and proximally by fields of epidermis, the nail folds. Cells
from the proximal nail fold grow over the nail field and become keratinized to form the nail
plate. At first the developing nail is covered by the superficial layer of the epidermis, the
eponychium. This later generate exposing the nail, except at its base where it persists as the
cuticle.

The fingernails reach the fingertips at about 32 weeks, the toenails reach the toe tips by 36
weeks. Nails that have not reached the tips of the digits at birth indicate prematurity.

NAILS
DEFINITION
The horny plate on the dorsal surface off the terminal phalanges of fingers and toes. Contains
hard keratin with high sulfate content and does not desquamate.

Parts:
1. Nail plate- cornified cells fused into a homogenous nail substance
Parts;
a. Free edge- distal portion becoming free in the bed, extending forward and usually cut
off
b. Body- visible part of the nail plate which is the translucent and transmits the pink color
of the bed
c. Root- proximal edge covered by skin fold.
d. Lunula- crescenteric whitish zone between the body and root usually seen in the thumb
nail.

2. Nail bed- surface of the skin covered by the nail plate


Made up of the malphigan layer of the epidermis and dermis.
Parts:
a. Hyponichium- part under the free edge of the nail plate
b. Nail matrix- proximal portion of the nail bed, where the formation of the nail substance
occurs.
3. Nail wall- fold of the skin surrounding the nail bed proximally and laterally.
Eponychium or cuticle- edge of the skin fold covering the root of the nail
4. Nail Groove- slit between the nail wall and nail bed.

ARRECTOR PILI MUSCLES


- Band of smooth muscles that insert on the dermal root sheath of hair follicle slightly
above its midlevel at the side of the hair that makes an obtuse angle with the surface of
the skin
- Surrounds the hair follicles and the papillary layer of the dermis
- Contraction depress the skin over their attachment and elevate the skin around the hair
shaft, forming tiny “goose bumps” on the surface on the flesh skin. Observed when one
is chilled or frightened.

ASSOCIATED GLANDS
a. Sebaceous gland
-classified as a simple branched saccular, holocrine type
specialized sebaceous glands
1. Tarsal’s gland or Meibomian gland
2. Tyson’s gland
3. Zeis gland

b. Sweat gland
-classified as simple coiled tubular
-specialized sweat glands
1. ceremonius glands- inner ear
2. molls’s gland- eyelids

2 TYPES
ECCRINE SWEAT GLAND APOCRINE SWEAT GLAND

-merocrine -apocrine

-function throughout life -functions at puberty

-smaller, more superficial -larger and more deeply seated

-no communication with hair follicle -connected with hair follicle

-produce watery secretion -produce more viscid, pigmented secretion

-innervated by cholinergic nerves -innervated by adrenergic nerves

-widespread occurrence -localized at armpits, areola of the nipple and


circumanal region
-ducts open into the surface of skin -ducts open into canals of hair follicles just
superficial to the entry of the sebaceous
gland’s ducts