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Contenido

Introduction .................................................. 2

TEACHER: MSc. Ing. José del Carmen Terminology and elements of a dam ............ 2
Arbulú Ramos. The most common terms used in dams are: 2
Types of dams ............................................... 3
Materials used in the construction of dams . 5
SUBJECT: Hydraulic Works.
• Concrete-facing casting dams: ................... 6
Environmental benefits ................................ 9
TOPIC: Concrete dams Technical advantages.................................. 10
CONCLUSIONS ............................................. 10
References .................................................. 10
MEMBER:

-Flores Serrano Nayme Hugo.

-Castro Farrar Katherine

-Sanchez Aguilar Franklin

-Manosalva Calderón Isabelita

-Fernández Seampértegui Neyder

PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL: Civil


Engineering.

CYCLE: 2017-I

CLASSROOM: 108

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Introduction • Closed or nozzle: it is the specific
point of the ground where the dam is
constructed.
A barrier made of stone, concrete or
• The dam or curtain: proper, whose
loose materials is usually called a basic functions are, on the one hand,
barrier, which is usually built in a to guarantee the stability of the whole
closed or gorge over a river or construction, supporting a hydrostatic
stream. It has the purpose of push of the water, and on the other,
reserving the water in the river not allowing the water to leak. At the
channel for later use in supply or same time, the following elements are
distinguished in the dam:
irrigation, to raise its level with the aim Main:
of diverting it to irrigation canals, for
lamination of avenues (avoid flooding • Face, face, or slope: these are the
downstream of the dam) or for the two more or less vertical main
Production of mechanical energy by surfaces that limit the body of the
transforming the potential energy of dam, the interior or upstream, which
is in contact with water, and the
the storage into kinetic energy and
exterior or downstream.
this again in mechanics when the
force of water drives a moving • Coronation: it is the surface that
element. Mechanical energy can be delimits the prey superiorly.
used directly, as in the old mills, or
indirectly to produce electrical energy, • The stirrups are the sides of the wall
as is done in hydroelectric plants. that are in contact with the closed
against which it rests.

Terminology and elements of a • The foundation: it is the part of the


structure of the dam, through which
dam the loads are transmitted to the
terrain, both those produced by the
hydrostatic pressure and the own
The most common terms used weight of the structure.
in dams are:
• The spillway: it is the hydraulic
structure by which the excess water
overflows when the dam is already
full.
• The reservoir: the volume of water
that is retained by the dam.
• Gates: are the mechanical devices
intended for
• The glass: it is the part of the valley
To regulate the flow of water through
that, flooding, contains the water
the dam.
embalmed.
• The bottom drainage: allows to
maintain the so-called ecological flow

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downstream of the dam and empty Asphalt screen, with concrete screen,
the dam if necessary. homogeneous).
• Taps are also hydraulic structures, According to their structure the dams
but of lesser importance, and are are classified in:
used to extract water from the dam for
a certain use, such as supply to a • Gravity dam: it is one in which its
hydroelectric power station or a city. own weight is in charge of resisting
the push of water. The thrust of the
reservoir is transmitted to the ground,
so it must be stable enough to
Types of dams support the weight of the dam and
reservoir. They constitute the dams of
The different types of dams respond greater durability and that less
to the different possibilities of fulfilling maintenance require.
the double requirement of resisting
the push of the water and evacuate it
when necessary. In each case, the
characteristics of the land and the
uses that are wanted
Give the water, condition the choice
of the most appropriate type of dam.
There are numerous classifications,
depending on:

• Your form or way of transmitting the


charges to which you are subjected;

• Materials used in construction.


Depending on their shape they may
be: Dentro de las presas de gravedad se
puede tener:
• serious; - Escollera, tierra homogénea, tierra
• of buttresses; zonificada, CFRD (grava con losa de
• of Arc; hormigón), de roca.
• double-curved vaults or arches;
• Mixed, if it is composed of parts of - De hormigón tipo HRC (hormigón
different typology. compactado con rodillo) y hormigón
convencional. Su estructura recuerda
Depending on the material can be a la de un triángulo isósceles ya que
classified into: su base es ancha y se va
estrechando a medida que se
• Concrete (conventional or roller Rises to the top although in many
compacted); cases
The side facing the reservoir is almost
• masonry; vertical. The reason why there is a
• of loose materials (of breakwater, of noticeable difference in the thickness
clay core, with
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of the wall as the height of the dam concrete and require great skill and
increases is due to experience from their builders who
The pressure at the bottom of the must resort to unusual construction
reservoir is greater than at the systems.
surface, so the wall will have to
withstand more pressure in the bed of • Arc-gravity dam: combines
the channel than in the dam increase characteristics of arc dams and
Its stability. gravity dams and is considered a
compromise between the two types. It
• Bow Dam: it is the one in which its has a curved shape to direct most of
own form is the one in charge to resist the effort against the walls of a
the push of the water. Because the canyon or a valley, which serve as a
pressure is transferred in a very support for the arch of the dam. In
concentrated form towards the slopes addition, the retaining wall has more
of the closed, it is required that this is thickness in the base and the weight
of very hard and resistant rock. They of the dam allows to support part of
are the most innovative dams in terms the thrust of the water. This type of
of design and less concrete dam requires less filling volume than
It needs to be built. The first known a gravity dam.
arch dam is the Vallon de Baume
dam, made by the Romans near
Glanum (France).

Dam of buttresses or lightened.

• Double arch vault dam: when the


dam has curvature in the vertical
plane and in the horizontal plane,

• Multiple vault dam.

Also called vault. To achieve their


complex forms they are built with
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World, those with greater reservoir
capacity and greater height of curtain
correspond to this objective.

Materials used in the


construction of dams

According to their materials the dams


can be classified in:
According to their application they can
be classified as: • Concrete dams: they are the most
• Filtration dams or retention dams: used in the developed countries since
These are those that have the with this material can be elaborated
function of retaining solids, from fine more stable and durable
material, to large rocks, transported constructions; because its
by torrents in mountainous areas,
allowing the passage of water.

• Avenues control dams: These are


those whose purpose is to laminate
the flow of torrential avenues, in order
to avoid causing damage to the land
located downstream of the dam in
cases of heavy storm.

• Diversion dams: The main objective


of these is Calculation is quite reliable compared
Elevate the water level to make its to those produced in other materials.
diversion feasible, controlling Normally, all gravity, arc and buttress
sedimentation of the channel so that dams are made of this material. Some
the diversion nozzles are not small dams and the oldest dams are
obstructed. These types of dams brick, ashlar
Are, in general, of low height since And masonry. In Spain, 67% of the
the storage of the water is a dams are of gravity and are made
secondary objective. with concrete. The Three Gorges
Dam located on the Yangtze River in
• Storage dams: The main objective of China is
these is to retain water for regulated The largest hydroelectric and flood
use in irrigation, power generation, control plant in the world. It was
supply to populations, recreation or completed in 2009.
navigation, forming large vessels or
artificial ponds. The highest • Dams of loose materials: they are
percentage of the most used in the underdeveloped
countries since they are less

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expensive and they represent 77% of work are different. The water retaining
those that we can find in all the element is a curtain formed of
planet. They are those that consist of fragments of rock of various sizes,
a land fill, which provide the which bear on the side of the
necessary resistance to counteract reservoir a concrete face which is the
the thrust of the waters. The materials impermeable element. The screen or
most used in its construction are face is supported in the contact with
stones, gravel, sand, silt and clays, the foundation by a transition element
although within all of these the most called plinth, which supports the
outstanding concrete slabs. This type of structure
Are stones and gravel. In Spain they was widely used between 1940 and
only represent 13% of the total. These 1950 in curtains of intermediate
types of dams have very permeable heights and fell into disuse until the
components, so it is necessary to add end of the twentieth century when it
a waterproofing element. In addition, was taken over by designers and
these structures always resist gravity, builders by having better methods of
because the weak cohesion of their construction and efficient construction
materials does not allow them to equipment
transmit the thrust of the water to the
ground. This element can be clay (in Concrete dams The three main
which case it is always located in the premises that determine the
heart of the filler) or a concrete characterization of the mass concrete
screen, which can also be built in the used in the construction of dams are:
center of the filler or upstream. These durability, impermeability and
dams have the disadvantage that if economy. Obviously, resistance is
they are exceeded by the waters in another factor to consider, although
compliance with the previous ones,
generally has associated minimum
resistances equal to or greater than
those required in concrete prey. As
we know, the concrete setting is a
chemical process that gives off heat.
Such heat is usually no problem in the
structures constructed with this
material, since it normally dissipates
rapidly, and the degree of
hyperestatism of the structures while
A flood, are in danger of collapsing
they are still under construction is
and ruining themselves.
usually very low.
In Spain is well remembered the
accident of the Tous Dam popularly
known as the "Pantanada de Tous".

• Concrete-facing casting dams:


this type of dams are sometimes
classified as loose dams; But their
form of execution and their structural

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mobilization of huge volumes of
material (on the order of hundreds of
thousands of cubic meters of
concrete), as well as labor, machinery
and, in general, means That
contribute to the achievement of our
objective. It is evident, therefore, that
one of the priorities to be taken into
account in the design of everything
that involves building a dam
(materials, dosing, construction
However, the case of concrete dams procedures, etc.)
is different. In the first place, large Will be to economize as much as
volumes of concrete are executed possible this whole process without
which convert their cores into almost leaving, of course, safety throughout
adiabatic enclosures and, secondly, the life of the dam.
the rigid foundation on which the dam
is built constitutes an important This may involve changes in the
restriction that prevents free materials that form the concrete
deformation (partial replacement of the cement,
choice of aggregates ...), at the time
Of this, so that the thermal variations of commissioning (traditional laying
induce tensions that, in the case of procedures versus those of roller
exceeding The tensile strength of the compacting), etc., Of course, the
concrete, will cause the undesirable particular circumstances of each
figuration of the material. From the case.
construction of the material to the
stage of exploitation, the temperature The temperature increase
reached by the concrete of the dam experienced by the concrete once it is
undergoes an evolution that in put into operation depends,
qualitative terms can be schematized fundamentally, on the type
by a period of growth during And amount of binder. Being one of
construction and then a slow cooling. the objectives the reduction of this
The initial temperature or temperature temperature, certain changes are
at which the fresh mass of the essential with respect to the binder
concrete is put into operation, the that we would use in a conventional
increase in temperature due to the concrete.
marked exothermic nature of the
cement hydration reactions until The type of binder used has to
reaching a maximum value of the develop a moderately low amount of
temperature and a descending branch hydration heat,
(Influenced by the construction Avoiding as far as possible the
sequence), corresponding to the problematic cracking of the concrete.
cooling, until reaching the As a consequence, the cements used
temperature of the operating regime. in the construction of dams are
The construction of a large structure preferably based on Clinker and fly
such as dams involves the ash or steel slag, as well as other
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types of natural or artificial pozzolanic
materials, the proportions of which
are greater than 30% (type II cements
) And can reach more than 80%
depending on the type of cement
(Type III / B and III / C, IV, V and
Special VI-1 cements).
In addition to reducing the amount of
clinker, with consequent reduction of
setting heat (and consequently the
danger of cracking), retraction and
cost of concrete, the incorporation of
pozzolans and ashes through the
cement produces other favorable
effects; In effect, provide greater
workability to the fresh mix, which
results in a reduction of kneading
water (5 to 8%) and increased
strength, and also lead to greater
durability in the concrete.

From here we could question the


different options of incorporation of
these ashes and / or pozzolans.

Natural. There are two options in this


respect, the incorporation in factory or
tower of concreting, and both have
their advantages and disadvantages.

For example, in the case of natural


pozzolans their grinding is obliged to
be effective, and although it may be
done on the job site, it may be more
advantageous to use in grinding at
the cement factory.

Fly ash is usually the right size to be


used directly on site (although
sometimes it is also subject to
grinding). In general, and except for
very large transport distances, it is
usually convenient
Prepare the pozzolanic cement in the
factory, because it guarantees a
greater regularity in the quality of the

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product; On the other hand, it avoids Concrete dams are a sustainable
the greater cost and difficulty that in solution because of their versatility to
work involves the installation and use adapt to closed conditions. The
of additional dosifiers and silos. advantages of concrete dams are of a
different nature:
Roll Compacted Concrete (HCR) is a
concrete of dry consistency, which
can be placed and compacted with
the machinery used in earthmoving. Environmental benefits

The technique of dam construction by • Uses virtually inexhaustible local


stretching and compaction of natural resources.
successive layers of concrete began
in the early 1970s in response to the • Allows the use of recycled
problem of a faster and cheaper aggregates (RCDs).
construction of factory dams that
made them more competitive in cost • It is recyclable in its entirety at the
With the prey of loose materials. end of its useful life.

The water content is another of the • It is a very durable material, thus


fundamental differences between avoiding the consumption of new
conventional concrete and HCR. resources and reducing CO2
Roller compacted concrete contains a emissions.
small amount of kneading water,
compatible with the movement of One of the most used methodologies
large-tonnage earth-moving to evaluate the environmental impacts
machinery by its fresh surface. of any product or construction
process is the Life Cycle Analysis
With regard to the binder used, there (LCA).
are two basic aspects to comment.
First, there is a greater substitution of This method aims to evaluate the
clinker for additions of pozzolanic environmental loads due to an
material (fly ash and steel slag, activity, process or
especially) in compacted concrete; Product, through the identification and
Although it serves only as an quantification of all impacts on the
orientation, in conventional concrete environment (energy consumption,
the substitution renewable and non-renewable
Is of 30-40% of additions in average, resources, emissions to the
whereas in the HCR shown we find atmosphere, water pollution,
from 35 to 70% in fly ash. generation of waste, etc.) The
analysis of possible improvements
Thus, it is not surprising to use low- And the inclusion for all of this, of the
heat hydration cements (up to 75% in complete cycle of the activity, process
ash or steel slag) and type V or product under consideration.
(composite cements).
Contribution to sustainability

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Technical advantages Eugenio Vallarino, Basic Treaty on
Dams, Volume I and II. College of
• It allows the application of any Engineers of Roads, Channels and
construction system (finding blocks of Ports, 2006.
vibrated concrete, by tongadas with
concrete compacted with roller).

• Fits any closed form.

• Security against accidental actions


(earthquake, big avenues).

CONCLUSIONS
The evolution and knowledge of the
concrete material makes it possible to
affirm that concrete dams are the
most suitable solution for the
construction of elements for the water
reservoir, floodplain or electric
generation.

References

DAMS AND APPURTENANT


HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES.
Ljubomir Tanchev, CRC New York
2014.Part. 3,4

Several authors, Las Presas in Spain.


College of Engineers
Roads, Channels and Ports, 2008.

Ministry of the Environment,


Instruction for the Project,
Construction and Exploitation of
Large Dams. 1967.

Fernando Delgado Ramos, Safety of


Dams and Reservoirs. Regulations
and Recommendations. College of
Civil Engineers, 2004.

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