0 views

Uploaded by dz

- B9
- Celesta Compro
- All_in_1
- 110426 FRS LED Indoor Lighting Specifications EOI
- Lab2-Analog Inputs and DC Motor Control
- Shreeji Academy of Science
- B.tech Biotech Branch2016-17 Updated
- Ck Spec1 Vaya Flood Lp g2 Rgb 10deg Ce Cqc Pse
- Aastra 67xi Modules Sell Sheet
- A Zener Diode by Muhammad Arif Rattar
- EMS-LED
- Basic Electronics Lab
- CH 17 Deleted
- File:Circuit Diagram – Pictorial and Schematic.png
- TLG_Band
- Purse Led
- AD581 10 v IC Reference
- ELECTRO-212-Prelim (1).docx
- Brochure- LED Luminaries
- Lifetime White Leds

You are on page 1of 112

M. B. Patil

mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in

www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Diodes

i

flow

V pressure

Diodes

i

flow

V pressure

(“check valve”).

Diodes

i

flow

V pressure

(“check valve”).

* A check valve presents a small resistance if the pressure p > 0, but blocks the

flow (i.e., presents a large resistance) if p < 0.

Diodes

i

flow

V pressure

(“check valve”).

* A check valve presents a small resistance if the pressure p > 0, but blocks the

flow (i.e., presents a large resistance) if p < 0.

* Similarly, a diode presents a small resistance in the forward direction and a large

resistance in the reverse direction.

Diodes

i

flow

V pressure

(“check valve”).

* A check valve presents a small resistance if the pressure p > 0, but blocks the

flow (i.e., presents a large resistance) if p < 0.

* Similarly, a diode presents a small resistance in the forward direction and a large

resistance in the reverse direction.

* In the forward direction, the diode resistance RD = V /i would be a function of

V . However, it is often a good approximation to treat it as a constant (small)

resistance.

Diodes

i

flow

V pressure

(“check valve”).

* A check valve presents a small resistance if the pressure p > 0, but blocks the

flow (i.e., presents a large resistance) if p < 0.

* Similarly, a diode presents a small resistance in the forward direction and a large

resistance in the reverse direction.

* In the forward direction, the diode resistance RD = V /i would be a function of

V . However, it is often a good approximation to treat it as a constant (small)

resistance.

* In the reverse direction, the diode resistance is much larger and may often be

treated as infinite (i.e., the diode may be replaced by an open circuit).

Simple models: Ron /Roff model

i i R = Ron if V > 0

R = Roff if V < 0

V V

Simple models: Ron /Roff model

i i R = Ron if V > 0

R = Roff if V < 0

V V

* Since the resistance is different in the forward and reverse directions, the i − V

relationship is not symmetric.

Simple models: Ron /Roff model

i i R = Ron if V > 0

R = Roff if V < 0

V V

* Since the resistance is different in the forward and reverse directions, the i − V

relationship is not symmetric.

* Examples:

Simple models: Ron /Roff model

i i R = Ron if V > 0

R = Roff if V < 0

V V

* Since the resistance is different in the forward and reverse directions, the i − V

relationship is not symmetric.

* Examples:

10

Ron = 5 Ω Ron = 0.1 Ω

Roff = 500 Ω Roff = 1 MΩ

i (mA)

−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts) V (Volts)

Simple models: ideal switch

i i

i i S S closed, V > 0

i

S open, V < 0

V V V V

Simple models: ideal switch

i i

i i S S closed, V > 0

i

S open, V < 0

V V V V

* V > 0 Volts → S is closed (a perfect contact), and it can ideally carry any

amount of current. The voltage drop across the diode is 0 V .

Simple models: ideal switch

i i

i i S S closed, V > 0

i

S open, V < 0

V V V V

* V > 0 Volts → S is closed (a perfect contact), and it can ideally carry any

amount of current. The voltage drop across the diode is 0 V .

* V < 0 Volts → S is open (a perfect open circuit), and it can ideally block any

reverse voltage. The current through the diode is 0 A.

Simple models: ideal switch

i i

i i S S closed, V > 0

i

S open, V < 0

V V V V

* V > 0 Volts → S is closed (a perfect contact), and it can ideally carry any

amount of current. The voltage drop across the diode is 0 V .

* V < 0 Volts → S is open (a perfect open circuit), and it can ideally block any

reverse voltage. The current through the diode is 0 A.

* The actual values of V and i for a diode in a circuit get determined by the i-V

relationship of the diode and the constraints on V and i imposed by the circuit.

Shockley diode equation

i i

p n

V V

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –

V

i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .

VT

i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .

p n

q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.

V V

T = temperature in ◦ K .

VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –

V

i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .

VT

i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .

p n

q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.

V V

T = temperature in ◦ K .

VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –

V

i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .

VT

i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .

p n

q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.

V V

T = temperature in ◦ K .

VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

* For a typical low-power silicon diode, Is is of the order of 10−13 A.

Shockley diode equation

V

i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .

VT

i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .

p n

q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.

V V

T = temperature in ◦ K .

VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

* For a typical low-power silicon diode, Is is of the order of 10−13 A.

* Although Is is very small, it gets multiplied by a large exponential factor, giving

a diode current of several mA for V ≈ 0.7 V .

Shockley diode equation

V

i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .

VT

i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .

p n

q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.

V V

T = temperature in ◦ K .

VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

* For a typical low-power silicon diode, Is is of the order of 10−13 A.

* Although Is is very small, it gets multiplied by a large exponential factor, giving

a diode current of several mA for V ≈ 0.7 V .

* The “turn-on” voltage (Von ) of a diode depends on the value of Is . Von may be

defined as the voltage at which the diode starts carrying a substantial forward

current (say, a few mA).

For a silicon diode, Von ≈ 0.7 V .

For a GaAs diode, Von ≈ 1.1 V .

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –

i

V

i i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .

p n VT

V V

Example: Is = 1 × 10−13 A, VT = 25 mV .

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –

i

V

i i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .

p n VT

V V

Example: Is = 1 × 10−13 A, VT = 25 mV .

V x = V /VT ex i (Amp)

0.1 3.87 0.479×102 0.469×10−11

0.2 7.74 0.229×104 0.229×10−9

0.3 11.6 0.110×106 0.110×10−7

0.4 15.5 0.525×107 0.525×10−6

0.5 19.3 0.251×109 0.251×10−4

0.6 23.2 0.120×1011 0.120×10−2

0.62 24.0 0.260×1011 0.260×10−2

0.64 24.8 0.565×1011 0.565×10−2

0.66 25.5 0.122×1012 0.122×10−1

0.68 26.3 0.265×1012 0.265×10−1

0.70 27.1 0.575×1012 0.575×10−1

0.72 27.8 0.125×1013 0.125

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –

i

V

i i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .

p n VT

V V

Example: Is = 1 × 10−13 A, VT = 25 mV .

V x = V /VT ex i (Amp)

0.479×102

1

0.1 3.87 0.469×10−11 log scale

i (Amp)

0.3 11.6 0.110×106 0.110×10−7 10−6

0.5 19.3 0.251×109 0.251×10−4

10−12

0.6 23.2 0.120×1011 0.120×10−2 100

linear scale

0.62 24.0 0.260×1011 0.260×10−2 80

i (mA)

60

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

V (Volts)

0.72 27.8 0.125×1013 0.125

Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i

p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .

V V

Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i

p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .

V V

100

Model 1:

Von

80 i

V > Von

60 V < Von

i (mA)

(open circuit)

40 Shockley

equation

20

Von = 0.7 V Model 1

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

V (Volts) Von

Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i

p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .

V V

100

Model 1: Model 2:

Von Von Ron

80 i i

V > Von V > Von

i (mA)

40 Shockley

equation Shockley slope = 1/Ron

20 Von = 0.668 V equation

Von = 0.7 V Model 1

Ron = 0.5 Ω Model 2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

V (Volts) Von V (Volts) Von

Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i

p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .

V V

100

Model 1: Model 2:

Von Von Ron

80 i i

V > Von V > Von

i (mA)

40 Shockley

equation Shockley slope = 1/Ron

20 Von = 0.668 V equation

Von = 0.7 V Model 1

Ron = 0.5 Ω Model 2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

V (Volts) Von V (Volts) Von

* For many circuits, Model 1 is adequate since Ron is much smaller than other

resistances in the circuit.

Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i

p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .

V V

100

Model 1: Model 2:

Von Von Ron

80 i i

V > Von V > Von

i (mA)

40 Shockley

equation Shockley slope = 1/Ron

20 Von = 0.668 V equation

Von = 0.7 V Model 1

Ron = 0.5 Ω Model 2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

V (Volts) Von V (Volts) Von

* For many circuits, Model 1 is adequate since Ron is much smaller than other

resistances in the circuit.

* If Von is much smaller than other relevant voltages in the circuit, we can use

Von ≈ 0 V , and the diode model reduces to the ideal diode model seen earlier.

Shockley equation and simple models

p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .

V V

100

Model 1: Model 2:

Von Von Ron

80 i i

V > Von V > Von

i (mA)

40 Shockley

equation Shockley slope = 1/Ron

20 Von = 0.668 V equation

Von = 0.7 V Model 1

Ron = 0.5 Ω Model 2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

V (Volts) Von V (Volts) Von

* For many circuits, Model 1 is adequate since Ron is much smaller than other

resistances in the circuit.

* If Von is much smaller than other relevant voltages in the circuit, we can use

Von ≈ 0 V , and the diode model reduces to the ideal diode model seen earlier.

* Note that the “battery” shown in the above models is not a “source” of power!

It can only absorb power (see the direction of the current), causing heat

dissipation.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Reverse breakdown

40

i

20

V

i (mA)

0

−20

−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts)

Reverse breakdown

40

i

20

V

i (mA)

0

−20

−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts)

* In the reverse direction, an ideal diode presents a large resistance for any applied

voltage.

Reverse breakdown

40

i

20

V

i (mA)

0

−20

−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts)

* In the reverse direction, an ideal diode presents a large resistance for any applied

voltage.

* A real diode cannot withstand indefinitely large reverse voltages and “breaks

down” at a certain voltage called the “breakdown voltage” (VBR ).

Reverse breakdown

40

i

20

V

i (mA)

0

−20

−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts)

* In the reverse direction, an ideal diode presents a large resistance for any applied

voltage.

* A real diode cannot withstand indefinitely large reverse voltages and “breaks

down” at a certain voltage called the “breakdown voltage” (VBR ).

* When the reverse bias VR > VBR , the diode allows a large amount of current.

If the current is not constrained by the external circuit, the diode would get

damaged.

Reverse breakdown

40

i

20

V

i (mA)

0

Symbol for a Zener diode

−20

−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts)

Reverse breakdown

40

i

20

V

i (mA)

0

Symbol for a Zener diode

−20

−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts)

* A wide variety of diodes is available, with VBR ranging from a few Volts to a few

thousand Volts! Generally, higher the breakdown voltage, higher is the cost.

Reverse breakdown

40

i

20

V

i (mA)

0

Symbol for a Zener diode

−20

−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts)

* A wide variety of diodes is available, with VBR ranging from a few Volts to a few

thousand Volts! Generally, higher the breakdown voltage, higher is the cost.

* Diodes with high VBR are generally used in power electronics applications and

are therefore also designed to carry a large forward current (tens or hundreds of

Amps).

Reverse breakdown

40

i

20

V

i (mA)

0

Symbol for a Zener diode

−20

−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts)

* A wide variety of diodes is available, with VBR ranging from a few Volts to a few

thousand Volts! Generally, higher the breakdown voltage, higher is the cost.

* Diodes with high VBR are generally used in power electronics applications and

are therefore also designed to carry a large forward current (tens or hundreds of

Amps).

* Typically, circuits are designed so that the reverse bias across any diode is less

than the VBR rating for that diode.

Reverse breakdown

40

i

20

V

i (mA)

0

Symbol for a Zener diode

−20

−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1

V (Volts)

* A wide variety of diodes is available, with VBR ranging from a few Volts to a few

thousand Volts! Generally, higher the breakdown voltage, higher is the cost.

* Diodes with high VBR are generally used in power electronics applications and

are therefore also designed to carry a large forward current (tens or hundreds of

Amps).

* Typically, circuits are designed so that the reverse bias across any diode is less

than the VBR rating for that diode.

* “Zener” diodes typically have VBR of a few Volts, which is denoted by VZ . They

are often used to limit the voltage swing in electronic circuits.

Diode types

Apart from their use as switches, diodes are also used for several other purposes. The

choice of materials used, fabrication techniques, and packaging depend on the

functionality expected from the device.

Diode types

Apart from their use as switches, diodes are also used for several other purposes. The

choice of materials used, fabrication techniques, and packaging depend on the

functionality expected from the device.

* Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emit light when a forward bias is applied.

Typically, LEDs are made of III-V semiconductors.

An LED emits light of a specific wavelength (e.g., red, green, yellow, blue).

White LEDs combine individual LEDs that emit the three primary colors (red,

green, blue) or use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a

blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light.

Diode types

Apart from their use as switches, diodes are also used for several other purposes. The

choice of materials used, fabrication techniques, and packaging depend on the

functionality expected from the device.

* Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emit light when a forward bias is applied.

Typically, LEDs are made of III-V semiconductors.

An LED emits light of a specific wavelength (e.g., red, green, yellow, blue).

White LEDs combine individual LEDs that emit the three primary colors (red,

green, blue) or use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a

blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light.

* Semiconductor lasers are essentially light-emitting diodes with structural

modifications that establish conditions for coherent light.

Diode types

Apart from their use as switches, diodes are also used for several other purposes. The

choice of materials used, fabrication techniques, and packaging depend on the

functionality expected from the device.

* Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emit light when a forward bias is applied.

Typically, LEDs are made of III-V semiconductors.

An LED emits light of a specific wavelength (e.g., red, green, yellow, blue).

White LEDs combine individual LEDs that emit the three primary colors (red,

green, blue) or use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a

blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light.

* Semiconductor lasers are essentially light-emitting diodes with structural

modifications that establish conditions for coherent light.

(source: wikipedia)

Diode types

* Solar cells are generally silicon diodes designed to generate current efficiently

when solar radiation is incident on the device. A “solar panel” has a large

number of individual solar cells connected in series/parallel configuration.

A solar cell can be modelled as a diode in parallel with a current source

(representing the photocurrent). In addition, parasitic series and shunt

resistances need to be considered.

Diode types

* Solar cells are generally silicon diodes designed to generate current efficiently

when solar radiation is incident on the device. A “solar panel” has a large

number of individual solar cells connected in series/parallel configuration.

A solar cell can be modelled as a diode in parallel with a current source

(representing the photocurrent). In addition, parasitic series and shunt

resistances need to be considered.

Rseries

p

photo Rshunt

current

Diode types

* Solar cells are generally silicon diodes designed to generate current efficiently

when solar radiation is incident on the device. A “solar panel” has a large

number of individual solar cells connected in series/parallel configuration.

A solar cell can be modelled as a diode in parallel with a current source

(representing the photocurrent). In addition, parasitic series and shunt

resistances need to be considered.

Rseries

p

photo Rshunt

current

convert them into electrical signals which can be subsequently processed by

electronic circuits. They are used in fibre-optic communication systems, image

processing, etc.

A photodiode works on the same principle as a solar cell, i.e., it converts light

into a current. However, its design is optimized for high-sensitivity, low-noise, or

high-frequency operation, depending on the application.

Diode circuit analysis

on or off, replace it with the corresponding equivalent circuit, and then obtain

the quantities of interest.

Diode circuit analysis

on or off, replace it with the corresponding equivalent circuit, and then obtain

the quantities of interest.

* In transient analysis, we need to find the time points at which a diode turns on

or off, and analyse the circuit in intervals between these time points.

Diode circuit analysis

on or off, replace it with the corresponding equivalent circuit, and then obtain

the quantities of interest.

* In transient analysis, we need to find the time points at which a diode turns on

or off, and analyse the circuit in intervals between these time points.

* In AC (small-signal) situations, the diode can be replaced by its small-signal

model, and phasor analysis is used. We will illustrate this procedure for a BJT

amplifier later.

Diode circuit analysis

on or off, replace it with the corresponding equivalent circuit, and then obtain

the quantities of interest.

* In transient analysis, we need to find the time points at which a diode turns on

or off, and analyse the circuit in intervals between these time points.

* In AC (small-signal) situations, the diode can be replaced by its small-signal

model, and phasor analysis is used. We will illustrate this procedure for a BJT

amplifier later.

* Note that there are diode circuits in which the exponential nature of the diode

I-V relationship is made use of. For these circuits, computer simulation would be

required to solve the resulting non-linear equations.

Diode circuit example

6k A B

ID

R1 D i=?

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

VD

0.7 V

C

Diode circuit example

6k A B

ID

R1 D i=?

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

VD

0.7 V

C

Case 1: D is off.

6k A B

R1 i

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

C

Diode circuit example

6k A B

ID

R1 D i=?

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

VD

0.7 V

C

Case 1: D is off.

6k A B

R1 i

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

C

3

VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V ,

9

which is not consistent with our

assumption of D being off.

Diode circuit example

6k A B

ID

R1 D i=?

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

VD

0.7 V

C

Case 1: D is off.

6k A B

R1 i

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

C

3

VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V ,

9

which is not consistent with our

assumption of D being off.

→ D must be on.

Diode circuit example

6k A B

ID

R1 D i=?

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

VD

0.7 V

C

6k 6k 0.7 V

A B A B

R1 i R1 i

R2 R3 R2 R3

36 V 1k 36 V 1k

3k 3k

C C

3

VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V ,

9

which is not consistent with our

assumption of D being off.

→ D must be on.

Diode circuit example

6k A B

ID

R1 D i=?

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

VD

0.7 V

C

6k 6k 0.7 V

A B A B

R1 i R1 i

R2 R3 R2 R3

36 V 1k 36 V 1k

3k 3k

C C

3

VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V , Taking VC = 0 V,

9

which is not consistent with our VA − 36 VA VA − 0.7

assumption of D being off. + + = 0,

6k 3k 1k

→ D must be on. → VA = 4.47 V, i = 3.77 mA .

Diode circuit example

6k A B

ID

R1 D i=?

R2 R3

36 V 1k

3k

VD

0.7 V

C

6k 6k 0.7 V

A B A B

R1 i R1 i

R2 R3 R2 R3

36 V 1k 36 V 1k

3k 3k

C C

3

VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V , Taking VC = 0 V,

9

which is not consistent with our VA − 36 VA VA − 0.7

assumption of D being off. + + = 0,

6k 3k 1k

→ D must be on. → VA = 4.47 V, i = 3.77 mA .

Diode circuit example

R A

1k ID

D1 D2

VD

Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V

R2

0.5 k

R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .

1.5 k

i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:

i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .

B

Diode circuit example

R A

1k ID

D1 D2

VD

Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V

R2

0.5 k

R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .

1.5 k

i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:

i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .

B

Diode circuit example

R A

1k ID

D1 D2

VD

Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V

R2

0.5 k

R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .

1.5 k

i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:

i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .

B

Consider D1 to be on → VAB = 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 .

Diode circuit example

R A

1k ID

D1 D2

Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V

R2

0.5 k

R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .

1.5 k

i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:

i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .

B

Consider D1 to be on → VAB = 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 .

Note that i1 > 0, since D1 can only conduct in the forward direction.

⇒ VAB > 1.7 V ⇒ D2 cannot conduct.

Diode circuit example

R A

1k ID

D1 D2

Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V

R2

0.5 k

R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .

1.5 k

i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:

i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .

B

Consider D1 to be on → VAB = 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 .

Note that i1 > 0, since D1 can only conduct in the forward direction.

⇒ VAB > 1.7 V ⇒ D2 cannot conduct.

Similarly, if D2 is on, VBA > 0.7 V , i.e., VAB < −0.7 V ⇒ D1 cannot conduct.

Diode circuit example

R A

1k ID

D1 D2

Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V

R2

0.5 k

R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .

1.5 k

i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:

i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .

B

Consider D1 to be on → VAB = 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 .

Note that i1 > 0, since D1 can only conduct in the forward direction.

⇒ VAB > 1.7 V ⇒ D2 cannot conduct.

Similarly, if D2 is on, VBA > 0.7 V , i.e., VAB < −0.7 V ⇒ D1 cannot conduct.

Clearly, D1 on ⇒ D2 off, and D2 on ⇒ D1 off.

Diode circuit example (continued)

R A

* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.

1k

→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)

D1 D2

1V

Vi Vo

R2

0.5 k

R1

1.5 k

i2

i1

Diode circuit example (continued)

R A

* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.

1k

→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)

D1 D2

* For Vi < −0.7 V , D2 conducts. → Vo = −0.7 − i2 R2 .

Use KVL to get i2 : Vi + i2 R2 + 0.7 + Ri2 = 0. 1V

Vi Vo

Vi + 0.7 R2

→ i2 = − , and 0.5 k

R + R2 R1

R2 R 1.5 k

Vo = −0.7 − R2 i2 = Vi − 0.7 . (2) i2

R + R2 R + R2 i1

Diode circuit example (continued)

R A

* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.

1k

→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)

D1 D2

* For Vi < −0.7 V , D2 conducts. → Vo = −0.7 − i2 R2 .

Use KVL to get i2 : Vi + i2 R2 + 0.7 + Ri2 = 0. 1V

Vi Vo

Vi + 0.7 R2

→ i2 = − , and 0.5 k

R + R2 R1

R2 R 1.5 k

Vo = −0.7 − R2 i2 = Vi − 0.7 . (2) i2

R + R2 R + R2 i1

Vi − 1.7

→ i1 = , and

R + R1

R1 R

Vo = 1.7 + R1 i1 = Vi + 1.7 . (3)

R + R1 R + R1

Diode circuit example (continued)

R A

* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.

1k

→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)

D1 D2

* For Vi < −0.7 V , D2 conducts. → Vo = −0.7 − i2 R2 .

Use KVL to get i2 : Vi + i2 R2 + 0.7 + Ri2 = 0. 1V

Vi Vo

Vi + 0.7 R2

→ i2 = − , and 0.5 k

R + R2 R1

R2 R 1.5 k

Vo = −0.7 − R2 i2 = Vi − 0.7 . (2) i2

R + R2 R + R2 i1

Vi − 1.7

→ i1 = , and

R + R1

R1 R

Vo = 1.7 + R1 i1 = Vi + 1.7 . (3)

R + R1 R + R1

* Using Eqs. (1)-(3), we plot Vo versus Vi .

(SEQUEL file: ee101 diode circuit 1.sqproj)

Diode circuit example (continued)

* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.

1k

→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)

D1 D2

* For Vi < −0.7 V , D2 conducts. → Vo = −0.7 − i2 R2 .

Use KVL to get i2 : Vi + i2 R2 + 0.7 + Ri2 = 0. 1V

Vi Vo

Vi + 0.7 R2

→ i2 = − , and 0.5 k

R + R2 R1

R2 R 1.5 k

Vo = −0.7 − R2 i2 = Vi − 0.7 . (2) i2

R + R2 R + R2 i1

B

5

Vi − 1.7 D1 off D1 off D1 on

→ i1 = , and

R + R1 D2 on D2 off D2 off

R1 R

Vo = 1.7 + R1 i1 = Vi + 1.7 . (3)

R + R1 R + R1

0

* Using Eqs. (1)-(3), we plot Vo versus Vi .

(SEQUEL file: ee101 diode circuit 1.sqproj)

−5

−5 0 5 Vi

−0.7 1.7

Diode circuit example (continued)

Vo Vo

R A

5 5

1k D1 off D1 off D1 on

D1 D2 D2 on D2 off D2 off

Vi 1V Vo 0 0

R2

0.5 k

R1

1.5 k

i2

i1

B −5 −5

−5 0 5 Vi 0 t1 1 t2 2 t (msec)

−5 0 5 0 1 2

Point-by-point construction of

0

0

Vi t (msec)

Vo versus t:

Two time points, t1 and t2,

are shown as examples.

0.5

1

1

1.5

2 t (msec)

2 t (msec)

Diode circuit example

1k

ID

R1

Vi R2 Vo

0.5 k

VD

0.7 V

Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .

Diode circuit example

D

0.7 V

1k

ID

R1 R1

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

0.5 k

VD

0.7 V

D on

Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7

Diode circuit example

D VD

0.7 V

1k

ID

R1 R1 R1

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

0.5 k

VD

0.7 V

D on D off

Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2

Vo = Vi

R1 + R2

Diode circuit example

D VD

0.7 V

1k

ID

R1 R1 R1

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

0.5 k

VD

0.7 V

D on D off

Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2

Vo = Vi

R1 + R2

Diode circuit example

D VD

0.7 V

1k

ID

R1 R1 R1

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

0.5 k

VD

0.7 V

D on D off

Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2

Vo = Vi

R1 + R2

R1

In the off state, VD = Vi .

R1 + R2

Diode circuit example

D VD

0.7 V

ID

R1 R1 R1

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

0.5 k

VD

0.7 V

D on D off

Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2

Vo = Vi

R1 + R2

R1

In the off state, VD = Vi .

R1 + R2

For D to change to the on state, VD = 0.7 V .

R1 + R2

i.e., Vi = × 0.7 = 1.05 V .

R1

Diode circuit example

D VD

0.7 V

ID

R1 R1 R1

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

0.5 k

VD

0.7 V

D on D off

Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2

Vo = Vi

R1 + R2

R1

In the off state, VD = Vi .

R1 + R2

For D to change to the on state, VD = 0.7 V .

R1 + R2

i.e., Vi = × 0.7 = 1.05 V .

R1

(SEQUEL file: ee101 diode circuit 2.sqproj)

Diode circuit example

D VD

0.7 V

1k

ID

R1 R1 R1

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

0.5 k

VD

0.7 V

D on D off

Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2

Vo = Vi

R1 + R2

Vo

5

At what value of Vi will the diode turn on?

R1

In the off state, VD = Vi .

R1 + R2

For D to change to the on state, VD = 0.7 V .

0

R1 + R2

i.e., Vi = × 0.7 = 1.05 V .

R1

D off D on

(SEQUEL file: ee101 diode circuit 2.sqproj)

−5

−5 0 5 Vi

1.05

Diode circuit example

D1 D2

R1

1k

Vi R2 Vo

1k

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.

Plot Vo versus Vi .

Diode circuit example

D1 D2

R1

1k

Vi R2 Vo

1k

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.

Plot Vo versus Vi .

R1

1k

i 0.7 V 5V

Vi R2 Vo

1k

Vi − 5.7

Vo = i R2 = R2

R1 + R2

Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi > 5.7 V.

Diode circuit example

D1 D2

R1

1k

Vi R2 Vo

1k

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.

Plot Vo versus Vi .

R1 R1

1k i 1k

i 0.7 V 5V 5V 0.7 V

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

1k 1k

Vi − 5.7 Vi + 5.7

Vo = i R2 = R2 Vo = −i R2 = R2

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi > 5.7 V. Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi < -5.7 V.

Diode circuit example

Vo

D1 D2 1.5

R1

1k

Vi R2 Vo 0

1k

−1.5

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V. −8 −4 0 4 8 Vi

Plot Vo versus Vi . D1 r.b. D1 r.b. D2 r.b. D2 r.b.

(breakdown) (breakdown)

R1 R1

1k i 1k

i 0.7 V 5V 5V 0.7 V

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

1k 1k

Vi − 5.7 Vi + 5.7

Vo = i R2 = R2 Vo = −i R2 = R2

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi > 5.7 V. Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi < -5.7 V.

Diode circuit example

Vo

D1 D2 1.5

R1

1k

Vi R2 Vo 0

1k

−1.5

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V. −8 −4 0 4 8 Vi

Plot Vo versus Vi . D1 r.b. D1 r.b. D2 r.b. D2 r.b.

(breakdown) (breakdown)

R1 R1

1k i 1k

i 0.7 V 5V 5V 0.7 V

Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo

1k 1k

Vi − 5.7 Vi + 5.7

Vo = i R2 = R2 Vo = −i R2 = R2

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi > 5.7 V. Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi < -5.7 V.

Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)

R

1k

D1

Vi Vo

D2

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.

Plot Vo versus Vi .

Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)

R

1k

D1

Vi Vo

D2

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.

Plot Vo versus Vi .

R

1k

i

D1

0.7 V Vo = 5.7 V

Vi C Vo

Vi > 5.7 V

D2

5V

Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)

R

1k

D1

Vi Vo

D2

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.

Plot Vo versus Vi .

R R

1k 1k

i i

D1 D1

0.7 V Vo = 5.7 V 5V Vo = −5.7 V

Vi C Vo Vi A Vo

Vi > 5.7 V Vi < −5.7 V

D2 D2

5V 0.7 V

Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)

R

1k

D1

Vi Vo

D2

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.

Plot Vo versus Vi .

R R

1k 1k

i i

D1 D1

0.7 V Vo = 5.7 V 5V Vo = −5.7 V

Vi C Vo Vi A Vo

Vi > 5.7 V Vi < −5.7 V

D2 D2

5V 0.7 V

Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)

R

Vo 8

1k

D1 4

Vi Vo

D2 0

−4

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.

A B C

Plot Vo versus Vi . −8

−8 −4 0 4 8 Vi

R R

1k 1k

i i

D1 D1

0.7 V Vo = 5.7 V 5V Vo = −5.7 V

Vi C Vo Vi A Vo

Vi > 5.7 V Vi < −5.7 V

D2 D2

5V 0.7 V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector

10

Vo (V)

D 0

Vi C Vo

Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

Peak detector

10

Vo (V)

D 0

Vi C Vo

Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

Peak detector

10

Vo (V)

D 0

Vi C Vo

Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

For 0 < t < T /4, Vi rises from 0 to Vm . As a result, the capacitor charges.

Peak detector

10

Vo (V)

D 0

Vi C Vo

Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

For 0 < t < T /4, Vi rises from 0 to Vm . As a result, the capacitor charges.

Since the on resistance of the diode is small, time constant τ T /4; therefore the

charging process is instantaneous ⇒ Vo (t) = Vi (t).

Peak detector

10

Vo (V)

D 0

Vi C Vo

Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

For 0 < t < T /4, Vi rises from 0 to Vm . As a result, the capacitor charges.

Since the on resistance of the diode is small, time constant τ T /4; therefore the

charging process is instantaneous ⇒ Vo (t) = Vi (t).

For t > T /4, Vi starts falling. The capacitor holds the charge it had at t = T /4 since

the diode prevents discharging.

Peak detector

10

Vo (V)

D 0

Vi C Vo

Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

For 0 < t < T /4, Vi rises from 0 to Vm . As a result, the capacitor charges.

Since the on resistance of the diode is small, time constant τ T /4; therefore the

charging process is instantaneous ⇒ Vo (t) = Vi (t).

For t > T /4, Vi starts falling. The capacitor holds the charge it had at t = T /4 since

the diode prevents discharging.

Peak detector (continued)

10

Vo (V)

D 0

C R

Vi 5k Vo

1 µF Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

Peak detector (continued)

10

Vo (V)

D 0

C R

Vi 5k Vo

1 µF Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

If a resistor is added in parallel, a discharging path is provided for the capacitor, and

the capacitor voltage falls after reaching the peak.

Peak detector (continued)

10

Vo (V)

D 0

C R

Vi 5k Vo

1 µF Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

If a resistor is added in parallel, a discharging path is provided for the capacitor, and

the capacitor voltage falls after reaching the peak.

When Vi > Vo , the capacitor charges again. The time constant for the charging

process is τ = RTh C , where RTh = R k Ron is the Thevenin resistance seen by the

capacitor, Ron being the on resistance of the diode.

Peak detector (continued)

10

Vo (V)

D 0

C R

Vi 5k Vo

1 µF Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

If a resistor is added in parallel, a discharging path is provided for the capacitor, and

the capacitor voltage falls after reaching the peak.

When Vi > Vo , the capacitor charges again. The time constant for the charging

process is τ = RTh C , where RTh = R k Ron is the Thevenin resistance seen by the

capacitor, Ron being the on resistance of the diode.

Since τ T , the charging process is instantaneous.

Peak detector (continued)

10

Vo (V)

D 0

C R

Vi 5k Vo

1 µF Vi (V)

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

If a resistor is added in parallel, a discharging path is provided for the capacitor, and

the capacitor voltage falls after reaching the peak.

When Vi > Vo , the capacitor charges again. The time constant for the charging

process is τ = RTh C , where RTh = R k Ron is the Thevenin resistance seen by the

capacitor, Ron being the on resistance of the diode.

Since τ T , the charging process is instantaneous.

Peak detector (with Von = 0.7 V )

10

Vo (V)

Vi (V)

R = 1M

-10

D

C R Vo 10

Vi

1 µF

Vo (V)

Vi (V)

R = 5k

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

Peak detector (with Von = 0.7 V )

10

Vo (V)

Vi (V)

R = 1M

-10

D

C R Vo 10

Vi

1 µF

Vo (V)

Vi (V)

R = 5k

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

Peak detector (with Von = 0.7 V )

10

Vo (V)

Vi (V)

R = 1M

-10

D

C R Vo 10

Vi

1 µF

Vo (V)

Vi (V)

R = 5k

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

Apart from that, the circuit operation is similar.

Peak detector (with Von = 0.7 V )

10

Vo (V)

Vi (V)

R = 1M

-10

D

C R Vo 10

Vi

1 µF

Vo (V)

Vi (V)

R = 5k

-10

0 1 2

time (msec)

Apart from that, the circuit operation is similar.

Clamped capacitor

VC 20

Vo

C 10

VC

Vi D Vo

iD 0

Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

time (msec)

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .

Clamped capacitor

VC 20

Vo

C 10

VC

Vi D Vo

iD 0

Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

time (msec)

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .

* VC can only increase with time (or remain constant) since iD can only be

positive.

Clamped capacitor

VC 20

Vo

C 10

VC

Vi D Vo

iD 0

Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

time (msec)

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .

* VC can only increase with time (or remain constant) since iD can only be

positive.

* The net result is that the capacitor gets charged to a voltage VC = −Vi ,

corresponding to the maxmimum negative value of Vi , and holds that voltage

thereafter. Let us call this voltage VC0 (a constant).

Clamped capacitor

VC 20

Vo

C 10

VC

Vi D Vo

iD 0

Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

time (msec)

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .

* VC can only increase with time (or remain constant) since iD can only be

positive.

* The net result is that the capacitor gets charged to a voltage VC = −Vi ,

corresponding to the maxmimum negative value of Vi , and holds that voltage

thereafter. Let us call this voltage VC0 (a constant).

* Vo (t) = VC (t) + Vi (t) = VC0 + Vi (t), which is a “level-shifted” version of Vi .

Clamped capacitor

VC 20

Vo

C 10

VC

Vi D Vo

iD 0

Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

time (msec)

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .

* VC can only increase with time (or remain constant) since iD can only be

positive.

* The net result is that the capacitor gets charged to a voltage VC = −Vi ,

corresponding to the maxmimum negative value of Vi , and holds that voltage

thereafter. Let us call this voltage VC0 (a constant).

* Vo (t) = VC (t) + Vi (t) = VC0 + Vi (t), which is a “level-shifted” version of Vi .

Voltage doubler

VC1

A B C

C1 D2 VA

D1 C2 R VB

100 k

VC

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

time (msec) time (msec)

Voltage doubler

VC1

A B C

C1 D2 VA

D1 C2 R VB

100 k

VC

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

time (msec) time (msec)

* The diode clamp shifts VA up by Vm (the amplitude of the AC source), making VB go from

0 to 2 Vm .

Voltage doubler

VC1

A B C

C1 D2 VA

D1 C2 R VB

100 k

VC

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

time (msec) time (msec)

* The diode clamp shifts VA up by Vm (the amplitude of the AC source), making VB go from

0 to 2 Vm .

* The peak detector detects the peak of VB (2 Vm w.r.t. ground), and holds it constant.

Voltage doubler

VC1

A B C

C1 D2 VA

D1 C2 R VB

100 k

VC

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

time (msec) time (msec)

* The diode clamp shifts VA up by Vm (the amplitude of the AC source), making VB go from

0 to 2 Vm .

* The peak detector detects the peak of VB (2 Vm w.r.t. ground), and holds it constant.

* Note that it takes a few cycles to reach steady state. Plot VC 1 , iD1 , iD2 versus t and explain

the initial behaviour of the circuit.

Voltage doubler

VC1

A B C

C1 D2 VA

D1 C2 R VB

100 k

VC

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

time (msec) time (msec)

* The diode clamp shifts VA up by Vm (the amplitude of the AC source), making VB go from

0 to 2 Vm .

* The peak detector detects the peak of VB (2 Vm w.r.t. ground), and holds it constant.

* Note that it takes a few cycles to reach steady state. Plot VC 1 , iD1 , iD2 versus t and explain

the initial behaviour of the circuit.

(SEQUEL file: ee101 voltage doubler.sqproj)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

- B9Uploaded byNooruddin Sheik
- Celesta ComproUploaded byTheofilus Jusni
- All_in_1Uploaded byGustavo Alonso
- 110426 FRS LED Indoor Lighting Specifications EOIUploaded byManish Gupta
- Lab2-Analog Inputs and DC Motor ControlUploaded byBigMace23
- Shreeji Academy of ScienceUploaded byTrilok Akhani
- B.tech Biotech Branch2016-17 UpdatedUploaded byIndu Prasoon Gupta
- Ck Spec1 Vaya Flood Lp g2 Rgb 10deg Ce Cqc PseUploaded byarunkumar_akgec15
- Aastra 67xi Modules Sell SheetUploaded byAnonymous HqFVTc
- A Zener Diode by Muhammad Arif RattarUploaded byMuhammad Arif Rattar
- EMS-LEDUploaded byLuigui Pachko
- Basic Electronics LabUploaded byvhince58
- CH 17 DeletedUploaded byKetanRao
- File:Circuit Diagram – Pictorial and Schematic.pngUploaded byBhel_Mortel_6465
- TLG_BandUploaded byjunchonqn
- Purse LedUploaded byGabriel
- AD581 10 v IC ReferenceUploaded byE.n. Elango
- ELECTRO-212-Prelim (1).docxUploaded byjy marquez
- Brochure- LED LuminariesUploaded byshamkantm
- Lifetime White LedsUploaded byAlfredo Lopez Cordova
- Lecture 3Uploaded byFatyboy ZiaJilani
- Module1 Lecture2 Power DiodesUploaded byperumburesuresh3762
- Tut 4Uploaded bySagar Sahni
- Diodo.pdfUploaded byLuisPadillaGonzález
- Diode - WikipediaUploaded byGowtham Sp
- BYV28_5Uploaded bycolorado wilderness
- BZT03_1.pdfUploaded byZoltán Ágoston
- GK1 Sec8 Light CurtainsUploaded bydomcert
- 42jt In001 en p AB SensorUploaded byFelix Bocanegra Ruiz
- Basic electronics 2b 2006Uploaded byumamaheshcool

- Christiaan BarnardUploaded byfrawat
- CV Curriculum Vitae 2018 Vinci GlodoveUploaded byGlodove Michael Vincent
- Final IRR - May 15, 2017Uploaded bySimeon Suan
- IS0 9001_2008 OHSAS 18001 and ISO 14001 Requirements SummaryUploaded byJomer Senorin
- Bag FiltersUploaded bymathur97
- Low Vision- Assistive DevicesUploaded byKavi Rehabian
- Autodesk Tube an Pipe Aplications 1Uploaded byBilly Zunun
- CONPROJ.LEC1.PART1Uploaded byMarvin Bryant Medina
- Declaration and Release FEMA Form 009-0-3 (30Nov2017)Uploaded byAnonymous hq0mi4x7E
- Aromatic ChangedUploaded byMahbubur Rahman
- performance utopiaUploaded byapi-299274012
- Beverly Squadron - Sep 2007Uploaded byCAP Unit Newsletters
- guidebookassignmentsheetandrubricUploaded byapi-263452051
- Pv Elite Webinar PptUploaded byAndrea Hank Lattanzio
- Over View of Hydro ProjectsUploaded bySam
- Exception Handling in Multi-Layered SystemsUploaded byIonut Marian Bercea
- English course, personal letterUploaded byLee Soo
- zebexz3100Uploaded byhotchaiwat
- P020101116336912071328.pdfUploaded byRizaldy Pahlevi Bin Jamaluddin
- 2011 Mobile Marketing OutlookUploaded byjlwatson1212
- Buccat v Buccat 72 Phil. 19 (1941)Uploaded byJr Dela Cerna
- Payment of WagesUploaded byAbrar Ahmed Qazi
- 033 - Human Resources 2019 StatementUploaded byThe Daily Line
- SEC 19 ..Philipppines HistoryUploaded byRolly Tabamo Fernandez
- Geography Chapter 10 Questions and VocabularyUploaded byTheGeekSquad
- SCM_TOYOTAA-PPTUploaded byGianina Roman
- CRM_wordUploaded byArvind Rewansidha Mane
- 21795597-vicosity-of-fluids.pptxUploaded byMădălina Ștefan
- Study-Guide-ITIL-4-Foundation.pdfUploaded byWilson Braga da Silva Junior
- 146969643-msonUploaded byAndi Strachan