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# EE101: Diode circuits

M. B. Patil
mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in
www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

## Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Diodes

i
flow

V pressure

Diodes

i
flow

V pressure

(“check valve”).

Diodes

i
flow

V pressure

## * A diode may be thought of as an electrical counterpart of a directional valve

(“check valve”).
* A check valve presents a small resistance if the pressure p > 0, but blocks the
flow (i.e., presents a large resistance) if p < 0.

Diodes

i
flow

V pressure

## * A diode may be thought of as an electrical counterpart of a directional valve

(“check valve”).
* A check valve presents a small resistance if the pressure p > 0, but blocks the
flow (i.e., presents a large resistance) if p < 0.
* Similarly, a diode presents a small resistance in the forward direction and a large
resistance in the reverse direction.

Diodes

i
flow

V pressure

## * A diode may be thought of as an electrical counterpart of a directional valve

(“check valve”).
* A check valve presents a small resistance if the pressure p > 0, but blocks the
flow (i.e., presents a large resistance) if p < 0.
* Similarly, a diode presents a small resistance in the forward direction and a large
resistance in the reverse direction.
* In the forward direction, the diode resistance RD = V /i would be a function of
V . However, it is often a good approximation to treat it as a constant (small)
resistance.

Diodes

i
flow

V pressure

## * A diode may be thought of as an electrical counterpart of a directional valve

(“check valve”).
* A check valve presents a small resistance if the pressure p > 0, but blocks the
flow (i.e., presents a large resistance) if p < 0.
* Similarly, a diode presents a small resistance in the forward direction and a large
resistance in the reverse direction.
* In the forward direction, the diode resistance RD = V /i would be a function of
V . However, it is often a good approximation to treat it as a constant (small)
resistance.
* In the reverse direction, the diode resistance is much larger and may often be
treated as infinite (i.e., the diode may be replaced by an open circuit).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Simple models: Ron /Roff model

i i R = Ron if V > 0
R = Roff if V < 0
V V

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Simple models: Ron /Roff model

i i R = Ron if V > 0
R = Roff if V < 0
V V

* Since the resistance is different in the forward and reverse directions, the i − V
relationship is not symmetric.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Simple models: Ron /Roff model

i i R = Ron if V > 0
R = Roff if V < 0
V V

* Since the resistance is different in the forward and reverse directions, the i − V
relationship is not symmetric.
* Examples:

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Simple models: Ron /Roff model

i i R = Ron if V > 0
R = Roff if V < 0
V V

* Since the resistance is different in the forward and reverse directions, the i − V
relationship is not symmetric.
* Examples:

10
Ron = 5 Ω Ron = 0.1 Ω
Roff = 500 Ω Roff = 1 MΩ
i (mA)

−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts) V (Volts)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Simple models: ideal switch

i i
i i S S closed, V > 0
i
S open, V < 0
V V V V

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Simple models: ideal switch

i i
i i S S closed, V > 0
i
S open, V < 0
V V V V

* V > 0 Volts → S is closed (a perfect contact), and it can ideally carry any
amount of current. The voltage drop across the diode is 0 V .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Simple models: ideal switch

i i
i i S S closed, V > 0
i
S open, V < 0
V V V V

* V > 0 Volts → S is closed (a perfect contact), and it can ideally carry any
amount of current. The voltage drop across the diode is 0 V .
* V < 0 Volts → S is open (a perfect open circuit), and it can ideally block any
reverse voltage. The current through the diode is 0 A.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Simple models: ideal switch

i i
i i S S closed, V > 0
i
S open, V < 0
V V V V

* V > 0 Volts → S is closed (a perfect contact), and it can ideally carry any
amount of current. The voltage drop across the diode is 0 V .
* V < 0 Volts → S is open (a perfect open circuit), and it can ideally block any
reverse voltage. The current through the diode is 0 A.
* The actual values of V and i for a diode in a circuit get determined by the i-V
relationship of the diode and the constraints on V and i imposed by the circuit.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley diode equation

i i
p n

V V

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –
V
i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .
VT
i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .
p n
q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.
V V
T = temperature in ◦ K .
VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –
V
i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .
VT
i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .
p n
q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.
V V
T = temperature in ◦ K .
VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –
V
i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .
VT
i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .
p n
q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.
V V
T = temperature in ◦ K .
VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

## * Is is called the “reverse saturation current.”

* For a typical low-power silicon diode, Is is of the order of 10−13 A.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –
V
i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .
VT
i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .
p n
q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.
V V
T = temperature in ◦ K .
VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

## * Is is called the “reverse saturation current.”

* For a typical low-power silicon diode, Is is of the order of 10−13 A.
* Although Is is very small, it gets multiplied by a large exponential factor, giving
a diode current of several mA for V ≈ 0.7 V .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –
V
i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .
VT
i i kB = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K .
p n
q = electron charge = 1.602 × 10−19 Coul.
V V
T = temperature in ◦ K .
VT ≈ 25 mV at room temperature (27 ◦ C).

## * Is is called the “reverse saturation current.”

* For a typical low-power silicon diode, Is is of the order of 10−13 A.
* Although Is is very small, it gets multiplied by a large exponential factor, giving
a diode current of several mA for V ≈ 0.7 V .
* The “turn-on” voltage (Von ) of a diode depends on the value of Is . Von may be
defined as the voltage at which the diode starts carrying a substantial forward
current (say, a few mA).
For a silicon diode, Von ≈ 0.7 V .
For a GaAs diode, Von ≈ 1.1 V .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –
i
V
i i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .
p n VT
V V
Example: Is = 1 × 10−13 A, VT = 25 mV .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –
i
V
i i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .
p n VT
V V
Example: Is = 1 × 10−13 A, VT = 25 mV .

V x = V /VT ex i (Amp)
0.1 3.87 0.479×102 0.469×10−11
0.2 7.74 0.229×104 0.229×10−9
0.3 11.6 0.110×106 0.110×10−7
0.4 15.5 0.525×107 0.525×10−6
0.5 19.3 0.251×109 0.251×10−4
0.6 23.2 0.120×1011 0.120×10−2
0.62 24.0 0.260×1011 0.260×10−2
0.64 24.8 0.565×1011 0.565×10−2
0.66 25.5 0.122×1012 0.122×10−1
0.68 26.3 0.265×1012 0.265×10−1
0.70 27.1 0.575×1012 0.575×10−1
0.72 27.8 0.125×1013 0.125

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley diode equation

» „ « –
i
V
i i = Is exp − 1 , where VT = kB T /q .
p n VT
V V
Example: Is = 1 × 10−13 A, VT = 25 mV .

V x = V /VT ex i (Amp)
0.479×102
1
0.1 3.87 0.469×10−11 log scale

## 0.2 7.74 0.229×104 0.229×10−9

i (Amp)
0.3 11.6 0.110×106 0.110×10−7 10−6

## 0.4 15.5 0.525×107 0.525×10−6

0.5 19.3 0.251×109 0.251×10−4
10−12
0.6 23.2 0.120×1011 0.120×10−2 100
linear scale
0.62 24.0 0.260×1011 0.260×10−2 80

i (mA)
60

## 0.70 27.1 0.575×1012 0.575×10−1 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
V (Volts)
0.72 27.8 0.125×1013 0.125

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i
p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .
V V
Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i
p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .
V V
100
Model 1:
Von
80 i
V > Von

60 V < Von
i (mA)

(open circuit)
40 Shockley
equation
20
Von = 0.7 V Model 1

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
V (Volts) Von
Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i
p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .
V V
100
Model 1: Model 2:
Von Von Ron
80 i i
V > Von V > Von

i (mA)

## (open circuit) (open circuit)

40 Shockley
equation Shockley slope = 1/Ron
20 Von = 0.668 V equation
Von = 0.7 V Model 1
Ron = 0.5 Ω Model 2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
V (Volts) Von V (Volts) Von

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i
p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .
V V
100
Model 1: Model 2:
Von Von Ron
80 i i
V > Von V > Von

i (mA)

## (open circuit) (open circuit)

40 Shockley
equation Shockley slope = 1/Ron
20 Von = 0.668 V equation
Von = 0.7 V Model 1
Ron = 0.5 Ω Model 2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
V (Volts) Von V (Volts) Von

* For many circuits, Model 1 is adequate since Ron is much smaller than other
resistances in the circuit.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i
p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .
V V
100
Model 1: Model 2:
Von Von Ron
80 i i
V > Von V > Von

i (mA)

## (open circuit) (open circuit)

40 Shockley
equation Shockley slope = 1/Ron
20 Von = 0.668 V equation
Von = 0.7 V Model 1
Ron = 0.5 Ω Model 2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
V (Volts) Von V (Volts) Von

* For many circuits, Model 1 is adequate since Ron is much smaller than other
resistances in the circuit.
* If Von is much smaller than other relevant voltages in the circuit, we can use
Von ≈ 0 V , and the diode model reduces to the ideal diode model seen earlier.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Shockley equation and simple models

i i h i
p n i = Is eV/VT − 1 , Is = 10−13 A , VT = 25 mV .
V V
100
Model 1: Model 2:
Von Von Ron
80 i i
V > Von V > Von

i (mA)

## (open circuit) (open circuit)

40 Shockley
equation Shockley slope = 1/Ron
20 Von = 0.668 V equation
Von = 0.7 V Model 1
Ron = 0.5 Ω Model 2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
V (Volts) Von V (Volts) Von

* For many circuits, Model 1 is adequate since Ron is much smaller than other
resistances in the circuit.
* If Von is much smaller than other relevant voltages in the circuit, we can use
Von ≈ 0 V , and the diode model reduces to the ideal diode model seen earlier.
* Note that the “battery” shown in the above models is not a “source” of power!
It can only absorb power (see the direction of the current), causing heat
dissipation.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Reverse breakdown

40
i

20
V

i (mA)
0

−20
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Reverse breakdown

40
i

20
V

i (mA)
0

−20
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts)

* In the reverse direction, an ideal diode presents a large resistance for any applied
voltage.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Reverse breakdown

40
i

20
V

i (mA)
0

−20
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts)

* In the reverse direction, an ideal diode presents a large resistance for any applied
voltage.
* A real diode cannot withstand indefinitely large reverse voltages and “breaks
down” at a certain voltage called the “breakdown voltage” (VBR ).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Reverse breakdown

40
i

20
V

i (mA)
0

−20
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts)

* In the reverse direction, an ideal diode presents a large resistance for any applied
voltage.
* A real diode cannot withstand indefinitely large reverse voltages and “breaks
down” at a certain voltage called the “breakdown voltage” (VBR ).
* When the reverse bias VR > VBR , the diode allows a large amount of current.
If the current is not constrained by the external circuit, the diode would get
damaged.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Reverse breakdown

40
i

20
V
i (mA)

0
Symbol for a Zener diode

−20
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Reverse breakdown

40
i

20
V
i (mA)

0
Symbol for a Zener diode

−20
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts)

* A wide variety of diodes is available, with VBR ranging from a few Volts to a few
thousand Volts! Generally, higher the breakdown voltage, higher is the cost.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Reverse breakdown

40
i

20
V
i (mA)

0
Symbol for a Zener diode

−20
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts)

* A wide variety of diodes is available, with VBR ranging from a few Volts to a few
thousand Volts! Generally, higher the breakdown voltage, higher is the cost.
* Diodes with high VBR are generally used in power electronics applications and
are therefore also designed to carry a large forward current (tens or hundreds of
Amps).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Reverse breakdown

40
i

20
V
i (mA)

0
Symbol for a Zener diode

−20
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts)

* A wide variety of diodes is available, with VBR ranging from a few Volts to a few
thousand Volts! Generally, higher the breakdown voltage, higher is the cost.
* Diodes with high VBR are generally used in power electronics applications and
are therefore also designed to carry a large forward current (tens or hundreds of
Amps).
* Typically, circuits are designed so that the reverse bias across any diode is less
than the VBR rating for that diode.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Reverse breakdown

40
i

20
V
i (mA)

0
Symbol for a Zener diode

−20
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1
V (Volts)

* A wide variety of diodes is available, with VBR ranging from a few Volts to a few
thousand Volts! Generally, higher the breakdown voltage, higher is the cost.
* Diodes with high VBR are generally used in power electronics applications and
are therefore also designed to carry a large forward current (tens or hundreds of
Amps).
* Typically, circuits are designed so that the reverse bias across any diode is less
than the VBR rating for that diode.
* “Zener” diodes typically have VBR of a few Volts, which is denoted by VZ . They
are often used to limit the voltage swing in electronic circuits.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode types

Apart from their use as switches, diodes are also used for several other purposes. The
choice of materials used, fabrication techniques, and packaging depend on the
functionality expected from the device.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode types

Apart from their use as switches, diodes are also used for several other purposes. The
choice of materials used, fabrication techniques, and packaging depend on the
functionality expected from the device.
* Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emit light when a forward bias is applied.
Typically, LEDs are made of III-V semiconductors.
An LED emits light of a specific wavelength (e.g., red, green, yellow, blue).
White LEDs combine individual LEDs that emit the three primary colors (red,
green, blue) or use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a
blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode types

Apart from their use as switches, diodes are also used for several other purposes. The
choice of materials used, fabrication techniques, and packaging depend on the
functionality expected from the device.
* Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emit light when a forward bias is applied.
Typically, LEDs are made of III-V semiconductors.
An LED emits light of a specific wavelength (e.g., red, green, yellow, blue).
White LEDs combine individual LEDs that emit the three primary colors (red,
green, blue) or use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a
blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light.
* Semiconductor lasers are essentially light-emitting diodes with structural
modifications that establish conditions for coherent light.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode types

Apart from their use as switches, diodes are also used for several other purposes. The
choice of materials used, fabrication techniques, and packaging depend on the
functionality expected from the device.
* Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emit light when a forward bias is applied.
Typically, LEDs are made of III-V semiconductors.
An LED emits light of a specific wavelength (e.g., red, green, yellow, blue).
White LEDs combine individual LEDs that emit the three primary colors (red,
green, blue) or use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a
blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light.
* Semiconductor lasers are essentially light-emitting diodes with structural
modifications that establish conditions for coherent light.

(source: wikipedia)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode types

* Solar cells are generally silicon diodes designed to generate current efficiently
when solar radiation is incident on the device. A “solar panel” has a large
number of individual solar cells connected in series/parallel configuration.
A solar cell can be modelled as a diode in parallel with a current source
(representing the photocurrent). In addition, parasitic series and shunt
resistances need to be considered.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode types

* Solar cells are generally silicon diodes designed to generate current efficiently
when solar radiation is incident on the device. A “solar panel” has a large
number of individual solar cells connected in series/parallel configuration.
A solar cell can be modelled as a diode in parallel with a current source
(representing the photocurrent). In addition, parasitic series and shunt
resistances need to be considered.
Rseries
p

photo Rshunt
current

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode types

* Solar cells are generally silicon diodes designed to generate current efficiently
when solar radiation is incident on the device. A “solar panel” has a large
number of individual solar cells connected in series/parallel configuration.
A solar cell can be modelled as a diode in parallel with a current source
(representing the photocurrent). In addition, parasitic series and shunt
resistances need to be considered.
Rseries
p

photo Rshunt
current

## * Photodiodes are used to detect optical signals (DC or time-varying) and to

convert them into electrical signals which can be subsequently processed by
electronic circuits. They are used in fibre-optic communication systems, image
processing, etc.
A photodiode works on the same principle as a solar cell, i.e., it converts light
into a current. However, its design is optimized for high-sensitivity, low-noise, or
high-frequency operation, depending on the application.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit analysis

## * In DC situations, for each diode in the circuit, we need to establish whether it is

on or off, replace it with the corresponding equivalent circuit, and then obtain
the quantities of interest.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit analysis

## * In DC situations, for each diode in the circuit, we need to establish whether it is

on or off, replace it with the corresponding equivalent circuit, and then obtain
the quantities of interest.
* In transient analysis, we need to find the time points at which a diode turns on
or off, and analyse the circuit in intervals between these time points.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit analysis

## * In DC situations, for each diode in the circuit, we need to establish whether it is

on or off, replace it with the corresponding equivalent circuit, and then obtain
the quantities of interest.
* In transient analysis, we need to find the time points at which a diode turns on
or off, and analyse the circuit in intervals between these time points.
* In AC (small-signal) situations, the diode can be replaced by its small-signal
model, and phasor analysis is used. We will illustrate this procedure for a BJT
amplifier later.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit analysis

## * In DC situations, for each diode in the circuit, we need to establish whether it is

on or off, replace it with the corresponding equivalent circuit, and then obtain
the quantities of interest.
* In transient analysis, we need to find the time points at which a diode turns on
or off, and analyse the circuit in intervals between these time points.
* In AC (small-signal) situations, the diode can be replaced by its small-signal
model, and phasor analysis is used. We will illustrate this procedure for a BJT
amplifier later.
* Note that there are diode circuits in which the exponential nature of the diode
I-V relationship is made use of. For these circuits, computer simulation would be
required to solve the resulting non-linear equations.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

6k A B
ID
R1 D i=?
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k
VD
0.7 V
C
Diode circuit example

6k A B
ID
R1 D i=?
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k
VD
0.7 V
C

Case 1: D is off.
6k A B
R1 i
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k

C
Diode circuit example

6k A B
ID
R1 D i=?
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k
VD
0.7 V
C

Case 1: D is off.
6k A B
R1 i
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k

C
3
VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V ,
9
which is not consistent with our
assumption of D being off.
Diode circuit example

6k A B
ID
R1 D i=?
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k
VD
0.7 V
C

Case 1: D is off.
6k A B
R1 i
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k

C
3
VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V ,
9
which is not consistent with our
assumption of D being off.
→ D must be on.
Diode circuit example

6k A B
ID
R1 D i=?
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k
VD
0.7 V
C

## Case 1: D is off. Case 2: D is on.

6k 6k 0.7 V
A B A B
R1 i R1 i
R2 R3 R2 R3
36 V 1k 36 V 1k
3k 3k

C C
3
VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V ,
9
which is not consistent with our
assumption of D being off.
→ D must be on.
Diode circuit example

6k A B
ID
R1 D i=?
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k
VD
0.7 V
C

## Case 1: D is off. Case 2: D is on.

6k 6k 0.7 V
A B A B
R1 i R1 i
R2 R3 R2 R3
36 V 1k 36 V 1k
3k 3k

C C
3
VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V , Taking VC = 0 V,
9
which is not consistent with our VA − 36 VA VA − 0.7
assumption of D being off. + + = 0,
6k 3k 1k
→ D must be on. → VA = 4.47 V, i = 3.77 mA .
Diode circuit example

6k A B
ID
R1 D i=?
R2 R3
36 V 1k
3k
VD
0.7 V
C

## Case 1: D is off. Case 2: D is on.

6k 6k 0.7 V
A B A B
R1 i R1 i
R2 R3 R2 R3
36 V 1k 36 V 1k
3k 3k

C C
3
VAB = VAC = × 36 = 12 V , Taking VC = 0 V,
9
which is not consistent with our VA − 36 VA VA − 0.7
assumption of D being off. + + = 0,
6k 3k 1k
→ D must be on. → VA = 4.47 V, i = 3.77 mA .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

R A
1k ID
D1 D2

VD
Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V
R2
0.5 k
R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .
1.5 k
i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:
i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .
B

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

R A
1k ID
D1 D2

VD
Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V
R2
0.5 k
R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .
1.5 k
i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:
i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .
B

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

R A
1k ID
D1 D2

VD
Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V
R2
0.5 k
R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .
1.5 k
i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:
i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .
B

## First, let us show that D1 on ⇒ D2 off, and D2 on ⇒ D1 off.

Consider D1 to be on → VAB = 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

R A
1k ID
D1 D2

VD
Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V
R2
0.5 k
R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .
1.5 k
i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:
i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .
B

## First, let us show that D1 on ⇒ D2 off, and D2 on ⇒ D1 off.

Consider D1 to be on → VAB = 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 .
Note that i1 > 0, since D1 can only conduct in the forward direction.
⇒ VAB > 1.7 V ⇒ D2 cannot conduct.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

R A
1k ID
D1 D2

VD
Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V
R2
0.5 k
R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .
1.5 k
i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:
i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .
B

## First, let us show that D1 on ⇒ D2 off, and D2 on ⇒ D1 off.

Consider D1 to be on → VAB = 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 .
Note that i1 > 0, since D1 can only conduct in the forward direction.
⇒ VAB > 1.7 V ⇒ D2 cannot conduct.
Similarly, if D2 is on, VBA > 0.7 V , i.e., VAB < −0.7 V ⇒ D1 cannot conduct.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

R A
1k ID
D1 D2

VD
Vi 1V Vo 0.7 V
R2
0.5 k
R1 (a) Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .
1.5 k
i2 (b) Plot Vo (t) for a triangular input:
i1 −5 V to +5 V, 500 Hz .
B

## First, let us show that D1 on ⇒ D2 off, and D2 on ⇒ D1 off.

Consider D1 to be on → VAB = 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 .
Note that i1 > 0, since D1 can only conduct in the forward direction.
⇒ VAB > 1.7 V ⇒ D2 cannot conduct.
Similarly, if D2 is on, VBA > 0.7 V , i.e., VAB < −0.7 V ⇒ D1 cannot conduct.
Clearly, D1 on ⇒ D2 off, and D2 on ⇒ D1 off.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example (continued)

R A
* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.
1k
→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)
D1 D2

1V
Vi Vo
R2
0.5 k
R1
1.5 k
i2
i1

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example (continued)

R A
* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.
1k
→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)
D1 D2
* For Vi < −0.7 V , D2 conducts. → Vo = −0.7 − i2 R2 .
Use KVL to get i2 : Vi + i2 R2 + 0.7 + Ri2 = 0. 1V
Vi Vo
Vi + 0.7 R2
→ i2 = − , and 0.5 k
R + R2 R1
R2 R 1.5 k
Vo = −0.7 − R2 i2 = Vi − 0.7 . (2) i2
R + R2 R + R2 i1

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example (continued)

R A
* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.
1k
→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)
D1 D2
* For Vi < −0.7 V , D2 conducts. → Vo = −0.7 − i2 R2 .
Use KVL to get i2 : Vi + i2 R2 + 0.7 + Ri2 = 0. 1V
Vi Vo
Vi + 0.7 R2
→ i2 = − , and 0.5 k
R + R2 R1
R2 R 1.5 k
Vo = −0.7 − R2 i2 = Vi − 0.7 . (2) i2
R + R2 R + R2 i1

## Use KVL to get i1 : −Vi + i1 R + 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 = 0.

Vi − 1.7
→ i1 = , and
R + R1
R1 R
Vo = 1.7 + R1 i1 = Vi + 1.7 . (3)
R + R1 R + R1

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example (continued)

R A
* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.
1k
→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)
D1 D2
* For Vi < −0.7 V , D2 conducts. → Vo = −0.7 − i2 R2 .
Use KVL to get i2 : Vi + i2 R2 + 0.7 + Ri2 = 0. 1V
Vi Vo
Vi + 0.7 R2
→ i2 = − , and 0.5 k
R + R2 R1
R2 R 1.5 k
Vo = −0.7 − R2 i2 = Vi − 0.7 . (2) i2
R + R2 R + R2 i1

## Use KVL to get i1 : −Vi + i1 R + 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 = 0.

Vi − 1.7
→ i1 = , and
R + R1
R1 R
Vo = 1.7 + R1 i1 = Vi + 1.7 . (3)
R + R1 R + R1
* Using Eqs. (1)-(3), we plot Vo versus Vi .
(SEQUEL file: ee101 diode circuit 1.sqproj)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example (continued)

R A
* For −0.7 V < Vi < 1.7 V , both D1 and D2 are off.
1k
→ no drop across R, and Vo = Vi . (1)
D1 D2
* For Vi < −0.7 V , D2 conducts. → Vo = −0.7 − i2 R2 .
Use KVL to get i2 : Vi + i2 R2 + 0.7 + Ri2 = 0. 1V
Vi Vo
Vi + 0.7 R2
→ i2 = − , and 0.5 k
R + R2 R1
R2 R 1.5 k
Vo = −0.7 − R2 i2 = Vi − 0.7 . (2) i2
R + R2 R + R2 i1

B

## Use KVL to get i1 : −Vi + i1 R + 0.7 + 1 + i1 R1 = 0.

5
Vi − 1.7 D1 off D1 off D1 on
→ i1 = , and
R + R1 D2 on D2 off D2 off
R1 R
Vo = 1.7 + R1 i1 = Vi + 1.7 . (3)
R + R1 R + R1
0
* Using Eqs. (1)-(3), we plot Vo versus Vi .
(SEQUEL file: ee101 diode circuit 1.sqproj)

−5
−5 0 5 Vi
−0.7 1.7

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example (continued)
Vo Vo
R A
5 5
1k D1 off D1 off D1 on
D1 D2 D2 on D2 off D2 off

Vi 1V Vo 0 0
R2
0.5 k
R1
1.5 k
i2
i1

B −5 −5
−5 0 5 Vi 0 t1 1 t2 2 t (msec)

−5 0 5 0 1 2
Point-by-point construction of
0

0
Vi t (msec)
Vo versus t:
Two time points, t1 and t2,
are shown as examples.
0.5
1

1
1.5
2 t (msec)

2 t (msec)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

1k
ID
R1
Vi R2 Vo
0.5 k
VD
0.7 V
Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V .
Diode circuit example

D
0.7 V

1k
ID
R1 R1
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
0.5 k
VD
0.7 V
D on
Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7
Diode circuit example

D VD
0.7 V

1k
ID
R1 R1 R1
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
0.5 k
VD
0.7 V
D on D off
Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2
Vo = Vi
R1 + R2

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

D VD
0.7 V

1k
ID
R1 R1 R1
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
0.5 k
VD
0.7 V
D on D off
Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2
Vo = Vi
R1 + R2

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

D VD
0.7 V

1k
ID
R1 R1 R1
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
0.5 k
VD
0.7 V
D on D off
Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2
Vo = Vi
R1 + R2

## At what value of Vi will the diode turn on?

R1
In the off state, VD = Vi .
R1 + R2

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

D VD
0.7 V

1k
ID
R1 R1 R1
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
0.5 k
VD
0.7 V
D on D off
Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2
Vo = Vi
R1 + R2

## At what value of Vi will the diode turn on?

R1
In the off state, VD = Vi .
R1 + R2
For D to change to the on state, VD = 0.7 V .
R1 + R2
i.e., Vi = × 0.7 = 1.05 V .
R1

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

D VD
0.7 V

1k
ID
R1 R1 R1
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
0.5 k
VD
0.7 V
D on D off
Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2
Vo = Vi
R1 + R2

## At what value of Vi will the diode turn on?

R1
In the off state, VD = Vi .
R1 + R2
For D to change to the on state, VD = 0.7 V .
R1 + R2
i.e., Vi = × 0.7 = 1.05 V .
R1
(SEQUEL file: ee101 diode circuit 2.sqproj)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

D VD
0.7 V

1k
ID
R1 R1 R1
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
0.5 k
VD
0.7 V
D on D off
Plot Vo versus Vi for −5 V < Vi < 5 V . Vo = Vi − 0.7 R2
Vo = Vi
R1 + R2
Vo

5
At what value of Vi will the diode turn on?
R1
In the off state, VD = Vi .
R1 + R2
For D to change to the on state, VD = 0.7 V .
0
R1 + R2
i.e., Vi = × 0.7 = 1.05 V .
R1
D off D on
(SEQUEL file: ee101 diode circuit 2.sqproj)

−5
−5 0 5 Vi
1.05

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example

D1 D2
R1
1k

Vi R2 Vo
1k

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.
Plot Vo versus Vi .
Diode circuit example

D1 D2
R1
1k

Vi R2 Vo
1k

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.
Plot Vo versus Vi .

## D1 on (forward), D2 in reverse breakdown

R1

1k
i 0.7 V 5V
Vi R2 Vo
1k

Vi − 5.7
Vo = i R2 = R2
R1 + R2
Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi > 5.7 V.
Diode circuit example

D1 D2
R1
1k

Vi R2 Vo
1k

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.
Plot Vo versus Vi .

## D1 on (forward), D2 in reverse breakdown D2 on (forward), D1 in reverse breakdown

R1 R1

1k i 1k
i 0.7 V 5V 5V 0.7 V
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
1k 1k

Vi − 5.7 Vi + 5.7
Vo = i R2 = R2 Vo = −i R2 = R2
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi > 5.7 V. Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi < -5.7 V.
Diode circuit example
Vo

D1 D2 1.5
R1
1k

Vi R2 Vo 0
1k

−1.5
Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V. −8 −4 0 4 8 Vi
Plot Vo versus Vi . D1 r.b. D1 r.b. D2 r.b. D2 r.b.
(breakdown) (breakdown)

## D1 on (forward), D2 in reverse breakdown D2 on (forward), D1 in reverse breakdown

R1 R1

1k i 1k
i 0.7 V 5V 5V 0.7 V
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
1k 1k

Vi − 5.7 Vi + 5.7
Vo = i R2 = R2 Vo = −i R2 = R2
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi > 5.7 V. Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi < -5.7 V.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example
Vo

D1 D2 1.5
R1
1k

Vi R2 Vo 0
1k

−1.5
Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V. −8 −4 0 4 8 Vi
Plot Vo versus Vi . D1 r.b. D1 r.b. D2 r.b. D2 r.b.
(breakdown) (breakdown)

## D1 on (forward), D2 in reverse breakdown D2 on (forward), D1 in reverse breakdown

R1 R1

1k i 1k
i 0.7 V 5V 5V 0.7 V
Vi R2 Vo Vi R2 Vo
1k 1k

Vi − 5.7 Vi + 5.7
Vo = i R2 = R2 Vo = −i R2 = R2
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi > 5.7 V. Since i > 0, this can happen only when Vi < -5.7 V.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)
R

1k

D1
Vi Vo

D2

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.
Plot Vo versus Vi .
Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)
R

1k

D1
Vi Vo

D2

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.
Plot Vo versus Vi .

## D1 on (forward), D2 in reverse breakdown

R
1k
i
D1
0.7 V Vo = 5.7 V
Vi C Vo
Vi > 5.7 V
D2
5V
Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)
R

1k

D1
Vi Vo

D2

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.
Plot Vo versus Vi .

## D1 on (forward), D2 in reverse breakdown D2 on (forward), D1 in reverse breakdown

R R
1k 1k
i i
D1 D1
0.7 V Vo = 5.7 V 5V Vo = −5.7 V
Vi C Vo Vi A Vo
Vi > 5.7 V Vi < −5.7 V
D2 D2
5V 0.7 V
Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)
R

1k

D1
Vi Vo

D2

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.
Plot Vo versus Vi .

## D1 on (forward), D2 in reverse breakdown D2 on (forward), D1 in reverse breakdown

R R
1k 1k
i i
D1 D1
0.7 V Vo = 5.7 V 5V Vo = −5.7 V
Vi C Vo Vi A Vo
Vi > 5.7 V Vi < −5.7 V
D2 D2
5V 0.7 V

## In the range, −5.7 V < Vi < 5.7 V, no current flows, and Vo = Vi . B

Diode circuit example (voltage limiter)
R
Vo 8
1k

D1 4
Vi Vo

D2 0

−4

Von = 0.7 V, VZ = 5 V.
A B C
Plot Vo versus Vi . −8
−8 −4 0 4 8 Vi

## D1 on (forward), D2 in reverse breakdown D2 on (forward), D1 in reverse breakdown

R R
1k 1k
i i
D1 D1
0.7 V Vo = 5.7 V 5V Vo = −5.7 V
Vi C Vo Vi A Vo
Vi > 5.7 V Vi < −5.7 V
D2 D2
5V 0.7 V

## (SEQUEL file: ee101 diode circuit 4.sqproj)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Peak detector

10
Vo (V)

D 0
Vi C Vo
Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

Peak detector

10
Vo (V)

D 0
Vi C Vo
Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

Peak detector

10
Vo (V)

D 0
Vi C Vo
Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

## Let Vo (t) = 0 V at t = 0, and assume the diode to be ideal, with Von = 0 V .

For 0 < t < T /4, Vi rises from 0 to Vm . As a result, the capacitor charges.

Peak detector

10
Vo (V)

D 0
Vi C Vo
Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

## Let Vo (t) = 0 V at t = 0, and assume the diode to be ideal, with Von = 0 V .

For 0 < t < T /4, Vi rises from 0 to Vm . As a result, the capacitor charges.
Since the on resistance of the diode is small, time constant τ  T /4; therefore the
charging process is instantaneous ⇒ Vo (t) = Vi (t).

Peak detector

10
Vo (V)

D 0
Vi C Vo
Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

## Let Vo (t) = 0 V at t = 0, and assume the diode to be ideal, with Von = 0 V .

For 0 < t < T /4, Vi rises from 0 to Vm . As a result, the capacitor charges.
Since the on resistance of the diode is small, time constant τ  T /4; therefore the
charging process is instantaneous ⇒ Vo (t) = Vi (t).
For t > T /4, Vi starts falling. The capacitor holds the charge it had at t = T /4 since
the diode prevents discharging.

Peak detector

10
Vo (V)

D 0
Vi C Vo
Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

## Let Vo (t) = 0 V at t = 0, and assume the diode to be ideal, with Von = 0 V .

For 0 < t < T /4, Vi rises from 0 to Vm . As a result, the capacitor charges.
Since the on resistance of the diode is small, time constant τ  T /4; therefore the
charging process is instantaneous ⇒ Vo (t) = Vi (t).
For t > T /4, Vi starts falling. The capacitor holds the charge it had at t = T /4 since
the diode prevents discharging.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector (continued)

10
Vo (V)

D 0
C R
Vi 5k Vo
1 µF Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector (continued)

10
Vo (V)

D 0
C R
Vi 5k Vo
1 µF Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

If a resistor is added in parallel, a discharging path is provided for the capacitor, and
the capacitor voltage falls after reaching the peak.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector (continued)

10
Vo (V)

D 0
C R
Vi 5k Vo
1 µF Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

If a resistor is added in parallel, a discharging path is provided for the capacitor, and
the capacitor voltage falls after reaching the peak.
When Vi > Vo , the capacitor charges again. The time constant for the charging
process is τ = RTh C , where RTh = R k Ron is the Thevenin resistance seen by the
capacitor, Ron being the on resistance of the diode.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector (continued)

10
Vo (V)

D 0
C R
Vi 5k Vo
1 µF Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

If a resistor is added in parallel, a discharging path is provided for the capacitor, and
the capacitor voltage falls after reaching the peak.
When Vi > Vo , the capacitor charges again. The time constant for the charging
process is τ = RTh C , where RTh = R k Ron is the Thevenin resistance seen by the
capacitor, Ron being the on resistance of the diode.
Since τ  T , the charging process is instantaneous.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector (continued)

10
Vo (V)

D 0
C R
Vi 5k Vo
1 µF Vi (V)
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

If a resistor is added in parallel, a discharging path is provided for the capacitor, and
the capacitor voltage falls after reaching the peak.
When Vi > Vo , the capacitor charges again. The time constant for the charging
process is τ = RTh C , where RTh = R k Ron is the Thevenin resistance seen by the
capacitor, Ron being the on resistance of the diode.
Since τ  T , the charging process is instantaneous.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector (with Von = 0.7 V )

10
Vo (V)

Vi (V)
R = 1M
-10
D
C R Vo 10
Vi
1 µF
Vo (V)

Vi (V)
R = 5k
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector (with Von = 0.7 V )

10
Vo (V)

Vi (V)
R = 1M
-10
D
C R Vo 10
Vi
1 µF
Vo (V)

Vi (V)
R = 5k
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector (with Von = 0.7 V )

10
Vo (V)

Vi (V)
R = 1M
-10
D
C R Vo 10
Vi
1 µF
Vo (V)

Vi (V)
R = 5k
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

## With Von = 0.7 V , the capacitor charges up to (Vm − 0.7 V ).

Apart from that, the circuit operation is similar.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Peak detector (with Von = 0.7 V )

10
Vo (V)

Vi (V)
R = 1M
-10
D
C R Vo 10
Vi
1 µF
Vo (V)

Vi (V)
R = 5k
-10
0 1 2
time (msec)

## With Von = 0.7 V , the capacitor charges up to (Vm − 0.7 V ).

Apart from that, the circuit operation is similar.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Clamped capacitor

VC 20
Vo

C 10
VC
Vi D Vo
iD 0
Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2
time (msec)

## * Assume Von = 0 V for the diode.

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Clamped capacitor

VC 20
Vo

C 10
VC
Vi D Vo
iD 0
Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2
time (msec)

## * Assume Von = 0 V for the diode.

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .
* VC can only increase with time (or remain constant) since iD can only be
positive.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Clamped capacitor

VC 20
Vo

C 10
VC
Vi D Vo
iD 0
Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2
time (msec)

## * Assume Von = 0 V for the diode.

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .
* VC can only increase with time (or remain constant) since iD can only be
positive.
* The net result is that the capacitor gets charged to a voltage VC = −Vi ,
corresponding to the maxmimum negative value of Vi , and holds that voltage
thereafter. Let us call this voltage VC0 (a constant).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Clamped capacitor

VC 20
Vo

C 10
VC
Vi D Vo
iD 0
Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2
time (msec)

## * Assume Von = 0 V for the diode.

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .
* VC can only increase with time (or remain constant) since iD can only be
positive.
* The net result is that the capacitor gets charged to a voltage VC = −Vi ,
corresponding to the maxmimum negative value of Vi , and holds that voltage
thereafter. Let us call this voltage VC0 (a constant).
* Vo (t) = VC (t) + Vi (t) = VC0 + Vi (t), which is a “level-shifted” version of Vi .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Clamped capacitor

VC 20
Vo

C 10
VC
Vi D Vo
iD 0
Vi

0 0.5 1 1.5 2
time (msec)

## * Assume Von = 0 V for the diode.

When D conducts, VD = −Vo = 0 ⇒ VC + Vi = 0, i.e., VC = −Vi .
* VC can only increase with time (or remain constant) since iD can only be
positive.
* The net result is that the capacitor gets charged to a voltage VC = −Vi ,
corresponding to the maxmimum negative value of Vi , and holds that voltage
thereafter. Let us call this voltage VC0 (a constant).
* Vo (t) = VC (t) + Vi (t) = VC0 + Vi (t), which is a “level-shifted” version of Vi .

Voltage doubler

VC1
A B C

C1 D2 VA
D1 C2 R VB
100 k
VC

## Von = 0 V Von = 0.7 V

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time (msec) time (msec)

Voltage doubler

VC1
A B C

C1 D2 VA
D1 C2 R VB
100 k
VC

## Von = 0 V Von = 0.7 V

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time (msec) time (msec)

* The diode clamp shifts VA up by Vm (the amplitude of the AC source), making VB go from
0 to 2 Vm .

Voltage doubler

VC1
A B C

C1 D2 VA
D1 C2 R VB
100 k
VC

## Von = 0 V Von = 0.7 V

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time (msec) time (msec)

* The diode clamp shifts VA up by Vm (the amplitude of the AC source), making VB go from
0 to 2 Vm .
* The peak detector detects the peak of VB (2 Vm w.r.t. ground), and holds it constant.

Voltage doubler

VC1
A B C

C1 D2 VA
D1 C2 R VB
100 k
VC

## Von = 0 V Von = 0.7 V

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time (msec) time (msec)

* The diode clamp shifts VA up by Vm (the amplitude of the AC source), making VB go from
0 to 2 Vm .
* The peak detector detects the peak of VB (2 Vm w.r.t. ground), and holds it constant.
* Note that it takes a few cycles to reach steady state. Plot VC 1 , iD1 , iD2 versus t and explain
the initial behaviour of the circuit.

Voltage doubler

VC1
A B C

C1 D2 VA
D1 C2 R VB
100 k
VC

## Von = 0 V Von = 0.7 V

20 20

10 10

0 0

−10 −10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time (msec) time (msec)

* The diode clamp shifts VA up by Vm (the amplitude of the AC source), making VB go from
0 to 2 Vm .
* The peak detector detects the peak of VB (2 Vm w.r.t. ground), and holds it constant.
* Note that it takes a few cycles to reach steady state. Plot VC 1 , iD1 , iD2 versus t and explain
the initial behaviour of the circuit.
(SEQUEL file: ee101 voltage doubler.sqproj)
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay