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Sodium nitrate, NaNO3, and sodium nitrite, NaNO2, are commonly added to meat products which are

kept for an extended period in a cold, but not frozen state (e.g. bologna, hot dogs, salami, ham, sausage,
etc). These additives have two purposes. One is “cosmetic”, they give the meat a pinkish-reddish color
and prevent it from turning brown. The other is that they prevent the growth of clostridium botulinum,
the microorganism that produces the deadly botulism toxin

It has been found that feeding sizeable amounts of sodium nitrite to animals results in formation of
compounds called nitrosamines which are suspected of being carcinogenic (i.e. cancer causing).
Additionally, large amounts of nitrate or nitrite in the diet may induce the disorder known as
methemoglobinemia, which can be fatal. In methemoglobinemia the ferrous ion, Fe 2+ , in hemoglobin
(red) is oxidized by nitrite to the ferric ion, Fe 3+ , converting the hemoglobin to methemoglobin
(brown) which does not transport oxygen as efficiently. The addition of vitamin C to the urea meat can
prevent the formation of nitrosamines. Thus only 200ppm of sodium nitrite is allowed to be used in
meat products. Due to this problem, the quantitative determination of sodium nitrite content is

A method used in determining the nitrite content of meat is visible spectroscopy. The extracted sodium
nitrite is initially colorless. In visible spectroscopy, samples and analytes are colored, thus the extract is
allowed to react with sulfanilic acid and naphthylethylenediamine (NEDA). These compounds react with
nitrite to produce purple colored dye. The amount of dye formed is dependent on the concentration of
nitrite ion present. The more intense the color of the solution the greater the quantity of nitrite present.
This reaction is called Griess reaction which is based on the chemical diazotation reaction of nitrite with
sulfanilamide and NEDA under acid conditions in this case phosphoric acid. The colored mixture was
formed which is capable of absorbing 505 nm wavelength.

Visible spectroscopy follows the Beer-Lambert’s Law which states that absorbance is directly
proportional to concentration of the analyte from the equation A=ebc where A is absorbance, e is the
molar absorptivity , b is the path length and c is the concentration of the analyte

Absorbance vs concentration

0.06 y = 0.031x + 0.0024

R² = 0.9547
Absorbance a.u


0.03 sodium nitrite

Linear (sodium nitrite)


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Concentration ppm
From the graph, the conc of nitrite from the sample was computed. The absorbance of the extract is
0.019 a.u thus the concentration of sodium nitrite is



Taking into account the 1:100 dilution the concentration becomes


M1=M2V2/V1 =(0.535)(100)/1 =53.5 ppm

Since 53.5ppm is a concentration in a cdo hotdog sample, that is much less than 200ppm of sodium
nitrite, it is considered to be safe and not hazardous to the health of consumers.

The original concentration of the cdo hotdog sample is

The sensitivity of the determination is 0.031 indicating that the method is sensitive


Through the diazotization reaction of N-1-napthyl-ethylene diamine, sulfanilic acid and sodium nitrite,
the sodium nitrite analyte was able to be determined through visible spectroscopy at 505nm
wavelength. The concentration of sodium nitrite from the cdo hotdog sample was 53.5ppm which is
below the 200 ppm standard concentration, indicating that it safe to be consumed.
DETERMINATION OF NITRITE IN PROCESSED MEAT. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2017, from
Nagaraj , P., & , Gopalakrishna Bhat, N. (2016). Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite
and nitrate ions by diazo coupling method . Internation Journal of Chemical studies,4(3), 101-
105. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
the dissolved oxygen (DO) is oxygen that is dissolved in water. The oxygen dissolves by diffusion
from the surrounding air; aeration of water that has tumbled over falls and rapids; and as a waste
product of photosynthesis.
Dissolved oxygen refers to the level of free, non-compound oxygen present in water or other liquids.
It is an important parameter in assessing water quality because of its influence on the organisms
living within a body of water. In limnology (the study of lakes), dissolved oxygen is an essential factor
second only to water itself ¹. A dissolved oxygen level that is too high or too low can harm aquatic
life and affect water quality

Total dissolved gas concentrations in water should not exceed 110 percent. Concentrations above
this level can be harmful to aquatic life. Fish in waters containing excessive dissolved gases may
suffer from "gas bubble disease"; however, this is a very rare occurrence. The bubbles or emboli
block the flow of blood through blood vessels causing death. Adequate dissolved oxygen is
necessary for good water quality. Oxygen is a necessary element to all forms of life. Natural stream
purification processes require adequate oxygen levels in order to provide for aerobic life forms. As
dissolved oxygen levels in water drop below 5.0 mg/l, aquatic life is put under stress. The lower the
concentration, the greater the stress. Oxygen levels that remain below 1-2 mg/l for a few hours can
result in large fish kills.
Dissolved oxygen is absolutely essential for the survival of all aquatic organisms ( not only fish but
also invertebrates suach as crabs, clams, zooplankton, etc). Moreover, oxygen affects a vast
number of other water indicators, not only biochemical but esthetic ones like the odor, clarity and
taste. Consequently, oxygen is perhaps the most well-established indicator of water quality.

A high DO level in a community water supply is good because it makes drinking water taste better.
However, high DO levels speed up corrosion in water pipes. For this reason, industries use water
with the least possible amount of dissolved oxygen. Water used in very low pressure boilers have no
more than 2.0 ppm of DO, but most boiler plant operators try to keep oxygen levels to 0.007 ppm or

Read more:

Knowledge of the dissolved oxygen (O2) concentration in seawater is often necessary in environmental
and marine science. It may be used by physical oceanographers to study water masses in the ocean. It
provides the marine biologist with a means of measuring primary production - particularly in laboratory
cultures. For the marine chemist, it provides a measure of the redox potential of the water column.

The concentration of dissolved oxygen can be readily, and accurately, measured by the method
originally developed by Winkler in 1888 Dissolved oxygen can also be determined with precision using
oxygen sensitive electrodes; such electrodes require frequent standardization with waters containing
known concentrations of oxygen. They are particularly useful in polluted waters where oxygen
concentrations may be quite high. In addition, their sensitivity can be exploited in environments with
rapidly-changing oxygen concentrations. However, electrodes are less reliable when oxygen
concentrations are very low. For these reasons, the Winkler titration is often employed for accurate
determination of oxygen concentrations in aqueous samples.

The dissolved oxygen concentration of seawater is defined as the number of milliliters of dioxygen gas
(O2 ) per liter of sample water (mL L -1 ).
The chemical determination of oxygen concentrations in seawater is based on the method first
proposed by Winkler (1888) and modified by Strickland and Parsons (1968). Oxygen in the water sample
oxidizes iodide ion (I- ) to iodine (I2) quantitatively. The amount of iodine generated is then determined
by titration with a standard thiosulfate (S2O3 -2) solution. The endpoint is determined by using starch as
a visual indicator. The amount of oxygen can then be computed from the titer: one mole of O2 reacts
with four moles of thiosulfate.

At the time of sampling, dissolved oxygen is fixed by the addition of Mn(II) under basic conditions,
resulting in a brown precipitate, manganic hydroxide (MnO(OH)2). Prior to analysis, the sample is
acidified to pH 1.0-2.5. This causes the precipitated hydroxides to dissolve, liberating Mn(III) ions. Mn(III)
ions oxidize previously added iodide ions to iodine. Iodine forms a complex (I3 - ) with surplus iodide
ions. Iodine and the complex exist in equilibrium; thus, I3 - serves as a reservoir of I2. The iodine is then
titrated with thiosulfate; iodine is reduced to iodide and the thiosulfate is oxidized to tetrathionate. The
stoichiometric equations for the reactions described above are:

The thiosulfate solution is not stable and therefore must be standardized with a primary standard,
typically potassium iodate (KIO3). Standardization is based on the co-proportionation reaction of iodide
with iodate, thereby forming iodine. As described above, the iodine binds with excess iodide, and the
complex is titrated with thiosulfate. One mole of iodate produces three moles iodine, which are
consumed by six moles of thiosulfate.

Environmental Chemistry of Boston Harbor – IAP 2006. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2017, from
Water Treatment Solutions. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2017, from

Dissolved Oxygen. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2017, from