This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Jay B. Lavine Chest 2001;119;1295DOI 10.1378/chest.119.4.1295
The online version of this article, along with updated information and services can be found online on the World Wide Web at: http://chestjournal.org
CHEST is the official journal of the American College of Chest Physicians. It has been published monthly since 1935. Copyright 2007 by the American College of Chest Physicians, 3300 Dundee Road, Northbrook IL 60062. All rights reserved. No part of this article or PDF may be reproduced or distributed without the prior written permission of the copyright holder (http://www.chestjournal.org/misc/reprints.shtml). ISSN: 0012-3692.
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on September 7, 2008 Copyright © 2001 by American College of Chest Physicians
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1995. Rennard et al1 mention that chicken soup has been referred to as Jewish penicillin. Tucson. Ito N. MD.” Because. Am J Physiol 1999. Jay B. Israel: Tashbar Harav 5748. cigarette smokers have increased numbers of neutrophils present in their lower respiratory tract. 160:S26 –S28 3 Matsuse T. Ertl RF. in preventing illness. et al. Shinji Teramoto. which could be harmful. “I am the Lord your physician. who was his physician. pneumonia is the fourth leading cause of death. 16:23–30 7 Keicho N. 146:177–184 4 Elliott WM. and some have even stated that it is forbidden to do so. et al. Yalkut lekach tov al parashiyot hashavua (in Hebrew). 2000 Chicken Soup or Jewish Medicine To the Editor: The study by Rennard et al (October 2000)1 is the latest attempt at humor on the subject of chicken soup.B activation.000 population died per year of this disease in the last decade. Elliott WM. Latent adenoviral infection in the pathogenesis of chronic airways obstructions. MD International University of Health and Welfare San-no Hospital Tokyo.RelA and p50 in airway cells with or without E1A transection. 1987– 88.9 Consequently. concluding. 117:1482–1487 2 Hogg JC. Department of Internal Medicine. Jewish sages throughout the ages have warned that one should not rely on the folk remedies of the Talmud. Because of this high rate of morbidity.org on September 7. Elliott WM. Hogg JC. Hayashi S. early appropriate antibiotic treatment is vital. In addition. He would protect them from all of the diseases He had placed on the Egyptians. Metcalf8 reported that adenovirus E1A 13S gene product upregulates TNF. Hogg JC.ac. Blackwell TS. Hayashi S.7 In E1A-transformed airway cells. Because CAP also is a potentially fatal disease. 12:642– 648 5 Keicho N. Superoxide mediates cigarette smoke-induced infiltration of neutrophils into the airways through nuclear factor. what did Maimonides feel was the main focus of medicine? The story2 is told that the Sultan of Egypt asked Maimonides. PO Box 43126. Acute exposure to cigarette smoke induces infiltration of neutrophils into the airways through NF. we are emulating God.B activation may be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD and chronic airway inflammation after chronic cigarette smoke inhalation and adenovirus infection. 8 –10 –16 Akasaka. 2008 Copyright © 2001 by American College of Chest Physicians . God promised the children of Israel that if they followed all of His commandments. and only the etiology of CAP has been investigated by Ishida et al (December 1998). Am J Physiol 1997.jp References 1 Christman JW. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992.B transcription factor is involved in the IL-8 gene and ICAM-1 gene expression after LPS stimulation. But instead of trying to inhibit the function of WBCs to control inflammation.B in pulmonary diseases. AZ Correspondence to: Jay B. et al. the latent adenovirus infection and cigarette smoke synergistically cause chronic airway inflammation through the cytokine genes and adhesion molecule genes expression.” Maimonides replied that in the Bible (Exodus 15:26).1 However. Am J Physiol 1996. FCCP Haruki Kume.” medicines that were derived from offensive human and animal parts and excretions (I place the swirling of dead chicken remains in vegetable broth in this category). e-mail: JLavineMD@aol. in all the time you’ve been taking care of me. prospective studies on the etiology of CAP among the Japanese population have been very limited. Lavine. Bondy GP. and I have no doubt that it is just as effective as any antibiotic in the treatment of viral illnesses. et al. LPS could induce nuclear translocation of NF. Endotoxinspecific NF. Rechisim. that is the greatest proof of a physician’s abilities. However. Thus.com References 1 Rennard BO. prevention is the highest form of healing. MD. but it leaves a bad taste in one’s mouth with regard to the millennia-old discipline of Jewish Medicine. and preventing illness is the main role of a physician. in keeping with respect for educated scientific and medical opinion. Hogg JC. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1997. ed.2 Therefore. Maimonides explained that when a patient follows his physician’s advice on lifestyle (diet and exercise) and the patient does not get sick. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1999. MD Tuscon. we investigated the etiology of CAP requiring hospitalization in Japan based on our findings. And that is what Jewish Medicine is really all about. e-mail: Shinjit-tky@umin. 118: 1150 –1157 2 Beifuss YYH.B and IL-8 gene expression. guidelines for CAP management have been produced in Japan. On the other hand. 109 Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization in Japan To the Editor: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a common cause of morbidity. Adenoviral E1A upregulates interleukin-8 expression induced by endotoxin in pulmonary epithelial cells. Immunodetection of adenoviral E1A proteins in human lung tissues. Aside from his medieval remedies such as chicken soup. Sadikot RT. “How do I know you’re such a great physician? After all. Ancient Jewish literature included 1295 Downloaded from chestjournal. 277:L523–L532 8 Metcalf JP. Japan. Japan Correspondence to: Shinji Teramoto. San-no Hospital. Adenoviral E1A gene dysregulates ICAM-1 expression in transformed pulmonary epithelial cells. In Japan. NF. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999. et al. possibly via NF. Minato-ku Tokyo 107-0052. We undertook a study to determine the etiology of CAP in CHEST / 119 / 4 / APRIL. 270:L535– L540 9 Nishikawa M. the NF. MD. Gossman GL. Childhood viral infection and the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest 2000.B activation and IL-8 mRNA expression in guinea pigs in vivo. Kakemizu N.B in E1Atransfected cells alone. Kuwano K.B activation in pulmonary epithelial cells harboring adenovirus E1A. Adenovirus E1A 13S gene product upregulates tumor necrosis factor gene. AZ 85733-3126. 21:189 –198 descriptions of folk remedies. Lavine. we should be trying to bolster the immune system to eradicate the infection and prevent complications. Chicken soup inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro. Higashimoto Y.gene. FCCP. I’ve never been sick. 272:L1046 – L1052 6 Keicho N. The role of nuclear factor. even in previously healthy persons. These experimental data should be further confirmed in the future by clinical data in humans. et al. and from 57 to 70 persons per 100. even the “Dreckapotheke. Chest 2000.
5%). et al.acquired pneumonia: a multicenter. 41 22 19 15 10 8 6 6 5 4 4 2 2 1 83 % 20. Guidelines for the management of respiratory tract infection. In the present study. Two hundred patients (128 men and 72 women. Basic management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. In addition to serology and culturing.0 2.ac. Community-acquired pneumonia guidelines: an international comparison. and cell cultures were performed in cycloheximide-treated HEp-2 and HeLa 229 cells.5 41.0 1. One hundred nine (54. The frequencies were lower than those in Western countries but were higher than those in the study of Ishida et al.2 with the exception of the frequencies of atypical pathogens.0%]) (Table 1). Hashimoto T. Coxiella burnetii. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org%]).0 3. Legionella spp. Saito A. PhD. Is Streptococcus pneumoniae the leading cause of pneumonia of unknown etiology? A microbiologic study of lung aspirates in consecutive patients with community-acquired pneumonia.org on September 7. 110:1499 –1506 5 Liberman D.5 11. we also employed other diagnostic methods for the detection of Chlamydia spp. FCCP Niro Okimoto MD. we were able to detect atypical pathogens in approximately 20% of CAP cases. Oral empiric treatment of community. Arita M. C pneumoniae.0%]). In: Matsushima T. PhD. Am J Med 1999.5%) patients had at least one underlying disease. mean age. C pneumoniae. PhD. and Legionella spp. Kohno S. Chlamydia pneumoniae. was also a significant causative microorganism in Japan. the urinary antigen test was used for detection of Legionella spp. PhD.0 9.5%]). Dual pathogens were detected in 25 patients (12.3– 6 these organisms have been found to account for up to 25% of CAP cases in Western countries. eds. Japan. Kurashiki Daiichi Hospital. FCCP Kawasaki Medical School Kawasaki Hospital Okayama. Naoyuki Miyashita. 51:179 –184 6 Ruiz-Gonzalez A.Japan between April 1998 and September 2000 at three different hospitals. 113:S183–S187 4 Ortqvist A.0 2. MD. A microbiological diagnosis was established in 117 patients with pneumonia (58.0 1. The difference from findings in Western countries may be due to the low incidence of Legionella and C burnetii pneumonia in Japan. 60.2 The difference from the study by Ishida et al may be related to the period in which the survey was conducted or to the traditional diagnostic methods used for the detection of C pneumoniae.5 5. Department of Internal Medicine. 2000.2 In addition. FCCP Toshiharu Matsushima. 19 to 91 years. Japan: The Japanese Respiratory Society. et al. 1– 49 2 Ishida T. Chest 1998. Tokyo.5 7.0 3. have been recognized as common respiratory pathogens. PhD Hiroshi Fukano. Cars O. Okayama 710-0826.0 0.kawasaki-m.5%). Falguera M. Nogues A. and Chlamydia trachomatis infections were diagnosed by isolation in cell cultures and by serology. In several studies. Valtonen M. C burnetii. The atypical pathogens. C pneumoniae (15 patients [7. and M pneumoniae. MD. Antibodies to Chlamydia spp were measured by the microimmunofluorescence test. followed by Haemophilus influenzae (22 patients [11. MD.0 4. randomized study comparing sparfloxacin with roxithromycin. Ishida et al2 investigated the etiology of CAP among the Japanese population for the first time. and their findings did not differ markedly when compared with those of Western countries. Chlamydia psittaci. S pneumoniae was the leading cause of CAP. age range. et al. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (41 patients [20. Chest 1996. Japan Correspondence to: Naoyuki Miyashita. Etiology of communityacquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients: a 3-year prospective study in Japan. 5–3-10 Oimatsu cho. The microbiological and serologic studies that were performed were almost the same as those used in the study by Ishida et al. MD Yoshihito Niki. The recognition of these results will allow us to treat patients with prompt antimicrobial therapy and will promote the formulation of new guidelines for the management of CAP in Japan. MD. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (19 patients [9. Our results were almost consistent with those of Ishida et al. 106:385–390 *Patients with dual infections were included.5 References 1 The Japanese Respiratory Society. 2008 Copyright © 2001 by American College of Chest Physicians . 114:1588 –1593 3 Woodhead M.9 years) who had had episodes of pneumonia were enrolled in the study. Multiple pathogens in adult patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia: a 1-year prospective study of 346 consecutive patients.5 2. doubleblind. Antibodies to C burnetii were measured by the indirect immunofluorescence test. and an emerging or newly recognized pathogen. 1296 Communications to the Editor Downloaded from chestjournal. Boldur I. Thorax 1996. Chest 1998. and Staphylococcus aureus (10 patients [5. Kurashiki City. In our study. et al.5%]). Schlaeffer F.jp Table 1—Microbiological Diagnosis of 200 Episodes of CAP* Cases Pathogen S pneumoniae H influenzae M pneumoniae C pneumoniae S aureus Anaerobes Viruses Moraxella catarrhalis Klebsiella pneumoniae Pseudomonas aeruginosa Streptococcus milleri group Legionella pneumophila C psittaci C burnetii Unknown No.
Reprints Email alerting service Images in PowerPoint format Figures that appear in CHEST articles can be downloaded for teaching purposes in PowerPoint slide format. 2008 Copyright © 2001 by American College of Chest Physicians .org/cgi/content/full/119/4/1295 This article has been cited by 2 HighWire-hosted articles: http://chestjournal. See any online article figure for directions. Downloaded from chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/119/4/1295 Information about reproducing this article in parts (figures. can be found at: http://chestjournal.shtml Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article sign up in the box at the top right corner of the online article.4. including high-resolution figures.1295 This information is current as of September 7.org/misc/reprints. tables) or in its entirety can be found online at: http://chestjournal. Lavine Chest 2001.shtml Information about ordering reprints can be found online: http://chestjournal.org/misc/reprints. 2008 Updated Information & Services Citations Permissions & Licensing Updated information and services.1295DOI 10.119.Chicken Soup or Jewish Medicine Jay B.1378/chest.119.org on September 7.