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Traffic

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CDMA

White Paper

Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper 2003/02/04

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the

copyright holder.

property of their respective holders.

The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to continued progress in

methodology, design and manufacturing. Ericsson shall have no liability for any error or damage

of any kind resulting from the use of this document.

2003/02/04 Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper

Contents

1. Introduction ...............................................................................4

1.1. Abstract............................................................................................. 4

1.2. Keywords .......................................................................................... 4

2. Generalities ...............................................................................4

2.1. Shannon limit .................................................................................... 4

2.2. Capacity performance of the CDMA systems .................................... 5

2.3. Pool capacity in the CDMA network .................................................. 7

3. Traffic evaluation in CDMA networks ........................................8

4. Traffic analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA ...........................8

4.1. Traffic threshold .............................................................................. 10

5. Reference................................................................................11

Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper 2003/02/04

1. Introduction

1.1. Abstract

The application note discusses capacity issues in the CDMA networks and the

importance of the traffic analysis performed by the drive test tools. The procedure

used by TEMS Investigation for the traffic evaluation is also explained.

1.2. Keywords

Shannon limit, pool capacity, processing gain, loading factor, traffic analysis,

code domain, TEMS Investigation.Introduction

2. Generalities

The theoretical capacity of any communication channel is defined by C.E.

Shannon’s formula [1]

C (bps) denotes the channel capacity, Bw (Hz) represents the bandwidth, S is the

signal power and N is the noise power. The equation (1) shows the theoretical

ability of a channel to transmit information without errors for a given SNR and a

given Bw. Increasing the Bw, the signal power or both could determine a boost of

the capacity.

2003/02/04 Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper

applicable to an RF channel by assuming that the IF filter has a flat frequency

response with a bandwidth > 2*Bw. The capacity bound assumes that the channel

noise is AWGN. For most communication systems that are limited by thermal

noise, this assumption is true. For interference-limited systems like wireless

networks, however, this assumption is not valid, and the Shannon bound is

practically not achievable.

CDMA networks are spread spectrum systems that cope with the interference

phenomena by the usage of the processing gain Gp. The Gp represents the ratio

of the RF bandwidth to the information rate

Gp = Bw/R (2)

Typical processing gains lie between 20 to 60dB. The noise level is determined by

thermal noise and interference. For a given user, the interference is processed as

noise. The input and output SNRs are related as shown in

Eb/N0 ratio, where Eb is the energy per bit and N0 is the noise power spectral

density. The relationship is given by (4)

Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper 2003/02/04

Unlike TDMA and FDMA systems, the spread spectrum systems can tolerate

some interference, so the introduction of each additional user increases the overall

level of interference to the cell-site receiver (BS). Each MS introduces a unique

level of interference that depends on its received power level at the BS, its timing

synchronization relative to other signals at the cell site, and its specific cross

correlation with other CDMA signals. The number of CDMA channels in the

network depends on the level of total interference that can be tolerated in the

system. Modulation and FEC coding techniques improve tolerance for interference

and increase overall CDMA system capacity. The performance of the modulation

and coding methods used on the signals and the tolerance of the digitized voice

and data-to-errors ratio defines the minimum Eb/N0 that should be maintained by

the network to ensure the required transmission quality expressed by the error

probability. The relationship between the number of mobile users M, the

processing gain Gp and the Eb/N0 ratio is given by (5).

M ~ Gp /(Eb/N0) (5)

For a given error probability Pe, the actual Eb/N0 ratio depends on the radio

system design and the error correction code. This ratio may approach but never

equal the theoretical calculations. It is shown [2] that for the Shannon limit the

number of users can be (6).

M = 1.45*Gp (6)

wireless systems are engineered for an Eb/N0 of 6dB-7dB. In addition, equation

(5) shows that Gp limits the upper bound theoretical capacity of an ideal noise-free

CDMA channel. Actually, the CDMA cell capacity is affected by the receiver

modulation performance, power control accuracy, interference from other non-

CDMA systems sharing the same frequency band, and other factors. Therefore,

the estimated number of users that can be supported by a CDMA system is given

by (7).

M ~ Gp * λ * α / (Eb/N0) * (1 + β) * υ (7)

using directional antennas at the BS, with an average value of 2.55. The α factor

denotes the power accuracy, which has an average value of 0.85. The number of

users in a cell is reduced by the interference from users in other cells. The

additional interference is accounted for by the factor β, with an average value of

0.5. The voice activity reduces the interference level at the BS by an average

factor υ of 0.6. For data communication, the υ factor equals unity.

2003/02/04 Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper

supported by a sector of a 3 sector - CDMA cell using the Bw=1.25MHz, an Eb/N0

value of 6.8dB (usual value for cdmaOne), and transmitting data at 9.6kb/s.

The maximum number of users that can be supported on the downlink of a CDMA

network is different from the uplink. Generally, the capacity of a CDMA network

depends on the uplink capacity. The downlink capacity is governed by the total

transmitted power of the cell site and its distribution to traffic channels and other

overhead channels (e.g. paging, pilot, sync). The power amplifiers are designed to

provide enough power to the downlink traffic channels, so that the network’s

capacity is not generally expected to be downlink limited. Therefore, network

developers and operators are more concerned with the uplink capacity. They use

the terminology of pool capacity, which represents the asymptotic cell capacity

that can be achieved as the power received by the BS from the MS approaches

infinity. Actually, this terminology refers to the same equation (7) but from a

different view that allows a more practical method of capacity calculation.

The loading of the BS is defined by the total interference level (8).[2]

Itot gives the total interference level at the BS, and N0 is the thermal noise level

determined at the cell site. The uplink loading factor of the BS is denoted by χ and

is given by (9).

χ = (1 + β) * M * L (9)

M represents the number of users and L the user’s loading factor, which is

calculated with formula (10).

L = 1 / (1 + Gp * υ /(Eb/N0)) (10)

Equation (8) shows that the asymptotic interference level (the ∞ value)

corresponds to the unity uplink loading factor χ. Therefore, using (9), the pool

capacity is defined by (11).

Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper 2003/02/04

In live networks, a common value for the uplink-loading factor is 50%. Applying

(11) results in a number of 17 users for the example presented in the previous

paragraph. This value is more realistic than the one estimated by using equation

(7). However, as expected, the value is highly dependent on the Eb/N0 ratio that

can be obtained in the network and on the uplink-loading factor at the evaluation

moment.

Soft handoffs represent a factor that can improve the capacity on the uplink.

Conversely, the number and type of soft handoffs can reduce the downlink

capacity.

Traffic is one of the most influential dimensions that could affect the performance

of a CDMA network. Therefore, developers and operators need to evaluate the

value of the traffic in their network and the time distribution of the traffic. This task

is performed by the means of drive test tools.

The voice traffic roughly exhibits the same value, regardless of communication

link. The data traffic is strongly asymmetric, generally with an excess load on the

uplink (e.g. the users’ web downloading). Therefore, regardless of link and

application type (voice or data), it is recommended that an evaluation be

performed that can give an estimate of the all-active channels of a site.

CDMA

The TEMS Investigation drive test tool uses the concept that an active CDMA

channel of a cell can be identified by evaluating the signal power on each Walsh

code. This procedure is straightforward and suitable for a drive test tool, because

it requires only the assessment of the power on each Walsh code. The accuracy

of the traffic estimation can be affected by making a distinction between active and

inactive channels.

TEMS uses the PN scanning to identify the dedicated BS. Once the BS is

detected, the measurement is locked on the correspondent PN code, and a Walsh

code correlation algorithm decodes each CDMA channel. The power transmitted

in each Walsh channel is assessed in the code-domain measurement

environment. The number of active channels that do not represent the pilot (Walsh

0), the paging channels (Walsh 1-7), and the synch channel (Walsh 32) provides

the estimator of the traffic on the tested cell at a given moment.

2003/02/04 Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper

The contribution of each Walsh channel is displayed in real time (figure 1). The

power calculations can be performed using absolute values (parameter Ec) or

values relative to the total power of the CDMA signal (parameter Ec/Io).

The channels that exhibit a power above the traffic threshold represent active

users. Figure 1 represents a snap shot in time that shows the active channels W9,

W12, W13, W20, W25, W29, W33, W32, W37, W39, W51, W61. The active code

value and its Ec/Io value are also displayed.

The number of active users at a certain moment and their time distribution is

presented as a graph in the Traffic Analysis view (figure 2). The Y-axis represents

the number of active channels and X-axis represents the time. The plot is

accompanied by additional code domain statistics, such as the maximum and

average number of active channels at a certain moment, and the maximum and

average traffic power. The pilot PN code and its power, the RF channel, and the

total power of the channel are also displayed.

Figure 1

Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper 2003/02/04

Figure 2

The traffic threshold affects the estimated number of active users at a certain

moment. The value for the threshold is selected by the user and can be changed

during data collection and replay of the data file. When determining the traffic

threshold, however, a set of factors should be considered. Some guidance is

presented below.

Generally, a CDMA BS is designed to provide 10% of its maximum power on the

pilot. It is expected that on average, each channel will exhibit a power close to the

pilot channel.

In addition, the CDMA standards [3] require all inactive codes to be at least 27dB

below the total channel power. Considering the waveform quality, this requirement

is tight. However, it should be considered that the sum of all the uncorrelated

power will create a noise floor in all the code channels. This is of no consequence

on the active channels, but since the noise floor sets a performance limit on the

inactive channels, it could be used to establish a minimum value of the traffic

threshold.

2003/02/04 Traffic Analysis in TEMS Investigation CDMA White Paper

power that is spread equally over all Walsh codes and contributes to the code

domain noise floor power, pure noise often degrades CDMA system’s

performance. The calculation of the noise in the code-domain uses the fact that

1/128 of the noise energy occupies each Walsh code (1/64 for cdmaOne). Each

active Walsh code contains its own power plus a fraction of error power that is

assumed to be equally distributed among all Walsh codes. Therefore, the code

domain power coefficient ρk of the kth active Walsh code is defined by (13).

For unused codes there is no signal power Pk=0. Assuming that the noise has the

same power as the CDMA signal, the power coefficient associated to the inactive

code is given by:

The example above shows an average code domain floor of –24dB, suggesting a

traffic threshold that should be above this value. However, the pilot dominance,

the measurement integration time, and retriever’s noise performance should be

considered when the traffic threshold is evaluated.

5. Reference

[1]. C.E. Shannon, ”Communications in the Presence of Noise”, Proceedings of

the IRE, no.37, 1949.

[2]. V. Garg, “IS-95 CDMA and CDMA 2000. Cellular/PCS Systems

Implementation”, Prentice Hall 2000, NJ.

[3]. IS-2000 Rev B

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