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KUWAIT OIL COMPANY (KmSBCB)

STANDARDS PUBLICATION

KOC STANDARD

FOR

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP -


ROADWAYS, PAVING AND HARD STANDING :
PART 1 : FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

DOC.NO. KOC-C-024 PART-1

STANDARDS DIVISION
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 2 of 7 0 Rev. 1

KOC STANDARD

FOR

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP -

ROADWAYS, PAVING AND HARD STANDING :

PART 1 : FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 PART-1


( Formerly 0 75-SH-7003 )

ISSUING AUTHORITY:

STANDARDS DIVISION
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 3 of 7 0 Rev. 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
FOREWORD 5

1.0 SCOPE

2.0 APPLICATION

3.0 TERMINOLOGY
3.1 Definition of Terms - Road Classification
3.2 Definition of Terms - Road Structure
3.3 Abbreviations

4.0 REFERENCE STANDARDS AND CODES


4.1 Conflicts
4.2 List of Standards and Codes

5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

6.0 HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

7.0 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS


7.1 Design Life
7.2 Traffic Intensities
7.3 Pavement Design Requirements
7.4 Site Survey, Route Map and Other Information

8.0 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS


8.1 General
8.2 Fill Material
8.3 Sub-Grade Material
8.4 Sub-Base Material
8.5 Asphalt Concrete Materials ( Various Courses )

9.0 WORKMANSHIP AND TESTING OF SUB-GRADE


9.1 General
9.2 Sub-Grade Preparation
9.3 Machinery to be Used
9.3 Method of Execution

10.0 WORKMANSHIP AND TESTING OF SUB-BASE


10.1 General
10.2 Selection, Approval and Completion
10.3 Machinery to be Used
10.4 Method of Execution
10.5 Compaction and Testing

11.0 WORKMANSHIP AND TESTING OF ASPHALT CONCRETE


11.I Survey and Preparation of Area to be Paved
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 4 of 7 0 Rev. 1

11.2 Weather Limitation


11.3 Prime Coat
11.4 -
Tack Coat Emulsified Asphalt
11.5 Asphalt Concrete
11.6 Equipment to be Used
11.7 Method of Execution
11.8 Testing & Acceptance Requirements of
Completed Asphalt Courses

12.0 ROAD SHOULDERS


12.1 General
12.2 Workmanship

13.0 CONCRETE KERBSTONES


13.1 General
13.2 Materials
13.3 Workmanship - Raised Kerbstones
13.4 Workmanship - Sunken Kerbstones
13.5 Curing

14.0 TEMPORARY ROADS

15.0 ROAD 1 TRAFFIC MARKINGS


15.1 Marking Paints - Generally
15.2 Paint Materials
15.3 Material Requirements
15.4 Glass Beads
15.5 Method of Execution
15.6 Machinery and Equipment
15.7 Road Studs

16.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE

17.0 DOCUMENTATION

18.0 APPENDICES
Appendix I : Typical Sample
Coated Asphalt Mix Design Report (Type II)
Appendix II : Typical Sample
Uncoated Asphalt Mix Design Report (Type II)
Appendix Ill : Typical Details for Flexible Pavement
( Asphalt Road )
Appendix IV : Typical Details of Precast Kerbstones
Appendix V : Road Markings
Permitted Variance from Illustrated Markings
Appendix VI : Sample Road Markings

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 5 of 7 0 Rev. 1

FOREWORD

This document KOC Standard for Materials and Workmanship - Roadways,


"

Paving and Hard Standing : Part 1 : Flexible Pavement " (KOC-C-024 Part-1) is
intended t o address the need for consistent and practical requirements for
design, material selection and construction of all weather good asphalt roads
within KOC areas.

Tt-,ls 1<02 Standard (KOC-C-024, Part-1) has been approved by the Standards
Elvis ?I-I in consultation with Standards Technical Committee ( STC ) for use
t h r o ~ chj r l ~ tthe corporate engineering and operational functions of Kuwalt 011
C o m p a r , ~(KSC).
The reql-~irementsof other miscellaneous road works related t o drainage, concrete
paving, rig crossings, traffic signals etc., rehabilitation of roadway pavements,
and general requirements of site laboratories for testing will be covered under a
separate KOC Standard KOC-C-024 Part-2.

This Standard sets out t o achieve the following objectives:

a) To establish the basic technical requirements pertaining t o design and


construction of road works as " Flexible Pavement " using latest
technology for improved methods of high quality construction.

b) To encourage the use of alternative road making materials due t o


shortage of locally available materials at the existing sources in Kuwait.

To provide general technical guidance for developing project


specifications in order t o achieve reliability, safety and quality.

d To set out clear requirements t o monitor compliance in design, materials


and workmanship with a contract.

e To ensure KOC requirements of safety and safe movement in all weather


conditions.

Feedback as well as any comments or suggestions from the application of this


Standard derived at any stage of design, engineering, field construction,
maintenance or operation are encouraged and should be directed to:

The Supdt. Standards Division


(Chairman, Standards Technical Committee)
Engineering Group, KOC
P.O.Box- 9758, Ahmadi 61 0 0 8
State of Kuwait

Task Force responsible for this Standard

The Standards Technical Committee (STC) has entrusted the preparation of this
Standard t o the Task Force No. (TF-CI02) comprising of the following members:

Mr. S. Kumar Standards Div. - Team Leader Tel. 61 407


Mr. Timir B. Ghosh (Ex) Standards Div. - Team LeaderJAuthor Tel. 61 6 2 0
Mrs. Sana Ati Talha Engg. Design Div. - Member Tel. 61352
Mr. Mubarak Al-Ahmad Construction Div. - Member Tel. 61249
Mr. Faisal Khorsheed Ahmadi Svcs. Dept. - Member Tel. 67329
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 6 of 7 0 Rev. 1

This Standard specifies the minimum basic technical requirements for


design, materials and workmanship related to the construction of
Roadways, Paving and Hard Standing as " Flexible Pavement " at the
new and existing locations within KOC Facilities, KOC Fields and
Ahmadi residential areas.

This Standard covers the extent of work for flexible pavement as


described herein and includes but not limited only t o the following:-

a) Selection of "Fill" materials, machinery and workmanship including


method of execution and testing for Sub-grade and Sub-base
construction.

b) Selection of materials, machinery and workmanship including


method of execution and testing of " Asphalt Concrete " for Base
course and Wearing course using:

I. locally available " Cement coated aggregates " ; or


ii. uncoated aggregates based on imported Gabro " (granite
"

stone).

C) Application of Prime coat, Tack coat and Shoulder treatment.

d) Concrete kerbstones along the roads.

e) Traffic paint markings on the roads.

f) Testing requirements for different materials and workmanship


during construction period.

This Standard excludes the other miscellaneous road works related to


drainage, concrete paving, rig crossings, traffic signals etc.,
rehabilitation of roadway pavements, and general requirements of site
laboratories for testing. ( Refer t o KOC Standard KOC-C-024, Part 2
for these requirements).

APPLICATION

The design, selection of material, testing and workmanship of any


work related t o the specified road work and paving (flexible
pavement) shall conform t o the requirements of this Standard and
reference standards / codes mentioned herein.

Any exceptions or deviations from this Standard, along with their


merits and justifications, shall be brought to the attention of KOCfs
Controlling Department for their review, consideration and
amendments by Standards Division (if required).
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 7 of 7 0 Rev. 1

Compliance with this Standard does not confer immunity from legal or
statuary obligations.

TERMINOLOGY

Definition of Terms - Road Classification


For the purposes of this Standard, the following definitions apply:

Main ~ a c i l i Access
t~ Road

Main vehicular access road, serving t w o or more KOC Facilities and


connecting t o the Main Highway; and generally subject t o medium
volume of traffic ( 4 - 6 x lo5, 18-kip ESAL over its design life as per
AASHTO ) .

Primary Road

Main vehicular access road connecting the KOC Facility with the Main
Facility access road or t o the Main Highway; and generally subject to
medium t o low volume of traffic.

Secondary Road

A road having regular vehicles for operation or maintenance purposes;


and generally subject t o low volume of traffic ( 0.5 - 3 x lo5, 18-kip
ESAL over its design life as per AASHTO).

Service Road

A road which serves remote areas or provides access t o fire-fighting


equipment.

Access Way

A distinctly outlined traveled way, which gives access t o equipment in


congested areas.

Rig Road

A road meant for traveling drilling rigs at site of exploration.

Temporary Road

A road meant for temporary diversion of traffic during construction or


rehabilitation period for access t o premises and other roads affected by
the work.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 8 of 70 Rev. 1

Hard Standing

A road section, made wider for a particular length outside the main
carriageway, to be used as safe waiting area of vehicles or as a passing
point in narrow single lane road.

ESAL ( Equivalent Single Axle Load )

Total vehicular loads in terms of 18-kip " Equivalent Single Axle Load as
"

per AASHTO design, t o be considered on the road pavement layers over


the period of road design life.

Definition of Terms - Road Structure


KOC Standard KOC-C-005 shall4 be referred for the definitions of
various applicable terms for soil properties used in this Standard. In
addition, the following definitions shall apply:

The prepared ground, in cut or fill, to receive the sub-base or base


course.

The secondary load spreading layer of granular material laid on the


su b-grade.

Road Base

The main load spreading compacted layer having granular, asphalt


treated cement coated aggregates, or asphalt treated uncoated 'Gabro'
(granite stone) material laid on the sub-base or on good the sub-grade
having CBR greater than 25.

Base Course & Binder 1 Leveling Course

A rolled and compacted layer comprising asphalt concrete material


Type I for base c o u k e and Type II for binder / leveling course. The
Type I or Type II asphalt concrete material shall be selected on the
basis of road classifications and local soil & site conditions.

Prime Coat

A thin layer of liquid asphalt ( MC 70 ) in accordance with AASHTO M 8 2


(ASTM D2027) t o be applied with blotter materials (natural sands), if
required, on the previously prepared and approved sub-base t o receive the
base course.
Page 9 of 70 Rev. 1

Tack Coat

A thin layer of viscosity grade cationic emulsified liquid asphalt of


grade SS-I h or CSS-I h in accordance with AASHTO M 208 (ASTM D
2397) or AASHTO M 140 (ASTM D 977 ) applied on the base course
or binder course t o receive wearing Course.

Wearing Course

A rolled layer of Type Ill or Type IV asphalt concrete material laid on


the base course or binder course. The compacted Type-Ill asphalt
concrete mix is meant for smooth and resilient road surface and shall
comprise materials of lower sizes containing more sand and filler in
different percentages than those contained in the base or binder /
leveling course. Type IV asphalt is used as seal coat for Parking, Play
Ground and Residential compounds in Ahmadi.

Hard Shoulder

Outlined compacted gatch strip with slope across the length, on each
side of the road pavement, surfaced with a rolled and compacted layer
of Type Ill asphalt concrete material, used for emergency run off /
parking of vehicles.

Soft Shoulder

Outlined and compacted gatch strip with slope across, on each side of
the road pavement used for emergency run off / parking of vehicles.

Abbreviations

AASHTO American Association of State Highway and


Transportation Officials
CBR California Bearing Ratio
HSE Health, Safety and Environment
KOC Kuwait Oil Company (K.S.C.)
MC Medium Curing
MPW Ministry of Public Works
VMA Voids in Mineral Aggregates

REFERENCE STANDARDS AND CODES

Conflicts

In the event of conflicts between this Standard and the standards /


codes referred herein, or other purchase or contractual requirements,
the most stringent requirement shall apply. In case further
clarifications are required, the subject shall be brought t o the attention
of KOC's Controlling Department.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 10 of 7 0 Rev. 1

4.1.2 In general, the sequence of precedence shall be followed as:

a) Kuwait Government Rules and Regulations


b) KOC Technical Specifications
C) This KOC Standard (KOC-C-024)
d) International codes and standards
e) Contractor's standards and specifications

4.2 List of Standards and Codes

The latest edition of the following standards, codes and specifications


shall apply:

4.2.1 National Standards

AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures

Earthworks, Sub-Base and Base Course Materials

AASHTO M 145 Recommended Practice for Classification of


Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway
Construction Purposes

AASHTO T 2 Specification for Sampling of Aggregates


(ASTM D 75)
AASHTO T 11 Specification for Materials Finer than 75-
Micrometer (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral
Aggregates by Washing

AASHTO T 27 Method of Test for Sieve Analysis of Fine and


Course Aggregates

AASHTO T 8 7 Specification for Dry Preparation of Disturbed


Soil and Soil Aggregate Samples for Test

AASHTO T 8 8 Method of Test for Particle Size Analysis of


Soils

AASHTO T 8 9 Specification for Determining Liquid Limit of


Soils
AASHTO T 9 0 Method of Test for Determining the Plastic
Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils

AASHTO T 93 Specification for Determining the Field


Moisture Equivalent of Soils

AASHTO T 9 6 Method of Test for Resistance t o Abrasion of


.
(ASTM C131) Small Size Coarse Aggregates by Abrasicn and
Impact in the 10s Angeles Machine
2
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 11 of 7 0 Rev. 1

AASHTO T 1 0 0 Method of Test for Specific Gravity of Soils


(ASTM D 854)
AASHTO T I 7 6 Method of Test for Plastic Fines in Graded
Aggregates and Soils by Use of the Sand
Equivalent Test

AASHTO T I 8 0 Specification for Moisture-Density Relations of


Soils Using a 4 . 5 4 kg ( 1 0 Ib) Rammer and a
4 5 7 m m ( 18 in) Drop

AASHTO T 191 Method of Test for Density of Soil In-Place by


(ASTM D 1556) the Sand Cone Method

AASHTO T 1 9 3 Method of Test for the California Bearing Ratio

AASHTO T 2 0 4 Method of Test for Density of Soil In-Place by


the Drive Cylinder Method

AASHTO T 205 Method of Test for Density of Soil In-Place by


(ASTM D 21 67) the Rubber-Balloon Method

AASHTO T 21 7 Specification for Determination of Moisture in


Soils by Means of a Calcium Carbide Gas
Pressure Moisture Tester

ASTM D 4 2 0 Guide t o Site Characterization for Engineering,


Design and Construction Purposes

Testing Aggregates

Asphalt Materials

ACI 504R Guide t o Joint Sealant for Concrete Structures

AASHTO M 1 7 Specification for Mineral Filler for Bituminous


(ASTM D 242) Paving Mixtures

AASHTO M 2 0 Specification for Penetration Graded Asphalt


Cement

AASHTO M 8 2 Standard Specification for Cut-Back Asphalt


(Medium Curing)

AASHTO M 1 4 0 Specification of Emulsified Asphalt


(ASTM D 977)
AASHTO M 2 0 8 Specification for Cationic Emulsified Asphalt
(ASTM D 2397)
AASHTO M 226 Standard Specification for Viscosity Graded
Asphalt Cement
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 12 of 7 0 Rev. 1

AASHTO T 2 Specification for Sampling of Aggregates

AASHTO T 30 Method of Test for Mechanical Analysis of


Extracted Aggregate

AASHTO T 37 Method of Test for Sieve Analysis of Mineral


Filler for Road and Paving Materials

AASHTO T 59 Test Methods and Practices for Emulsified


(ASTM D 244) Asphalt Testing

AASHTO T 104 Method of Test for Soundness of Aggregate by


Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate

AASHTO T 164 Specification for Quantitative Extraction of


(ASTM D 21 72) Bitumen from Bituminous Paving Mixtures

AASHTO T I65 Specification for Effect of Water on Cohesion


(ASTM D 1075) of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures

AASHTO T 168 Method of Test for Sampling Bituminous Paving


(ASTM D 979) Mixtures

AASHTO T I76 Method of Test for Plastic Fines in Graded


Aggregates and Soils by Use of the Sand
Equivalent Test

AASHTO T I82 Method of Test for Coating and Stripping of


Bitumen-Aggregate Mixtures

AASHTO T 21 1 Specification for Determination of Cement


Content in Cement Treated Aggregate by the
Method of Titration

AASHTO T 21 9 Method of Test for Testing Lime for Chemical


Constituents and Particle Sizes

AASHTO T 230 Specification for Determining Degree of


Pavement Compaction of Bituminous Aggregate
Mixtures

AASHTO T 245 Method of Test for Resistance t o Plastic Flow


of Bituminous Mixtures Using Marshall
Apparatus
ASTM C 150 Specification for Portland Cement
(AASHTO M 85)
ASTM D 2027 Standard Specification for Cut-Back Asphalt
(Medium Curing)
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 13 of 7 0

ASTM D 3387 Test Method for Compaction and Shear


Properties of Bituminous Mixtures by Means of
U.S. Corps of Engineers Gyratory Testing
Machine

Tests for General Properties of Aggregates

Tests for Mechanical and Physical Properties of


Aggregates : Determination of Loose Density
and Voids

Asphalt Institute: Marshall Method of Mix


Design

MPW Test Procedure for Detection of Hydrated Lime


in Loose Asphalt Mixes or Cores

MPW Standard Test Procedure for Measuring,


Stripping and Heat Stability on Bitumen-
Aggregate Mixtures in the Presence of Water

Concrete Works

AASHTO M 6 Specification for Fine Aggregates for Portland


Cement Concrete

AASHTO M 148 Specification for Liquid Membrane-Forming


(ASTM C309) Compounds for Curing Concrete

ASTM C 8 7 Test Method for Effect of Organic Impurities in


Fine Aggregate on Strength of Mortar

ASTM C 8 8 Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by


Use of Sodium Sulfate and Magnesium Sulfate

ASTM C 1 3 6 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and


Coarse Aggregates

ASTM C 295 Standard Guide for Petro-graphic Examination


of Aggregates for Concrete

ASTM C 4 9 4 Specification for Chemical Admixtures for


Concrete

ASTM D 1751 Specification for Pre-formed Expansion Joint,


Fillers for Concrete Paving and Structural
Construction
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 14 of 7 0 Rev. 1

ASTM D 3405 Specification for Joint Sealant, Hot-Applied for


Concrete and Asphalt Pavements

ASTM D 3 4 0 6 Specification for Joint Sealant, Hot-Applled,


Elastomeric- Type, for Portland Cement
Concrete Pavements

BS 8 8 2 Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete

BS 1 1 9 9 Building Sands from Natural Sources

BS 1881 Methods of Testing Concrete

BS 7 2 6 3 Part 1 Specification for Pre-cast Concrete Flags,


Kerbs, Channels, Edgings and Quadrants

Road / T r a f f ~ cMarking Palnts

AASHTO M 2 4 7 Glass Beads Used in Traffic Paint

BS 3262 Part-1 Hot Applied Thermoplastic Road Marklng


Materials : Constituent Materials and Mixtures

BS 3 2 6 2 Part 2 Hot Apphed Thermoplastic Road Marking


Materials : Specification for Road Performance

BS 3262 Part-3 Hot Applied Thermoplastic Road Marking


Materials : Application of Materials t o Road
Surf aces

BSEN I S 0 3262-1,2,3 Extender for Paint : Specifications and Methods


of Test

4.2.2 KOC Standards

KOC-C-003 KOC Standard for Geotechnical Investigation

KOC-C-005 KOC Standards for Materials and Workmanship


- Site Preparation and Earthwork

KOC-G-002 KOC Standard for Hazardous Area


Classification

KOC-G-007 KOC Standard for Basic Design Data

KOC-L-002 KOC Recommended Practice for the Protection


of KOC Services : Clearance Requirements for
Buried Pipelines 81 Piping, Cables, Underground
Structures and Buildings
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 15 of 7 0 Rev. 1

KOC Std.381 122 General Specifications for Civil Engineering and


Building Works.

Kuwait Government Regulations

State of Kuwait Traffic Signs Manual - Volumes 1 & 2

State of Kuwait Ministry of Public Works Roads Administration


- General Specifications for Kuwait Motorway / Expressway System

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

The environmental conditions in Kuwait are severe. Refer t o "KOC


Standard for Basic Design Data" (KOC-G-007) which provides the
detailed design information regarding the environmental, site and
utility supply conditions prevailing throughout the KOC facilities.

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

The Contractor shall follow the necessary health and safety


procedures, which are acceptable by KOC, t o protect its personnel
and surrounding environment during any site works.

All relevant safety requirement of KOC Fire & Safety Regulations and
KOC Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) policy shall be adhered t o
by the Contractor, while performing the works within KOC areas.

During execution of work, road diversion if required, shall be


developed in concurrence with KOC Fire & HSE Dept. Proper warning
lights and notices shall be provided and Burgan Fire Station shall also
be informed about road closure / diversion.

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

Design Life

Design life of any road shall be at least 20 years. The type of roads t o
be designed shall be based on traffic intensities and type of traffic
loads expected during the design life of road.

Traffic Intensities

KOC roads shall be classified in accordance with the traffic intensities


and traffic volume category as per the Table I of this Standard.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 16 of 7 0 Rev. 1

Table I : Road Classification & Traffic Volume Category

S
1
.I1 Road ] l ~ ~ Traffic 1l
in both direction

1 I Main Facility 80 6.1 Medium


Access Road
2 Primary Road 40 3.0 Medium - Low
3 Secondary Road 20 1.5 Low
4 Service Road 6 0.46 Low

7.3 Pavement Design Requirements

7.3.1 The design of a good all weather road pavement should identify the set
of design inputs requirements, which for ease of description, shall be
categorized in accordance with AASHTO as below:-

a) Design Variables
b) Performance Criteria
C) Material Properties for Structural Design
d) Structural Characteristics

7.3.2 Based on the above requirements, the design of flexible pavement for
a particular class of road shall consider the following :-

Traffic Data ( in terms of ESAL )


Reliability
Resilient Modulus of Roadbed Materials
Resilient Modulus of Layer Co-efficients
Sub-surface Drainage
Environment Considerations
Life Cycle Costs
Rehabilitation

7.3.3 Reliability factors should be adopted for traffic volume and pavement
performance to suit local conditions and mean values and appropriate
standard deviations shall be used in designs. Refer t o AASHTO Guide
for Design of Pavement Structures " for further details.
"

7.4 Site Survev. Route M ~ and


D Other Information

7.4.1 A detailed field and route survey shall be carried out t o set out, peg
and protect the true and proper final points, center tines, widths and
levels of road at regular and approved intervals in accordance with the
project drawings.

7.4.2 All other site information such as existing monuments, services and
their statutory clearances shall be clearly marked on detailed
construction drawings together with proper identifications at site.
1 DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 17 of 7 0 Rev. 1

7.4.3 If the ground situation dictates, necessary geotechnical investigations


as per KOC Standard KOC-C-003 shall also be carried out along the
proposed route and when required, during the execution of Works.

8.0 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

8.1 General

When new roads are t o be constructed in KOC area, selection, testing


and acceptance of materials for flexible pavements shall be in
compliance with the requirements of this Standard as specified below.

8.2 Fill Material

The fill material wherever t o be used for general filling purposes, shall
be suitable, clean and free from any other unsuitable material. The
fill material used for filling low lying areas and compaction of lower
levels & drainage strips shall meet the requirements of clause 7 . 0 of
KOC Standard for "Materials and Workmanship - Site Preparation and
Earthworks" (KOC-C-005).

Sub-Grade Material

8.3.1 Sub-Grade material where required for filling under road work, shall be
well graded soil with good cementing properties for compaction. It
shall be clean and free from matters such as rubbish, garbage, metals,
oil contaminated, highly plastic, organic matter and the like. The
maximum particle size shall not exceed 5 0 mm.

8.3.2 Sub-Grade material shall conform t o the minimum properties as given


in Table II of this Standard.

Table II : Minimum Properties of Sub-Grade Material

1 I Soil Classification I Group A-2-4 I AASHTO M 1451 1


ASTM D 2487
2 Dry Density 21.90 gml cm3 AASHTO T 1911
ASTM D 1556
3 Liquid Limit 125 AASHTO T 891
ASTM D 43 18
4 Plasticity Index 26 AASHTO T 901
ASTM D 43 18
5 Soaked CBR value at 95% 2 12 AASHTO T 1931
modified Proctor (1180) (%) ASTM D 1883
6 A maximum swell (CBR) at 21 . AASHTO T 193
95% modified Proctor test
( T I80)
7 / Group lndex ( 19,)
(96)

I =0
I AASHTo I
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt. 1 1 Page 18 of 7 0 Rev. 1

8. 4 Sub-Base Material

8.4.1 Sub-base materials shall be "Gatch", which should be of light yellow


to mottled white color, free from organic matter and stones and shall
be generally won from the approved borrow pits.

8.4.2 Gatch shall have all the properties to be accepted as a good


construction material in conformity with the minimum properties as
given in Table Ill of this Standard.

Table Ill : Minimum Properties of Sub-Base Material ( Gatch 1

SI. Soil Properbies Minimum Test Method


No. Requirements
1 Soil Classification Groups A - I -a, A-I-b, AASHTO M 1451
A-2-4 ASTM D 2487
2 Amount of Fines ( silt +clay) 10%<F<15% AASHTOT881
passing the sieve size 200 ( F = Fine Fraction ) ASTM D 422
3 Dry Density ( Min.) 2 1.95 gm 1 cm3 AASHTO T 1911
ASTM D 1556
4 Liquid Limit ( Max.% ) r 25 AASHTO T 89 I
ASTM D 4318
5 Plasticity Index ( Max.% ) 1 6 AASHTO T 90 /
ASTM D 431 8
6 Soaked CBR value at 95 % 2 20 AASHTO T 193 1
1 I modified Proctor test
(T180)( Min. % )
I I ASTM- D 1883 1
7 Group Index ( lei) =0 AASHTO M I 4 5

8.4.3 As an alternative t o the borrowed " Gatch " material, sand-gravel mix
may be used, if locally available, as sub-base material. The mix shall
consist of crushed mineral aggregates or natural mineral aggregates in
conformity with the gradation of coarse t o fine percentages as per
Table IV of this Standard and the material requirements given below.

Table IV : Particle Size Grading of Sand-Gravel Mix (Alternative)

5 2.0 mm t No. 10 25 - 5 0
6 425 pm ( No. 40 ) 15 - 30
7 75 pm ( NO. 200 5 - 15

a) Coarse Aggregate

i. Coarse aggregate retained on the sieve size 4.75 mm (No.4)


shall be made of crushed stone, crushed gravel or natural
gravel. The maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed
25 mm.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Rev. 1

ii. Coarse aggregate shall be hard, durable and free from organic
matter, silt, clay and any other deleterious materials.
...
111. Coarse aggregate shall conform to the requirements, when
tested, in accordance with ASTM C131 (AASHTO T 96) and
BS 81 2; and when subjected to 5 cycles of the soundness
test as per ASTM C88 shall have a weighted loss not more
than 5 % when magnesium sulphate is used.

b) Fine Aggregate

I. Fine aggregate passing the sieve size 4.75 mm ( No. 4 ) shall be


of graded natural sand and 1 or crushed sand conforming to BS
882, Table 4, Grading C or M.

II. Fine aggregate shall be clean, free from organic matter, silt,
clay and other detrimental and deleterious materials. The ratio of
fine aggregate passing the sieve size 75 pm ( No. 200 ) shall not
be more than 213 of the amount passing the sieve size 4.75 mm
( No. 4 ) .

...
Ill Fine aggregate shall be washed as necessary, when tested, to
comply with the requirements in accordance with BS 81 2 and in
addition, shall satisfy the following chemical analysis :

- Sulphates as SO3 < 250 ppm ( 0.025% )


- Chlorides as CI < 50 ppm ( 0.005% )
iv. The material passing the 425 pm ( No. 40 ) sieve shall have a
liquid limit less than 35 and a plasticity index not more than 6.

8.5 Asphalt Concrete Materials ( Various Courses )

The asphalt concrete for various courses (base 1 binder / leveling /


wearing courses) shall be composed of coarse mineral aggregates,
mineral filler and asphalt cement thoroughly mixed in a plant to meet
the requirements given below until all aggregate particles are
completely coated with asphalt.

8.5.1 Coarse Aggregates

Coarse aggregates shall be mineral material retained on a No. 8 US


Standard Sieve and shall consist of the following crushed material
arising from the crushing of natural stones and gravel.

a) Material screened from crushing for base / binder 1 leveling


courses are retained on a 1 % " US Standard Sieve. Similarly,
material for use in wearing courses is retained on 1 " US Standard
Sieve.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 2 0 of 7 0 Rev. 1

Crushed materials shall be angular and without any flaking and


shall be crushed so as t o result in a cubic shaped particles. Thin,
flaky, elongated and laminated particles shall be rejected.

Testing criteria for coarse aggregates shall be as per BS 81 2.

Coarse aggregates shall be clean and free from extraneous


material such as sand, silt, clay and other fine material. At least
8 0 % of the coarse aggregate shall have particles with one
fractured face.

Use of coarse aggregates in asphalt mixes shall have a proven


high degree of adhesion to bitumen, in accordance with AASHTO
T I 8 2 test for coating and stripping for bitumen aggregate
mixtures.

In the event of test failure, additives shall be incorporated in the


mix t o the required proportions in order t o secure a good bonding
between the aggregate and the asphalt.

The percentage of the coarse aggregates used in the asphalt


mixes when tested as to comply with AASHTO T 9 6 method of
testing for abrasion shall be :

I. 50% at 500R for base/binder/leveling course mixes ; and


ii. 4 0 % at 500R for wear course mixes.

8.5.2 Fine Aggregates

a) Fine aggregates shall be clean, granular, non-plastic, sharp,


tough, durable, natural sand free from dust, silt, clay. The
manufactured material produced by crushing of stones andlor
gravel passing a No. 8 US Standard Sieve and retained on a No.
200 US Standard Sieve (maximum passing 6%) can also be used.

b) Testing of sand for soundness shall be by AASHTO standard test


of soundness of aggregates. When so tested according t o
AASHTO T 104, sand loss shall not be more than 1 2 % at 5 cycles
when subjected t d sodium sulfate solution. In no case, shall the
sand equivalent be less than 5 0 when tested by AASHTO T 176.

8.5.3 Mineral Filler

Mineral filler shall consist of finely ground particles of limestone


cement in accordance with AASHTO M 17. It shall be thoroughly dry
and free from lumps. When tested for sieve analysis t o comply
AASHTO T37, mineral filler shall meet the following gradation
requirements shown in Table V of this Standard.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 21 of 7 0 Rev. 1

Table V : Gradation of Mineral Filler

$1. No. US Standard Sieve Size Percent (%f Passing by Dry


Weight
1 No. 3 0 100
1 2
I

I
No. 100
I

85 1
1 I
I

3 No. 200 75

8.5.4 Cement

Portland cement ( Type I ) conforming t o ASTM C150, when used as


mineral filler in asphalt mixes of Type I, Type II, Type Ill or Type IV as
specified in clause 8.5.7 of this Standard, shall meet the requirements
of the mix in accordance with AASHTO M 8 5 (ASTM C150).

8.5.5 Asphalt Cement

a) Asphalt cement for use in the asphalt mixes shall be 60-70


penetration grade and when tested, shall be in accordance with
AASHTO M 2 0 as shown in Table VI below:-

Table VI : Test of Asphalt Cement

b) Asphalt cement shall be prepared by the refining of petroleum. It


shall be uniform in character and shall not foam when heated to
175°C (347 O F ) . Blending of asphalt cement materials from different
refineries will be permitted only with the written approval of KOC.

8.5.6 Water

a) Normally, brackish water shall be used for compaction of backfill


for road works, unless specified for fresh water. Sea water will
not be permitted t o be used for any work.

b) Only potable water shall be used for compaction of excavation


within one meter from all surfaces of structural works.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 2 2 of 7 0 Rev. 1 1
8.5.7 Types of Asphalt Concrete Mixes

The types of asphalt concrete mixes shall conform to the


compositions given in Table VII of this Standard.

Table VII :Composition of Asphalt Concrete Mixes

9.0 WORKMANSHIP AND TESTING OF SUB-GRADE

9.1 General

9.1 .I The approved fill materials as per clauses 8.2 & 8.3 of this Standard
shall be obtained from borrow pits. Prior t o use all field and laboratory
tests shall be carried out to establish the suitability of fill material.

9.1.2 The strength of the prepared sub-grade shall be evaluated by the


results of CBR tests in the laboratory as per AASHTO T I 93. For sub-
grade CBR values greater than 25, a sub-base will not be required.

9.2 Sub-Grade Preparation

Before commencing any work, the existing site information in


accordance with clause 7.4 of this Standard shall be verified with the
relevant project/construction drawings. All pertinent levels, lines and
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Rev. 1

locations shall also be checked at site and necessary approval shall be


obtained from KOC prior to commencement of the works.

9.3 Machinery to be Used

9.3.1 General

The machinery and tools t o carry out earthworks for excavation,


loading, transportation, backfilling and compaction of sub-grade shall
be in good working condition for the whole duration of the works.
The technical information and catalogues of the machinery and tools
shall be submitted t o KOC for approval prior t o start of works. If
necessary, KOC will test the machine's performance on sample basis
prior t o actual use in works.

9.3.2 List of Equipment and Tools

The following equipment(s) shall be required as minimum and


essential to perform the earthwork in sub-grade construction:-

1 a) Bulldozers

The bulldozers shall be equipped with a blade for earth moving


and leveling and may be tracked and/or pneumatic-tyred vehicles.
The blade shall be controlled hydraulically t o raise or lower, so
that the surface can be formed and adjusted as required.

b) Motor Graders

Motor graders shall be equipped with a device for lift, lower and
adjustable angle of blade to control the grading operation without
any undulations. The graders should be pneumatic-tyred.

C) Shovel Tractors

Shovel tractors shall incorporate hydraulically operated shovel for


earth hauling and moving on tracks or on pneumatic tyres. The
shovel must be hydraulically controlled to raise and lower as
required.

d) Water Sprinklers

Water sprinklers shall be borne by trucks with pneumatic tyres


and shall be fitted with pressure pump and water sprinkling
distributors for uniform pump pressure. The distributors shall
maintain controlled quantities of water sprinkling. A special spray
bar attachment shall be used t o sprinkle water on sloped surface.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 2 4 of 70 Rev. 1

e) Pneumatic Tyred Rollers

Pneumatic tyred rollers shall be self propelled, and fitted with


tyres of equal size and diameter with uniform inflation capable of
exerting average contact pressures varying from 3.5 kg/cm2 t o
7.0 kg/cm2 by adjusting ballast andlor tyre inflation pressures. The
wheels shall be spaced to have a minimum 6 mm overlap of the
tracking wheels. The contact pressure shall not vary more than
0.35 kg/cm2 one from another. It shall have the following
minimum ratings:-

Weight without Ballast : 9,000 kg


Weight with Ballast : 18,000 kg
Wheel Load without Ballast : 1,300 kg
Wheel Load with full Ballast : 2,500 kg

f) Steel Wheeled Rollers

Steel wheeled rollers shall be of four (4) tyres, three-wheeled,


tandem, vibratory steel tandem and single drum vibratory steel
rollers as below:

i. Three Wheeled Rollers

Three wheeled rollers shall be self propelled and equipped with


a differential drive, reversing clutch and adjustable scrapers to
keep the wheels clean. The following shall be the minimum
ratings:-

Manufactured Weight : 15,000 kg


Rear Wheel Diameter : 1830 mm
Rear Wheel Width : 560 mm
Lap on Each Side (Front 81 Rear) : 860 mm
Maximum Rolling Speed : 3.2 kmlh

ii. Tandem Rollers

Tandem rollers shall be self propelled and equipped with


reversing clutches, water sprinkling system, a storage tank
and adjustable scrapers t o scrap in both directions. The
Tandem rollers shall have the following ratings:-

Weight without Ballast 7,000 kg - 8,000 kg


Weight with Ballast : 10,000 kg -12,000 kg
Rolling Width : 1270 m m
Width of Wheel Base : 3050 m m
Maximum Driving Speed : 3.20 kmlh
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 25 of 7 0 Rev. 1

...
Ill. Vibratory Steel Tandem Rollers

Vibratory steel tandem rollers shall have the same


requirements of steel tandem rollers with a static attachment
of 5000 kg and a vibratory frequency in the range of 1500 to
2000 cycles / minute.

iv, Single Drum Vibratory Steel Rollers

Single drum vibratory steel rollers shall be self propelled unit


with t w o axles. The pneumatic flotation shall be attached to
rear axle and shall have vibrating capabilities between
frequencies of 1500 t o 2000 cycles 1 minute.

v. Portable Vibratory Compaction Rollers

Portable vibratory compaction rollers shall be self-propelled


easy maneuverable unit, with double axle tandem single-drum.
It shall be equipped with vibrating element capable to deliver a
minimum impact of 1500 kg at 5000 cycles/minute, suitable
for rolling ditches and side slopes.

vi. Mechanical Hand Compactors

Mechanical hand compactors shall be capable t o deliver an


impact of 750 kg to 1500 kg.

Method of Execution

The unsuitable material shall be excavated and removed, with other


surface material such as vegetation, debris and loose sand. All other
deleterious material shall also be removed and carted away t o the
required thickness and widths. Any tree roots, stumps and other
protruding obstructions shall also be carted away t o KOC specified
dumping area.

All materials including rock from high level areas shall be excavated
and removed from the .full width of the road construction down to
150 mm below the top'of required level of sub-grade.

Where the existing ground underneath the specified sub-grade level is


unsuitable, excavation shall continue until a suitable foundation is
encountered. The surface of the acceptable ground at that level shall
be scarified to a depth of 200 mm and shall be leveled with approved
batch of fill materials and compacted to 9 5 % maximum dry density to
the full construction width.

Where existing ground levels are lower than required sub-grade levels,
such areas shall be made up with an approved fill, placed in layers not
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 26 of 70 Rev. 1

exceeding 150 mm thick and shall be thoroughly compacted to 95%


maximum dry density. The surface of each 150 mm layer of
compacted fill shall be approved before commencing with the next
layer of filling. The surface of the acceptable ground shall be scarified
to a depth of 200 mm and compacted to 9 5 % maximum dry density.

Testing equipment to carry out the tests shall include a "Speedy" type
of moisture-content meter for the immediate determination of moisture
content.

Prior t o compaction, the optimum moisture content (OMC) of the soil


shall be checked and recorded in accordance with the AASHTO T 21 7
using the modified Proctor test method. Compaction shall be carried
out after preparatory leveling of the sub-grade as described in clauses
9.4.3 and 9.4.4 of this Standard.

If any unacceptable soil is encountered, it shall be scarified by


harrows and the specified quantity of water shall be added in order to
reach a degree of compaction of 95% maximum dry density to a
depth of 3 0 0 mm below finished sub-grade or acceptable soil level.

Water shall be added by means of sprinkler vehicles to ensure


controlled distribution under adequate pressure, penetrating the
pulverized soil with the required amount by way for a one- time pass.
Subsequently, the activities as described shall be followed in close
sequence :-

a) the soil shall be well raked after treatment with water and the
treated / pulverized soil shall be sampled with "Speedy" moisture
device.

b) when the water proportion is found t o be between - 2% t o 4% +


of optimum moisture content (OMC), the sub-grade material shall
be leveled primarily by motor graders.

c) then it shall be initially compacted by pneumatic tyred rollers or


sheep's foot rollers to obtain the maximum dry density required.

Compaction shall start by passing the roller several times regularly


backwards and forwards, starting from the lowest level to highest
level in order t o achieve the following:-

a) t o compensate for the amount of water lost in evaporation during


compaction, additional quantities of water shall be added as
required;

b) t o level the sub-grade thereafter again by motor graders to


compact and form t o its final shape by means of steel rollers;
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 2 7 of 7 0 Rev. 1

C) t o limit the maximum allowable variation in levels, either in rise or


in depression t o 2 0 m m in any direction, which shall be
determined over a 4.0 m long straight edge over the finished
surface of the sub-grade.

The finished surface of the sub-grade shall be protected from any


damage and necessary repairs shall be carried out prior t o laying any
sub- base.

WORKMANSHIP AND TESTING OF SUB-BASE

General

Gatch, conforming t o the requirements of clause 8 . 4 of this Standard,


shall be used for filling and compaction of road sub-base and road
shoulders and should also meet the requirements of clause 9.1 of this
Standard.

Selection, Approval and Completion

Gatch materials for sub-base construction shall be obtained by the


Contractor from KOC borrow pits or from other sources, when
approved by KOC for the works.

Prior t o any work, samples of the selected gatch shall be KOC


approved subject t o all necessary tests by the Contractor as per
AASHTO T100, T176, T191, T193, T204, T205 and M I 4 5 t o
establish suitability of the material(s); and when directed by KOC.

The sides of borrow pits upon completion of gatch carrying operation


shall be graded t o a slope of 1 :3 (lvertical t o 3 horizontal). Bund
walls of 1.5 m high shall be provided above grade level around the
pit.

Machinery to be Used

The machinery and tools t o be used t o carry out earthworks in


excavation, loading, transportation, backfilling and compaction of sub-
base construction shall be same as equipment mentioned for sub-
grade construction in clause 9.3 of this standard.

Method of Execution

General

The sub-base material shall be spread in layers on the prepared sub-


grade by motor grader or similar mechanical equipment t o ensure the
compacted thickness not exceeding 1 5 0 mm. Subsequently, the
activities as given shall be followed in close sequence:-
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 28 of 7 0 Rev. 1

a) Modified proctor test shall be carried out on a sample of the sub-


7
base material t o check the optimum moisture content (OMC) in
order t o attain the required maximum dry density.

b) To maintain OMC, correct quantity of water shall be sprayed on


the surface by means of sprinkler vehicles to ensure controlled
distribution under pressure, penettating the pulverized soil.

C) The treated 1 pulverized soil shall then be well raked over to allow
thorough penetration and t o obtain a homogeneous mix of uniform
moisture content.

d) When the water proportion is found to be between - 2 % to + 4 %


of OMC, the material surface shall be primarily dressed by motor
graders to the required profile, levels and cross sections. OMC can
be achieved by sampling with "Speedy" moisture device giving
direct readings for the surface after spreading and raking.

e) Compaction by rolling shall start immediately using pneumatic


tyred rollers, sheep's foot rollers and/or vibrating steel rollers to
obtain the maximum dry density required.

Rolling on Sub-base

Rolling shall commence at the extreme edge and shall continue until
the surface has been fully compacted t o not less than 9 5 % maximum
dry density. Acceptable sub-base shall be with minimum 25% CBR
value over the finished surface.

Variation in Rolling on Sub-base

The maximum allowable variation, either in rise or in depression shall


be 2 0 mm in any direction over the finished surface of the sub-base.
The allowable variation of 2 0 mm shall be determined by means of a
4.0 m long straight edge.

Protection of Rolled Sub-base

The finished surface of the sub-base shall be protected properly, and


necessary repairs shall be carried out prior to laying any asphalt
concrete base.

Compaction and Testing

The sub-base material (Gatch) shall be compacted in layers of


thickness not exceeding 1 5 0 mm to a minimum 9 5 % of the maximum
dry density. However, t o achieve this requirement, the steps shall be
adhered as follows :-
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 29 of 70 Rev. 1

Where the compaction fails to meet the above requirement, gatch


shall be scarified, followed by spraying of water and recompaction.
Otherwise, mechanical compaction shall be increased.

The density of any layer requiring compaction shall be determined in


accordance with the AASHTO specifications at a rate of one test per
100 meter run or 1000 m2, whichever is less.

When the initial pass rate of compaction testing exceeds 80%, the
frequency of tests may be reduced t o one test per 2000 m2, and a
further reduction to one test per 4000 m2, when the pass rate
exceeds 90% in the first time.

Gatch, which requires drying prior to performing any of the specified


tests, shall be dried at a temperature not greater than 6 0 OC ( 14 0 O F)
to comply with the AASHTO requirements of Table Vlll of this
Standard.

Table Vlll : AASHTO Test Requirements for Gatch & Filling Materials

7 1 Liquid Limit I T 89 1 16 1 Drive Cylinder


Density
8 Plastic & Plasticity T 90 17 Rubber Balloon T 205
Index Density
9 Moisture Content T 93 18 Classification M 145

The filling shall be in layers not exceeding 1 5 0 m m compacted


thickness and each layer shall have the density as shown in Table IX
of this Standard.

If a layer does not conform t o the required density, additional tests


shall be carried out t o determine the limits of the failing area. Rework
on that area shall be carried out, until the specified density is
obtained. Subsequent operations shall be subject t o meeting the
density requirements.

KOC reserves the right t o carry out the above density tests by a third
party. In the event of adverse conflict of test results, those carried out
by the third party shall be deemed as correct and final.
----
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Rev. 1

Table IX : Minimum Density of Compacted Layers

11.O WORKMANSHIP AND TESTING OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

11.1 Survey and Preparation of Area to be Paved

Survey and preparation of the area for Paving shall be carried out as
below.

The area shall be true to line and grade, and shall have a properly
prepared surface prior to the start of paving operations in conformity
with the project specifications and drawings.

The surfaces of kerbs, vertical faces of existing pavements and all


structures in actual contact with asphalt mixes shall be painted with
a thin and complete coating of tack coat to provide a closely bonded,
water-tight joint.

All openings or structures in the road for water, drainage and other
specified services shall be constructed; and their positions & levels
shall be determined before the start of paving operations.

Immediately before applying the prime coat, all loose dirt, earth and
other objectionable material shall be removed. Any ruts, soft spots or
unacceptable irregularities in the surface shall be repaired.

The surface shall be lightly bladed and rolled immediately prior to the
application of the prime coat. In that case booming or blowing shall
not be required. If needed, a light application of water shall be made
just prior to the application of liquid asphalt to facilitate penetration.
Priming shall not start, if there is free water present on the surface.
- --
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 31 of 7 0 Rev. 1

Weather Limitations

The weather limitations during production and spreading of asphalt


concrete shall strictly be followed as below.

a) Production and spreading of asphalt concrete mix shall not be


permitted when the ambient temperature is less than 8°C (46°F).

b) When the surface to be treated is dry or very slightly damp and,


when the atmospheric temperature is above 13OC (55°F) or more.

) The prime coat shall not be applied in conditions of sandstorm,


fog or rain or other unsuitable weather conditions like freezing cold,
or high winds.

Prime Coat

The prime coat shall be applied after heating the asphalt to the correct
spraying temperature, as determined from the temperature viscosity
chart of liquid asphalt for a viscosity range of 4 0 t o 1 2 0 centistokes
20 to 6 0 sec. The primer MC 7 0 shall be applied by mechanical
pressure distributors between the temperature ranges of minimum
60°C (140°F) and maximum 85°C (185OF) as below.

The prime coat (MC 70) shall be applied at a time, full width for
smaller roads of width up t o 4 m and to 113 or 112 of the road width
greater than 4m; and shall conform to AASHTO M 8 2 (ASTM
D2027) specifications. The prime coat shall be applied at a rate
between 0.75 t o 1.5 kg/m2 over the full width of sub-base course.

When applied in t w o or more lanes, there shall be a nominal


overlap of primer along the adjoining edges of the lanes. No
overlapping shall be allowed at transverse joints and thick paper
shall be used at end of applied lanes prior t o successive
applications. Hand spraying shall be permitted t o restricted and
inaccessible areas subject t o KOC approval.

C) The primed surface shall be well protected t o allow the primer to


penetrate into the sub-base surfaces and t o set and cure
completely. No traffic shall be allowed thereon during setting and
curing periods.

d) The application of the base course shall not be commenced for at


least 2 4 hours after priming operations. The primed surface shall
be maintained in good clean condition prior t o the application of
the asphalt base course.

e) Any surface breaks, undulations, repairs or other defects shall be


made good prior to the application of asphalt base course.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 32 of 70 Rev. 1

Tack Coat - Emulsified Asphalt


Emulsified asphalt shall be of slow setting cationic or anionic type of the
SS-lh or CSS-1h grade respectively, and shall conform to the
requirements of AASHTO M 208 or AASHTO M 140.

The approved emulsion will be diluted with approximately an equal


quantity of water and thoroughly mixed. The diluted emulsion shall be
applied at a rate between 0.25 to 0.75 kg/m2 on the base course and or
btnder / leveling course prior to receiving wearing course.

Diluted emulsified asphalt (Tack Coat) shall be applied by mechanical


distributors between the temperature ranges of minimum 10°C (50°F)
and maximum 60°C (140°F).

Asphalt Concrete

Job Mix Formula and Allowabie Tolerances

Prior to starting any work, the Job Mix Formula and applicable
design shall have KOC approval. The proposed Job Mix Formula
shall be supported by laboratory test results, before changing to a
new mix design.

The approved Job Mix Formula shall give a combined gradation


showing a single definite percentage passing each sieve as well as
a percentage of each material t o be used in the mix.

The Job Mix Formula shall establish the mixing temperature and
compacting reference density. As guidance, the approved and
established Job Mix Formula should conform t o the tolerances in
Table X of this Standard.

The soundness of asphalt paving mixes and satisfactory execution


and performance of the asphalt paving courses shall be the
responsibility of the Contractor.

Mix Design Criteria

The Marshall Method of mix design in accordance with AASHTO


T245 shall be used in designing the asphalt concrete mixes. Design
criteria shall not be limited to stability alone, and all the criteria as per
Table XI under clause 11.5.3 of this Standard shall be considered in
designing and evaluating each type of mix.

Asphalt Mix

a) Apart from the requirements in Table XI of this Standard for all


types of mixes, the index of retained strength as determined by
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 33 of 7 0 Rev. 1

AASHTO T I 6 5 (ASTM D1075) shall have a minimum value of


90%.

b) Those mixes, which shall have indices of retained strength of less


than 90%) may be considered acceptable, provided that the net
retained strength exceeds always

- 8 kg/cm2for plant mix seal ; and


- 14 kg/cm2 for other asphalt mixes.

Table X : Allowable Tolerances of Established Job Mix Formula

SI. No. Description Range


1 Passina Sieve No. 4 and laraer i 5.0 %
11 2 1 Passina Sieve No. 8.16.30.50 & 100 I i 4.0 %
1 3 I Passing Sieve No. 200 i 1.5 %
11 4 1 A s ~ h a l t Cement I i 0.4 %
5 Mix Temperature variation when emptied i 10°C
from Mixer
6 Tolerance of established Job Mix Formula i l l O C (52OF)
7 Mix Temperature ( maximum when 154OC (310 O F )

1I- 8
I
1
I
emptied from the Mixer
Mix Temperature i minimum i on delivery
to J O Site.
~
121 O C (250 OF)

Table XI : Marshall Design Criteria for Asphalt Mixes


(As per AASHTO T 245)

Blows, each End of


Specimen
2 Stability (kg) 350 500 600
3
I Flow ( per 0.25 m m
I8P61
8 1 1 6 1 8 1 1 6
4 / VMA 1 l3 1 - 1 1 4 1 - 1 1 5 1
5 Air Voids ( % I 3 8 3 8 4 6
6 Aggregate Voids filled 60 80 65 85 70 85
with Bitumen (%I

7 FillerIBitumen Ratio 1.6 1.5 1.4


8 Immersion Compression 70 70 70
Specimen (AASHTO
T I 65) Index of Retained
Strength (%)
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 34 of 70 Rev. 1

C) The optimum bitumen content determined by the Marshall Method


shall be used in prepared specimens for immersion compression
testing in accordance with AASHTO T 165. As a guidance, for
typical samples of asphalt mix designs (Type Ill, refer to
Appendices I and II of this Standard.

d) The stability requirements of cement modified asphalt courses


shall be in compliance withTable XI1 of this Standard.

Table XI1 :Stability Requirements of Cement Modified Asphalt Courses

SI. No. Asphalt Mix Type Marshall Stability


Per 75 Blows ( Minimum)
1 Asphalt Concrete - Type I 1 6 0 0 kg
(Cement Coated Aggregate)
2 Asphalt Concrete - Type II 1 7 0 0 kg
(Cement Coated Aggregate)
3 Asphalt Concrete - Type Ill & IV 1 8 0 0 kg .
(Cement Coated Aggregate)

11.5.4 Cement Coating of Aggregates

Each size of coarse aggregate, natural sand and crushed sand shall
be cement coated separately in the following manner. Mineral filler
shall not be coated.

Portland cement (Type I) conforming to ASTM C150 shall be


mixed with aggregates in the mixer of the cement coating facility
and water shall then be added except that the sequence of
charging materials into the mixer and the mixing time shall be
adjusted, as necessary, to produce uniform coating of the
aggregate particles.

The quantity of water required for cement coating of aggregates


shall be the quantity for hydration plus the quantity for absorption
and evaporation losses. The actual quantity of water proportioned
shall be from the results of aggregate moisture tests and quality of
coating considerations.

If the moisture content of the aggregate exceeds the requirements


for coating, the aggregate's moisture content shall be determined
at intervals and the quantity of water required for cement coating
shall be adjusted accordingly.

The freshly coated aggregates shall be cured in stockpiles for a


minimum period of 48 hours. Either an impermeable cover placed
directly on the surface of the stockpile or a water sprinkling
system shall be used for curing.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 35 of 7 0 Rev. 1

e) The cement content of the coated aggregates shall be determined


for acceptance by AASHTO T 21 1, based on the uniformity of
coating, the percentage of particles coated and the acceptability
of the curing procedure. Cement coated aggregates will be
accepted in the stockpile after curing.

f) As a guidance aggregates, Portland cement and water proportions


for cement coating shall be followed as given in Table Xlll of this
Standard.

g) The cement-coated aggregates shall be treated for asphalt mix in


the same way, after the curing period, as conventional aggregates
and all subsequent operations shall be in accordance with the
requirements of this Standard.

Table Xlll : Cement and Water Requirements for


Cement Coating of Aggregates

Aggregate Cement by Water for Water for


Weight of Dry Hydration by : Absorption by
Aggregate Weight of ; Weight of Dry
(%I Cement (%) : Aggregate (%I
1.3 - 1.7 23 0.9

5 10 m m ( 3 i 8 " ) 4.0 - 4.5 23 0.9


6 CrushedSand 6,5-7.0 23 1.2
1 7 i Natural Sand i 6.0 - 6.5
I

1 23
I

1.2 I
11.6 Equipment to be Used

11.6.1 Equipment for Prime and Tack Coats

The equipment of prime and tack coats shall ensure the rate of
application between 0.1 5 to 5.0 kg / m2 with a uniform pressure, and
can readily be determined. The allowable variation shall be 0.5 kg /
m2. Prime and tack coat equipment shall include the following: -

a) Power Broom / Power Blower

A power broom and/or a power blower, together with a self-


powered pressurized bituminous material distributor shall be
complete with equipment for heating the bituminous material. The
power broom shall be self-propelled and equipped with a
cylindrical, rotating nylon bristle brush. The brush shall be capable
of being angled t o the right and left with adjustable ground
pressure.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 36 of 7 0 Rev. 1

b) Distributor

The distributor shall have pneumatic tyres of such width and


number that the load produced on the road surface shall not
exceed 107 kg/cm of tyre width. The distributor shall be equipped
and operated t o facilitate bituminous material applied at a uniform
rate at an evenly heat, and on variable width up t o 6.0 m width.
The equipment shall be accurately checked, calibrated and set at
the required angels prior to commencement of work. The
equipment shall include as a minimum:-

I. a tachometer and schedules showing distribution rate;


11. a pressure gauge;
...
111. spray bars of variable length according t o the width of the
area to be covered and all necessary attachments to allow
application on sloped surfaces;
iv. heating coils and heater, or other approved heating
apparatus;
v. lighting equipment and independently driven pump;
vi. thermometers;
vii. an upper opening in the reservoir and gauging and an
independently driven pump;
viii adjustable sprayers t o suit the widths and height above the
road.

1 1.6.2 Screens for Asphalt Mixing Plant

a) The asphalt mixing plant shall be equipped with screens suitable


for screening the aggregate into sizes such that these can be re-
combined into a gradation, which shall meet the requirements of
the job mix formula.

b) Where the material's natural gradation is satisfactory, no


screening may be required. However, the plant should be
equipped with a scalping screen of a suitable size t o remove
oversize aggregate and other deleterious material.

11.6.3 Trucks for Hauling and Placing

a) Trucks for hauling aggregates or asphalt mixtures shall have tight,


clean and smooth metal beds that have been sprayed with a
minimum amount of soapy water, paraffin oil, or lime solution to
prevent the mixture from adhering to the beds. Use of diesel or other
solvents to spray in the truck bed is prohibited.

b) Each load shall be covered with canvas or other suitable material to


prevent excessive cooling and to protect the mixture from the
weather. Any defective truck that may cause undue delay skall be
immediately removed from the Work.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 37 of 7 0 Rev. 1

) When necessary, truck beds shall be insulated to maintam a


workable temperature of the mixture so that the mixture shall be
delivered on the road surface at the specified temperature. Each
dump truck shall be equipped with chains on the tailgates for control,
when dumping the mix into the paving machine.

11.6.4 Spreading and Finishing Equipment

a) The equipment for spreading and finishing the asphalt mixtures shall
be of an approved mechanical, self-powered electronic controlled
screed type, capable of spreading and finishing the mixture true to
line, grade and required crown, and without causing segregation of
the mix constituents. The equipment shall finish the surface true
to required longitudinal and cross-level, without undulations
ensuring uniform density of the paving course.

b) Pavers as Spreading and Finishing Equipment shall be designed to


allow a maximum width of paving up to 3.0 m and reducible to 2.0
m when required, and equipped with:-

i. boxes or hoppers with suitable capacity and distributing screws


of the reversing type to place the mixture uniformly in front of an
adjustable electronic controlled screed;

ii. provisions and attachments to suit the paving width for road
widening and paving on sloped sections. They shall be equipped
with faster and efficient steering devices and shall have reverse
and forward travelling speeds. Paver's adjustable operational
speed shall be in the range of 3 to 6 m per minute;
...
111. equalising runners, straight edge runners, evener arms or other
compensating devices to maintain true-ness of grade and to
confine the edges of the pavement true t o lines without use of
stationary side forms. The equipment shall include blending or
joint levelling devices to smooth and adjust longitudinal joints
between lanes;

iv. mechanical devices such that the assembly will place the material
at the required compacted thickness;

v. electronic screed and feed controls t o maintain a constant level


of material along the full length of the screed. This shall include
automatic profile grade control and automatic slope control. The
automatic slope control shall be equipped with a proportioning
manual override to enable smooth transition of changing slope
rates;
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 38 of 7 0 Rev. 1

vi. activated screed and devices for heating side plates and cut-off
shoes to the temperature required for the laying of the mixture
without pulling or marring, and it can produce a finished surface
of evenness and specified texture without tearing, shoving or
gouging. Pavers shall also be provided with the standard
attachable screed extensions;

vii. screed for any cutting, crowning or other physical action that is
effective in producing the effects of above sub-clause 11.6.4(vi).
Side plates and cutting shoes shall be provided t o continue the
mix to the scheduled widths.

Rolling Equipment

Rolling equipment shall consist of pneumatic tyre rollers and steel


wheeled rollers as described in clauses 9.3.2(e), 9.3.2(f)(1) and
9.3.2(f)(v) of this Standard. Rollers shall be equipped with reversible or
dual controls to allow operation both forward and backward with the
operator always facing in the direction of movement. Tandem steel-
wheeled rollers shall be in conformity with clause 9.3.2(f) (ii) of t h ~ s
Standard t o develop the requisite density of laid asphalt.

Method of Execution

Preparation of Asphalt Mix

Asphalt mix shall be prepared as follows :-

a) Asphalt Cement

The 6 0 1 7 0 penetration grade asphalt cement shall be heated to a


temperature t o yield viscosities in the range of 1 5 0 - 300
centistokes when delivered t o the mixer. If foaming occurs,
asphalt cement shall not be used.

b) Mineral Aggregates

I. Mineral aggregates (coarse and fine) shall be stored in


separate stockpiles at the asphalt plant.

11. The materials shall be dried and heated so that the


temperature of the heated aggregates are within 8°C ( 4 6 O F )
of the temperature needed t o satisfy the viscosity
requirements of the asphalt cement.

iii. The quantity fed through the drier shall be restricted to


ensure dried and heated mix within temperature specified.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 39 of 7 0 Rev. 1

C) Proportioning and Mixing

The heated ingredients together with the mineral filler and asphalt
cement shall be combined and mixed so that the mixture produced
complies with the requirements of the Job Mix Formula. The mix
temperature shall be within the limits set out in the Job Mix
Formula when emptied from the mixer, but in any case shall not
exceed 17 1"C (340°F).

d) Control of Mixing Time

In batch type plants, a dry mixing period of not less than four (4)
seconds shall precede the addition of asphalt cement to the mix.
Wet mixing shall be restricted between 30 seconds and 75
seconds t o obtain thoroughly blended mix.

1 1.7.2 Transportation and Laying

a) The asphalt mixture for base course shall be transported from


mixing plant and applied on primed surface, which shall be
maintained in good clean condition prior to the application. The
mix shall be laid upon an approved surface only when weather
conditions are suitable and in accordance with the clause 11.2 of this
Standard.

b) The asphalt mixture(s) shall be transported from the mixing plant


to the point of use in trucks for hauling and placing as described
in clause 11.6.3 of this Standard.

C) Hauling trucks shall not be dispatched from the mixing plant,


when the load thereon cannot be spread and compacted during
daylight hours.

d) A t w o way radio contact and communications must be provided


at all times between laying operations and mixing plant during
paving operations.

1 1.7.3 Spreading and finishing

a) Spreading and finishing equipment conforming to the clause 11.6.4


of this Standard shall be used. The asphalt mix ( based on cement
coated aggregates or un-coated gabro based) shall be spread and
struck off to grade, elevation and cross-section 1 shape intended,
either over the entire width, or over such partial width as may be
required. The mix shall be discarded, if it does not conform to
clauses 1 1.5.2 and 1 1.5.3 of this Standard.

b) Rolling shall only take place, when the mixture is in a proper


working condition, and when the rolling does not cause any
displacement, cracking or heaving.
i
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Rev. 1

The asphalt base course shall be constructed to the correct levels


and shall be homogeneous. It shall provide an even compacted
surface free from undulations, rises or depressions and within the
tolerances stipulated in clause 11.8.6 of this Standard.

No new wearing course (Type Ill) shall begin, until the previously laid
asphalt courses (Types I & 11) have been tested & approved by KOC.

When the same asphalt courses ( Type I or ll ) is to be laid in more


than one layer, the second layer shall be placed as soon as
practicable, after the first layer has been finished, rolled and cooled.
The cleaning of the first layer and the application of thin tack coat on
the first layer shall be made, if required.

The longitudinal joints in any succeeding layer shall offset the joint in
the layer below by at least 150 mm.

Where the road is in 2 lanes, the joint in the top layer shall be at
the centerline of the road. Where the roadway is more than 2
lanes in width, the longitudinal joints shall be located as directed
by KOC.

Transverse joints, which are required due to unavoidable delays or


at the end of one day's operation, shall be staggered in adjacent
lanes by at least 2 m.

The use of motor graders or hand spreading of the asphalt mix shall
not be permitted except in places where it is impossible to use
pavers and shall only be with specific permission of KOC. No
compromise shall be made in the above regarding true-ness of level,
thickness and homogeneity of the compacted mix.

Compaction

Rolling equipment in compacting asphalt mixes shall meet the


requirements of clause 11.6.5 of this Standard. The number of rolling
equipment shall be to provide specified asphalt course density and
surface characteristics in an orderly, efficient and continuous manner in
the following way:-

a) Immediately after the asphalt mix has been spread and struck off, the
surface shall be checked and irregularities adjusted, if any, and then
compacted thoroughly and uniformly by rolling.

b) The wheels of the steel wheel rollers shall be kept properly moistured
to prevent adhesion of the mix to steel wheels, but excess water
shall not be permitted.

C) After the longitudinal joints and edges have been compacted, rolling
shall start longitudinally at the sides of the road and shall gradually
progress towards the centre.

d) On super-elevated sections, rolling shall begin on the low side and


progress to the high side. Overlapping on successive trips by at least
Page 41 of 70 Rev. 1

one-half the width of tandem rollers and uniformly lapping each


preceding track shall be maintained.

The rollers shall move at a slow but uniform speed with the drive
wheels nearest the paver. The speed shall not exceed 4.8 kmlhr for
steel-wheeled rollers and 8.0 kmlhr for pneumatic-tyred rollers.

The line of rolling shall not be changed suddenly or the direction of


rolling reversed suddenly. If rolling causes displacement of the
material, the affected areas shall be loosened at once with hand tools
and restored to the original grade of the loose material before being
re-rolled.

Heavy equipment or rollers shall not be permitted to stand on the


finished surface before it has been compacted and has thoroughly
cooled.

When paving in a single width, the first lane placed shall be rolled in
the following order: -

I. Transverse joints
ii. Longitudinal joints
iii. Outside edge
iv. Initial or breakdown rolling, beginning on the low side and
progressing towards the high side.
v. Second rolling
vi. Finish rolling.

When paving in echelon, 50 mm to 100 mm of the edge, which the


second paver is following, shall be left unrolled. Edges shall not be
exposed more than fifteen minutes without being rolled.

Particular attention shall be given to the construction of the


transverse and longitudinal joints in all courses. In all cases,
including construction of joints, provision shall be made for a
proper bond between the edges of laid surfaces for the full depth
of the course.

Fresh mixture shall not be placed against previously rolled


materials unless the edge is vertical.

11.7.5 Transverse Joints

Transverse joints shall be carefully constructed and thoroughly


compacted to provide a smooth riding surface. Joints shall be checked
with a straight-edge to assure smoothness and true alignment. Joints
shall be formed with a bulkhead, such as a board, to provide a straight
line and vertical face. To obtain thorough compaction of these joints,
steps below shall be followed:-

a) Distorted joints shall be trimmed to line and the face shall be painted
with thin coating of emulsified asphalt before the fresh material is
placed against it.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt. 1 Page 4 2 of 7 0 Rev. 1
t
b) The material placed along the joint shall be tightly pushed against the
vertical face with a steel-wheeled roller.

C) The roller shall be placed on the previously compacted material


transversely so that not more than 150 mm of the rear rolling wheel
rides on the edge of the joint.

d) The roller shall be operated to pinch and press the mix into place at
the transverse joint.

e) The roller shall continue to roll along this line, shifting its position
gradually across the joint in 150 to 200 mm increments, until the
joint has been rolled and thoroughly compacted with the entire width
of the roller wheel.

11.7.6 Longitudinal Joints

Longitudinal joints shall be rolled directly with a steel-wheeled roller


behind the paving operations. The first lane placed shall be true to line
and grade and have a vertical face. The material being placed in the
abutting lane shall then be tightly pushed against the face of the
previously placed line. The following steps shall ensure good joints :

a) Before rolling, the coarse aggregate in the material overlapping the


joint shall be carefully removed with a rake and discarded.

b) Next, the roller shall be shifted over the previously placed lane so
that not more than 150 mm of the roller wheel rides on the edges of
the newly laid lane.

C) The rollers shall then be operated to pinch and press the fine material
gradually across the joint. Rolling shall be continued until a
thoroughly compacted and neat joint is obtained.

d) If the abutting lane is not placed in the same day, or the joint is
distorted by traffic or by other means, the edge of the lane shall be
carefully trimmed to line, cleaned and painted with a thin coating of
emulsified asphalt before the abutting lane is placed.

11.7.7 Edges

The edges of the asphalt course shall be rolled concurrently with or


immediately after rolling the longitudinal joint. Care shall be exercised in
consolidating the course along the entire length of the edges. Before it is
compacted, the material along the unsupported edges shall be slightly
elevated with hand tools to ensure full weight of the roller wheel on the
material to the extreme edges.

11.7.8 Breakdown Rolling

Breakdown rolling shall immediately follow the rolling of the longitudinal


joints and edges. Rollers shall be operated, as close t o the paver as
possible, to obtain adequate density without causing undue
displacement. In no case, the mix temperature shall be allowed to drop
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 43 of 7 0 Rev. 1

below 107°C (225°F) prior to breakdown rolling. If the breakdown roller


is steel-wheeled, it shall be operated with the drive wheel nearest the
finishing machine.

Intermediate Rolling

Pneumatic-tyred rollers or steel wheeled rollers described in clauses


9.2.2(e) and 9.2.2(f) shall be used for the intermediate rolling. The
intermediate rolling shall follow the breakdown rolling as closely as
possible and while the paving mix is still of a temperature that will result
in maximum density from this operation. Rollers shall be used
continuously after the initial rolling until all of the mix placed has been
thoroughly compacted. Turning of rollers on the hot paving mix shall not
be permitted.

Finish Rolling

The finish rolling shall be performed with three-axle tandem rollers. Finish
rolling shall be accomplished, as detailed below, while the material is still
warm enough for the removal of roller marks.

a) All rolling operations shall be conducted in close sequence.

b) In places inaccessible for operation of standard rollers, compaction


shall be performed by manual or mechanical tampers of such design
as to give the desired paving density.

C) After final rolling, the smoothness, levels, cross-falls, density and


thickness shall be checked.

d) Any surface irregularity exceeding the limits specified in clause


1 1.8.6 of this Standard and any areas defective in texture, density or
composition shall be corrected by removal and replacement.

Protection of Asphalt Courses

Sections of the newly finished work shall be protected from traffic of any
kind until the mix has been properly compacted and cooled. In no case,
traffic shall be permitted in less than 1 2 hours after completion of the
asphalt course.

Compacted Thickness Measurements

a) The total constructed thickness of the base and binder / leveling


courses after final compaction shall be achieved in accordance
with the construction drawings, approved by KOC.

b) Sufficient measurements of thickness(es) shall be taken before


and after compaction t o establish the relationship of thickness(es)
between the un-compacted material and completed Work.

C) The thickness shall then be controlled by measurements taken of


the un-compacted material immediately behind the paver.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 4 4 of 7 0 Rev. 1 \

When the measurements indicate that an area will not be within


the allowable tolerances for the completed work, the un-
compacted layer shall be corrected while the mixture is still in a
workable condition.

Where the measured base or binder course thickness falls short of


specified thickness by more then 1 0 % but less than 15%, the
shortage shall be compensated for the required additional
thickness in the subsequent wearing course.

Where total compacted thickness of base and/or binder course(s)


falls short by more than 15%, then the concerned area shall be
rejected and shall be replaced.

If the required total compacted thickness for base, binder and


wearing courses is less by more than 5%, then the concerned
area shall be rejected and shall be replaced.

The density of any sample cut from any part of the Work at a
distance exceeding 3 0 0 m m from edge of paved area shall not be
less than 9 5 % of mix design density.

Where the sample shows a density less than 9 3 % of that


designed value, this shall be considered a major defect for the
concerned pavement. That pavement area shall be rejected.

11.8 Testing & Acceptance Requirements of Completed Asphalt Courses

General

Each completed asphalt concrete course (Type I, Type II and Type Ill
or Type IV) shall be tested and accepted/approved in accordance with
the following requirements prior t o placing any subsequent asphalt
concrete course.

Samples

a) Samples from each completed asphalt course shall be cut and taken
by coring in accordance with AASHTO T 230 for testing during the
progress of the Work and before final acceptance of the Work.

b) Samples shall be taken from the asphalt mix for the full thickness of
the course at a rate of not less than one sample per 1 0 0 metre run of
road or 1500 m2 of paving whichever is less.

C) Whenever deficiencies are noted in loose mix samples or core


samples, additional cores shall be collected and tested in order to
define the area of affected pavement involved.

d) Fresh and hot asphalt mix shall be placed and compacted in holes left by
sampling.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 4 5 of 70 Rev. 1

11.8.3 Degree of Compaction

a) The degree of compaction shall be the ratio of the specific gravity of


the pavement sample to the specific gravity of the laboratory
Marshall specimens prepared in accordance with the Job Mix
Formula.

b) If the specific gravity of cut samples from any asphalt concrete


course fails to conform to the minimum required, this' will be
considered a major defect in the Work. The entire portion of the
asphalt course represented by these samples shall be rejected.

C) The minimum degree of compaction required for the various types


of asphalt concrete, expressed as a percentage, shall comply with
the requirements as given in Table XIV below.

Table XIV : Minimum Degree of Compaction

Asphalt Mix Type Required Degree of


Compaction
I I Minimum )
1 Asphalt Concrete - Type I ( Base Course ) 95%
12 / Asphalt Concrete - Type II ( Base I Binder
I Leveling Course )
I
97% I
3 Asphalt Concrete - Type Ill & Type IV 97%
( Wearing Course )

1 1.8.4 Asphalt Content and Gradation

The requirements of asphalt content in paved area and rejection of the


same shall be determined on the basis of the following:

a) Either asphalt content or aggregate gradation established by the


analysis conducted on samples of loose mix or cores is beyond
the permissible tolerances specified for the approved Job Mix
Formula in clause 11.5.1 of this Standard.

b) Such variation affecting the characteristics of the asphalt mix shall


be considered as a major defect in the Work.

11.8.5 Finished Thickness

Each asphalt concrete course (Type I, Type II, Type Ill & Type IV) shall
be constructed correct to the lines, grades and required thickness(es) as
per the approved construction drawings; and shall be acceptable, when
meeting the following :-

a) Individual courses (Types) shall not vary more than 10% from plan
thickness.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 4 6 of 7 0

b) In any case, the total thickness of all courses shall be not less
than that of total specified thickness by more than 1 0 % or 5 m m
whichever is less.

C) Where an individual course (Type) is not within the stated


tolerance, the minor adjustment may be allowed in the succeeding
course t o correct the thickness. In failing t o do so the material
shall be rejected, in which case it shall be removed and replaced.

d) The tolerances specified in the above sub-clauses (a) & (b) shall not
invalidate the tolerances set forth in clause 1 1.8.6 for evenness of
surface of the asphalt paving courses.

11.8.6 Surface Evenness & Levels

The surface evenness for each compacted course of the various asphalt
paving shall be tested by KOC to ascertain their conformity to the
requirements as given in the relevant project specifications and dravvmgs
in respect of levels, longitudinal falls and cross-sections in the following
manner:

a) A four (4) metre straight-edge and a crown template of sturdy and


approved design shall be put for the checking operations as directed
by KOC.
I

b) Any layer containing deviations or variations exceeding the following


tolerances below and tolerances in Table XV shall be corrected or
removed and replaced as directed by KOC.

I. The variations in the levels of the finished road axis after


construction shall not exceed 10 m m from the required levels
as specified in the approved construction drawings.

11. In addition, the variations in the falls to cross-sections of the


road shall not be more than L 0.3 % from the required values.

iii. When tested by a four (4) metre straight-edge placed at right


angles and parallel to the road centre line at intervals not
exceeding t w o ( 2 ) metres, or when tested by a crown
template placed at right angles t o the road centre line at
intervals not exceeding half the template length, variation of
the surface of the road from the testing edge between any
t w o contacts with the surface shall not exceed the maximum
tolerances listed in Table XV of this Standard.

C) However, the tolerances specified herein for surface evenness shall


not invalidate the tolerances set forth for finished thickness of the
asphalt paving courses in clause 11.8.5 of this Standard.

-
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 4 7 of 7 0 Rev. 1

Table XV : Maximum Tolerances for Surface Evenness

SI. No. Location Tolerance


[Maximum)
1 Base Course ( Type I ) 7 mm
2 Base I Binder I Leveling Course ( Type I1 ) 4 mm
3 Wearing Course ( Type 111 ) 4mm .
4 Wearing Course ( Type I V ) 3 mm

a) Test methods shall comply with the latest version of the


applicable AASHTO standards in general for tests listed in the
Table XVI of this Standard.

b) However, applicable British Standards and MPW Standards listed


in Clause 4.0 of this Standard shall equally apply.

b) KOC reserves the right to carry out the above tests by a third party
on its behalf. In the event of conflict of test results, those carried out
by the third party shall be correct and final.

11.8.8 Sampling and Testing of Mixes

Sampling and testing of asphalt concrete mixes, in continuati


clause 11.8.7 above, shall be carried in the following order:

a) Loose asphalt concrete mix samples shall be obtained behind the


paver before compacting in accordance with AASHTO T 168.

b) Compacted asphalt concrete samples shall be obtained by coring


in accordance with AASHTO T 230, Method - B.

c) Determination of bitumen content and extraction gradation shall


be performed on either loose or compacted samples in accordance
with AASHTO T 1 6 4 and AASHTO T 30.

d) Ash correction shall be determined by using bitumenometer.

e) The specific gravity of the compacted asphalt concrete cores will


be measured in accordance with AASHTO T 230.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Rev. 1

Table XVI : Test Requirements & Applicable Standards

Description of Tests I/--. ASTM

1 ( Mineral Filler for Bituminous Paving I AASHTO M I 7 (


Mixtures
2 Penetration Graded Asphalt Cement AASHTO M 2 0
3 1 Cutback Asphalt (Medium Curing Type) I AASHTO M 8 2 I
4 Portland Cement (Hydraulic Cement) I AASHTO M 8 5 ASTM C150
5 Emulsified Asphalt I AASHTO M I40 ASTM D977
6 Cationic Emulsified Asphalt AASHTO M208 ASTM C2397
7 Viscositv Graded Asphalt Cement AASHTO M226
8 Sampling of Aggregates AASHTO T2 ASTM D75
9 Material Finer than 7 5 Microns AASHTO TI1
(No.200) Sieve in Mineral Aggregate by
Washing
10 Sieve analysis of Fine and Coarse AASHTO T27
Aggregate
11 Mechanical Analysis of Extracted AASHTO T 3 0
Aggregate
12 Resistance to Degradation of Small Size AASHTO T 9 6
Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion in Los
Angeles Machine
13 Soundness of Aggregates by Use of AASHTO T I 0 4 ASTM D2 172
Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate
14 Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen From AASHTO T I 6 4 ASTM D l 0 7 5
I Bituminous Paving Mixtures
15 1 Effect of Water on Cohesion of I AASHTO T I 6 5 I ASTM D979
I C o m ~ a c t e dBituminous Mixtures I I
16 Sampling of Bituminous Paving Mixtures AASHTO T I 6 8
17 Plastic Fines in Graded Aggregates and AASHTO T I 7 6
Soils by use of Sand Equivalent Test
18 Determination of Cement Content in AASHTO T2 1 1
I Cement Treated Aggregates by the
- - -
I I
Method of Titration
19 Determining Degree of Pavement AASHTO T 2 3 0
I Compaction of Bituminous Aggregate I I
Mix
20 Resistance to Plastic Flow of AASHTO T245
Bituminous Mixtures using Marshall
Apparatus

ROAD SHOULDERS

General

Road shoulders shall be built to prcvide protection and drainage to


asphalt pavement and safety t o road users, whenever necessary.

12.2 Workmanship

12.2.1 The shoulders at outer edges of the roads shall be graded and
compacted to the profiles, levels and widths as shown in the project
- DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 5 0 of 7 0
'
1 Rev. 1

Mortar

Mortar used in kerbstone construction shall consist of one part ordinary


Type 1 Portland cement and two parts sand (by volume) mixed to the
proper working consistency with water. The cement, water and fine
aggregate (sand) shall comply with the KOC Standard 381122 for
"General Specification for Civil Engineering and Building Works".

Bituminous Celotex & Curing Compound

Bituminous Celotex joint filler shall comply with ASTM D 1751. Curing
compound shall meet the requirements of KOC Standard 381122 for
"General Specification for Civil Engineering and Building Works" and shall
comply with AASHTO M 148 (ASTM C 309) Type 2.

-
Workmanship Raised Kerbstones

Foundations for kerbstones shall be cast in-situ of plain concrete


Class 2 using ordinary cement and 20 mm maximum size graded
aggregate, to the dimensions shown on the construction drawings.
The necessary formwork on both sides t o support it vertically and
horizontally shall be required t o proper levels and setting.

Casting shall be carried out in lengths not exceeding 10 m run, separated


by expansion joint pieces of 10 mm thick bituminous celotex.

Precast kerbstone shall be laid on the foundation with cement and sand
(1:2) mortar. The thickness of the mortar shall be 3 0 mm. The vertical
joints between each kerbstone shall be filled with the same mortar,
pointed and cleaned. The complete joints shall be painted with curing
compounds. After a lapse of at least 5 days, the front casting shall be
carried out of plain concrete Class 2.

An expansion joint shall be provided between the kerbstones at a


maximum run of 5 m and the gap shall be filled with 22 mm thick
bituminous celotex.

After carrying out the front casting, the rectangular back casting ( back
fillet ) shall be carried out in accordance with the drawings.

-
Workmanship Sunken Kerbstones

Sunken kerbstones shall be cast at roadsides so as to support the asphalt


part of the road. Plain concrete Class 2 using ordinary Portland cement
and 20 mm maximum size graded aggregate shall be used for this
purpose.

Vertical and horizontal props according to the levels and setting shall
support necessary form work on both sides sufficient to cast the sunken
kerbstone t o the dimensions and levels.

Casting shall be carried out in accordance with the approved


construction drawings in lengths up to 5 m run separated by expansion
joints filled with 10 mm thick bituminous celotex pieces.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 5 1 of 7 0 Rev. 1

13.5 Curing

Curing of the foundation concrete, the surface of front and back


casting shall be done by water or any other approved curing
procedure. All mortar joints shall be cured with water. The length of .

curing period shall be as directed by KOC.

14.0 TEMPORARY ROADS

If the construction of new road should cut or obstruct any existing


roadway facility, temporary diversion of any existing road including all
services thereunder shall be carried out as per KOC approved plan and
methodology prior to execution of Work.

Temporary roads shall be made of minimum seven (7) metre width


divided by barrels and shall have a 150 mm thick compacted Gatch
or aggregates course.

Where temporary diversion roads pass over any existing above or


below ground services, the finished level of temporary road shall be
not less than 1.20 m above the crown level of any of these existing
services.

The length of diversion road shall be such as t o allow smooth traffic


flow in the area of construction and shall be provided with barriers,
flashers and traffic signs all in accordance with KOC Fire & Safety
Regulations and in compliance with clause 6.3 of this Standard.

Temporary roads shall be maintained in good condition during the


period of construction, complete with watching and lighting as
deemed necessary, to maintain vehicular access to all premises and
other roads in the area which will be affected by the works. On the
completion of road works, all the temporary diversion roads shall be
removed.

ROADITRAFFIC MARKINGS

Marking Paints - Generally


Generally, roads are marked with paints for safe traffic movement
with t w o main classes of markings - longitudinal & transverse lines.

Ten days after the laying of wearing course, traffic markings on


paved areas shall be carried out by means of an approved
whitelyellow hot spray thermoplastic traffic paint applied by a truck
mounted, self propelled applicator machine equipped with a telescopic
guide system and a spray gun carriage. Glass beads shall be applied
by a pressurized automatic bead dispenser attached t o the machine in
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 52 of 7 0

such a manner that the beads are dispensed almost instantaneously


upon the installed line.
.
Paint Materials

Paint and painting materials shall be obtained from an approved


manufacturer and shall be subject t o the approval of KOC. Samples
and technical documents comprising manufacturer's specification and
catalogues shall be submitted t o KOC for approval prior t o start of
Work.

Paint materials shall be fresh and furnished to the proper density and
consistency for application. The thickness of the hot spray
thermoplastic materials shall not be less than 1.5 mm.

No thinners or any other materials shall be added t o the approved


paint. Where any thinners are to be added t o the paint, such addition
shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the Manufacturer's
recommendations 1 instructions and KOC approval.

Paint materials shall be subject t o random sampling during painting


Works t o ensure their continuing compliance with the approved
specification.

Material Requirements

Paint and painting materials in the Works shall be designed specifically


for application and wearability on asphalt pavements in compliance
with BS 3262 Part 1, BS 3262 Part 2 & BS 3262 Part 3, and shall
conform and ensure the following:

suitable for application by the spray method. Cold ductility of the


material shall ensure normal traffic movements without chipping
or cracking.

a density of approximately 2 gm/cm3 and smooth consistency and


when formed into traffic stripes shall have a uniform cross
section. It shall be renewable by placing a thin overlay of new
material directly over an old line. New material shall bond itself to
the line that no splitting or separation takes place.

it shall dry in three minutes or less under normal field conditions


(temperature between 5OC (41 OF) and 5 0 "C (122°F) and relative
humidity less than 70%) t o an elastic, adherent finish, with high
retention of the glass beads sprayed onto the thermoplastic paint
at the time of application.

after drying t o produce a pure flat white/yellow color,


reflectorization shall be by glass beads during night t o produce
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 53 of 7 0 Rev. 1

reflected surface creating night visibility of the markings without


altering day visibility.

no appreciable deformation or discoloration under local traffic


conditions, and in a road temperature between 0°C (32°F) and
80°C (176°F).

shipped in the original package, bearing the name of the contents,


the manufacturer's lot number and the date of manufacture.

15.3.2 The composition of paint shall conform t o the ranges listed in the
Table XVll below:-

Table XVll : Composition of Traffic Paints

Components % by Mass of Total Mixture


Minimum Maximum-
1 Binder (resin and oil) 18 22

2 Pigment 6* ----- - - - -
( * For titanium dioxide only. For yellow

5 Aggregate, Pigment, Extender & 78 82


Glass Beads

15.3.3 The required aggregate shall consist of light colored silica sand,
calcite, quartz, calcined flint, or other approved aggregate.

15.3.4 The specified pigment and extender shall be as follows:

a) For white markings, the pigment shall be titanium dioxide (antase


or rutile).

b) For yellow markings the pigment shall be a lead chromate.

C) The extender shall be calcium carbonate prepared from natural


chalk, silica flour or other approved material.

d) The required binder shall be based on synthetic hydrocarbon


resins plasticised with mineral oil. The viscosity and wetting
properties of the molten binder shall ensure satisfactory spraying
properties of the composition at the spraying temperature.

e) Laboratory tests shall be performed on random samples of the


paint t o determine compliance with the manufacturer's
specification. Such laboratory tests shall be carried out in
accordance with BSEN IS0 3262-1, 2, 3.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 5 4 of 70 Rev. 1

15.4 Glass Beads

15.4.1 The glass beads shall be obtained from an approved manufacturer and
shall be approved by KOC prior to use. Sample of the beads and the
concerned manufacturer's specification shall be submitted to KOC for
approval prior to the beginning of any traffic marking with glass
beads.

15.4.2 Traffic marking paint shall contain glass beads, which shall provide
the necessary reflective characteristic t o the finished traffic markings.
Glass beads shall be applied onto the line and shall comply t o the
grading as per Table XVlll below, when tested in accordance with
AASHTO M 247:-

Table XVlll : Gradation for Reflective Glass Beads

ISf. No.

1
Sieve Designation

20
Sieve Size
I Microns 1
850 100
2 30 600 75 - 85
3 40 425
4 50 300 15 -35
5 80 180
6 100 150 0-5

15.4.3 Glass beads shall conform to the following requirements:

The glass composition shall be crystal and the beads are highly
resistant t o traffic wear and to the effects of weathering.

The beads shall be spherical in shape and not include more than
25% by weight of irregular shaped particles;

The beads shall be free of particles showing milkiness, surface


scoring or scratching. Foreign matter shall not exceed 1 %.

The crushing resistance of beads shall be determined in


accordance with AASHTO M247.

Beads shall have refraction index between 1.50 t o 1.65 when


tested by the liquid immersion method at 250 OC (482 OF).

The beads shall withstand immersion in water and acids without


undergoing noticeable corrosion or etching. It shall not be
darkened noticeably when decomposed by sulfides.
DOC.NO.KOC-C-024Pt.l JI Page 55 of 70
1 Rev. 1

Method of Execution

The traffic paint markings shall be set as per KOC approved drawings
and a setting out plan. Cognizance shall be taken t o allowable
tolerances t o the finished direction, locations and positions of traffic
markings. Any traffic markings outside the allowable limits in clauses
15.5.3 and 15.5.4 of this Standard shall be removed and re-painted in
their correct positions.

All surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned prior t o the application of any


traffic marking paint.

Longitudinal lines shall be straight and shall not deviate more than 50
mm in 100 m. Stop, cross-walk and parking space lines shall not
deviate from the dimensions and locations by more than 2%.

.,,,
Lane divider lines shall be marked in accordance with in Table XIX
below:-

Table XIX : Road / Traffic Markings

85% ile Marking Mark Length


Speed
( kmlhr)
Under 45
Over 45
Primary 8 -

Road ( with 1 whitelred


reflective stud at
mid point )
Main Facility 8
Access Road ( ceramic ( with 1 whitelred
studs at 1 m reflective stud at
mid point )

The continuous line on the edge of the carriageway shall be 200 mm


wide with amber reflective road studs. The amber road studs shall be
set inside the marking at 2 0 m centers.

Transverse lines (stop-lines, give way lines, crossings, parking lines)


shall be 300 mm I 200 mm 1 150 mm / 1 0 0 mm wide depending on
situations and shall be as shown on KOC drawings.

Kerbstones shall be painted with alternating bands of black and


reflectorized white 1 yellow paints depending on locations as per KOC
drawings.

Warning Lines are broken lines which shall be marked near the road
junction, U-turn or signaled junctions depending on the visibility
criteria as per Kuwait Traffic Signs Manual. These warning lines shall
--
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 56 of 70 Rev. 1

have length from 25 m to 7 0 m depending upon vehicle speed as per


Table XX below:-

Table XX : Warning Lines

85% ile
Speed
(kmfhr)
Under 45
Over 45
Marking
Number

602
603
Mark Length
( metre 1

3
6
1
Gap Length
f metre)

2
4
1 Fl
Width of Minimum No.
Mark
( mm 1
200
200
Junctions
5
7

Painted traffic arrows or symbols shall not exceed 3.0 m2 in area and
shall be applied at designated locations only. For further details of
road markings, refer t o Appendices V & VI of this Standard.

Particular care and attention shall be taken at the time of application,


and protection of the lines, and to make the area of Work safe from
the passing traffic.

The temporary signs and lighting shall be promptly removed upon


completion of the Works as directed by KOC.

Machinery and Equipment

The hot spray applicator(s) shall be mounted on a self propelled


machine used for thermoplastic paint, which shall be specifically
designed for traffic markings to paved surfaces and shall be of
proprietary manufacture. It shall be capable t o mix and agitate the
materials continuously. The machine shall be capable of applying lines
at a minimum speed of 8.0 kmlhr. The machine shall have
electronically controlled spray gun carriage for solid or broken lines.

The machine shall comply with the following requirements and shall
be approved by KOC: -

a) The applicator shall be capable of holding a minimum of 7 5 0 kg of


molten material.

b) The applicator shail provide a means for cleanly cutting off square
stripe ends.

C) The machine shall be equipped with a telescopic guide system,


which can be adjusted lengthwise and laterally as required.

d) Spray guns shall be adjustable t o paint lines from 50 mm to 150


m m wide. Spray gun shall have cleaning arrangement and a 3 0
CFM displacement t w o cylinder air compressor.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 57 of 7 0 Rev. 1

e) The application machine shall be equipped with 4 red warning


flags at 4 corners of the vehicle and a 360°rotating yellow beacon
mounted on the cab roof.

f) A pressurized automatic bead dispenser attached t o the machine


shall supply glass beads applied to the surface of the completed
stripe. The glass bead dispenser shall be equipped with an
automatic cut-off of the thermoplastic material.

g) The machine shall be capable of painting edge lines in addition to


centerlines and lane lines.

15.6.3 A support vehicle shall be deployed to support the spray plastic


applicator and utilize as a follow-up vehicle. The support vehicle shall
be equipped with the following:

a) Two pre-heater boilers for melting and heating the spray plastic
material. Minimum capacity of each boiler shall be 3 8 0 liters.

1) The boilers shall be equipped with an automatic control device so


that the heating can be done by controlled heat transfer liquid or
by direct flame.

c) The boilers shall be equipped by paddles to ensure proper


agitation.

d) The support vehicle shall be equipped with four (4) red warning
flags at four (4) corners and a 3 6 0 " rotating yellow beacon on the
cab roof.

15.6.4 The approved rotary power broom(s) shall be of proprietary


manufacture. It shall be mounted on a self-propelling rubber tyred unit
having sufficient weight and power t o operate the broom at a
maximum speed of 15 km per hour. The machine shall have the
following requirements: -

a) 5 0 H.P water-cooled engine.


b) Forward and reverse speed transmission.
C) Hydraulic braking system.
d) Power assisted steering.
e) Broom raising and lowering control system without the operator to
leave his position.
f) Broom unit with 7 6 0 mm diameter and 900 m m in length,
together with other fittings t o complete the Works in proper way.

15.6.5 For painting of lateral pavement markings a smaller pavement marking


machine shall be deployed. It shall be either of self- propelled or easily
manually operated. The machine shall be equipped with either a
detachable spray gun or fitted with a separate spray gun and gun
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 58 of 7 0 Rev. 1
.

cleaning arrangement for the purpose of painting directional arrows and


text and shall be approved by KOC. The white traffic paint shall be applied
at the rate of 8 m2t o 1 0 m2 per 1 US gallon.

Lateral pavement marking machine shall be self propelled or manual


operation type. It shall be fitted with spray gun for painting arrows
and / or messages. This small pavement marking machine shall
comply with the following requirements:-

a) 55 liters (12 gallons) paint capacity


b) 3.5 HP engine
C) 8CFM displacement air compressor
d) adjustable spray gun t o paint lines from 50 mm to 1 5 0 mm wide
and gun cleaning arrangement.

Road Studs

Road studs shall be used to provide as simulated marks on lane lines


and t o generate a rumble effect for the drivers who cross them.

Non-reflective Markers Type ' N ' - General

Non-reflective markers Type 'N' shall comply with Kuwait Traffic


Manual and Kuwait - Ministry of Public Works - General Specifications
for Roads. Non-reflective studs shall be circular or square in shape
and shall be in white color.

Non-reflective Markers - Dimensions and Material Requirements

The sides shall be between 95 m m and 1 1 0 mm. Maximum


projection of these studs shall be 20 m m at highest point and 6
mm at edge. In general, the base of marker shall not deviate from
the flat plane by more than 1.5mm. The top surface of the marker
shall be convex and the radius of curvature shall be between 9 0
mm and 1 5 0 mm. Non-reflective markers shall be made of either
ceramic or plastic base as follows:

Ceramic base markers shall consist of a heat-fired, white vitreous


ceramic base, and a heat fired, opaque, glazed surface t o produce
the following properties:

i. The glazed surface shall not be present on the bottom of


the marker, which shall be cemented t o the road surface.

ii. The markers shall be thoroughly matured and free from


defects.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 59 of 7 0 Rev. 1

iii. The glazed surface shall have a mean thickness of not less
than 0.127 m m when measured at 6 m m from the edge of
the button by a calibrated scale microscope.

C) Plastic base markers shall be pre-cast plastic markers in the form


of a single-based spherical segment, composed of thermosetting
resins, pigments, and inert. It shall be of uniform composition
throughout and free from surface irregularities, cracks, chipping
and interfering with appearance or application. The markers shall
not contain glass. The markers shall meet the following
requirements:

I. Weight : 1 2 5 grams ( min.)


11. Titanium : 21 % by weight ( min.)
iii. Resin content : 2 0 % by weight ( rnin.)

1 5.7.3 Reflective Marker - 'CR' Types

Reflective Markers ' CR ' shall be of Type ' WR ' ( white 1 red), Type
'WW' ( white I white ), Type ' AR' (amber I red), or Type ' G ' ( green
1 white) as detailed below, dependmg on their position on the carriage
way.

a) Type 'CR' markers shall consist of an acrylic plastic shell filled


with a tightly adherent potting compound. The shell shall contain
t w o prismatic reflective faces t o reflect incident light from
opposite directions and shall be as follows:-

I. The markers shall be in the shape of a shallow frustum of a


pyramid. The outer surface shall be smooth and all corners
and edges exposed t o traffic must be rounded.

II. The base of the marker shall not deviate from a flat plane
by more than 1.5 mm. The slope of the reflective faces
shall be between 25" and 32" from the horizontal. Each
reflective surface shall have a minimum area of 21 00 mm2.
...
111. The shell shall be molded of methyl methacrylate or
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.

iv. The outer surface of the shell shall be smooth except for
purposes of identification and shall contain methyl
methacrylate reflective faces in the specified color.

v. The base of the marker shall have roughness for its bond t o
adhesive.
1

DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 60 of 70 Rev. 1

vi. Type 'WR' markers shall have reflective faces on t w o


opposing sides, one of which reflects white light and other
reflects red light. The body, other than the reflective faces
shall be white, silver white or light grey.

vii. Type 'WW' markers shall have reflective faces on t w o


opposing sides which reflects white light. The body, other
than the reflective faces shall be white, yellow or amber.

viii. Type 'AR' markers shall have reflective faces on t w o


opposing sides, one of which reflects amber and other
reflects red light. The body, other than the reflective faces
shall be white, yellow or amber.

ix. Type 'G' markers shall have a single reflective face which
reflects green light. The body other than the reflective face
shall be white, light grey or the color of reflective face.

b) Type 'D' Marker (white color)

The Type ' D' marker shall be in white color and made of ceramic.
The encapsulated lens reflector shall be red in color and shall have
optical and physical characteristics recommended by the
man~ifacturerand as approved by KOC.

The Type ' D' ceramic markers shall consist of a heat-fired, white
vitreous ceramic base, and a heat fired, opaque, glazed surface t o
produce the following properties:

I. The glazed surface shall not be present on the bottom of


the marker, which shall be cemented t o the road surface.

ii. The markers shall be thoroughly matured and free from


defects.

iii. The glazed surface shall have a mean thickness of not less
than 0.127 m m when measured at 6 m m from the edge of
the button by a calibrated scale microscope.

15.7.4 Reflective Markers - Dimensions and Testing Requirements

a) The dimensions of the studs must be such that when applied t o


road surface, they do not project above it by more than 20 m m at
the highest point.

b) The studs shall be reflectorised either by reflex lenses or corner


cube reflectors.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 61 of 7 0 Rev. 1

The reflectors shall be uni-directional or bi-directional. The lenses


may be white, red, amber or green depending on their position on
the carriageway.

A random sample of five (5) markers of each type shall be tested


for reflectivity and strength before use. The markers shall be
located with the center of the reflecting face at a distance of 1.5
m from a uniformly bright light source. The photocell for testing
purpose shall be shielded t o eliminate stray light. The distance
from light source to the photocell center shall be 5.33 mm.

Markers shall support a load of 907 kg. Load shall be slowly


applied to the top of the marker through a 25.4 mm diameter
metal plug centered on the top of the marker. Breakage or
significant deformation of the marker at any load less than 907 kg
shall be considered as failure.

The specific intensity of each crystal reflecting surface at 0.2'


observation angle shall be not less than the values given in Table
XXI of this Standard, when the incident light is parallel to the base
of the marker.

Table XXI : Crystal Reflecting Intensity

Horizontal Entry Angle Specific Intensity

Red, green and amber reflectors shall be not less than 25% of the
above value.

Should any of the samples tested for reflectivity and strength fail
t o comply with the above specification, 1 0 additional samples will
be tested.

1 5.7.5 Epoxy Adhesive

The adhesive shall be furnished as specified in " State of Kuwait -


Roads - General Specification ". The manufacturer shall certify that
the adhesive conform's t o the required specification. The adhesive
shall be furnished in t w o components as below:

a) Package A Parts by Weight

Epoxy Resin
Titanium Dioxide
Resin Grade Asbestos
Talc
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 (1 Page 62 of 7 0 Rev. 1

b) Package B Parts by Weight

N-Aminoethyl Piperazine
Nonylphenol
Carbon Black
Resin Grade Asbestos
Talc

C) The contents of packages A & B shall be thoroughly re-dispersed by


mixing. 1 part (volume or weight) of Package A shall be mixed with 1
part (volume or weight) of Package B until uniform grey color is
achieved without visible streaks of white or black. The blend shall
exhibit the following properties:

I. Gel time ( 1 0 0 gm batch ) 5-30 min.


ii. Tensile strength ( Tested at 2 I 0 C ) 7 0 kg/cm2
(1.6-mm film cured for 2 4 hours at ( min.)
2 1OC between steel blocks )
...
HI. Shore D Hardness (cured 2 4 hours at 2I0C)
- Tested at 2 1OC 70-80
- Tested at 4g°C 3 0 ( min.)
iv. Deformation Temperature 4g°C ( min.)

QUALITY ASSURANCE

The Contractor shall operate a quality system preferably based on IS0


9000 series of standards to satisfy the requirements of this Standard.
The Contractor shall demonstrate compliance by providing a copy of the
accredited certif~cateor its quality manual. Verification of the Contractor
quality system is normally part of the pre-qualification procedure and is,
therefore, not detailed in the core text of this Standard.

DOCUMENTATION

All correspondence, instructions, data sheets, drawings, calculation or


any other written information shall be in English language. In case of
dual languages, one language shall be English.

All dimensions, units of measurement, physical constants etc. shall be


in SI units, unless otherwise specified. (Pipe sizes t o be generally
mentioned in inches).

All documents (texts, specifications, data sheets, drawings, etc.) shall


be provided in the form of electronic files in the approved software
formats (latest version of Microsoft Word, Excel and Autocad.). All
calculations shall be submitted in approved and widely used
software(s) agreed upon by KOC.
All test results and certificates of materials required for satisfactory
execution of the Works shall be submitted t o KOC for review and
approval within the stipulated period as specified in the Contract
documents.

All test results of proposed Job Mix Formula for asphalt concrete
design mixes shall be furnished t o KOC for review and approval within
4 8 hours of completion of tests prior t o commencement of any
asphalt concrete work.

All field test results shall be reported t o KQC for review and
acceptance of Works within 2 4 hours of completion of tests.

All equipment and machinery associated with road work shall have
latest fitness test reports certifying that they are in good working
conditions and shall be submitted t o KOC for further inspection and
permission for their deployment in the Works as pe7 IKQC regulations.

The Contractor shall operate a detailed recording and reporting system


associated with all aspects of Works and shall be able t o furnish all
relevant site information to KQC as and when directed.
1
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Rev. 1

18.0 APPENDICES u

~ APPENDIX I

TYPICAL SAMPLE
COATED ASPHALT MIX DESIGN REPORT

Lab No Date:
Project No.
Contractor
Date Received : Type of Mix : I1
Source ( Gabro Coated )
Manufacturer and Grade of Bitumen: KNPC 60170 ( CS & MS Coated ) *
Location where Aggregate Samples Taken :

3:
Aggregate {Percent Passing)
Sieve
Coarse % " Medium 3/8" Lime Crushed Natural )I Job Mix 1 General
Gabro Gabro Sand Sand
Coated Coated Coated Coated
41 % . 28% . 17% 10%

200 0.2 0.5 3.4 1.3 85 1 4.3 4-7


Sand Equivalent ( % )

ASPHALT MIX DESIGN DATA

No. of Blows 75 % Voids in Mineral Aggregate


Optimum Bitumen ( % by Wt, of 4.2 % Voids (Total Mix) 5.4
Mineral aggregate)
Marshall Stability (kg) 2379 % Aggregate Voids Filler
Marshall Flow (0.1") 1 3 Filler - Bitumen Ratio 1 .O
Marshall Density (g/cm3) 2.544 Mixing Temperature ( OC ) 150
Immersion-Compression 30 Net Retained Strength (kg/cm2) 26.1
AASHTO T I 65 ( % Retained)

"Note -
CS : Crushed Sand
MS : Mineral Sand
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 65 of 7 0 Rev. 1

APPENDIX I1

TYPICAL SAMPLE
UNCOATED ASPHALT MIX DESIGN REPORT

Lab No. Date:


Prcjtct No.
Contractor
Date Received : Type of Mix : II
Source ( Gabro Uncoated
Manufacturer and Grade of Bitumen: KNPC 60170 ( CS & MS Uncoated *
Location where Aggregate Samples Taken :

Aggregate {Percent Passing) Filler Specification


Sieve
Coarse % " Medium I
318" Lime Crushed Natural Job Mix General
Gabro Gabro I Sand I Sand
Uncoated Uncoated Uncoated Uncoated
Yo 38% 32 % 16% 10% 4%
1- % "
1" 100 100 100
%" 96 99 82- 100
1
/2
11
37 100 76 60-84
D" 9 98 65 49-74
No.4 , 3 34 100 100 41 32-58

Sand Equivalent (%) 36 49

ASPHALT MIX DESIGN DATA

No. of Blows 75 % Voids in Mineral Aggregate


Optimum Bitumen ( % by Wt. of 4.0 % Voids (Total Mix) 4.3
Mineral aggregate)
Marshall Stability (kg) 2039 % Aggregate Voids Filler
Marshall Flow (0.1") 13 Filler - Bitumen Ratio 1.1
Marshall Density (g/cm3) 2.606 I Mixing Temperature ( "C ) 150
Immersion-Compression 86 Net Retained Strength (kg/cm2) 35.1
AASHTO T I 65 ( % Retained)

* Note :
CS : Crushed Sand
MS : Mineral Sand
-
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 66 of 7 0 Rev. 1

APPENDIX Ill

TYPICAL DETAILS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT (ASPHALT ROAD)

OF ROAD

r SHOULDER -b I
CARRIAGE, WAY - SHOULDER,
I

LCOMPACTED
SUBGRADE
TACK COAT
TYPE I11 AND TYPE IV
ASPHALT CONCRETE PRIME COAT
WEARING COURSE
TYPE I1 ASPHALT CONCRETE
BINDER/LEVELING COURSE
11 COMPACTED GATCH SUB BASE ,I

I
TYPE I ASPHALT-
CONCRETE BASE COURSE

TYPICAL ROAD CROSS SECTION

-
DOC.NO. KOC-C-024Pt.l 1 Page 67 of 7 0 Rev. 1

APPENDIX IV

TYPICAL DETAILS FOR PRECAST KERBSTONES

PRECAST KERBSTONE
TYPE E l (REFER
TOP OF ROAD- \ -
TOP OF COMPACTED CATCH

SEE TYPICAL ROAD


CROSS SECTION (CLASS-2 MIX.)
KOC STD. 381/022
(SULPHATE RESISTANT)

"

.* 4 4 .

TYPICAL RAISED KERBSTONE DETAIL

PRECAST KERBSTONE
TYPE B1 (REFER

TOP OF ROAD
SEE TYF'ICAL ROAD
7 \ TOP OF COMPACTED CATCH
CROSS SECTION

L \ . d
.
rflPn rrn\

q
0
In
a - N
CONCRETE (CLASS-2 MIX.)
A 6%
KOC STD. 381/022
(SULPHATE RESISTANT)

* = 4
4 . '
180 1 150 4
TYPICAL SUNKEN KERBSTONE DETAIL

NOTES:
1. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM.
2. REFER TO KOC STD. DWG. NO. 15-18-8
FOR OTHER DETAILS.
---
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 68 of 7 0 Rev. 1

APPENDIX V

ROAD MARKINGS

PERMITTED VARIANCE FROM ILLUSTRATED MARKINGS

I( Mark No.
Y
1 Title of Marking Permitted Variants

600 Lane Line-under 45kmlhr


60 1 Lane Line- other roads 601 WW For use on t w o way road
601 R For use on Primary road (1)
601s For use on Main Facility Access
road (2)
602 Warning Line-under 45kmlhr
603 Warning Line-other roads
604 Edge Line-under 45kmlhr
605 Edge Line-other roads
606 ' Edge Line (continuous)
607 Prohibitory Line
608 Permissive Line
609 Warning Arrow
610 Guide Line
61 1 Stop Line
612 Give Way Line
613 Angled Parking Bay
614 Parallel Kerb Parking Bay
61 5 Arrow at end of Bus Lane
616 Box Junction
617 Ahead Only Arrow
61 8 Turn Arrow
619 Aheadflurn Arrow
620 Turn Leftflurn Right Arrow
62 1 Bifurcation Arrow
622 Studs and Strips at Uncontrolled
Pedestrian Crossings
623 Zig-zag and Terminal Lines at 623s Zig-zag line at Controlled
Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Pedestrian Crossing
624 Diagonal Hatched Marking
625 Chevron Diverge Marking ( 1)
626 Chevron Diverge Marking (2)

( 1 ) : KOC Primary Road ( 2 1 : KOC Main Facility Access Road

( + ) For more details refer to State of Kuwait Traffic Signs Manual ( Volumes I & II )
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 Page 69 of 70 Rev. 1

APPENDIX VI

SAMPLE ROAD MARKINGS

601
Speed>45 km/hr
(Lane Line)

601WR
Speed)45 km/hr
(Lane Line
on Primary Road)

6'31s
Speed)45 km/hr
(Lane Line
on Moin Facility Rood)

632
Speed<45 km/hr
(Warning Line)

200mm 603

-
I 6m L A
4m 6m Speed>45 km/hr
(Warn~ngLine)

Speed<45 km/hr
(Edge Line)

3m 3m
m 3m 3m
T
3m
I $200mm 605
Speed>45 km/hr
k L A
m
L A
m
LL h A
m +I (Edge Lme)

(Lone permissible Line)

610
2m 2m Exit/Non-Hooking L e f t
t u r n / S e p e r a t e Lanes
( G ~ i d eLine)
DOC. NO. KOC-C-024 Pt.1 1 Page 7 0 of 7 0 1 Rev. 1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This Standard has been approved by the Standards Technical Committee ( STC )
consisting of the following :-

Mr. Ali H. Baba ( Standards Div.) Chairman


Mr. Mohd. Emam ( Insp.& Corr. Div.) Deputy Chairman
Mr. S. Kumar ( Standards Div.) Secretary1 Member
Dr. Mohammad llyas ( Standards Div.) Member
Mr. Khalid S. AI-Ali ( Maint. Proj. Div.) Member
Mr. Henry S. Hill ( Maint. Plng. Div.) Member

The draft of this Standard has been circulated to the KOC User Departments for their
review and responses were received from the following :-

ENGINEERING GROUP PROD.& EXPORT OPNS. GROUP

Gen. Supdt. Engg. Services Gen. Supdt. Prod. Services


Gen. Supdt. Proj. Mgmt ( N&W ) Gen. Supdt. Prod. Opns ( N&W )
Gen. Supdt. Proj. Mgmt (S&E) Gen. Supdt. Prod. Opns ( S
Gen. Supdt. Mar.& Export Opn.

MAJOR PROJECTS GROUP LOSS PREVENTION GROUP

Gen. Supdt. Engg. Projects ( N&E ) Gen. Supdt. Fire & HSE

MAINTENANCE GROUP INDUSTRIAL SERVICES GROUP

Gen. Supdt. Maint. (S&E) Gen. Supdt. Ahmadi Svcs.


Gen. Supdt. Maint. (N&W) Gen. Supdt. Transport & Plant

DRILLING OPNS. GROUP DIVIDED ZONE GROUP

Gen. Supdt. Drill. Engg. & Supp. Svcs. Supdt. Proj. Engg. & Facilities Div.

This KOC Standard for Materials and workmanship " Roadways, Paving and Hard
Standing : Part 1 : Flexible Pavement " has been prepared by the Task Force (T-C/
0 2 ) comprising of the following members :-

Mr. S. Kumar Standards Div. - Team Leader Tel. 61407


Mr. Timir B. Ghosh (ExIStandards Div. - Team Leader/Author Tel. 61 620
Mrs. Sana Ali Talha Engg. Design Div. - Member Tel. 61352
Mr. Mubarak Al-Ahmad Construction Div. - Member Tel. 61249
Mr. Faisal Khorsheed Ahmadi Svcs. Dept. - Member Tel. 67329