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Sustainable Sites

Issue Paper No. 1


Special Sites

Furthermore, IRR Section 105. Site Requirements stipulates that, “The


A. Statement of the Issue land or site upon which will be constructed any building or structure or any
ancillary or auxiliary facility thereto, shall be sanitary, hygienic or safe. In case of
Building on special or non-conventional sites such as reclaimed land and sites or buildings intended for use as human habitation or abode, the same shall
water bodies require special guidelines aimed at mitigating adverse impacts on be at safe distance, as determined by competent authorities, from streams or
both the building and the site. Other site typologies include 1) off-shore sites, bodies of water and/or sources of air considered to be polluted…”
which may or may not be anchored on the sea floor; 2) transient sites used for However, land reclamation and building on reclaimed land is not covered
mobile and shared spaces; 3) ubiquitous or smart sites that require special utility by the NBC and its IRR. Instead, an Executive Order 146 (November 2013)
systems; 4) underground sites, which may or may not have habitable spaces delegates the power of the President to approve reclamation projects to the
above them and 5) suspended and vertical sites, where structures have minimal National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) Board. The NEDA-Philippine
or zero building footprint. However, there are no provisions in the NBC for special Reclamation Authority (PRA) Joint Order No 01-2015 covers the IRR that
sites. prescribes the requirements for the approval of reclamation projects. Among the
documentary requirements include an Area Clearance, Feasibility Study,
B. Background Environmental Impact Statements or equivalent studies, and the Environmental
Compliance Certificate.
There is no NBCP or IRR provision explicitly limiting sites to land-
based areas. However, NBCP Section 704. Location of Property states that, “No C. Recommendations
building shall be constructed unless it adjoins or has direct access to a public
space, yard or street on at least one of its sides….” Table 1 contains the recommendations for special sites. Possible
anchors of proposed provisions are italicized and in brackets.

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Table 1. Recommendations for Special Sites
Issue Potential Revisions to the IRR of PD Potential Modifications to PD 1096 Other Potential Recommendations
1096 Beyond PD 1096
Definition of Special Sites Add section/s defining special sites.
[PD 1096, Section 105]
Add a chapter on special sites which Create professional councils to
Designing for Special Sites Add sections on the general building covers detailed design guidelines evaluate applications for permits to
design guidelines and safety and safety standards for buildings build on special sites.
standards for buildings on different on different special site types.
Safety Standards for Special Sites special site types. [PD 1096, Chapter
12 and Section 709]

Proposed Revisions to the Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of PD 1096 and/or any other building considered to be a potential source of fire or
explosion.
The following is the full text of Section 105 of the current PD 1096 IRR.
The following section is proposed to be added.
SECTION 105. Site Requirements.
Section X Special Sites.
The land or site upon which will be constructed any building or structure,
or any ancillary or auxiliary facility thereto, shall be sanitary, hygienic or Building on non-conventional sites such as reclaimed lands, off-shore
safe. In the case of sites or buildings intended for use as human sites, waterfront sites, transient sites, ubiquitous sites and underground
habitation or abode, the same shall be at a safe distance, as determined sites should consider special design requirements and risk mitigation
by competent authorities, from streams or bodies of water and/or features called for by the unique site settings.
sources of air considered to be polluted; from a volcano or volcanic site

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Annex A: Explanatory Notes Reclaimed sites in the Philippines accommodate various development
types including airports, recreational and cultural complexes, and housing. While
Reclaimed Sites some are engineered fill sites, others have been filled with unsuitable materials
such as garbage. For instance, the case of BASECO in Manila presents the need for
Land reclamation is among the various land augmentation strategies builders to consider the limitations of filled sites.
adopted by cities that need to close the land supply and demand gap. Reclaiming
land in itself is a high-impact activity that could adversely affect hydrology and Offshore Sites
marine life. Building on reclaimed land, if not regulated, poses additional threats
on future occupants of the built space. EO 146 and its IRR do not include design
standards and the implementing agency is mandated to do long term economic
development planning. The law also covers reclamation projects but not
buildings to be constructed on reclaimed sites.

Floating Hotel and Resort

BASECO Reclamation 2000 and 2013


GoogleEarth.com
Bayshore Beach Resort
http://bayshorebeach.weebly

BASECO Reclamation Subic International Airport


Ramos, 2002 Montero, 2013

Maldives Hotel
http://telegraph.co.uk

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Offshore sites for industrial, military and recreational uses, among others, Transient Sites
are water-based structures that need to be regulated. As fixed structures on
water, they are technically covered by the NBC. Reclamation for wharves, piers, The concept of transient or plug-in sites that accommodate mobile spaces
embankments, roads, parks and other public improvements are covered by RA is not widely known in the Philippines, but may well be included in the NBC.
1899—Reclamation of Offshore Lands by Chartered Cities and Municipalities, While the International Building Code provides for recreational vehicles (RV) or
dated 1957. mobile spaces, there currently are no laws in the Philippines covering transient
sites. Issues related to maintenance, establishing accountabilities, and the site’s
Innovative Design Concepts carrying capacities justify the need for regulating this site typology.

New design concepts are emerging with the development of building


technology and materials. These innovative concepts redefine sites and site
development, and also call for building design and safety standards.

Recreational Vehicles and RV Villages Mobile Homes


http://picmocoastvillage.com http://bringfido.com

Underground

Underground buildings constitute another construction context where


Cliff House, Australia Suspended House
http://designboom.com http://treehugger.com the site requires special design interventions with regard to structural safety,
flood-resistance, ventilation and lighting.

Ubiquitous Sites

Ubiquitous sites require state-of-the-art services that allow connectivity


among buildings that are located within and outside the site. Issues on carrying
capacities, energy efficiency and human-induced disaster mitigation account for
the need for special regulations for these sites.
Delivery of Prefab House

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Sustainable Sites

Issue Paper No. 2


Site Selection and Development

A. Site Definition, Site-Related Issues, and Existing Systems building permit application package includes a Site Development Plan, Location Map
and Vicinity Map.
A1. Statement of the Issue However, only the word lot is defined in Annex A as “A parcel of land on
which a principal building and its accessories are placed or may be placed together
The words site, location and vicinity are repeatedly referred to in the NBC, with the required open spaces. A lot may or may not be the land designated as lot
its IRR and the permitting process, but are not among the words defined in Annex A on recorded plot.” Meanwhile, the NBC IRR defines lot as “the physical setting for
of the NBC. Because of the lack of bases for establishing the physical boundaries of any building/structure whereby the level or intensity of development covering such
the NBC, the geographical extent of the site, which building designers and property is regulated by DC stipulated under this Code, by other agencies of the
developers must be required to assess for purposes of confirming site viability, is national government concerned with physical development by the local
not clearly delineated. Lot, as defined in the NBC is two-dimensional, myopic and government unit concerned and by the Deed of Restrictions (only if in force).”
static. On the other hand, the International Building Code (IBC) defines Site as “a
As such, it is necessary to expand the physical extent to include relevant off- parcel of land bounded by a lot line of a designated portion of a public right-of-way.”
site conditions in order to address life, safety and welfare concerns. A number of There are also NBC sections that refer to other laws and spatial frameworks.
site selection criteria covering physical and non-physical factors need to be referred There are, however, other laws that may be referred to for purposes of covering the
to as building designs are being conceptualized. Placing the built elements in context full range of site-related concerns.
will ensure a closer fit between the designed space and its environs.
A3. Recommendations
A2. Background
Table 1 contains the recommendations for site definition and site-related
The scope of the NBC according to Section 102. Declaration of Policy and issues.
Section 103. Scope and Application includes siting and regulation of location. A

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Table 1. Recommendations for Site Definition and Site-Related Issues
Issue Potential Revisions to the IRR of PD Potential Modifications to PD 1096 Other Potential Recommendations
1096 Beyond PD 1096
Definition of Site, Location, Vicinity Add a section that describes, in In PD 1096, add a chapter that will In PD 1096 and its IRR, formulate
general, what these three terms define Site, Location, Vicinity and performance standards for
cover. [PD 1096, Section 105] their coverage. determining the geographical
extent of Site, Location and Vicinity
Define Site, Location and Vicinity to
cover outside-the-lot conditions, air
space and territorial waters and
make references to NBC sections
that mention these three terms.
[PD 1096, Annex A]
Site-related Issues, Laws and Enhance institutional links with Expand the organization tasked
Regulations LGUs with regards enforcement of with issuing locational clearance to
Comprehensive Land Use Plans and closely coordinate with LGUs and
Zoning Ordinances (CLUPZO) DENR.

In a commentary to the IRR, include Add a Chapter on Site Analysis that In PD 1096 and its IRR, add
a site analysis checklist; write a presents a checklist; require performance standards for
paragraph or two about each of the analysis to the extent neede d assessing site suitability.
site considerations and make based on site-specific conditions.
references to all existing relevant
laws and regulations so that In the IRR, add a Chapter with
readers/ designers will be directed detailed site analysis guidelines and
to the applicable provisions. applicable provisions from existing
In this checklist, highlight the need laws and regulations.
to consider the site’s carrying
capacity.

Add a section on multi-hazards, to


cover both natural and human-

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induced hazards; write a paragraph
or two about the hazards and make
references to all existing applicable
laws and regulations.
Note: Assume regularity in CLUP preparation and monitoring of CLUPZOs and assume competence and prudence in site selection and development
and building design by professionals.

B. Disaster Risk Reduction and Management and Climate Change Adaptation B2. Background

B1. Statement of the Issue The NBC is loaded with provisions on fire safety and references to the Fire
Code of the Philippines. It also lightly covers human-induced hazards due to
The NBC lacks sections on preparedness, response and rehabilitation industrial and construction activities, but does not sufficiently address other life and
measures for other types of hazards such as flooding, landslides, liquefaction, storm health issues attributed to poor building maintenance, mobility problems, and
surges and tsunamis. To address this concern, a more comprehensive scanning of pollution—among others.
site features gears at disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) and climate
change adaptation (CCA). B3. Recommendations

Table 2 contains the recommendations for DRRM and CCA.

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Table 2. Recommendations for DRRM and CCA
Issue Potential Revisions to the IRR of PD Potential Modifications to PD 1096 Other Potential Recommendations
1096 Beyond PD 1096
Disaster Risk Reduction and Enhance institutional links with - -
Management; Climate Change LGUs on the enforcement of the
Adaptation CLUPZO, particularly with regards
high-risk areas.
- Provide for site analysis requiring In PD 1096, provide provisions for
building permit applicant to the enhancement the functions of
indicate means of egress and the DRRMOs of local government
emergency paths leading to safe units.
holding areas and evacuation sites.
Note: Assume competence in site selection and development and building design by professionals.

C. Site Thresholds golf courses. Developments that are more than one (1) hectare in size are required
to be issued Environmental Compliance Clearances on the basis of Environmental
C1. Statement of the Issue Impact Assessments/Studies. There are, however, small-scale projects that can have
wide ranging effects on the neighborhood. Local Government Units (LGUs),
The possibility of negative effects arising from the confluence of site Provincial and Regional Governments and central government agencies such as the
features and development type justify development controls that take into account National Housing Authority (NHA), the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board
site thresholds or carrying capacities. The latter—which are factors not just of (HLURB) and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) are
natural site features, but of human activity and site utilitied—are determinants of mandated to regulate development in terms of location and intensity.
allowable building types, building bulk and densities, among others. Future-
orientation and time element also need to be factored in the site analysis process. C2. Recommendations
What may be currently perceived as an appropriate site-building match may not be
so in the future due to new developments that are stimulated by catalyst types of Table 3 contains the recommendations for site thresholds. For proposed
buildings. revisions to the IRR of PD 1096, please refer to Annex B.
Currently, the DENR enforces a system for regulating large-scale/high-
impact types of projects such as factories, airports, seaports, shopping malls and

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Table 3. Recommendations for Site Thresholds
Issue Potential Revisions to the IRR of PD Potential Modifications to PD 1096 Other Potential Recommendations
1096 Beyond PD 1096
Dynamism and Future-orientation Strengthen monitoring systems Add provisions for progress In the permitting process, add an
and processes for condemning inspections during construction; organizational structure that will
buildings, revocation of permits, implement incremental permitting enforce building monitoring
granting business permits or process. systems.
permits to operate.
[PD 1096, Section 215]
Add a section on building Add to building permit application -
operation, administration and requirements a Building Operation,
maintenance. [PD 1096, Section Administration and Maintenance
103 and 305] Plan
Force Majeure IAdd a general provision on Force Add detailed stipulations on the In PD 1096, provide for the system
Majeure, which will delineate the criteria for establishing Force for establishing Force Majeure.
course of action between disasters Majeure.
due to design and disasters due to
unforeseeable events. [PD 1096,
Sections 215 and 216]

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Annex A: Explanatory Notes

1. Site Definition, Site-Related Issues, and Existing Systems dimensional features of the site must be factored into the site analysis process.
Other site concerns that are not adequately covered, or not covered at all by the
The following table shows the NBC sections that refer to other laws and NBC, but are covered by existing laws are:
spatial frameworks.
• Air Quality for all building categories
Table 1. NBC Sections that refer to Other Laws and Spatial Frameworks • Water Quality for all building categories
NBC Section Provisions • Municipal Waters
Section 507. Local, physical and spatial framework • Protection of Forests
Designation of Fire plans by city or municipal planning and/ • National Integrated Protected Areas
Zones or development bodies • Strategic Agricultural and Fisheries Development Zone
Section 902. Water Municipal waterworks system; Water • Protection of Agricultural Lands
Supply System Code of the Philippines and National • Heritage Conservation (Heritage Sites)
Plumbing Code of the Philippines • Indigenous People
Section 903. Code on Sanitation; National Pollution • Network of Protected Areas for Agricultural and Agro-industrial
Wastewater Disposal Control Commission Development
System • Industrial/Tourism/ Housing
Section 904. Storm • Accessibility and Circulation
Drainage
• Eminent Domain
Section 906. Noise Department of Labor and Employment
• Environment Protection Laws/ DENR Issuances
Pollution Control and NPCC
• Natural and Human-induced Hazards
Section 303. Approved standard requirements on
Processing of Building zonings, land use, lines and grades, The dynamic variables due to changing uses within and around the lot are
Permits sanitary and sewerage, environmental
also not captured by the present regulatory framework. The Comprehensive Land
health
Use Plans (CLUPS) of the Local Government Units are supposed to cover all of these
concerns when land is allocated for various uses and when these areas are arranged
Given the content of the current sections, there is a recognized need to fully
in space. CLUPS are also supposed to cover nine (9) years, and therefore, has a long-
contextualize building design by presenting the wider range of concerns that bear
term outlook. Dynamism is factored in with the periodic updating of the
on sustainable sites. Contextualizing follows the argument that a building does not
Comprehensive Development Plan, which happens every three (3) years. CLUPS are
exist in a vacuum. Two similar building designs will not perform in the same way
supposed to be vertically integrated, meaning they are aligned with Provincial,
when placed in two different site contexts. Site, location and vicinity are three-
Regional and National Plans. In reality, though, market forces dominate and plans
dimensional spaces that should take into account the air space around it and the
are not carried out exactly as laid out. Also more than 50% of the total number of
natural and man-made elements that define them. The multi-layered and multi-

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municipalities/ cities in the Philippines do not have updated CLUPs. Low class Section 709. Location on property, exit facilities,
municipalities do not have the capacity to prepare and implement CLUPs. Requirements for other light, ventilation, sanitation,
Air Rights and the use of Air space as in the case of the Mega-Mall Bridgeway Group Occupancies enclosures of vertical openings,
built above a public road need to be regulated. special hazards
Annex A- Definitions: An area which will accommodate a
2. Disaster Risk Reduction and Management and Climate Change Adaptation Dispersal Area number of persons equal to the total
capacity of the stand and building it
serves, in such a manner that no
Cases of disasters that are attributable to natural and man-made site person within the area need be closer
features highlight the need for a comprehensive site analysis. Geographical extent than 15 meters from the stand or
of the analysis needed for projects vary with the type of hazards and impact areas. building. Dispersal areas shall be
The following table contains NBC sections related to fire safety, DRRM and based upon the area of not less than
CCA. 0.28 square meter per person
Section 1207. Stairs, every exit shall discharge into a public
Table 2. NBC Sections Related to Fire Safety, DRRM and CCA Exits and Occupant way, exit court, or exit passageway.
NBC Sections Provisions Loads Every exit court shall discharge into a
Section 902. Water municipal or city waterworks system; public way or an exit passageway;
Supply System meteoric, surface or underground Required width, slope, number of
sources; deepwells according to exits, openings
Water Code of the Philippines Section 1101-1108 Handling Materials before and during
Section 104. General buildings or structures intended to be construction
Building Requirements used for the manufacture and/or
production of any kind of article or The site drawings required of building permit applicants are described in
product shall observe adequate the NBC IRR as
environmental safeguards Vicinity Map/ Location Plan within a 2.00 kilometer radius
Section 105. Site for commercial, industrial and institutional complex and
Requirements within a half-kilometer radius for residential buildings, at any
Section 214. no safe egress; contribute to the convenient scale showing prominent landmarks or major
Dangerous and pollution of the site or community to thoroughfares for easy reference.
Ruinous Buildings or an intolerable degree
Structures
However, there are natural and man-made conditions beyond these radii
Section 501-502 Fire areas within which only certain types
Zones of buildings are permitted
that may impact on the life, safety, and protection of property and social welfare.
Section 707. Maximum Building height and Civil Air The distances of these conditions from the lot vary depending on the type of hazard
Building Height regulations they pose.

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Houses on Slopes, Baguio Informal Settlements in BASECO
Highland Tower Collapse, Malaysia Highland Tower Google Map http://travel-philippines.com,
http://cbrainard.blogspot.com Ramos, 2002
http://googleearth.com 2010

Cherry Hills, Antipolo Ruby Towers, Binondo Brainard, 2013 Manggahan Floodway
Ramos, 1999 http://cbrainard.blogspot.com
Many cities and towns of the Philippines are located in waterfront areas,
majority of which are densely-built up sites exposed to multiple hazards and resided
in by vulnerable groups. For instance, informal settlements are in high-danger areas
such as highway and railway easements, power transmission tower easements, and
river and creek easements. Even formal housing projects—such as Bistekville,
Industrial Valley and Home Along the Riles in Manila—are located in hazard prone
sites.
Aside from the location, slow setting environmental changes such as rising
Payatas Landslide Firecracker Factory sea levels attributed to climate change must also be factored into the regulatory
http://dr-koelsch.de Explosion,Bocaue
system. No-build zones have been designated but are still attracting households
due to its convenient accessibility near livelihood bases, such as fishing areas.
In establishing accountabilities, the issue of Force Majeure can come in the
way. While this generally refers to unforeseen events, the term is not defined in the

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NBC. There is also no clearly established system for declaring a state of Force
Majeure.

3. Site Thresholds

Urban areas bear the cost of overbuilding that result in traffic congestion,
water shortage, flooding due to clogged drainage systems and other urban Hongkong Apartments SM City Sucat
problems. Market forces largely dictate the direction and level of development http://AsianSmack.com http://byaheroph.blogspot.com
when public interventions in the form of development controls are lacking.
The proliferation of high-rise residential condominiums, shopping malls and
offices put a strain on basic services and impact on the quality of life in the cities.
Breaching the thresholds of basic services and utility systems—coupled with
negating carrying capacities set by natural conditions—further increase risk ratings.
While permittable uses are governed by the Comprehensive Land Use Plans and
Zoning Ordinances of cities and municipalities, weak monitoring and enforcement
systems lead to building activities that are not aligned with long-term land use plans.

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Annex B: Proposed Revisions to the Implementing Rules and Regulations (1) Sustainability. It should not compromise long-term development goals
(IRR) of PD 1096 of the neighborhood/ district/ city/ municipality. It must also take into
account carrying capacities based on natural features and basic
The following is the full text of Section 105 of the current PD 1096 IRR. services.
(2) Safety. It must note probable exposure to risks due to natural and
SECTION 105. Site Requirements.
human-induced hazards.
The land or site upon which will be constructed any building or structure, (3) Health. It must have access to clean water and other basic services—
or any ancillary or auxiliary facility thereto, shall be sanitary, hygienic or ratio of built-up area to open space must allow adequate lighting and
safe. In the case of sites or buildings intended for use as human habitation ventilation.
or abode, the same shall be at a safe distance, as determined by (4) Public Welfare. It should not infringe on other people’s right to
liveable environments. Site development must allow for access,
competent authorities, from streams or bodies of water and/or sources of
mobility and wayfinding. Arrangement of buildings will aim at
air considered to be polluted; from a volcano or volcanic site and/or any
achieving order and coherence and preserving visual resources.
other building considered to be a potential source of fire or explosion.

The following sections are proposed to be added. Section X. Site Services

Section X. Site Defined Sites for all building and development types must have minimum
provisions for mobility, access to basic services and sanitation systems.
Site refers to the physical context of a building or group of buildings. It
covers the lot, which is described by technical descriptions delineating
boundaries of the titled property to be developed. It also covers areas
around the lot the conditions of which bear on the building’s operability and
safety. The site has three-dimensional features defined by the air space
around and water bodies adjacent to it.

The geographical extent of the air and water space shall be governed by
existing laws relative to territorial air and waters.

Section X. General Requirements

Site selection and site development for any building type should be
undertaken based on the principles of:

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Section X. Environment and Risk Management Section X. Protected Areas

Site selection and site development should consider safety of the users of Any building or development type must conform to laws and regulations
the building, and its outdoor spaces. Within hazard areas as established in that delineate protected areas. These are areas where limited or no
the Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUP) or hazard maps published by the building construction is allowed. Protected areas include forests,
national government, risk adaptation and mitigation measures must be agricultural areas, fisheries areas, water bodies and mangroves, critical
incorporated in the design as prescribed by the Secretary. habitats, biodiversity areas and mineral lands.

(1) Hydrometeorological hazards such as Section X. Heritage Sites, Ancestral Lands and Indigenous Peoples
Flooding Building and site development must take into account laws regulating the
Rain-induced landslides protection of heritage sites with monuments, buildings are outdoor spaces
Storm surges that need to be preserved due to their historical and cultural significance.
View corridor, buffers, sightlines, skylines, collective architectural
(2) Geophysical hazards such as character, access, and traffic volume.
Ground rupture; Ground shaking
Liquefaction Building and development must factor in design limitations due to
Landslides ancestral lands and areas settled in by indigenous peoples.
Tsunamis

(3) Risk induced by human activity such as


Accidents
Toxic materials, Chemicals, Pollutants
Hazardous wastes
Fires
Blight

(4) Climate Change and risks due to slow-setting environmental


changes such as
Increasing temperatures
Variability of rainfall
Extreme events
Rising sea levels

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Sustainable Sites

Issue Paper No. 3


Neighborhood-level Design

A. Building Massing and Environmental Consequences The Local Government Units, through their Comprehensive Land Use Plans
and Zoning Ordinances, are expected to regulate urban form. Other agencies such
A1. Statement of the Issue as the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board and the National Housing Authority
are also liable in governing the development of housing sites based on acceptable
The collective and cumulative effects of buildings are not adequately standards. The National Historical Institute oversees heritage conservation
addressed by the NBC sections relative to groups of buildings. While current concerns and the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources issues
provisions prescribe spacing between building edges, other development Environmental Compliance Certificates based on Environmental Impact Studies.
controls—such as building bulk, density, orientation and visual organization—may Laws and procedural systems formulated to create liveable, coherent and efficient
additionally be covered because of their impact on lighting, ventilation, wayfinding neighborhoods are in place. However, enforcement and monitoring especially at
and mobility, among others. The manner by which buildings are arranged on the the community level need further enhancement.
site also has bearing on urban coherence and legibility, preservation of visual
resources and visual corridors. Principles of community and urban aesthetics— A3. Recommendations
hierarchy, balance, form, texture and grain—and their practical significance can be
incorporated to enhance NBC’s social welfare goals. Table 1 contains the recommendations for building massing and
While Local Government units enforce Zoning Ordinances that are meant environmental consequences, while Annex B contains proposed revisions to the
to rationalize urban form, the development controls are too macro in scale. Such IRR of PD 1096.
being the case, there is a need to incorporate neighborhood-level provisions in
NBCP to provide for a better interface between site planning and building design.

A2. Background

In PD 1096, there are sections that govern the combined effects of


buildings on its immediate vicinity and community setting. There are also sections
that relate the building to streets, yards, parking spaces, public alleys and local
zoning. The IRR also provide for development controls that limit the built-up area
relative to open spaces within the lots. These stipulations may be expanded to
cover public consequences of buildings at the neighborhood level.

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Table 1. Recommendations for Building Massing and Environmental Consequences
Issue Potential Revisions to the IRR of PD 1096 Potential Modifications to PD 1096 Other Potential Recommendations
Beyond PD 1096
Building Massing and Enhance links with existing systems
Environmental governing the preparation and
Consequences enforcement of Comprehensive Land Use
Plans and Zoning Ordinances (CLUPZOs),
particularly the development controls
that govern Overlay Zones.
Enhance linkage with DENR’s system for
Environmental Compliance Certificates
and Environmental Impact Assessment.
Expand sections covering the
neighborhood-level issues that may be
linked to current NBC sections e.g Section
704. Location on Property, Section 1003.
Projection of Balconies and Appendages
over Streets, and Section 1004. Arcades,
and others.
Under an additional section on Add a section on neighborhood-level Formulate neighborhood-level design
neighborhood-level design, write a design with detailed guidelines guidelines; create Community/
paragraph or two about each of the issues governing elements such as visual Neighborhood Councils
and make references to applicable laws corridors, signages, sightlines, urban
and regulations. [PD 1096, Sections 303 coherence, use of voids and back-of-
and 803] building spaces, among others
Strengthen links with private
administration offices.
Require Building Administration and For the permitting process, create an
Maintenance Plans. organizational structure that will
involve allied professions such as
interior designers, landscape architects
and environmental planners.

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B. Indoor-outdoor Interface and Private Spaces and the Public Domain

B1. Statement of the Issue

The NBC lacks provisions that aids in the evaluation of the Site
Development Plan, the Location Plan and the Vicinity Map.

B2. Background

The documents above essentially present the relationship between the


building and its immediate physical context. The outdoor environment includes
the public domain consisting of the external circulation systems, public amenities
and open spaces. While the terms above have been properly defined, there are
currently no provisions relating the privately-owned buildings that physically
overlap/interface with the public domain.

B3. Recommendations

Table 2 contains the recommendations for indoor-outdoor interface and


private spaces and the public domain. Annex B contains the proposed revisions to
the IRR of PD 1096.

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Table 2. Recommendations for Indoor-Outdoor Interface and Private Spaces and the Public Domain
Issue Potential Revisions to the IRR of PD Potential Modifications to PD 1096 Other Potential Recommendations
1096 Beyond PD 1096
Indoor-outdoor Interface Add section on indoor spaces and Add sections on the relationship Formulate neighborhood-level
how this relates with the outdoor between indoor and outdoor spaces, design guidelines and create
environment. [PD 1096, Sections 802 with detailed provisions for the community/ neighborhood councils.
and 803] exterior design features and
Enhance provisions on egress emergency outdoor spaces, among For the permitting process— create
systems and open spaces for others. an organizational structure that will
emergencies e.g. Sections 803. involve allied professions such as
Percentage of Site Occupancy, interior designers, landscape
Section 1207. Stairs, Exits and architects and environmental
Occupant Loads, and 1213. Stages planners
and Platform
Private Spaces and the Public Domain Add a section on the general Add sections on private and public
guidelines governing public-private spaces with detailed provisions for
space interfaces. [PD 1096, Sections designing/ constructing new
704 and 706] buildings in relation to adjacent
built-up areas.

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Annex A: Explanatory Notes requirements; relative to ground level/ slope
Distance of traffic generator building entrance
1. Building Massing and Environmental Consequences to road intersections
Section 708-709 Lot occupancy, light and ventilation, location on
The following are NBC sections that are related to the combined effects of property, exit facilities, enclosures of vertical
buildings on its immediate vicinity. Some also relate the building to public spaces. openings
Section 801. General Buildings shall face a street or public alley or
Table 1. NBC Sections that Govern the Combined Effects of Buildings on Its Immediate Vicinity Requirements of Light private street
and Community Setting and Ventilation
NBC Section Provisions Section 802. Lot occupancy relative to ground level; courts,
Measurement of Site yards, light wells; projections from walls
Section 704. Location Distance between eaves and property lines;
Occupancy
on Property projections beyond exterior walls;
Buildings on same property and buildings Section 803. Maximum site occupancy shall be governed by
containing courts Percentage of Site (among others) location of the site; and subject
Occupancy to the provisions of the local zoning
Section 1003. Extent of projections over an alley or street
requirements
Projection of Balconies shall be uniform within a block and shall
and Appendages over conform to limits Development controls:
Streets • Allowed Percentage of Site Occupancy
Section 1004. Arcades Width of the arcade shall be uniform (PSO)
throughout the street provided • Allowable Maximum Total Gross Floor Area
Annex A- Definitions: An area where the values of real estate tend to (TGFA) by Type/Location of Lot
Slum deteriorate because of the dilapidated, • Allowable Maximum Building Footprint
obsolescent, and unsanitary condition of the (AMBF)
building within he area. An eyesore is a • Maximum Allowed Impervious Surface Area
building or area which is markedly unpleasant (ISA)
to look at. • Maximum Allowable Construction Area
Section 505. Center May be considered an adjacent property line (MACA)
Lines of Streets • Minimum Unpaved Surface Area (USA)
Section 704. Location Access to yards, streets • Total Open Space within Lot (TOSL)
on Property • Building Height Limit (BHL) by Type of Use
Section 705. Allowable Based on the existence of public space, streets or Occupancy
Floor Area Increases or yards extending along and adjoining two or Section 804. Size and
more sides of the building/ structure Dimensions of Courts
Section 707. Maximum Dependent on population density, building Section 808. Window
Height of Buildings bulk, widths of streets and car parking Openings

Development of Revisions to the National Building Code of the Philippines


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Section 809, Vent
Shafts
Section 1001- 1008 Projections over Streets/ Beyond the lot

There is a need to contextualize a building within a street, neighborhood or


district level setting. How buildings are arranged relative to each other can influence
wind patterns and solar optimization, consequently affecting the quality of life, health
and safety.

Massing Options and Effects


on Neighborhood Quality
Steiner and Butler, 2008 Urban Heat Island Effect
Wind Pattern Effects of Building Clusters
Steiner and Butler, 2008

Steiner and Butler, 2008

Development of Revisions to the National Building Code of the Philippines


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Walkie-Talkie building melting
cars in London
http://gannett-cdn.com

Gated building clusters, controlled access between buildings, long block


developments (e.g. Ayala Avenue) affects level of permeability and mobility,
security (defensible spaces, natural surveillance), legibility, wayfinding. Fremlin Walk, UK – Preserving urban
grain
Orientation and redundancy in circulation enables people to respond better during
emergency situations. Urban coherence counters tendencies towards blight and visual pollution.
Formal building construction that proceeds without considering the resultant
urban form pervades in many cities in the Philippines. Case in point: the
construction of Torre de Manila and the completion of SM Blue. Informal settings
that are being brought into the formal fold via programs such as the Community
Mortgage Program and the NHA’s Sites and Services Program follow the
incremental building/ development principle. These sites are expected to evolve
over time but most of them remain in states of blight after many years.
The NBC IRR provides for the preservation of view corridors. Preservation
of visual resources and visual access to heritage landscapes, sites and monuments
Permeable and impermeable sites need to be incorporated in the law. Some of our heritage structures had to be
relocated to less exposed sites where they can be better protected, (e.g. Carriedo
Gentrification that typically goes with small neighborhood blocks being
Fountain). Buildings in Tagaytay are blocking visual access to Taal Volcano and
taken over by big-block developments, result in changes in the urban fabric, proliferation of lodging areas in Sagada is compromising the character of the place.
permeability, blocking. These changes affect level of mobility and security in the
area.
2. Indoor-outdoor Interface

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The PD 1096 provisions are insufficient to evaluate the Site Development
Plan relative to pedestrian and vehicular movement, hierarchy of internal and
external circulation systems, location of building entrances, landscape elements,
delivery bays, open spaces for emergencies, and utility areas. Detailed design of
outdoor elements such as parking slots, lighting and other site utilities,
plantscapes, sidewalks, driveways, porte cochere, building approach, entrances to
basement parking, traffic choke points, transport drop-offs and lay-by’s can impact Paeje University, Korea
on safety and public welfare. Ramos, 2007

3. Private Spaces and the Public Domain

The connection of buildings to public amenities/public infrastructure such


as mass transport stations, waiting areas, footbridges, billboard stands is also not
Manor Hotel Fire and Egress regulated, resulting in inefficient circulation systems and visual pollution. There are
Issues examples that illustrate how public infrastructure can be designed with due
cognizance of the adjacent built-up areas.
There are sections in the law and in the IRR that regulate the building
design in terms of covered space, paved surfaces and building footprints. There
are new design concepts, however, that blur the delineation between indoors and
outdoors. Examples are buildings with organic forms, designs with roof gardens
cum building ramps, vertical farms/ vertical gardens.

Urban Hive Building and the Nonhyeon Subway Station


Ramos 2011

Nanyang University, Singapore


http://media.designerblog.it, 2014

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SM Megamall Julia Vargas Ave. Pedestrian Walkway and SM Marikina-LRT
2 Santolan Station Pedestrian Walkway

Emergent design that integrates privately-owned spaces with public


spaces also need to be governed by design guidelines to ensure that objectives
related to privacy, safety and security are not compromised.

Subway line under residential


buildings in the Netherlands

Gate Tower Building


penetrated by the Hanshin
Highway in Japan
japanesenostalgiccar.com

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Annex B: Proposed Revisions to the Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of PD City/Municipal Water
1096
(2) Overlay zones
The following is the full text of Section 105 of the current PD 1096 IRR.

SECTION 105. Site Requirements. Transit-oriented development OZ


Heritage OZ
The land or site upon which will be constructed any building or structure, Key Biodiversity Area OZ
or any ancillary or auxiliary facility thereto, shall be sanitary, hygienic or Critical Habitat OZ
safe. In the case of sites or buildings intended for use as human habitation Eco-tourism OZ
or abode, the same shall be at a safe distance, as determined by Risk Mitigation OZ
competent authorities, from streams or bodies of water and/or sources of
air considered to be polluted; from a volcano or volcanic site and/or any (3) Development controls
other building considered to be a potential source of fire or explosion.
Easements and Buffers
The following sections are proposed to be added.
Density
Section X. Land Use and Zoning Floor-area ratio
Maximum Building Heights
Building type and occupancy must conform to the allowed uses and Materials
development controls as embodied in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan Signages
and Zoning Ordinances of the city/ municipality. Allowed uses and
development must take into consideration both the base and overlay Section X. Special Site Development Types
zones as described in the CLUP.
Site requirements for development types such as housing, tourism, special
(1) Base zones
economic zones, cemeteries and memorial parks shall be based on existing
laws governing location, site planning, land allocation, open spaces and
Residential
basic services.
Commercial
Institutional
Industrial
Agricultural
Open spaces
Forest
Utilities, Transportation and Services

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