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Senior High School Department
S.Y. 2017-2018

In Partial Fulfillment of our Project Based Learning in Qualitative Research

The Implications of Federalism in the Philippines

to the Community of Ednas School of San Carlos

Submitted to: Mr. Christopher V. Sugui

Submitted by: Karl Dominic L. Abrenio Maybelline T. Bugayong

Erickson A. De Guzman Claribelle L. Frias
Fredrick Czar T. De Vera Cristine Joy R. Lavarias
Mark Joseph P. De Vera Alexandra Ng
Ralph Lexus F. Ferrer Dori Anne F. Sollano
Rendel Aidrian DC. Gole Cruz Kristel Karren Chate D. Soriano
Jethro C. Jarillo
Ej C. Mislang
Derrick Jalen P. Nisperos


We, the researchers, would like to express our greatest gratitude to our almighty God
for all his blessings, support and guidance; for without him none of this would be possible.
Big thanks go out as well towards our teachers, parents, classmates, family and friends who
have helped and supported us throughout this research.
We would also like to thank our respondents for their patience and time with our
research. The respondents served as the key in finishing the research so we thank them for
their efforts, participation, and understanding.
Lastly, we would like to thank the contributors of this research, 11 STEM, who
exerted their time and efforts in the accomplishment of this research.

- Researchers


Chapter I: The Problem - - - - - - - - 03
Background of the Study - - - - - - - 03
Statement of the Problem - - - - - - - 04
Research Hypothesis - - - - - - - 05
Significance of the Study - - - - - - - 06
Scope and Delimitations - - - - - - - 06
Operational Definition - - - - - - - 07
Chapter II: Review of Related Literature and Studies - - - - 08
Related Literature - - - - - - - - 08
Local - - - - - - - - - - 10
Related Studies - - - - - - - - 13
Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - 13
Chapter III: Research Methodologies - - - - - - - 15
Data Gathering Instrument - - - - - - - 15
Data Gathering Procedure - - - - - - - 15
Respondent of the Study - - - - - - - 15
Research Design - - - - - - - - 16
Chapter IV: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data - - - 17
Presentation of Data - - - - - - - 17
Analysis and Interpretation of Data - - - - - - 18
Chapter V: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations - - - - 19
Summary - - - - - - - - - 19
Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 19
Recommendations - - - - - - - - 20
Appendix - - - - - - - - - - 21
Bibliography - - - - - - - - - - 23

The Problem

Background of the Study

The Republic of the Philippines is currently governed as a unitary state under a
presidential representative and democratic and constitutional republic where the president
function as both the head of state and the head of government of the country within a
pluriform multi-party system. As outlined in the Constitution, power of the central
government is separated and carried out into three branches: legislative branch, executive
branch and judicial branch. With President Rodrigo Roa Duterte repeatedly stating his plans
to convert into a federal system, Federalism has become an emerging topic and has brought
about debate to the whole country.
Federalism is a form of government where sovereignty is constitutionally shared
between a central governing authority and constituent political units called states or regions.
In basic terms, it will break the country into autonomous regions with a national government
focused only on interests with nationwide bearing such as foreign policy and defense. The
autonomous regions or states, divided further into local government units, will have primary
responsibility over developing their industries, public safety, education, healthcare,
transportation, recreation, and culture. These states will have more power over their finances,
development plans, and laws exclusive to their jurisdiction. The central government and
states can also share certain powers.
The current president strives to bring upon Federalism in hopes that this form of
government can help the Philippines become a better and stronger nation. While still a
candidate, he promised a shift to federalism as one of his key platform issues. Duterte
believes that a federal government would address underdevelopment, which has been blamed
for the emergence of extremist groups. He also mentioned that if a federal government was
established sooner or before his term ends in 2022, then he is willing enough to step down
from his position.

Our current president mentioned the benefits of federalism as:
1. Local governments can decide for themselves. Regions or states are allowed by
federalism to create solutions to their own problems, implement policies for their
improvement, and make decisions for their own good without having to ask
Malacañang for their decision.
2. Less dependence on Metro Manila. A whopping 35 percent of the country’s
budget was given to Metro Manila even if it represents only 14 percent of the total
population. Since federalism allows fiscal autonomy for local governments, the
country’s wealth will be more evenly distributed among the state governments.
Federalism is a system of government in which the same territory is controlled by
two levels of government. Both the national government and the smaller political
subdivisions have the power to make laws and both have a certain level of
autonomy from each other. Federalism is the division of the country into having
different states. Federalism involves the country as a whole being divided into
smaller parts being given the right or power that the head of states can create laws
as well.
3. Local governments have more power over their resources. In the Philippines’
current form of government, local government units have to turn a big bulk of
their funds to the national government. Federalism will allow the autonomous
regions or states to use the majority of their funds for their own development and
without needing a go signal from Malacañang.
If there are advantages to federalism there are also disadvantages such as:
1. There could be overlaps in jurisdiction. Unless responsibilities of the state
governments and national governments are very clearly stated in the amended
Constitution, there will be ambiguities that can lead to conflict and confusion.
2. Divisions can arise from more than just increased hostility between ethnic groups
– competition between states can quickly become unhealthy, and can lead to the
regionalism that is currently challenging the unity of the country.
3. A major concern is that while some states may progress faster, the converse is also
true because other states may devolve faster as well- even more so without a
national government to back them up.

4. Others such as former presidential candidate Grace Poe also fear that federalism
will further entrench political dynasties in the regions and create confusion over
While the idea of federalism is attractive for most Filipinos, the possible benefits that
are marketed by the idea will inevitably come at a cost, and will require extensive time and
effort from both governments and citizens alike.
The implementation of federalism is a severely important decision as it can greatly
affect our country. People already seem to have their stand towards it whether pro or con.
This research aims to see whether or not they have enough understanding on federalism to
choose a stand.

Statement of the Problem

This research will focus on the views and opinions of the community of Ednas School
of San Carlos on federalism.
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following:
1.1 Age,
1.2 Gender,
1.3 Year level, and
1.4 Personal Background?
2. How does the community of Ednas School of San Carlos view federalism? Do they
know what federalism is or what it means?
3. Why do the people disagree on federalism?
4. How does the community of ESSC think federalism can affect our country and their
lives if and when implemented?

Research Hypothesis
The predictions arisen towards the research is that some of the respondents, mostly
pupils of the lower grades, would not have a clear understanding towards federalism and
therefore have false or irrelevant insight towards the topic. However, respondents such as
senior high students, teachers and staffs of the Ednas School of San Carlos community are
expected to have a more in-depth understanding towards federalism and hence are able to
provide their opinions on the future of the Philippines’ governance.

Significance of the Study
The researchers would like to discover the opinions and thoughts of community of
Ednas School of San Carlos about federalism trying to be implemented in the Philippines.
Nevertheless, they also expect that this research would be of great help and reference for the

Students. This study aims to inform students about the concept of federalism for their
better understanding on the topic and the situation of the country.
Filipino People. This study aims to identify and correct the Filipino people’s
misunderstandings and misconceptions on the topic of federalism for them to better
understand the topic and the situation of our country. This can allow them, especially towards
those capable of voting, to choose a stand on federalism whether pro or con for the welfare
and benefit of our country.
Teachers. This study aims to further develop the knowledge and understanding of
teachers on the topic of federalism for them to be able to correct student’s and other’s
misunderstandings on the topic.
Parents. This study aims to further develop the knowledge and understanding of
parents on the topic of federalism for them to be able to educate their children on the topic
and for them to be able to better choose a side on federalism whether pro or con.

Scope and Delimitations

This study will only cover the views, ideas, thoughts, and opinions of the Community
of Ednas School of San Carlos regarding federalism in the Philippines. This community
refers to the students, teachers, parents and staffs. All data gathering will be done inside the
ESSC Campus for approximately two weeks.
The study is largely dependent on the honesty, sincerity, and integrity of the
respondents. The primary data will be descriptive in nature to determine an actual
representation of the student’s perspective in the study.

Operational Definition

ESSC community. Referring to all teachers, students, staffs and
administrator who are part of the EDNAS School of
San Carlos campus.
Personal Background. A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a
person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts
like education, work, relationships, and death; it
portrays a person's experience of these life events.
Federalism. A principle of government that defines the relationship
between the central government at the national level
and its constituent units at the regional, state, or local
Unitary State. A state governed as a single power in which the central
government is ultimately supreme and any
administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise
only the powers that the central government chooses to

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter shows the different related literature or studies done by other researchers
that have significance on the researchers’ main topic, The Implications of Federalism in the
Philippines to the Community of Ednas School of San Carlos.

Related literature
The researches stated below serves as supporting details of the researchers’ study.
These topics are related to the research and will, therefore, give a good foundation for the
success of the research.
According to Ronald L. Watts, federal political is constituted on the basis of
combined shared rule and self-rule. Hence, federalism is the model of such order, including
principles of the separation of power between member units and a common institution often
called central government or authority. There are several forms of federal order, which range
from federation of unions, confederations, leagues, decentralized unions of hybrid forms such
as the present day European Union. A federation involves constitutionally well-established
territorial divisions of power between province/state/canton and central government in which
both levels of government are from direct election and accountable to people. A
confederation, however, is an arrangement, where member units outweigh the center: hence,
confederation is a much weaker form than federation. Similarly, symmetric and asymmetric
federations mainly differ in terms of same or differential arrangements of power among
member units. In multinational and multi-ethnic contexts, such as India, Canada or Spain, it
is very difficult to hold a multi-national polity together. Thus, according to Alfred Stephan,
multi-national democracies often resort to constitutionally asymmetrical forms of federalism
assigning different competences (linguistic, cultural, ethnic, legal etc.) to different member
Robert P. Inman analyzes the performance ability of federal institutions based on
three categories of “valued outcomes” among 73 countries including 13 well known
established federal democracies and 11 fand civil rights of one ruling elites.

According to Alexander Hamilton, the splitting sovereignty between member unit and
the center encouraged the citizens to enjoy their individual rights and control the abuse of
authority at each level. But Madison and Hamilton made it clear that the power of defense
and interstate commerce should rest on central authority.
Krishna Khanal in “Federalism in Nepal: Management and Implementation,” terms
the present political chaos and internal tensions as an unprecedented phase of historic
transition that is heading probably to inclusive multi-party democracy along with
promulgation of a federal constitution. Arguing the efficiency and effectiveness of a federal
system greatly depends on political players and their personal conviction, behavior and
vision to make the system beneficial for people. Khanal states, “The first priority today has to
be the creation of a truly federal, democratic, republican political system and to ensure its
development rising above the party political lines and transient priorities.
Foundations of modem federalism were laid with the rise of the principles of
sovereignty and nationalism. The first modem formulation of federalism appeared at the
outset of the age of nationalism. Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf analyzed federal
arrangement as an aspect of international law. Jean Bodin analyzed the possibilities of
federation in the light of Sovereignty which again was the formal or legal expression of the
principle of nationalism.
According to Johannes Althusis (1603) the first to perceive that federalism was really
concerned with problems of national unity. He is regarded as the real father of modem federal
theory. He connected it with popular sovereignty, and distinguished federalism from leagues,
multiple monarchies, and confederations. Still he could not develop a full-fledged theory of
federalism because he favored hierarchical principles and put emphasis on the corporate
organization of society. In general, according to Elazar, the rise of the nation state in the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries provided federal solutions to the problems of national
unification but emphasized on three problems:
1. The conciliation of feudally rooted hierarchies with a system demanding fundamental
social equality in order to facilitate the sharing of power.
2. The reconciliation of local autonomy with national unity in an era of political
upheaval that required most nations to maintain a state of constant mobilization
basically incompatible with the toleration of local differences;

3. The problems of executive leadership and succession which was not solved until the
United States invented the elective presidency.
“A federal system of government is one in which a constitution divides governmental
powers between the central, or national government, and the constituent government (called
“States” in the United States), giving substantial functions to each. Neither the central nor the
constituent units receives powers from the other; both derive them from a common source,
the constitutions. This constitutional distribution of powers cannot be altered by an ordinary
process of legislation for example, by an act of the national legislature or by act of the several
constituent governments. Finally, both levels of government operate through their own agents
and exercise power directly over individuals”

In an interview with Asian Dragon magazine, Duterte said he’s fearful war will break
out in Mindanao if the proposed Bangsmoro Basic Law isn’t passed by Congress, and the
Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) decides to take up arms to express its
disappointments. “If the BBL is not passed, there is that threat of war by MILF Chair Muard
Ebrahim. President Aquino and Sec. Teresita Deles have validated these threats… I am quite
passionate about the situation because if war breaks out, you know where the battleground
will be – Mindanao and Davao City, in particular,” he said.
According to the 1987 Constitution, the Philippines is a Republic with the
presidential form of government wherein the power is equally divided among its three
branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. One basis corollary in a presidential system of
government is the principle of separations of power wherein the legislation belongs to the
congress, execution in the Executive, and settlement of legal controversies to the Judiciary.
According to Robinson (2013) and Acemoglu and Robinson (2012), extractive econo
mic and political institutions are characteristic of poor countries, while inclusive economic an
d political institutions are characteristic of rich countries. Inclusive institutions operate to em
ploysociety’s “energy, creativity, and entrepreneurship”. This is not possible in extractive inst
itutions because power is apportioned to a few. It can also be shown that in countries dominat
ed by extractive institutions, the central state is often not capable of
providing key public goods.

In a research report of the Center for Social Policy and Governance of the Kalayaan
College, Abueva enumerated the theory behind Philippine federalization. The following are
the hypotheses for the proposed shift from a unitary system to a federal system quoted from
the research report with editing.
1. The basis for establishing a federal system is that the Philippines has already achieved
sufficient national unity and democratization, including a measure of decentralization
and local autonomy. The latter will follow about a decade’s transition of
“regionalization” and increased local autonomy involving both the national
government and the local governments.
2. Specifically, the 1987 Constitution’s design for the development of participatory
democracy, local autonomy, and an active role for civil society in governance was a
result of the growing difficulties and frustration with the country’s highly centralized
unitary system during the authoritarian regime that started in September 1972.
3. Federalism will respond to the demands of local leaders for their release from the
costly, time-consuming, stifling, and demoralizing effects of excessive centralization
and controls by the national government in the present unitary system.
4. The structures, processes, and responsibilities of the federation will challenge and
energize the people and their state and local governments. Such further
democratization will encourage creativity, initiative and innovation, spur interstate
competition, and foster state and local self-reliance instead of continued dependency.
5. A federal system will greatly increase the capacity of the people and the government
to deal with the country’s problems because the removal of the centralized structure
that impose and sustain local dependence and stifle local initiative and
resourcefulness will provide greater freedom and home rule. Therefore, they will be
more interested in state and local governance because it is closer to them and will
deal with under-development – local poverty, unemployment, injustice, inadequate
social services and infrastructure, and low productivity.
6. A federal system will also be better able to respond to the external threats to national
security and the challenges of globalization by strengthening the nation-state’s
capacity to deal with its critical internal problems and development.

Related Studies

According to 1973 constitution, Pakistan would be a federal state with four federating
units, Punjab, Sindh, KPK and Baluchistan. Federalism is a system of government in which
powers are constitutionally distributed among units and center. According to Adeney (2007)
federalism is a form where sovereignty is shared between center and units. In this federal set
up where generally multi ethnic societies are present Judiciary become an institution of great
importance and these is a great need of independent judiciary for good working of federation.
The administration of justice in Pakistan is divided into the superior judiciary and
subordinate judiciary. The superior judiciary comprises of Supreme Court, High Courts and
Federal Shariat Court (FPC). The subordinate judiciary includes the civil, criminal,
administrative and special courts that are created under sub constitutional laws and are
subject to the supervisory control of high Courts Mannan (1973).
According to the works of Newberg 1995 and Ahmed 2014 there are numerous
phases of constitutional growth in Pakistan. The first period can be democratic period (1947-
1956). At the time of independence, Pakistan inherited a healthy judicial system having and
impartial appointment procedures Khan (2008). Pakistan adopted Government of India Act
1935 as interim constitution with certain amendents. In March 1949, the constituent
Assembly adopted the Objective Resolution which ensured the independence of judicciarya
main feature of future constitution (Objective Resolution, 1949 quoted in Naveeb Ahmed,
Syeda Mahpala Safdar work on paradoxes of judicial independence in Pakistan). There is a
lot of criticism of 1935 Government of India Act also. Sir Ivor Jennings had built historical
theories to prove that Pakistan is still dominion and Governor General has all that rights
McGrath (2000). So, judicial independence was not ensured in that period practically.

Theoretical Framework
Federalism is a type of government in which the power is divided between the
national government and other governmental units. It contrasts with a unitary government, in
which a central authority holds the power, and a confederation, in which states, for example,
are clearly dominant. While the Constitution addressed only the relationship between the
federal government and the states, the
American people are under multiple jurisdictions. A person not only pays his or her
federal income tax but also may pay state and city income taxes as well. Property taxes are

collected by counties and are used to provide law enforcement, build new schools, and
maintain local roads.
Throughout the 20th century, the power of the federal government expanded
considerably through legislation and court decisions. While much recent political debate has
centered on returning power to the states, the relationship between the federal government
and the states has been argued over for most of the history of the United States.
Although the Constitution sets up a federal system, nowhere does it define what
federalism is. However, the framers of the Constitution were determined to create a strong
national government and address the shortcomings of the Articles of Confederation, which
allowed the states too much power. In terms of the balance of power between the federal
government and the states, the Constitution clearly favors the federal government.
The powers specifically given to the federal government are not as relevant to the expansion
of its authority as the Constitutions more general provisions; that is, Congress is to provide
for the general welfare (preamble) and “make all laws which shall be necessary and proper”
(Article I, Section 8).
In the Constitution as ratified, there is no similar broad grant of powers to the states.
It emphasized what states cannot do (Article I, Section 10) and gave them authority in just a
few areas — namely, establishing voter qualifications and setting up the mechanics of
congressional elections. This reduction in power was corrected through the Tenth
Amendment, which reserved to the states or the people all powers either not specifically
delegated to the national government or specifically denied to the states. The language in the
General welfare and elastic clauses and the Tenth Amendment is vague enough to allow
widely different interpretations. Because both federal and state governments can turn to the
Constitution for support, it is not surprising that different concepts of federalism have
Dual federalism looks at the federal system as a sort with each layer of government
performing the tasks that make the most sense for that level.
The initial framing and ratification of the Constitution reflected this theory. Even
those people supporting a stronger national government proposed that powers in the federal
government be distinct and limited, with certain tasks enumerated for the national
government in the Constitution and the remaining tasks left to the state governments.

Because this theory leaves each government supreme within its own sphere of operations, it
is also sometimes called dual sovereignty.
One more-extreme outgrowth of this theory is the idea of states; rights, which holds
that, because the national government is not allowed to infringe on spheres left to state
government, doing so violates the states constitutional rights (especially the Tenth
Amendment, which specifically reserves undelegated powers for the states). Federal
government action in those spheres represents an unlawful seizure of power by one level of
government at the expense of another. This view has historically been popular in the South,
where it was viewed as preventing national government interference in the regions race
relations, but it has been invoked elsewhere as well.
The problem with taking dual federalism this far is figuring out who defines where
one layer ends and the next layer starts. Before the Civil War, some voices said that, to
protect their rights, states could secede from the Union or declare national laws that affect
them null and void — but those arguments are no longer taken seriously. Instead, the U.S.
Supreme Court resolves disputes within the federal structure, and because the Court is a
national institution, it rarely favors the states.
The theory of cooperative federalism emerged during the New Deal, when the power
of the federal government grew in response to the Great Depression. It does not recognize a
clear distinction between the functions of the states and Washington, and it emphasizes that
there are many areas in which their responsibilities overlap. For example, drug enforcement
involves federal agents, state troopers, and local police. The federal government supplies
funds for education, but the state and local school boards choose curriculum and set
qualifications for teachers. (Interestingly, attempts to set national standards for students in
certain subjects have raised concerns of federal intrusion.) The notion of overlapping
jurisdictions is expressed by the term marble-cake federalism.
Cooperative federalism takes a very loose view of the elastic clause that allows power
to flow through federal government. It is a more accurate model of how the federal system
has worked over much of U.S. history.

Research Methodology

This chapter shall be presenting the methodology used in the conduct of the study,
which involves the following: research design, respondents of the study, and data gathering
instrument used.

Data Gathering Instrument

Survey questionnaires shall be used by the researchers as a data gathering tool. The
questionnaires pertain to “The Implications of Federalism in the Philippines to the
Community of Ednas School of San Carlos”. A form of a one part questionnaire will be
applied to the respondents by the researchers to gather data and information. It includes the
respondent’s ideas and opinions on federalism. The researchers will also utilize cameras to
film the respondents to produce evidences so they would have a proof on the time of their

Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers will base the questionnaire from the given topic. The approved
questionnaires were distributed in order to gather the relevant data. Questionnaires were
distributed to respondents in the Ednas School of San Carlos community, which comprises of
parents, staff, and Ednasians from grade school and high school. Selected respondents were
also interviewed and filmed by the researchers with the same questions with that of the

Respondents of the Study

The qualified respondents of this research are the people inside the campus of Ednas
School of San Carlos. The respondents are the students of Ednas School from grade 1 to
grade 12, the teachers of Ednas School of San Carlos, school staff, fetchers and parents as
well. There are a total of 50 respondents. Majority of the respondents are the students and the
rest are teachers, fetchers, and parents inside the school campus. They will answer the
questionnaire that the researchers gave them which supplies the information the researchers

Research Design
The research design used is the descriptive type. Descriptive research design involves
observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing them in any way. The
researchers conducted surveys and interviews with individual respondents about their
concepts and opinions on federalism. And through this, were accurately able to depict the
overall view of the Ednas School of San Carlos community towards federalism.

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This chapter presents the necessary data gathered, analyzed and interpreted in
response to the queries in this study. The data are tabulated accordingly so as to facilitate
better understanding and to provide more convenience on the part of those who will need this

Presentation of Data
Majority of the participants view Federalism as the distribution of power in a country,
having their own government in each state. They say federalism will help the country
develop and be independent; however, there are some who don't know what Federalism is.
Participants have their own opinion on why Federalism is being proposed in the country. Few
say that it will help us prosper, to help the people who are poor, to avoid conflict, for
distribution of power and/or to avoid tyranny. Majority of the participants are in favor of
federalism being implemented in the country because they think that it has a lot of
advantages like making the economy grow and prosper. The others are in favor because they
want to try and change the current form of gov't. Few are not in favor with their reasons
being that the country needs unity. Another is not in favor with no specific reason only that
he doesn't want to have federalism in the country. And around three people were undecided.
One participant did not know whether federalism will be a big factor of change economically
and politically to our country. Others think that it will not be a big factor of change and the
rest thinks that it will be a big factor of change. Some of those who think that it will be a
factor says that the government will be stricter, some say that the provinces will have more
funds, and some say that it will affect the 1987 Philippine Constitution.
Different opinions of people arose once again when asked on whether federalism will
benefit the country. Few say that its benefits include: division of work, more budget for
education, and steady flow of goods and services. Others say that the benefit include: being
independent, being a peaceful country, and lesser population. Majority say that its
disadvantages will be corruption and political dynasty. Some say that we are not ready to
adapt to a new form of government and that it will cause the people to be rebellious.

Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Respondents have some ideas about federalism but their knowledge about it is not yet
enough and concrete. They need further more information about it and yet they are already in
favor for federalism to be implemented here in the Philippines with reasons that it can help in
the development of our country and for equal distribution of power in the government. They
think that with federalism, our country will become like United States of America: successful
and progressive. They thought that if federalism is implemented here, we will also achieve
that kind of abundance.
However, there are some who aren’t in favor of federalism being implemented
because they think that the country will not be united and we are just wasting our time with
that kind of government. They say that we have a lot of problems that we should be
prioritizing rather than amending the constitution. There are few who can’t decide with their
answer and think that it depends because they don’t have that much ideas and thoughts about
federalism and of course, they are also considering the advantages and disadvantages of
having federalism in our country.
According to the respondents, federalism will be a big factor economically and
politically to our country and can benefit the country by division of work and create diversity
and independence from each state.

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations

This chapter summarizes the context of the research, develops a conclusion, and
presents recommendations based on the given topic and findings of the research.

Federalism is a type of government in which the power is divided between the
national government and other governmental units. It contrasts with a unitary government,
the current government system in the Philippines, where a central authority holds the power,
and a confederation, in which states, for example, are clearly dominant. With president
Duterte’s stand and aspiration on the implementation of federalism in our country, chatter and
debate on federalism has sparked the country creating the dilemma whether or not it should
push through dividing citizens into pro- and con-federalism.
Constantly seeing people already having their opinions and stands on federalism, the
researchers aim to seek whether these opinions are based on facts, whether they truly know
what federalism is, how it can affect our country, and what it means to the country. In line
with this, survey questionnaires were sent out and interviews were conducted on the
community of Ednas School of San Carlos to assess their understanding of federalism.
Participants ranged from students, staff, and parents of all ages.
Respondents seem to have a general idea of federalism and what it means. However,
they do not know the all specific aspects of federalism. This being said, majority of the
respondents still lack knowledge on the topic to substantiate their answers on whether to
support or contradict the implementation of federalism in the Philippines.

The community of Ednas School of San Carlos seems to be informed on the general
concept of federalism. Although not perfectly knowledgeable, they have an idea of what
federalism is. Even students as young as 10 years of age were well informed on the topic.
However, for their stands to be concrete, further insights on the topic are needed as some
were not able to give concrete reasons on their stand towards federalism.

We, the researchers, suggest further explanation and teachings of federalism on the
Filipino people. Not only of its benefits, but of the risks and disadvantages associated with it
as well. We suggest that people further inform themselves on different topics and dilemmas
in our country and to see both the good and bad before making and choosing a stand.


Appendix 1: Informed Consent Letter

Informed Consent Letter

Titleof Research
The Implications of Federalism in the Philippines on the Community of Ednas School of
San Carlos

Student Researchers’ Name

Fredrick Czar T. De Vera – 09398242969 Ralph Lexus F. Ferrer - 09235422987
Ej C. Mislang - 09274043675 Cristine R. Lavarias - 09491299364
Kristel Karen D. Soriano- 09297060389 Jethro C. Jarillo- 09985535339
Alexandra Ng- 09951846241 Derrick Jalen P. Nisperos- 09164502816
Dori Anne F. Sollano- 09661656827 Mark Joseph P. De Vera- 09171436757
Maybelline T. Bugayong- 09210961176 Erickson A. De Guzman- 09260573959
Claribelle L. Frias- 09771726729 Rendel DC. Gole Cruz- 09177535782
Karl L. Abrenio- 09950620002

Purposeof theStudy:
This qualitative research aims to seek for the views of different people in Ednas School
of San Carlos community whether or not they fully understand what federalism is.

Once the respondents have agreed to participate in this research, a series of questions
regarding federalism would be answered y the respondents and followed by a videoed interview.

We, researchers, ensure that data collected will remain confidential. Names of
respondents will be on the data collected but these data would be restricted to only the
researchers and the teachers involved and will remain secure throughout the duration of the
study. Respondents would be given a specific number to identify them when the data is
presented. The presentation of the study will be showcased to teachers, parents and also the
students of other grade levels during a conference in April.

Noteabout voluntary natureof participation:

Your participation is completely voluntary. You may refuse to participate or discontinue
your participation at any time during the survey or interview.

Noteabout risk and benefts of thestudy:

Through the research, not only the respondents may have better understanding towards
federalism but also the school community.

Noteabout inquires from research participants:

Research participants can contact researchers by their phone numbers or through
messenger in facebook in case you have questions or inquiries about this research and your
participation in this research.

I have read and understood the information about the study. I voluntarily agree to
participate in this study.

__________________________________ __________________
Name of the Participant Date

Note: This signed informed consent letter would be personally picked up by the researchers. We won’t
need your email or post anything regarding the signed informed consent letter. Like we said, we will
personally pick up the informed consent letter.

Appendix 2: Survey Questionnaire

TheImplications of Federalism In ThePhilippines
on theCommunity of Ednas School of San Carlos

Name: __________________________________ ___________ Date: __________________

Occupation/Grade level:________________________________ Age: _______ Sex: _______

Directions: Answer the following questions with your opinions regarding the questions. Your answers
must be related to the questions.

1. What areyour ideas about Federalism?

Ano angiyongideya ukol sa Federalismo?

2. Why do you think federalism is beingproposed in our country?

Sa iyongpalagay bakit ipinapanukala ang Federalismo sa atingbansa?

3. Areyou in favor of federalism beingimplemented in our country? Why?

Ikaw ba ay sang-ayon o pabor sa pagpapatupad ngFederalismo sa atingbansa? Bakit?

4. Will federalism bea bigfactor of changeeconomically and politically to our country? Why
and how?
May malakingepekto ba angfederalismo sa pagbabagongekonomikal at political sa ating
bansa? Bakit at paano?

5. Howdo you think federalism will benefit our country?

Anongmagandangmaidudulot ngfederalismo sa atingbansa?

6. What do you think arethedisadvantages of federalism if it will beimplemented in our

Sa iyongpalagay ano angmga disbentaha ngfederalismo sa pagpapatupad nito sa ating

Links and Sources: