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# Gen. Math. Notes, Vol. 31, No. 2, December 2015, pp.

29-33
ISSN 2219-7184; Copyright ICSRS
c Publication, 2015
www.i-csrs.org
Available free online at http://www.geman.in

## The Derivation of a Goldstein Formula

L.J. Crane1 and A.G. McVeigh2

1,2
Institute for Numerical Computation and Analysis
Suite 6, 5 Clarinda Park North, Dún Laoghaire
Dublin, Ireland
2
E-mail: gotham1961@gmail.com

## (Received: 19-10-15 / Accepted: 28-11-15)

Abstract
This technical note presents the derivation of an integral function credited
to Goldstein  in 1932 and recently employed in the authors’ previous work 
in Archive of Applied Mechanics. The particular form of this improper integral
is developed using techniques involving contour integration and the calculus of
residues.
Keywords: Bingham Number, Slip Flow, Inversion Theorem, Laplace
Transform.

1 Introduction
The problem of axially-symmetric slip flow generated by an infinite cylinder
undergoing impulsive motion was recently investigated by Crane and McVeigh
. In accounting for momentum slip close to the cylinder wall, they obtained
the non-dimensional shear stress analytically in terms of the Bingham number,
Bn, in the cases where the cylinder moved under both uniform velocity and
acceleration. In denoting the non-dimensional variables of axial velocity, cylin-
der radius and time by U , R and T , respectively, they presented the unsteady
Navier Stokes momentum equation as follows:
 
∂U 1 ∂ ∂U
= R (1)
∂T R ∂R ∂R
30 L.J. Crane et al.

## subject to, for T > 0

 
λ ∂U
UR=1+ =1+ , U → 0 as R → ∞ (2)
2 ∂R R=1+

## and, for T > 0:

U = 0 for R > 1 (3)
where λ is an empirically-derived slip-length parameter. In this work, the
Laplace transform of f (T ) is the function f¯(p); taken to be:
Z ∞
L {f (T )} = exp(−pT )f (T )dT = f¯(p)
0

Now, investigating radiating heat flow from an infinite region of constant ini-
tial temperature and bounded internally by a circular cylinder, Goldstein ,
derived the transform:
 √ 
1 K0 ( p)
Ψ̄(p) = 1+ √ 0 √ √ (4)
p µ̂ pK0 ( p) − K0 ( p)

where K0 denotes the modified Bessel function of the second kind of order 0,
and in the work herein, Crane and McVeigh  specify µ̂ = 2λ. The associated
inverse is thus:
Z ∞
exp(−b2 T )
 
4 1
Ψ(T ) = db (5)
µ̂π 2 0 b (bJ1 + J0 /µ̂)2 + (bY1 + Y0 /µ̂)2

where J0 and J1 are cylindrical Bessel functions of the first kind of order 0 and
1, respectively and where Y0 and Y1 denote the cylindrical Bessel functions of
the first kind having order 0 and 1. Accordingly, Crane and McVeigh , give:

2
Bn = Ψ(T ) (uniform velocity) (6)
λ
and Z T
2
Bn = Ψ(T )dT (uniform acceleration) (7)
Tλ 0

2 Derivation
From (4), the complex inversion integral is:
Z γ+i∞ " √  #
1 1 K0 p
Ψ(T ) = 1+ √ 0 √  √  exp(pt)dp, t > 0 (8)
2πi γ−i∞ p µ̂ pK0 p − K0 p
The Derivation of a Goldstein Formula 31

## The integration in (8) is to be performed along a line, p = γ, in the complex

plane where p is a point having coordinates (x + iy). The real number, γ, is
to be so large that all singularities of the integrand lie to the left of the line
(γ-i∞, γ+i∞). Since p = 0 is a branch point of the integrand, the adjoining
Bromwich contour is chosen as the integration path (Fig. 1). This comprises

iy

D  γ+i∞

ε

● p=γ
E  H

L  K  J

N  A
γ-i∞

1.pdf

## Figure 1: The modified Bromwich contour

the line AB (p = γ + iy), the arcs BDE and LN A of a circle of radius R and
centre at (0, 0), and the arc HJK of a circle of radius, , with centre at (0, 0).
Set
Z Z Z Z Z Z
Ψ(T ) = + + + + + (9)
AB BDE EH HJK KL LN A

and since the only singularity, p = 0, of the integrand is not inside the con-
tour, the integral on the left is zero by Cauchy’s theorem. Further, it is readily
shown that, as R tends to infinity, the integrals along BDE and LN A vanish
in the limit. Along the inner circle, HJK, where p = exp(iθ), then, on taking
the limit as  becomes vanishingly small:
Z Z −π  
K0 (0)
Ψ(T ) = =i 1− dθ = 0 (10)
HJK π K0 (0)
32 L.J. Crane et al.

and so, Z Z Z
=− − (11)
AB EH KL
Along the path, EH, where p = xexp(iπ) = −x:


exp(−b2 t)
Z Z  
1 K0 (ib)
= √
1+ db (12)
EH iπ R b iµ̂bK00 (ib) − K0 (ib)

## Introducing the identities:

1 1
ib = bexp( π) and K00 (ib) = π [J1 (b) + iY1 (b)]
2 2
so that, along EH, as R → ∞ and  → 0:
1 0 exp(−b2 t)
Z Z  
µ̂b (−J1 + iY1 )
= db (13)
EH iπ ∞ b −µ̂bJ1 − J0 + i (Y0 + µ̂bY1 )
and, on taking the complex conjugate, then:
Z
=
EH
1 0 exp(−b2 t) µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + µ̂b (J0 J1 + Y0 Y1 ) + iµ̂b (J1 Y0 − J0 Y1 )
Z  
db
iπ ∞ b 2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02
(14)
Similarly, for the path KL, where p = xexp(−iπ) = −x.
Z
=
KL
1 ∞ exp(−b2 t) µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + µ̂b (J0 J1 + Y0 Y1 ) + iµ̂b (J0 Y1 − J1 Y0 )
Z  
db
iπ 0 b 2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02
(15)

Denoting the real and imaginary parts of the integrand in (14) by Re(A) and
Im(A), respectively; likewise, for KL in (15) respectively by Re(B) and Im(B),
so that (11) can be written:
Z Z
Ψ(T ) = − −
EH KL

∞ ∞
exp(−b2 t) exp(−b2 t)
Z Z
1 1
= [Re(A) + Im(A)] db − [Re(B) + Im(B)] db
iπ 0 b iπ 0 b
(16)
The Derivation of a Goldstein Formula 33

and so, from (14) and (15), Re(A)=Re(B) and Im(A)=-Im(B); hence:

2 ∞ exp(−b2 t)
Z
Ψ(T ) = Im(A)db (17)
iπ 0 b
where
iµ̂b (J1 Y0 − J0 Y1 )
Im(A) = (18)
2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02
Introducing the identities:

## returns (17) as the real-valued function, that is:

exp(−b2 t)
Z  
4µ̂ db
Ψ(T ) = 2
π 0 b 2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02
(19)

and finally, following some algebra, Goldstein’s result (5) is recovered; namely:

exp(−b2 t)
Z  
4 1
Ψ(T ) = db (20)
µ̂π 2 0 b (bJ1 + J0 /µ̂)2 + (bY1 + Y0 /µ̂)2

References
 L.J. Crane and A.G. McVeigh, Slip flow along an impulsively started
cylinder, Arch. Appl. Mech., 85(2015), 831-836.

##  S. Goldstein, Some two-dimensional diffusion problems with circular sym-

metry, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., 2(34) (1932), 51-88.