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29-33

ISSN 2219-7184; Copyright
ICSRS

c Publication, 2015

www.i-csrs.org

Available free online at http://www.geman.in

L.J. Crane1 and A.G. McVeigh2

1,2

Institute for Numerical Computation and Analysis

Suite 6, 5 Clarinda Park North, Dún Laoghaire

Dublin, Ireland

2

E-mail: gotham1961@gmail.com

Abstract

This technical note presents the derivation of an integral function credited

to Goldstein [2] in 1932 and recently employed in the authors’ previous work [1]

in Archive of Applied Mechanics. The particular form of this improper integral

is developed using techniques involving contour integration and the calculus of

residues.

Keywords: Bingham Number, Slip Flow, Inversion Theorem, Laplace

Transform.

1 Introduction

The problem of axially-symmetric slip flow generated by an infinite cylinder

undergoing impulsive motion was recently investigated by Crane and McVeigh

[1]. In accounting for momentum slip close to the cylinder wall, they obtained

the non-dimensional shear stress analytically in terms of the Bingham number,

Bn, in the cases where the cylinder moved under both uniform velocity and

acceleration. In denoting the non-dimensional variables of axial velocity, cylin-

der radius and time by U , R and T , respectively, they presented the unsteady

Navier Stokes momentum equation as follows:

∂U 1 ∂ ∂U

= R (1)

∂T R ∂R ∂R

30 L.J. Crane et al.

λ ∂U

UR=1+ =1+ , U → 0 as R → ∞ (2)

2 ∂R R=1+

U = 0 for R > 1 (3)

where λ is an empirically-derived slip-length parameter. In this work, the

Laplace transform of f (T ) is the function f¯(p); taken to be:

Z ∞

L {f (T )} = exp(−pT )f (T )dT = f¯(p)

0

Now, investigating radiating heat flow from an infinite region of constant ini-

tial temperature and bounded internally by a circular cylinder, Goldstein [2],

derived the transform:

√

1 K0 ( p)

Ψ̄(p) = 1+ √ 0 √ √ (4)

p µ̂ pK0 ( p) − K0 ( p)

where K0 denotes the modified Bessel function of the second kind of order 0,

and in the work herein, Crane and McVeigh [1] specify µ̂ = 2λ. The associated

inverse is thus:

Z ∞

exp(−b2 T )

4 1

Ψ(T ) = db (5)

µ̂π 2 0 b (bJ1 + J0 /µ̂)2 + (bY1 + Y0 /µ̂)2

where J0 and J1 are cylindrical Bessel functions of the first kind of order 0 and

1, respectively and where Y0 and Y1 denote the cylindrical Bessel functions of

the first kind having order 0 and 1. Accordingly, Crane and McVeigh [1], give:

2

Bn = Ψ(T ) (uniform velocity) (6)

λ

and Z T

2

Bn = Ψ(T )dT (uniform acceleration) (7)

Tλ 0

2 Derivation

From (4), the complex inversion integral is:

Z γ+i∞ " √ #

1 1 K0 p

Ψ(T ) = 1+ √ 0 √ √ exp(pt)dp, t > 0 (8)

2πi γ−i∞ p µ̂ pK0 p − K0 p

The Derivation of a Goldstein Formula 31

plane where p is a point having coordinates (x + iy). The real number, γ, is

to be so large that all singularities of the integrand lie to the left of the line

(γ-i∞, γ+i∞). Since p = 0 is a branch point of the integrand, the adjoining

Bromwich contour is chosen as the integration path (Fig. 1). This comprises

iy

D γ+i∞

B

R

ε

^

● p=γ

E H

^

x

^

L K J

N A

γ-i∞

1.pdf

the line AB (p = γ + iy), the arcs BDE and LN A of a circle of radius R and

centre at (0, 0), and the arc HJK of a circle of radius, , with centre at (0, 0).

Set

Z Z Z Z Z Z

Ψ(T ) = + + + + + (9)

AB BDE EH HJK KL LN A

and since the only singularity, p = 0, of the integrand is not inside the con-

tour, the integral on the left is zero by Cauchy’s theorem. Further, it is readily

shown that, as R tends to infinity, the integrals along BDE and LN A vanish

in the limit. Along the inner circle, HJK, where p = exp(iθ), then, on taking

the limit as becomes vanishingly small:

Z Z −π

K0 (0)

Ψ(T ) = =i 1− dθ = 0 (10)

HJK π K0 (0)

32 L.J. Crane et al.

and so, Z Z Z

=− − (11)

AB EH KL

Along the path, EH, where p = xexp(iπ) = −x:

√

exp(−b2 t)

Z Z

1 K0 (ib)

= √

1+ db (12)

EH iπ R b iµ̂bK00 (ib) − K0 (ib)

1 1

ib = bexp( π) and K00 (ib) = π [J1 (b) + iY1 (b)]

2 2

so that, along EH, as R → ∞ and → 0:

1 0 exp(−b2 t)

Z Z

µ̂b (−J1 + iY1 )

= db (13)

EH iπ ∞ b −µ̂bJ1 − J0 + i (Y0 + µ̂bY1 )

and, on taking the complex conjugate, then:

Z

=

EH

1 0 exp(−b2 t) µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + µ̂b (J0 J1 + Y0 Y1 ) + iµ̂b (J1 Y0 − J0 Y1 )

Z

db

iπ ∞ b 2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02

(14)

Similarly, for the path KL, where p = xexp(−iπ) = −x.

Z

=

KL

1 ∞ exp(−b2 t) µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + µ̂b (J0 J1 + Y0 Y1 ) + iµ̂b (J0 Y1 − J1 Y0 )

Z

db

iπ 0 b 2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02

(15)

Denoting the real and imaginary parts of the integrand in (14) by Re(A) and

Im(A), respectively; likewise, for KL in (15) respectively by Re(B) and Im(B),

so that (11) can be written:

Z Z

Ψ(T ) = − −

EH KL

∞ ∞

exp(−b2 t) exp(−b2 t)

Z Z

1 1

= [Re(A) + Im(A)] db − [Re(B) + Im(B)] db

iπ 0 b iπ 0 b

(16)

The Derivation of a Goldstein Formula 33

and so, from (14) and (15), Re(A)=Re(B) and Im(A)=-Im(B); hence:

2 ∞ exp(−b2 t)

Z

Ψ(T ) = Im(A)db (17)

iπ 0 b

where

iµ̂b (J1 Y0 − J0 Y1 )

Im(A) = (18)

2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02

Introducing the identities:

∞

exp(−b2 t)

Z

4µ̂ db

Ψ(T ) = 2

π 0 b 2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02

(19)

and finally, following some algebra, Goldstein’s result (5) is recovered; namely:

∞

exp(−b2 t)

Z

4 1

Ψ(T ) = db (20)

µ̂π 2 0 b (bJ1 + J0 /µ̂)2 + (bY1 + Y0 /µ̂)2

References

[1] L.J. Crane and A.G. McVeigh, Slip flow along an impulsively started

cylinder, Arch. Appl. Mech., 85(2015), 831-836.

metry, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., 2(34) (1932), 51-88.

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