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Gen. Math. Notes, Vol. 31, No. 2, December 2015, pp.

29-33
ISSN 2219-7184; Copyright ICSRS
c Publication, 2015
www.i-csrs.org
Available free online at http://www.geman.in

The Derivation of a Goldstein Formula


L.J. Crane1 and A.G. McVeigh2

1,2
Institute for Numerical Computation and Analysis
Suite 6, 5 Clarinda Park North, Dún Laoghaire
Dublin, Ireland
2
E-mail: gotham1961@gmail.com

(Received: 19-10-15 / Accepted: 28-11-15)

Abstract
This technical note presents the derivation of an integral function credited
to Goldstein [2] in 1932 and recently employed in the authors’ previous work [1]
in Archive of Applied Mechanics. The particular form of this improper integral
is developed using techniques involving contour integration and the calculus of
residues.
Keywords: Bingham Number, Slip Flow, Inversion Theorem, Laplace
Transform.

1 Introduction
The problem of axially-symmetric slip flow generated by an infinite cylinder
undergoing impulsive motion was recently investigated by Crane and McVeigh
[1]. In accounting for momentum slip close to the cylinder wall, they obtained
the non-dimensional shear stress analytically in terms of the Bingham number,
Bn, in the cases where the cylinder moved under both uniform velocity and
acceleration. In denoting the non-dimensional variables of axial velocity, cylin-
der radius and time by U , R and T , respectively, they presented the unsteady
Navier Stokes momentum equation as follows:
 
∂U 1 ∂ ∂U
= R (1)
∂T R ∂R ∂R
30 L.J. Crane et al.

subject to, for T > 0


 
λ ∂U
UR=1+ =1+ , U → 0 as R → ∞ (2)
2 ∂R R=1+

and, for T > 0:


U = 0 for R > 1 (3)
where λ is an empirically-derived slip-length parameter. In this work, the
Laplace transform of f (T ) is the function f¯(p); taken to be:
Z ∞
L {f (T )} = exp(−pT )f (T )dT = f¯(p)
0

Now, investigating radiating heat flow from an infinite region of constant ini-
tial temperature and bounded internally by a circular cylinder, Goldstein [2],
derived the transform:
 √ 
1 K0 ( p)
Ψ̄(p) = 1+ √ 0 √ √ (4)
p µ̂ pK0 ( p) − K0 ( p)

where K0 denotes the modified Bessel function of the second kind of order 0,
and in the work herein, Crane and McVeigh [1] specify µ̂ = 2λ. The associated
inverse is thus:
Z ∞
exp(−b2 T )
 
4 1
Ψ(T ) = db (5)
µ̂π 2 0 b (bJ1 + J0 /µ̂)2 + (bY1 + Y0 /µ̂)2

where J0 and J1 are cylindrical Bessel functions of the first kind of order 0 and
1, respectively and where Y0 and Y1 denote the cylindrical Bessel functions of
the first kind having order 0 and 1. Accordingly, Crane and McVeigh [1], give:

2
Bn = Ψ(T ) (uniform velocity) (6)
λ
and Z T
2
Bn = Ψ(T )dT (uniform acceleration) (7)
Tλ 0

2 Derivation
From (4), the complex inversion integral is:
Z γ+i∞ " √  #
1 1 K0 p
Ψ(T ) = 1+ √ 0 √  √  exp(pt)dp, t > 0 (8)
2πi γ−i∞ p µ̂ pK0 p − K0 p
The Derivation of a Goldstein Formula 31

The integration in (8) is to be performed along a line, p = γ, in the complex


plane where p is a point having coordinates (x + iy). The real number, γ, is
to be so large that all singularities of the integrand lie to the left of the line
(γ-i∞, γ+i∞). Since p = 0 is a branch point of the integrand, the adjoining
Bromwich contour is chosen as the integration path (Fig. 1). This comprises

iy

D  γ+i∞

ε

● p=γ
E  H 


L  K  J 

N  A 
γ-i∞

1.pdf

Figure 1: The modified Bromwich contour

the line AB (p = γ + iy), the arcs BDE and LN A of a circle of radius R and
centre at (0, 0), and the arc HJK of a circle of radius, , with centre at (0, 0).
Set
Z Z Z Z Z Z
Ψ(T ) = + + + + + (9)
AB BDE EH HJK KL LN A

and since the only singularity, p = 0, of the integrand is not inside the con-
tour, the integral on the left is zero by Cauchy’s theorem. Further, it is readily
shown that, as R tends to infinity, the integrals along BDE and LN A vanish
in the limit. Along the inner circle, HJK, where p = exp(iθ), then, on taking
the limit as  becomes vanishingly small:
Z Z −π  
K0 (0)
Ψ(T ) = =i 1− dθ = 0 (10)
HJK π K0 (0)
32 L.J. Crane et al.

and so, Z Z Z
=− − (11)
AB EH KL
Along the path, EH, where p = xexp(iπ) = −x:


exp(−b2 t)
Z Z  
1 K0 (ib)
= √
1+ db (12)
EH iπ R b iµ̂bK00 (ib) − K0 (ib)

Introducing the identities:


1 1
ib = bexp( π) and K00 (ib) = π [J1 (b) + iY1 (b)]
2 2
so that, along EH, as R → ∞ and  → 0:
1 0 exp(−b2 t)
Z Z  
µ̂b (−J1 + iY1 )
= db (13)
EH iπ ∞ b −µ̂bJ1 − J0 + i (Y0 + µ̂bY1 )
and, on taking the complex conjugate, then:
Z
=
EH
1 0 exp(−b2 t) µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + µ̂b (J0 J1 + Y0 Y1 ) + iµ̂b (J1 Y0 − J0 Y1 )
Z  
db
iπ ∞ b 2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02
(14)
Similarly, for the path KL, where p = xexp(−iπ) = −x.
Z
=
KL
1 ∞ exp(−b2 t) µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + µ̂b (J0 J1 + Y0 Y1 ) + iµ̂b (J0 Y1 − J1 Y0 )
Z  
db
iπ 0 b 2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02
(15)

Denoting the real and imaginary parts of the integrand in (14) by Re(A) and
Im(A), respectively; likewise, for KL in (15) respectively by Re(B) and Im(B),
so that (11) can be written:
Z Z
Ψ(T ) = − −
EH KL

∞ ∞
exp(−b2 t) exp(−b2 t)
Z Z
1 1
= [Re(A) + Im(A)] db − [Re(B) + Im(B)] db
iπ 0 b iπ 0 b
(16)
The Derivation of a Goldstein Formula 33

and so, from (14) and (15), Re(A)=Re(B) and Im(A)=-Im(B); hence:

2 ∞ exp(−b2 t)
Z
Ψ(T ) = Im(A)db (17)
iπ 0 b
where
iµ̂b (J1 Y0 − J0 Y1 )
Im(A) = (18)
2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02
Introducing the identities:

Y00 = −Y1 and J00 = −J1

and, using the Wronskian relation:

J0 Y00 − Y0 J00 = 2/πb

returns (17) as the real-valued function, that is:


exp(−b2 t)
Z  
4µ̂ db
Ψ(T ) = 2
π 0 b 2µ̂b (Y0 Y1 + J0 J1 ) + µ̂2 b2 (J12 + Y12 ) + J02 + Y02
(19)

and finally, following some algebra, Goldstein’s result (5) is recovered; namely:


exp(−b2 t)
Z  
4 1
Ψ(T ) = db (20)
µ̂π 2 0 b (bJ1 + J0 /µ̂)2 + (bY1 + Y0 /µ̂)2

References
[1] L.J. Crane and A.G. McVeigh, Slip flow along an impulsively started
cylinder, Arch. Appl. Mech., 85(2015), 831-836.

[2] S. Goldstein, Some two-dimensional diffusion problems with circular sym-


metry, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., 2(34) (1932), 51-88.