Cooling Load Calculation 2016

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Cooling Load Calculation 2016

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 52

Miklos Kassai PhD., assistant professor

Building ”D”, Room 124

Tel: 463-2024; e-mail: kassai@epgep.bme.hu

Introduction

FOR SUMMER CONDITIONS FOR WINTER CONDITIONS

Heat gains from various sources Heat losses to the ambiance

Source: ausenergy.com 2

Introduction

The Purpose of HEAT LOAD CALCULATION to define sizing values

for the…

3

Source: komuves.blog.hu, gammert.de,

Introduction

The Purpose of COOLING LOAD CALCULATION to define sizing values

for the…

CONDITIONERS

4

Source: unioklima.hu, lookncomment.net

Sources of Heat Gain

5

Source: pelletofenservice.at

Sources of Heat Gain

6

Source: alex-plank.de

Sources of Heat Gain

7

Source: holidaycheck.de

Components of Heat Gain

Source: www.slideshare.net 8

Components of Heat Gain

Definition

the building envelope (external emelents) and from internal

sources and system components.

Internal: Lighting, people, machinery

Infiltration: Air leakage and moisture migration

9

Definitions

Heat gain is classified

• whether it is sensible or latent.

the conditioned space by conduction,

convection, and/or radiation.

is added to the space

(e.g., from vapour emitted by occupants

and equipment).

Source: c2cis.com, mykitchenideas.xyz, sunlifemalaysia.com, treffpunkt-menschen-haushall.de 10

Definitions

Radiant Heat Gain

Radiant energy first must be absorbed by surfaces that enclose the space

(walls, floor, and ceiling) and the objects in the space (furniture, etc.).

When these surfaces and objects become warmer than the surrounding air,

some of them transfers heat to the air by convection.

The heat storage capacity of these surfaces and objects determines the

heat gain.

Definitions

Space Cooling Load

This is the gain which must be removed from the space to maintain a

constant space air temperature.

The sum of all space instantaneous heat gains in any given time does not

necessary (or even frequently) equal the cooling load for the space at that

same time. Source: spiegel.de 12

Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe

Radiation: movements of infra red

rays through the glass, striking factor

of heat gain in summer.

unsealed gaps.

that heats up through warmer glass.

through conductive materials.

13

Source: miglas.com.au

Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe

Heat Gain Through Windows

RADIATION THROUGH

GLAZING

GLAZING SPACER BARS

OPENING LIGHTS AND FRAME

Source: greenspec.co.uk

WINDOW FRAME 14

Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe

Sol-Air Temperature

Heat gain through exterior opaque surfaces is derived from solar radiation.

Sol-air temperature is the outdoor air temperature which gives the same rate

of heat entry into the surface as would the combination of incident solar

radiation, radiant energy exchange with the sky and other outdoor

surroundings, and convective heat exchange with outdoor air. 15

Source: solebich.de

Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe

Heat Flow into Sunlit Surfaces of the Building Envelope

The heat balance at a sunlit surface gives the heat flow into the surface:

Q

= αE t + ho (to − ts ) − ε∆R

A

where

α – absorptance of surface for solar radiation;

Et – total solar radiation incident on surface, W/(m2·K) ;

ho – coefficient of heat transfer by long-wave radiation

and convection at outer surface, W/(m2·K);

to – outdoor air temperature, °C;

ts – surface temperature, °C;

ε – hemispherical emittance of surface;

∆R – difference between long-wave radiation incident on

surface from sky and surroundings and radiation

emitted by blackbody at outdoor air temperature, W/m2 16

Heat Gain Through Building Envelpoe

The rate of heat transfer can be expressed

Q

= ho (to − ts )

A

αE t ε∆R

te = to + −

ho ho

Horizontal surfaces: they receive long-wave radiation from the sky only,

value of ∆R is about 63 W/m2, ε = 1 and ho = 17 W/(m2·K), the long-wave

correction term is about 4 K.

Vertical surfaces: they receive long-wave radiation from the ground and

surrounding buildings as well as from the sky, ∆R values are difficult to

determine. When solar radiation intensity is high, surfaces have a higher

temperature than the outdoor air, thus their long-wave radiation

compensates to the sky’s low emittance. This means ε∆R = 0 17

Fenestration Heat Gain

Total Fenestration Heat Gain

2. absorption in the outer pane,

3. reflection on the inner pane,

4. absorption in the inner pane,

5. directly transmitted solar energy

18

Fenestration Heat Gain

Parts of Fenestration Heat Gain: Direct Solar Heat Gain

Source: skymosity.com

Edir – direct irradiance, [W/m2]

SHGC(θ) – direct solar heat gain coefficient

as a function of

incident angle θ, [-]

IAC – inside shading attenuation

coefficient, = 1.0 if no inside

shading device, [-] 19

Fenestration Heat Gain

Parts of Fenestration Heat Gain: Diffuse Solar Heat Gain

Source: geograph.org.uk

Ediff – diffuse irradiance, [W/m2] (calculated value)

Er – ground-reflected irradiance, [W/m2]

(SHGC)diff – diffuse solar heat gain coefficient (also

referred to as hemispherical SHGC)

IAC – inside shading attenuation coefficient, = 1.0 if no inside

shading device 20

Fenestration Heat Gain

Parts of Fenestration Heat Gain: Conductive Heat Gain

Qc = U ⋅ A ⋅ (to − ti )

A – window area, m2

U – overall U-factor, W/m2K

to – outside temperature, °C

ti – inside temperature, °C

21

Fenestration Heat Gain

22

Shading

Internal Shading

23

Source: ambitionblinds.co.uk, caribbeancoshutters.com,

Shading

External Shading

24

Source: en.wikipedia.org

External Shading

External venetians

Louvres

Shading

Overhang 25

Heat Gain through

Interior Surfaces

rooms:

Q = U ⋅ A ⋅ (t b − ti )

26

Source: http://architectural3dmodeling.blogspot.hu/

Heat Gain through Internal Surfaces

Whenever a conditioned space is adjacent to a space with a

different temperature, heat transfer through the separating

physical section must be considered.

where

Q – heat transfer rate, W

U – coefficient of overall heat transfer between adjacent and

conditioned space, W/(m2·K)

A – area of separating section concerned, m2

tb – average air temperature in adjacent space, °C

ti – air temperature in conditioned space, °C 27

Sources of Internal Heat Gain

Occupants

Occupants:

• heat and

• moisture

are emitted by humans in

different states of activity.

Source: alfanyelvstudio.hu

Sensible and latent heat gains often comprise a large fraction of the total load.

The conversion of sensible heat gain from people to space cooling load is

affected by the thermal storage characteristics of that space because some

percentage of the sensible load is radiant energy.

Latent heat gains are considered instantaneous.

28

Sources of Internal Heat Gain

Occupants

29

Sources of Internal Heat Gain

Lighting

The primary source of heat from lighting comes from light-emitting elements,

or lamps, significant additional heat may be generated from associated parts

of light fixtures, house of lamps.

Generally, the instantaneous rate of heat gain from electric lighting may be

calculated from

where

Qel – heat gain from electric lighting, W

W – total light wattage, W

Ful – lighting use factor

Fsa – lighting special allowance factor 30

Source: ipon.hu, meteonline.hu, toparuk.hu, webaruhaz.hu

Sources of Internal Heat Gain

Lighting Qel = W ⋅ Ful ⋅ Fsa

The total light wattage is obtained from the ratings of all lamps installed, both

for general illumination and for display use.

The lighting use factor is the ratio of wattage in use to total installed wattage.

For commercial applications such as stores, the use factor is generally 1.0.

The special allowance factor is for fluorescent fixtures and/or fixtures that are

either ventilated or installed so that only part of their heat goes to the

conditioned space.

31

Sources of Internal Heat Gain

Electric Motors

conditioned space is calculated as:

P

Qem = ⋅ FUM ⋅ FLM

EM

where

Qem – heat equivalent of equipment operation, W

P – motor power rating, W

EM – motor efficiency

FUM – motor use factor

FLM – motor load factor

The motor use factor may be applied when motor use is known to be

intermittent with significant nonuse during all hours of operation (e.g.,

overhead door operator).

The motor load factor is the fraction of the rated load being delivered under

32

the conditions of the cooling load estimate

Sources of Internal Heat Gain

Electric Appliances

In a cooling load estimate, heat gain from all appliances (electrical, gas, or

steam) should be taken into account.

Because of the variety of appliances, applications, schedules, use, and

installations, estimates can be very subjective.

Often, the only information available about heat gain from equipment is that

on its nameplate.

The sensible heat gain of an electric appliance is

Qs = qinput ⋅ FL

where

qinput – energy input

FL – ratio of sensible heat gain to the manufacturer’s

rated energy input.

33

Sources of Internal Heat Gain

Infiltration Heat Gain

1. Total heat

flow rate Qs through an enthalpy difference ∆h is

= 1.2 ∙ ∙ ∆ℎ

where

buildings, l/s

∆h – enthalpy difference, kJ/kg

34

Sources of Internal Heat Gain

Infiltration Heat Gain

2. Sensible heat

temperature ∆t for given airflow (standard conditions) Qs is

where

x – humidity ratio, kg (water)/kg (air)

1.84 – specific heat of water vapour, kJ/(kg·K)

∆t – change of dry-bulb temperature, K

35

Sources of Internal Heat Gain

Infiltration Heat Gain

3. Latent heat

= 1.2 ∙ 2500 ∙ ∙∆

where

2500 kJ/kg is the approximate heat content of 50% relative

humidity vapour,

∆x – the change of humidity ratio

∆t – change of dry-bulb temperature, K

36

Latent Heat Gain from Moisture Diffusion

that is always present.

Moisture transfer through walls is often neglected in comfort air

conditioning because the actual rate is quite small and the corresponding

latent heat gain is insignificant.

37

Cooling Load Calculation Methods

years. These methods are briefly described below in chronological

order of development, along with the reason why they are or not

suitable to be used in this case.

The total equivalent temperature differential method with time

averaging (TETD/TA) which has been a highly reliable method of

load estimating since 1967. It is suitable only as a computer

application because of the need to calculate an extended profile of

hourly heat gain values from which the radiant components have

to be averaged over a time perceived to represent the general

mass of the building involved.

38

Cooling Load Calculation Methods

1972 for energy analysis with emphasis on daily, monthly, and annual

energy use and, thus, is more oriented to average hourly cooling

loads than peak design loads. It requires many calculation steps

which make it very time consuming.

cooling load factors (CLTD/SCL/CLF) was developed in 1975, by

simplifying the two-step methods described above into a single-step

technique that allows proceeding directly from raw data to cooling

load without the intermediate conversion of radiant heat gain to

cooling load. Since this method is simpler than the other two above it

since it does not require special software as the following two.

39

Cooling Load Calculation Methods

The heat balance (HB) method in which the calculation

procedures and scientific principles are explained in equation

format. These equations are coded in a generic computer program

named Hbfort, released with Cooling and Heating Load Calculation

Principles (Pedersen et al. 1998), and linked to a user interface

program to allow input and output in either inch-pound or SI units.

method for performing design cooling load calculations that is

derived from the heat balance (HB) method described above. It

effectively replaces all other simplified methods but while simple in

concept, it involves too many calculations to be used practically as

a manual method

40

EN STANDARDS

41

Sensible load calculation of a space

(MSZ EN 15255)

The heat flow due to the solar radiation absorbed and the vault sky losses by the light

components (opaque and transparent; thickness ≤ 120 mm) :

l w

Φ sl = ∑ [ A ⋅ ( S f ⋅ I sr + qer ⋅ U / he )]k + ∑ [ A ⋅ ( S f 2 ⋅ lsr + qer ⋅ U / he )] j

k =1 j =1

where:

A - Area of surfaces [m2],

42

Sensible load calculation of a space

(MSZ EN 15255)

The heat flow due to the solar radiation absorbed and the vault sky losses by the opaque heavy

component ( thickness >120 mm) is given by:

h

Φ sh = ∑ [ A ⋅ ( S f ⋅ I sr + q er ⋅ U / he )] y

y =1

The solar radiation reaching the surface of the building envelope components is given by:

I sr = f s ⋅ I D + I d + I r

where

fs - the sunlit factor due to external obstructions, derived from EN ISO 13791;

ID - the direct component of the solar radiation reaching the surface;

Id - the diffuse component of the solar radiation reaching the surface;

Ir - the reflected component of the solar radiation reaching the surface.

43

Sensible load calculation of a space

(MSZ EN 15255)

Example to the instantaneous total solar radiation on the exposure of the wall (W/m2):

W/m2

4:00 0

5:00 22

6:00 55

7:00 80

8:00 101

9:00 117

10:00 128

11:00 135

12:00 150

13:00 366

14:00 558

15:00 703

16:00 778

17:00 756

18:00 604

19:00 271

20:00 0

44

Latent load calculation of a space

(MSZ EN 15243)

For the cooling coil condensation, a simple model is used. It assumes that one part of the air

passing through the coil is not treated, and that the other part leaves at the dew point

characteristics of the cooling coil temperature. This latter air flow is called here recirculated

air flow. The caculation of recirculated air flow requirements depend on the type of the water

control.

45

Latent load calculation of a space

(MSZ EN 15243)

Recirculated air flow

Control 1. Nonvariable water flow:

In this case the cooled coil temperature is equal to the water inlet + 2K. The required

recirculated air flow depends on the sensible cooling need and the cooling coil temperature.

Qsens

q m, recirc =

c pa ⋅ ( 26 − θ sat )

where:

q m ,recirc = A f ⋅ 15 ⋅ ρ ai

where:

46

Af - floor area [m2]

Latent load calculation of a space

(MSZ EN 15243)

On a given hour, 2 situations can occur:

1. At the start of the hour, the indoor humidity is higher than the saturation humidity for the

cooling coil. The condensation will occur, either during the whole hour either during one

part of it.

2. At the beginning of the hour, the indoor humidity is lower than the saturation humidity for

the cooling coil. The cooling coil will be dry at the beginning, but condensation can occur

before the end of the hour.

47

Latent load calculation of a space

(MSZ EN 15243)

For a duration of t, indoor air humidity (at the end):

Bwet = (q m + q m ,recirc ) /(V ⋅ ρ ai )

Bdry = q m /(V ⋅ ρ ai )

xentr - entering air humidity kg/kg dry air,

qm - entering air flow kg/s,

xstart - indoor humidity at the beginning kg/kg,

ai - internal humidity gains kg/s,

ρai - density of indoor air kg/m3,

xsat - saturated humidity at the cooling coil temperature kg/kg. 48

Latent load calculation of a space

(MSZ EN 15243)

xi,moy is proportional with xi,fin according to the fact that the cooling coil is wet or dry at the

end of the hour.

49

Hungarian Standard for calculation of cooling load

(MSZ-04.140/4)

Calculation of outdoor heat load:

Components of outdoor heat load:

where:

Q& F - solar heat load through exterior building structures (wall, roof) into

the space,

where:

W

k - thermal transmittance of the wall or roof 2

m K

- laying of the exterior structures (walls, roof),

- quality of exterior surfaces (absortion and emission features of building envelope),

- thermal parameters of exterior surfaces (thermal transmittance), 50

- inside temperature.

Hungarian Standard for calculation of cooling load

(MSZ-04.140/4)

Solar heat load through windows:

ahol

AÜ - surface of windows [m 2 ]

solar heat load that goes into the space) [-]

Z - reduction factor [-] (takes into account the heating capacity of building

envelope )

W

kÜ - thermal transmittance of the window 2

m K

51

THANK YOU

FOR

YOUR ATTENTION

Department of Building Service and Process Engineering

Miklos Kassai PhD., assistant professor

Building ”D”, Room 124

Tel: 463-2024; e-mail: kassai@epgep.bme.hu 52

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