This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.

Find out moreChapter 11 Kinematics of Particles

11.1 11.2

11.3

11.4 11.5

11.6 11.7

11.8 11.9

11.10 11.11

11.12

11.13

11.14

602

Introduction to Dynamics Position, Velocity, and Acceleration

Determination of the Motion of a Particle

Uniform Redilinear Motion Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion

Motion of Several Particles Graphical Solution of RectilinearMotion Problems

Other Graphical Methods Position Vector, Velocity, and Acceleration

Derivatives of Vector Functions Rectangular Components of Velocity and Acceleration Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation

Tangential and Normal Components

Radial and Transverse Components

11 .1 INTRODUCTION TO DYNAMICS

hapters 1 to 10 were devot d to statics, i.e., to th analysis of bodi s at rest. We now begin the study of dsjnamics, the pmt of mechanics that deals with the analysis of bodies in motion.

Whil th study of' statics goes hack to til time of' th Gr ek philosophers, the first Significant contribution to dynamics was made by Galileo (1564-1642). Calilcos experiments on uniformly accelerated bodies led Newton (1642-1727) to formulate his fundamental lav s of motion.

Dynamics includes:

1. Kinematics, which is the study of the geometry of motion.

Kinematics is used to relate displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time, without refer nc to the -aus of the motion.

2. Kinetics, which is the study of the relation existing between the forces acting on a body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is used to predict the motion caused by given forces or to det rmin the forces required to produc a gi ven motion.

hapters 11 to 14 are devoted to the dYl1amics of particles; in Chap. 11 the kinematics of particles will be considered. The use of til, word particles does 1101' III an that Oil" stud will b r strict d to small corpuscles; rather, it indicates that in these fir. t chapters the motion of bodics-possibly as largc as cars, rockets, or airplancs->\\~II he xmsidered without regard to thei r size. By savin 1 that the bodies are analyzed as particles, we mean that on( their motion as an entire unit will be considered; emy rotation about their own mu s center will be neglected. There are cases, however, when such a rotation is II0t negligible; the bodies 'anllot then be xmsklered as particles. Such motions will be analyzed in later chapters, dealing with the dqnamics of rigid bodies.

In the first part of hap.] 1. the rectilinear motion of a particle \\~II h analyz ed, that is, the position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle \~11 he determined at eve: instant as it moves along a straight line. First, general mcthods of analysis will be used to stud tile motion of' a parti ·Ie; then two important parti ular ases \~II he considered, namel , the uniform motion and the uniformly accelerated motion of a particle (Sees, 11.4 and 11.5). In Sec. 11.6 the simultaneous motion of sev .ral particles will be considered, and the concept of t h relative III 01 ion of' one pal1 icl with resp ·t 10 auoth er \\~11 be introduced. The first part or this chapter concludes with a study of graphical methods of analysis and their application to the solution of various problems in 'olving the re .tilin ar motion or partides (Sees. 11.7 and 11. ).

In the second part of this chapter, tile motion of a particle as it mov -s along a curved path will be analyzed. Since the position, velocit r and acce-le rutinn of' a particle will ht, defined as vector quautities, the 'on x-pt of the derivati e of a vc 'lor Iun .tion will be introdu xxl in Sec, 11.10 and added to 0111' rnuthcmati .ul tools. Applications in whi -h the motion of a purti ·Ie is defined b the

A partie! moving along a straight line is said to be in rectilinear

motion. At an given instant t , the particle will occnpy a c rtain position on the straight line. To define the position J> of the particle, w choose a fixed origin 0 on the straight line and a positive direction along the line. We measure the distan ex frOI11 0 to P and r .ord it with a plus or minus si Tn, accordin r to whether J> is reached from o by moving along the line in the positive or the negative direction. The distance .c, with the appropriate sign, completely defin s the position of the partie! ; it is call d the position coordinate or til particle considered. For example, the position coordinate corresponding to P in Fig. ILIa is x = +5 m; thc coordinate corresponding to P' in Fig. 11.117 is r ' = -2 m.

", hen the position coordinate .r of a particle is known for eV'1 value of tim t, we sa that the motion of the particle is known. The

"timetable" of th motion can be given in the form of an equation

ill r and I, such as x = 612 - t3, or in the [orm of a crraph of r versus P 1"

t as shown in Fig. 11.6. Th units most often us d to measure th 1 _I St -I

position coordinate x are the meter (111) in the S1 system of units] _0-0- -_---_

and the foot (ft) in the .S. customary s 'stern of units. Time t is

usuall measured in s conds (s). Fig. 11.2

onsider the position P occupied by the particle at time 1 and the corresponding coordinate r (Fig. 11.2). onsider also the

position P' o· .upied by the parti .le at a later time I' + I; the position coordinat of J>' call he obtained h adding to th coordinate x of P the small displacement ~x, which will be positive or negative according to wh ther P' is to the right or to the left of P. TIlt' IIverage 'e/(}cillj or the parti .le over the time interval 1 is defined as th quoti nt or the displacement ~x and th tim interval M:

rectangular components of its velocity and acceleration will then be considered; at this point, th motion of a projectile will b analyzed (Sec. 11.11). In Sec. 11.12, the motion of a particle relative to a reference frame in translation will be considered. Finally, the curvilinear motion of a particle will be analyzed in terms of components other than rectangular. The tangential and normal .omponents of a particular velocity and an acceleration will be introduced in Sec. 11.13 and the radial and transverse components of its velocity and acceleration in S c. 11.14.

11.2 POSITION, VELOCITY, AND ACCelERATION

~x Avera~e velocity = - ~(

1 J. S"", 1.3.

11.2 Pcseicn, Velociry, ond AccelerOlion 603

° P

1 1 I I I o I I I I • I I I I

I I x

H

(lI) 1m

P' °

I I I • I 0 I I I I I I I I I

I~ H

1m

(I»

Fig. 11.1 (I) (I + I)

x

Photo 11.1 The motion of this solar cor can be described by its position, velocity and acceleration.

604 Kinemotics 01 Porticles

I' , >0

I

(a)

, <0

p

(1))

Fig. 11.3

P , P' f +~r

r

(I) (I + t!.t)

Fig. 11.4 If SI units are used. ~_'\' is expressed in meters and ~t in seconds; the average velocity will thus b expressed in meter- per second (m/s). If .S. customary units are used, Sx is e:.:pr ssed in feet and ~t in seconds; the average velocity will then be expressed in feet per

econd (ft/s).

The instantnneous ielocitt] of th parli .le at II e instant ( is obtained from the average velocity by choosing shorter and shorter time intervals M and displacements ~x:

~x Instantaneous velocity = v = lim -

ilhO ~t

The instantaneous velocity will also be expressed in mls or ft/s. Observing that the limit of the quotient is equal. by definition. to th derivati e of x with respect to t , we write

(ILl)

x

The velo 'ity is represented by an aluebrai ' number whi .h 'an be positive or negative. t positiv value of I) indicates that x increases, i.e .. that the particle moves in the positive direction (Fig. 1l.3a); a negative value of indi .ates that r deer ases, i.e .. that the particle moves in th n 'ali dir ction (Fill. 11.3h). The rna mirude of is known as the speed of the particle,

on sidcr the velocity I) of the particle at time t and also its velo .ity v + ~ . at a later time t + M (Fig. 11.4). The aceraee acceleration of the particle over the time interval ~l is defined as the quotient of ~I) and ~t:

s

~v Average acceleration = - ~t

x

If SI units are used, ~ is expressed in mls and ~t in seconds; the average ac 'deration will thus be c rprcsscd in m/s2, If ,S, customary units ar used. is expressed in l'tIs anti M in se 'on tis; rh average acceleration will th n be expressed in ftls2,

The instantaneous acceleration a of the particle at the instant t is obtained from the aprage acceleration by 'hoosing smaller and smaller values lor ~( and ~I):

~ Instantaneous a' .elerution = {/ = lim -

'~O I'

The instantaneous a celeration will also be expressed in m/52 or ftls2, The limit of the quoti Ill, which is hy definition the deri ative of .

lA, YOII \\;11 Sl't' ill S .. c. ) 1.9, tl«- velocity is uctuully a ,.'dur t)II,'lllily. lIuwl,,.'r .. ,itll~' WI' an' cnnsi<ll'rilll( 1",,'(' Ill(' r .. clifilll'ar molion C r 1I purtlcl • when- rho velocity o! tlu-

p,.rtll'i" Ill" " known ,,",1 (h('(1 dlrcction, \\(' III'C·<I ,,"I), "P"l" till' ",1\" ,11,,1 I1(,Il(lIil(l(11'

or Ih,' \,l'ln<"lI)'; Ihls ",.n hc' C'<l,wc'IIIt',lIl <1,,"1' h) ,,,Inl(,' ",·"I,.r '1","'11t ' with " plus or minus Si~II, The ,,(f'U' is true of Ih" uceelorutlon of" p.orlidc' ill r<'{1i1(fll'"r molion,

with respect to t, measures the rate of change of the velocity. We write

do

a=-

dt

(11.2)

or, substitutinz for 0 from (11.1),

d\

a=-

dt2

(11.3)

The acceleration a is represented by an <tlgebraic numb r which can

b po .itive or n gative. f positive value of (/ indicates that th

velocity (i.e., the algebraic number 0) increases. This may mean that the particle is moving faster in the positive direction (Fig. 11.5a) or that it is moving more slowly in the negative direction (Fig. 11.517); ill both cases, ~v is positiv . A lit: zative alu of {/ indicat s that lit velocity decreases; either the particle is moving more slowly in the positive direction (Fig. l1.5c) or it is moving faster in the negative direction (Fig. 11.5c1).

•

P'I'"'

11.2 Pcseicn, Velocity, ond AccelerOlion 605

[_

tI>O

r

(/>0

(n)

p~ p.~

---l

rt<O

~

rt<O

(d

Fig. 11.S

Tit, term deceleration is soruetim '5 us d 10 r,fer 10 (I when the speed of the particle (i.e., the magnihlde of 0) decreases; the particle is then moving more slowl , For example, the particle of Fig, 11.5 is d derated in parts h and c; it is truly a xeleruted (i.e. moves faster) ill parts a and d.

Another expression for the acceleration can be obtained by eliminating the differential dt in Eqs, (11.1) and (11.2). Solving (11,1) tor dt, we obtain rtf = dx/ ; substituting into (11.2), , e write

(/ =

d dx

(11.4)

I S.,I' ruoilll)h'. pal(l' (i04.

.f

(b)

r

--;1

(d)

606 Kinemotics of Perticles

x(m)

a (111/,2)

12

EXAMPLE Consider a particle moving ill a straight line, and assume that its position is defined by the equation

• 3

X = 6r - t

wh re t is express d in s conds and x in meters. The velocity v at an)' tim t is obtained by dim rentiating x with r sp ct to f:

dx

v = - = 12t - 3t2 rlt

The a .celeralion a is obtained bv differeilliatillg again with respecl 10 I:

dv

(/ = - = 12 - 6t dt

The position coordiuate, the velo .ity, allLl the acceleration have been plotled agaillsl I ill Fig. 11.6. The curves obtained are kuown a motion CIII"t;es. Keep in mind, however, that II,e particle does 1101 move along allY of these curves; the particle moves ill a slraighl line. Since the derivative of a functiou measures the slope or the correspolldillg curve, the slope of the x-I .urve at allY givell time is equal 10 the value of al that thne and the slope of the '-1 .urve i. equal 10 the value of a, Since a = 0 at I = 2 s, the slope of the '-1 curve must be zero at I = 2 s; the velo 'ily reaches a maximum at this instant. Also. siuce = 0 at 1 = 0 and at 1 = 4 S. lht:! lallgent 10 the x-I .urve mu I be horizoutul for both of these values of I.

o 1--....3(~-~----+--t-(s) study of the three motion curves or Fig. 11.6 shows that the 1II0tiOll

of the particle froru t = 0 to f = 00 call be divided into four phases:

-12

-24

Fig. 11.6

1. The particle starts from the origill, X = 0, with no velocity hut with a positive uccclcrutiou. Under this acceleration, the particle gains a lXlsitivc velocity and moves in the positive direction. From I = 0 to t = 2 s, .r, u, and a arc all positive.

2. At t = 2 s, the acceleration is zero; the velocity II<~~ reached its maxi- 11111111 value. From t = 2 s to 1 = 4 s, is positive, but 1I is lIegath'e; the particle still moves ill the positive direction but more and more slowly; the particle is decelerating.

3. At 1 = 4 s, the velocity is zero; the position coordinate .r has reached its muximurn value. From then on, hoth and 1I arc nc fath'e; the particle is accclcruting and moves in the negative direction with illert'asing speed.

4, t f = 6 s, the particle p,l~ses through the OJi !ill; it coordinate x is then zero, whik- the total distance traveled since till' hegillllillg of the motion is 6 I Ill. For val lies of f larger than 6 s, x, " lind {/ ,~J1 all lxnegativ('. The purti ·1(· keeps lIIoving ill tile n{' 'ativl' dirt' 'lion, alVay from 0, luster and faster .•

11.3 DETERMINATION OF THE MOTION OF A PARTICLE

11.3 Determinotion of the Motion 607 of 0 Porticle

'VI;! saw in th pre .edtng se ·tion that the motion of a parti ·Ie is said to be known i r th position of the particle is known for evely value of the timc t. In practice, however, a motion is seldom defined by a relation between .r and t. More often, the conditions of the motion will be specif d by th typ of acceleration that the particle possesses. For example, a freely falling body will have a constant acceloration, directed downward and equal to 9.81 m/s2, or 32.2 ftls2; a mass attached to a 'pring whi ·h has been stretched will have an acceleration proportional to the instantan OilS elonzanon of the spring measured from the equilibrium position; etc. In general, the acceleration of the particle can be expressed as a function of one or more of the variables r, ,aJlu I. In order to determin th position coordinate r in terms of t, it will thus be necessary to perform two successive integrations.

Let us consider three common classes of motion:

1. a = f(t). The cceleration Is a Gir;en Function of t. Solving (11.2) lor de and substilutinu .1\1) for II, we write

d = (/ dt

do = f(t) dt

Integrating both members we obtain the equation

J d» = J fit) rlt

which defines I) in terms of t. It should be noted, hov ever, that an arbitrai constant will be introduced as a result of the intcgration. This is due to the fact that there are many motions which corresponel to the rj en aecel ration a = f(l). In oreler to uniquely define the motion of the particle it is neeessalY to specify the initial conditions of the motion, i.e., the value Vo of th velocity and the alue Xo of the position coordinate at t = O. Replacing the inclefinite integrals b definite integrals with lower limits corresponding to the initial conditions t = 0 and . = '0 and upper limits 'orresponding to /' = t and =., w write

rd' = ffU) dt

1)(1 0

I) - '0 = Lf(t) dt

which yields v in terms of t.

Equation (11.1) 'an now be solved for tlx,

dx = . tlt

alld tlie pxprl;'ssiol1 JUSI oi>laiJwd substituted (ill' o, Both memhers are then illt('grat('d, the left-hand member with respect to x from x = X(I to .I' = x, and the ri rht-hand rncmb r with

608 Kinemotics of Perticles

respect to t from t = 0 to t = t. The position coordinate .r is thus obtain d in terms of t; the motion is ompletely determined.

Two important particular cases will be studied in greater detail in Sees. 11.4 and 11.5: the case when a = 0, corresponding to a ItI'Iif()rlll lIIotioll, and the ase wh n o = constant, corresponding to a IIniformll} accelerated motiOI1.

2. (/ = f(x). The Acceleration Is (/ Given Function oj x. Rearranging Eq. (11.4) and slIbstitutingf(x) for a, w write

. ell) = a dx

. d· = fix) dx

Since each member contains only one variable, we can integrate the equation. Denoting again by Vo and xo, respective! , th initial valu s of the velo .ity alld of the position .oordinate, we obtain

~V2 - &v~ = ff(x) dx

-'0

\ hich ields . in terms of x. We nov solve (1l.1) for cit,

cit = dx v

and substitute for th ex 'Pression just obtained. Both mernbers can then he integrated to obtain the desired relation bctwc n x and t. However, in most cases this last integration cannot be performed unalyti 'ally and one must resort to a nil rnerical III thod of integration.

3. (/ = f( .), The Acceleration Is a Given Fllnction of " We can IIOW substitute f(') for a ill either (11.2) or (11.4) to obtain either of the foIlO\\~ng relations:

f(v) = d» cit

tI dt = f(v)

d

J(.) = I)

dx . do

d\,=--

. J()

lntcuration of th . first equation \~11 yield a relation bctwc .n v alld I; illtegratioll of till;' second C;'«"atio" \~II ield a relation between . and r. Either of these relations 'an 1)(' used in 'onjun rlon \ ith 'Cj, (l1.1) to obtain the relation between x and I which characterizes the motion of the purti ,I "

«m

v(flJ.)

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.1

The position of a particle which moves along a straight line is defined by the relation x = t3 - 6t2 - 151 + 40, where x is expressed ill feet and I in seconds. Determine (0) tile time at which the velocity wil] be zero, (b) tile po ition and distance traveled by the particle at that time, (c) tile acceleration of tile particle at that time, (d) the distance traveled I the particle [rom I = 4 s to I = 6 s.

SOLUTION

1 (s)

The equations of motion are

x = (3 - 6f - 1St + 40

£Ix •

I) = - = 3t- - 12t - 15 £II

dv

(/ = - = 6f - J2 d!

a. Time at Which v = O. We set v = 0 ill (2):

312 - 12( - 15 = 0 I = -1 s

I = "1.5 s

(1) (2)

(3)

Only the root I = +5 s corresponds to a time after til€' motion has be'"n: for t < 5 S, (j < 0, tJ1(J particle moves in the negative direction; for 1 > 5 s, (j > 0, the particle moves in the positive direction.

b. Position and Distance Traveled When v = O. arl'ying I = +5 s into (1), we have

,1'5 = (5)3 - 6(5)2 - 15(5) + 40

l, - -60ft

1 (s)

The initial position at I = 0 was Xo = +40 ft. Since (j *' 0 durin , th interval t = 0 to t = 5 S, we have

Distance traveled = X; - Xo = -60 ft - 40 ft = -100 ft Distance Inl\(,I(,tI - 100 n ill till' 1It'~alhe cliret'lioll c. Acceleration When v = O. \ e substitute I +.5 s into (3):

«s = 6(5) - 12 (I, = II> ('tis!

d. Distance Traveled from t = 4 s to t = 6 s. The particle moves in the II gative direction [rom I = 4 s to I = .5 s and in the positive dir ction fl'Olli I = 5 s to I = 6 s; therefore, tile distance tmwlpd durillg each of these time intervals \\~II be computed separately.

From t = <I s to ( = 5 s: X5 = -60 Ft

XI = (4),1 - 6(4)2 - 1.5(4) + 40 = -52 ft Distance traveled = Xs - X4 = -60 11: - (-52 ft) = - ft Ft in the negative eli n-ction

1(,)

I' I'Om t = .5 5 to ( = 6 5:

Xr; = -60 f't

Xc. = (6)3 - 6(6j2 - 15(6) + 40 = -50 ft Distance trawled = XCl - ,1'5 = -50 rt - (-60 ft) = + 10 ft . 10 f't ill thl' pusitive dire 'lioll

'["(111 r/ilIIIIIIY' trucclcd from I = 'I S to ( = 6 s is ' It + 10 ft III ft

609

'J

t---'''= +i()m/,

~ t=t" "" m'"

'Jo= +20 III

:3.28 I (s) 1

1

1

1

1

22.2

1.019

3.2R

610

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.2

A ball is tossed with a velocity of 10 m/s dire 'ted vertically upward from a window located 20 m above tile ground. Kno\\~lIg that the ac .eleration of the ball i constant and equal to 9. 1 lll/s2 downward, determine (a) the velocity 0 and elevation y of the ball above the ground at allY time I, (b) til lIight'st elevation reached by the ball and the corresponding value of I, (e) tile time when the ball will hit the groulld and the correspunding velocity. Draw the v-I and y-I curves.

SOLUTION

a. Velocity and Elevation. The y axis measuring the position coordinate (or elevation) is chosen with its origin 0 on the ground and its positive sense upward. The value of th ' acceleration and the initial values of v and y arc as indicated. Substituting for II in II = dvldt and noting that at t = 0, DO = + 10 m/s, we have

do , - = {/ = -9. 1111/5- (/1

r do = - r 9.81 dt

t n 10 0

[Lll~() = -[9.8111~ IJ - 10 = -9.811

~ = 10 - 9.81/ (1)

Substituting for IJ in

= ely/dl and noting that at I = 0, yo = 20 In, we have dy

- = (j = 10 - 9.81t dt

Jy I'

ely= (10-9. It)elt

!lCI 2:0 U

1!lI~CI = [lOt - 4.905121:,

!I - 20 = lOt - 4.90.512

!I - 20 + lOr

1.90.'511 (2)

b. Highest Elevation. When the ball reaches its bigllest elevation, we have = O. Substituting into (l), we obtain

10 - 9. 1/ = 0

I - l.{)19 s ....

Carrying I = 1.019 s into (2), we> have

y = 20 + 10(1.019) - 4.905(1.01gj2 Y 2.5.1 111

c. 8011 Hits the Ground. When the ball hits the ground, we have y = O. Sub~litutillg into (2), we ubtain

20 + 101 - 4.90512 = 0 I = -1.243 s and I = 1.2R s

I (s)

Only the root I = +3.2 S corresponds to a time- 'lftcr the motion has begun . • arrying this aIm' of I into (I), \VI' have

= 10 9.81(3.2) = 22.2111/s

I - 22.2 III/s! ....

Oil

v

x

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.3

The brake mechanism used to reduce recoil in certain types of gUlls consists essentially of a piston attached to the barrel 'lIlll moving in a rL~ed cyliud r filled wi tI I oil. s the barrel recoils with an initial velocity Vo. the piston moves and oil is for 'ed through orifice in the piston, causiug the piston ami UI barrel to decelerate at a rate proportional to their velocitv, that is, a = -kv. Express (lI) I) in terms of I, (b) x in terms of t, (c) I) in terms of r. Draw the corresponding motion curves.

SOLUTION

o. v in Terms of t. Substituting -kv for a in tile fundamental formula defining acceleration, II = doklt, we write

elv -kl)=cit

Jt d ('

VV = -k L dt

t. 0

dl;

-= +k dt

I)

In~ = -kt 1)0

c - t:lIl' AI ....

b. x in Terms of t. Substituting tile expression just obtained for v into v = dxklt, we write

x=

rlx

veAI=-

o cit

f'dx = VII reAl dt

o 0

1;0 [A']' 1)0 ( AI

-T e 0 = -T e

J)

x '" r (I (1 _ I' A') ....

k

c. v in Terms of x. Substitlltillg -k for II ill a = d kls, we write elv

+ko v-

elx

d» -k dx

x r d -k r dx

II) (I

I) - 1>11 +k:x r = t·" - ks ....

Check. Part c could have lx-cn soh-eel by climinatinj; I from the answers obtained fur parts II and b, This ultcrnativc method ClU1 he used as a check. 1'1'0111 part (/ we obtain e .. = 1>/t;(I; substituting into the answer of part b, we obtain

",U(I _ 1»

k (I

I) = (I kx

(checks)

611

In the problems for this lesson, you will be asked to deterrnin the position, the oelociuj, or tile acceleration of a parti ,I in rectilinear lIIolion. As you r ad each problem, it is important that you identify both the independent variable (typic-ally t or .r) and what is required (for example, the necd to e>'"prcss v as a function of x). You may find it helpful to start each probl m by writing down hoth the given information and a simple stat ment of what is to be determined.

1. Determining vlt) and alt) for a given xlt). As explained in Sec. 11.2, the first and the second derivatives of x with respect to t arc respectively equal to the velo .ity and the a' .eleration of the particle [EC]s. (11.1) and (J 1.2»). IF the v 10 it)' and th acceleration have opposite si rns, the particle can come to r st and then move in the opposite direction [Sample Prob, 11.1)' Thus, when computing the total distance traveled by a particle, )'01.1 should first determine if the parti Ie will come to r st durillg th sp cifi d interval of time. onstruding a diagrall1 similar to that of Sample Prob. 11.1 that shows the position and the velocity of the particle at each critical instant (. = VI1l:l', V = 0, ctc.) will help ou to visualiz the motion.

2, Determining vlt) and xlt) for a given ail). The solution of problems of this type was discussed in the first part of Sec. 11.3, , e used the initial conditions, t = 0 and v = vu, for the lower limits of the integrals in t and u, but any other known stale (Ior example, I = II, = 'I) 'ould have be n used instead. Also, if' the riven function (I(t) contains an unknown constant (for example, the constant k if a = kt), you will first have to determine that constant by substituting a set of known values of t and a in the equation defining alt).

3. Determining vlx) and xiI) for a given alx). This is the second cas considered in Sec. 11.3. We again note that the lower limits of integration can be an)' known state (for example, x = x" v = VI)' In addition, since . = ·111", wh -n a = 0, the positions where the maximum values of the velo 'ily o , 'III' are easily d tennined by wliting a(x) = ° and solvinu for x.

4, Determining vlx], vlll, and xiI) for a given a(v). This is the last case treated in ic '. 11.3; the appropriate solution techniques for problems of this type are illustrated in Sampl Proh. 11.3. All of' the reneral CO III III ents for th prec din f cases once again apply. Note that Sample Proh. 11.3 provides a summat of how and when to us the equations = dx/dt, (/ = dv/dl, and (/ = s d 'Idx.

612

613

11.1 The motion of a particle is defined h the relation x = 1.514 - 3012 + .51 + 10, where x anti I are expressed in meters and econds, respe 'tively. Determine the position, the velocity, and the acceleration of the parti ·Ie when I = 4 s.

11.2 TIle motion of a particle is defined by the relation .r = 1213 - 1812 + 21' + 5, where .r and 1 are expressed in meters and second , respectively, Determine the position and the velocity when the acceleration of the particle is equal to zero.

11.3 The motion of a particle is defined by the relation .r = ~t3 - ~12 - 30t + < x, where .r and tare -xprcsscd in feet and seconds, respectively. Determine the time, the position, and the acceleration when v = o.

11.4 The motion of a particle is defilled h the relation .r = 612 - 8 + 0 cos ttt, where .r and tare expressed in inches and seconds, respectively. Determine the position, the velocity, and the acceleration when I = 6 s,

II.S TIle niotlnu of a parti Ie is defllled hy lhl' n-latiou x = 614 - 213 - 12c + 31 + 3, where x and I are expressed in meters and econds, respectively. Determine the time, tht' position, alld the ve!o 'ity whell 1/ = O.

11.6 TIre motion of a particle is defined by the relation x = 2t3 - 1512 + 241 + 4, where .r is expressed ill meters and t ill seconds, I etermine (II) when the velocity is zero, (iJ) tile position and the total distance trave led when the acceleration is zero,

J J.7 The motion of a particle is defined b the relation x = t3 - 612 - 361 - 40, where x and tare expressed in fed ami seconds, f('speetivcly, Determine (II) when the velocity is zero, (b) tlu- velocity, the uccclcrution, lind the total distance truvclcd when x = o.

J J.B TIIP motion of a particle is dpflllt'd by the relation.r = 1'1 - 912 + 241 - 8, where x and I are expressed in inches and seconds, respecrively. Determine ((/) wlu-n tire velocity is 7..1'1'0, (b) the position and the totul distance traveled wlu-u tllP uceelerution is zero.

11.9 1111' uc x-lerntlon of a particle is defllll'll h tIll' rl'lali(lll a = - rrrll Kllowillg that r = 20 111 \ lu-n I = 4 s alld tlrat x = 4 111 wlu-u = 16 mIs, rit'tt'rillille (a) tIlt' tilll!' \ hen tIll' veloclt is zero, (b) the wlul'it and tllP total distant'e traveled when 1 = II s.

11.10 TIll' acceleration of a particle is directl proportional to tlu- s(l'rare of tIlt' time I. When I = 0, till' particle is at x = 24 Ill. Kuowimr that at 1 = 6 5, X = 96 111 and I) = 1 111/5. eXllress x and ill tl'I'II1S or I.

11\",\\,(,,,,, In all pmblcmv '<'I in SlrJi,l(hl 1)1)(' (Midi Il' 11.1) UI~ ,l(i"," ul II", ('IIt! nf Ih" I.Klk. II~'"'" III prohl"III' with " 11111111",1' "'1 in ilali,' 11'" (.lIdl .l' J 1.7) art· 11111 1(;11'11.

614 Kinemotics 01 Porticles

Fig. PIJ.l9

11.11 TIle acceleration of a particle is di redly proportional to the ti me t.

At t = 0, the velocity of the particle is . = 16 inis. Knowing that v = 15 in./s and that .r = 20 in. when t = 1 s, determine the velocity, the position, and the total distance traveled when t = 7 s.

11.12 The a .eleration of a particle is defined by l he relation (I = k12. (0) KnOWing that = -32 ftls , hen I = 0 and that . = +32 ftls when I = 4 s, determine the :onstanl k. (b) Write the erJuations of motion, kllo\\~ng also tl,al x = 0 when I = 4 s.

11.13 The acceleration of a particle is d fined by the lation (I = A - 6r, wh r A is a constant. t t = 0, the particle starts at x = m with v = O. Kn(l\~ng that at I = 1 S, u = 30 m/s, cletermin (a) the tim's at which th velocity is zero, (b) the total distance traveled hy the particle wh n I = 5 s.

11.14 It is known that from I = 2 s to I = to s the uccelerution of a purticle is inversely proportional to the cube of the tim t. \\ hen t = 2 s, v = -15 rn/s, and when t = 10 S, (j = 0.36 m/s. Kno\\~ng that the particle is twice ,L~ far from the origin when I = 2 s as it is when t = 10 s, determine (a) the pOSition of the particle when t = 2 s and when t = to s, (b) the total distance traveled bv the

particle from t = 2 s to t = 10 s. •

11.15 The acceleration of a particle is defined by the relation 0 = -klx.

It has been experimentally determined that v = 15 ft/s when x = 0.6 ft and that . = 9 ftls when r = 1.2 ft. Determine (0) the velocity of the particle when x = 1.5 It, (b) the position of the particle at which its velocity is zero.

11.16 A parti ·Ie tarting Irorn rest at x = 1 fI is ac 'eleraled so that its velocity don hles ill l1Iagllitllde he tween x = 2 n and x = 8 fl. Kllowing that the a .celemtion of the parti ·Ie is defined hy the relation (/ = k[x - (;Vx)], detenuine the values of the .onstauts A lind k if the parti ·Ie has a velocity of 29 ftl when x = 16 fl.

11.17 A pnrticle oscillates between the points x = 0 111111 ami x = 160 111m with an ucceleratiou a = k(IOO - r), where a :UHj x art' expr ssed ill nlln/s2 and 111 HI , respective] , and k is a constant, The voloci of tlte particle is 18 1I11n/s when x = 100 111111 and is zero at both x = 40 nun and x = 160111111. Determine (a) tlte value of k, (b) the volocit wit ell x = 120111111.

11.18 A particle starts from rest at the Origill and is givell all uccclerution a = kl(x + 4)2, where a and r arc expressed in 111/52 and m, resp -clively, and k is a constant. Klluwillg that the velocity of the particle is 4 II1ls when x = III, determine (a) lite value of k, (b) the position of the particle when . = 4.,5 m/s, (c) the maximum velocity of the particle.

n.'9 A piece of electronic equipment that is surrounded by paekillg materiul is dropped so tl tat it !tits lite h'TOUlld with a speed of 4 111/5. Iter impact tltl' equipuu-ut experiences all a xx-lerution of (I - +kx, wln-n- k is a xmstunt und x is lll(' xnnprcssion of llt(' pa .kin t ruateriul. If the I'" 'kill' material ('xP('t;('1I '('S a IIllL\;lIl11111 xnupn-ssion of 20 111111. d('('rtllill(' tlt(' mnxi 1111 It II a 'elenItioll of the ('«Uipllll'lIt.

n.20 Based on experimental observations, the acceleration of a particle is defined by the relation a = -(0.1 + sin xlb}, where 1I and x are expressed in m/s2 and meters, respectively. Knowing that b = O. 111 and that G = 1 m/s when .r = 0, determine (1I) the velocity of the particle when x = -1 Ill, (h) the position where the velocity is mm';11111Ht, (c) the maximum velocity.

11.21 Starting from x = 0 with no initial velocity, a particle is given an acceleration a = O. t} + 49. where a and G are expressed in 111/52 and m/s, re pectively, Determine (a) the po ition or the particle when o = 24 m/s, (b) the speed of the particle when x = 40 III.

11.22 The acceleration of a particle is defined by the relation 1I = -k'V;;, where k is a constant. Knowing that r = 0 and G = 81 m/s at t = 0 and that v = 36 HIls when x = 18 Ill, determine «(I) the velocity of the particle when r = 20 Ill, (b) the time required for the particle to come to rest.

11.23 The acceleration of a particle is defin d h the relation a = -0.80 where a is expressed in inls2 and v in in./s. KnO\\~ng that at t = 0 the velocity is 40 in./s, determine (a) the distance the particle will truv«l before (.~)ming to rest, (b) the time required for the particle to come to rest, (c) the time required for the particle> to he reduced hy 50 percent of its initial value.

11.24 A bowlin t hall is dropped from a boat so that it strikes the surface of a lake with a speed of 25 ft/s, A_~Sllming the hall experiences a downward acceleration of (/ = JO - 0.902 when in the water, deter. mine the v -locity of the ball when it strikes rh bottom of th lake.

11.25 The aeceleration of a particle is defined by the relation a = 0.4(1 ko), when' k is a constant. Kl1(m~ng that at t = 0 the particle starts from rest at x = 4 III and that when t = 15 S, 0 = 4 m/s, determin «(/) the constant k, (b) the position of the particle when v = 6 m/s, (c) the maximum velocity of the particle.

Problems 615

30 ft

Fig. Pll.24

11.26 A particle is projected to tite rigitt from the position r = 0 with an initial velocity of 9 I1I/s. If tite accelerution of tite particle is defined hy tlie relation If = -0.6v3lZ, wher If anel () nr expressed in IlI/s2 :l1Id mis, respectiv I)', cl t rmine «(I) tit, distance tip patti. ell' will itav!' travelpel when its wlocity is 4 mis, (b) the time when Fig. Pl1.27

= I 1lI1s, (c) til time requlred fi)r the particle to travel 6 m.

11.27 Based Oil observations. the speed of a jogg I' call he upproximuted by the relation . "" 7.5(1 - 0.()!L~)O.3, where D ami r are expre 'sed in mi/l. and Illites, respectively. Knowing tit at x = 0 at t = 0, determine (a) the distance the joggl'r has run when' "" 1 it, (b) the jogger's a .celerutiou ill ftls· at t = 0, (c) the time required for the jogger to run 6 mi.

11.28 Experimental data indicate that in a regioll downstream of a givell louvered supply vent the- velocity of the emitted air is delllled by

- 0.1 !I1.~, where and x are expressed ill m/s und mctcrs, I'{'spc' .. tivcl ,ami (I is tite illitial dis .hur tc' velocity of Ih(' air, Fur (;" - 3.6 mis, dl'termilll' «(/) III(' Ole x-k-mtion of the air at x - 2 Ill. (b) lite

lillie I'(·qllin·d 1i)1' til(' air 10 llow Iroru x .. I to x'" 1lI. Fig. Pll.28

616 Kinemotics 01 Porticles

p,--, I

I

I

I

I I I I I I

Fig. Pll.29

p,--.

I I I I I I I I

I I

Fig, PIJ.30

JJ.29 The acceleration due to gravity at an altitude y above the surface of the earth can be expressed as

-32.2

v

I

a = [1 + (yI20.9 X 106)f

wher a and Ij are expressed in ftls2 and fe t, respectively. Using this expression, mmpllte the height reached hy a projectile fired vertically upward from the SUlfate of the arth if its initial velocity is (a) L 00 ftls, (b) 3000 ft/s, (c) 36,700 ftls.

n.30

Thp acceleration due to rravity of a particle fallin r toward the earth is a = -gR2Irf!, where r is the distance from the center of the earth to the particle, R is the radius of the earth, and g is the acceleration due to travity at the surface of the earth. If R = 3960 mi, calculate th escape celacitt], that is, the minimum velocity with which a particle must be projected vertically upward from the surface of th earth if it is not to return to the earth. (Hint: v = 0 for r = 00.)

11.31 Th velocity of a particle is v = vo[L - sin(mff)]. Knowing that the particle starts from the Oligin with an initial velocity 1)0, determin« (a) its position and its acceleration at t = 3T, (b) its average velocity dllliug the interval t = 0 to t = T.

J

11.32 The velocity of a slider is defined by the relation . =

v'sin(w"t + <p). Denoting the velocity and the position of the slider at t = 0 h)' Vo and xo, respective I)', and knowing that the maximum displacement of the slider is 2.\'0, show thut (a) I)' = (v~ + x~w~)/2xow", (b) the maximum value of the velocity occurs when x = xo[3 - (vu/xoWY]l2.

11.4 UNIFORM RECTILINEAR MOTION

nilorm rectilinear motion is a type of straight-line motion which is rrequentl encount red in practical applications. In this motion, the acceleration a or the particle L~ zero for eve) value of t. Th velocity o is therefore .onstant, and Eq. (11.1) becomes

dx

- = . = constant

cit

The position coordinate x is obtained by int grating this equation. Denoting b . Xu the initial value of .r, we write

J" I'

do = li cit

Xu 0

x - Xu = lit

r = .1'0 + t

(U.5)

This equation 'an 1)(' used 011(1) if the 'c(oci/I) of til particle is known /0 be constant,

11.5 UNIFORMLY ACCELERATED RECTIUNEAR MOTION

niforrnly accelerated rectilin ar motion is another common typ of motion. In this motion, the acceleration a of the particle is constant, and Eg. (11.2) becomes

dv

--:- = a = constant

dt

The velocity v of the particle is obtained by integrating this equation:

fUr/v = a felt

"'u 0

'0 = at

. = tio + (II

(11.6)

where Vo is the initial velocity. Substituting for v in (11.1), we write dx

--:- = V + at

rtt 0

Denoting by Xu the initial value of r and integrating, we ha e

r'r/x= f(vu+at)dt

.\0 u

x - Xo = rJ + tat2

(11.7)

Wc can also use Eg. (11.4) and write dv

v- = a = constant rlr

. di: = a dx

Integrating both sides, we obtain

r tl» = a (dX

~( .2 - ~) = a(x - xo)

I .2 = .g + 2a(x - xo)

(II. )

The three equations we have derived provide useful relations <[IIIOIlI position -oordiuute, velo 'il)" and tinu- ill the '<lse of a uniforml accel rated motion, as soon as appropriate values hav been substituted for a, Vu. and xu. The ori rin 0 of the x axis should first he defined and a positive dire .tion chosen along the axis; this dire 'lion will Iw IIS(><I to delennill(, til(> signs of (I, VCh and xo. Equation (11.6) relates - und I and should be used when the alue 0(' . xnresponding to a riV('1I value off is d 'sired, or inversel . ~qllation (lJ.7)

11.5 Uniformly Accelerered Reel/lineor Molion 617

618 Kinemotics 01 Porticles

o

1\

B

r-\.\-I~\I"-I

Fig. 11.7

Photo 11.2 Multiple ccbles ond pulleY$ are used by Ihi$ $hipyord crone.

relates r and t ; Eg. (11.8) relates v and x. An important application of uniformly accel rated motion is the motion of a freellj falling both]. The acceleration of a freely Iallin body (usually denoted by g) is equal to 9.81 m/s2 or 32.2 ftls2.

It is important to keep in mind that the three eguations above '(In be used (JIIly uihen the acceleration of the particle is knoicn to he constant. If the acceleration of the particle is variable, its motion should be determined from the fundamental equations (11.1) to (11.4) according to the methods outlined in Sec. 11.3.

11.6 MOTION OF SEVERAL PARTICLES

When s veral particles move independentl along the same line, independent equations of motion C,U1 be written for each particle. Whenever possible, time should be recorded from the same initial instant far all parti ·1 s, and displa .em nts should be measured from the same oIigin and in the same direction. In other words, a sinsle clock and a single measuring tape should be used.

Relative Motion of Two Particles. onsider two particles A and B movin r along th sam straight line (Fig. 1] .7). If the position coordinates XII and Xli are measured from the same origin, the diffcrcncc XB - .\'.4 defines the relative position coordinate of B uiith respect to A and is denoted by .lBf,I' We write

(11.9)

or

Regardless of th positions of A and B with I' spect to the OIigin, a positive sign for XHfA means that B is to the light of A, and a negative Si!:,l'Jl means that B is to the left of A.

The rate of ·hange of XH(,I is known as the relatioe ielocitt] of

B with respect to and is denoted h V/jft\' Diff, rentiating (11.9),

we write

/jfll = u

(11.10)

il

or

A positive si fJl for Bill means that B is observed from A to mov in th positive direction; a n gative sign means that it is observed to move in the negative dire 'lion.

The rate or .lran 'e of '8111 is known ,L~ the relat ic« acceleration of B with respect to A and is denoted bya/Jfll' Differentiating (11.10) we obtaiu]

(11.11)

or

I ""ClJ(' Ihal II,r pl'C>(IIIC'I nr IIH' ,,,h'l'ripl' A "",I BfA ,,<I,d in IllI' ri)(lll-h,,,,d IIIrlllh(',· of E",. (11.9). (11.101. allli (l 1.11) i, "(I"'~ loll", ,,,b,cripl 8 ,,,,·d ill Il,d, 11'f1-I"'It,IIIH'tIIIM"

Dependent Motions. Sometime, th position of a parri .le will depend upon the position of another particle or of several other particles. The motions are then said to be dependent. For example, the position of block B in Fig. 11. depends upon the position of block A. Sine the rop ACDEFC is of constant len zth, and since the lengths of the portions of rope CD and EF wrapped around the pull ys remain constant, it follows that the sum of the lengths of the segments AC, DE, and FC is onstant. Observing that the length of the s zment AC differs from X,I only by a constant and that, similarly, the lengths of the segments DE and FC differ from Xn only by a constant, we write

I 1.6 MOlion of Sevecol Porlicle$ 619

XJI + 2xIJ = constant

Since only one of' th two coordinat s XII and XIJ can be .hosen arbi·

trarily, we sa)' that the system shown in Fig. U.B has one degree oj Fig. 11.8 [reedom. From the relation between the position coordinates XA and

xu, it follows that if XA is given an increment ~X'I> that is, if block A

is low I' d by all amount ~XA' til coordinar xIJ will I' c ivan incr .

ment AXil = -tAXA' In other words, block B will rise b half the

same amount; this can easily be checked directly from Fig. 11.8.

Fig. 11.9

In the cas of the thrc blocks of Fig. 11.9, wc can again observe that the length of the rope whi .h passes over the pulleys is constant, and thus the follOWing I' lation must I)' satisfied hy the position coordinates of the three blocks:

2x/I + 2X8 + Xc: = constant

Since two of the coordinates can be chosen arbitrarily, we say that the system shown in Fig, 11.9 has two degrees oj [reedom.

When the relation existing between the position coordinates of s everal particles is linear; a similar relation holds between the velocities and between the accelerations or the particles, In the case of the blocks or Fig. 11.9. for instance, we differentiate twice th . equation obtained and write

"clXA 2dxH dXr; _ 0

:G + + -

til dt dt

2rt II 2(/ IJ rt 'c 0

-+ -+-=

dt rtl dl

or

2 '/I + 2 H + G = 0

or

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.4

A ball is thrown vertically upward from the 12-m level in an elevator shaft with all initial vela 'ity of 1 m/s. At the same in taut an open-platform ele-

ator passes the 5-111 level, moving upward with a constant velocity of 2 ml .

Determine (a) when and where the ball will hit tile elevator, (b) tile relative velocity of the ball with respect to tile elevator wh II the ball hits tile elevator.

-o()o-

I; I

o

liJ

620

SOLUTION

Motion of Ball. Since the hall has a constant acceleration, its motion is unijormhj accelerated. Placing the origin 0 of the y axis at ground level and choosing its positive direction upward, we find that the initial position is yo = + 12 rn, the initial vclocitv is Vo = +1 m/s, and the acceleration is a = -9. 1 m/sz. Substituting ~,ese values in tile equations for uniformly accelerated motion, we write

V8 = I - 9.S11

!In = 12 + 1St - 4.90.512

(1) (2)

Motion of Elevator. Since the elevator has a constant velocity, its motion is unlfon», Agaill placillg the origill 0 at the ground level and choosing til positive direction upward. we note that yo = +5 III and write

"E = +2 m/s YE = yo + VEt

(3) (t)

!IE = 5 + 2t

Ball Hits Elevator. \Ve first note that th same tim 1 and the sallie ori in o were used in writin 1 th equations of motion of both the hall and the I vutor. We see from the fi1me that when the ball hits the elevator,

YE = !In

Substituting for y~ and !In Iroin (2) and (4) into (.5), \ e haw 5 + 21 = 12 + I 1 - 4.90.'512

I = -0.39 sand 1 = 3.6.'> s

n

Only the root 1 = 3.65 s corresponds to a time ufter tile 1I10tiOll has begun. Substituting this value into (4). we have

y~ = 5 + 2( .65) = 12.30 III

Ek-vation from f,!:J'Olllld 12.:30 III ....

The relative velocity of the ball with respect to the ell!vator is

HIt; = B - E = (1 - 9.811) - 2 = 16 - 9. II

Whcll the hall hits the elevator at time t = 3.65 s, we han'

VlIIE = 16 - 9. 1(3.6.5)

t8~ - I!J.RI IIl/s

TIl(' ll('gatiw sign 11ll'1I11S that tlu- hall is observed [rum lh" dl' ntor to he lllovillg ill the Il('gativ(' sense (downwardl.

o

I, K

"~

, I

!: l_\. 12 ill.'s

!

o

I ) , lit .~ 1101.\

"~:;:'

I, I, ! I

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.5

ollar A 'U1d block B are connected by a cable passing over three pulleys C, D, and E as shown. Pulleys C and E are fixed, while D is attached to a collar which is pulled downward with a .onstant velocif of 3 inis. At I = 0, collar A starts 1II0vilig downward [rom positiou K witl, a constant aceeleralion and 110 iuitial velocity, Knowing that the velocity of collar A is 12 in.ls as it passes through point L, determine the change ill elevation, the velocity, and the acceleration of block 8 wlieu collar A passes through L.

SOLUTION

Motion of Collar A. We place the origin 0 at the upper horizontal surface and choo e the positive direction downward, 'Ve observe that when I = 0, .ollar A is at the position K and (IJA)O = O. Since IJc' = 12 in.ls and x.~ - (XA)O = 8 in. when the :ollar passes through L, we write

v;, = (VA)~ + 2(/,,[XA - (x,,)o] (12)2 = 0 + 9LIA(8)

(/A = 9 inis2

The tim> at which collar A reaches point L is obtained by writing

VA = (o )0 + (/At

12 = 0 + 9t

t = 1.333 s

Motion of Pulley D. Recalling that the positive direction L~ downward, we write

«u = 0

'v = 3 iuis

When collar A reaches L, at t = 1.333 S, we "'I'"

XI) = (XI)o + 3(1.333) = (xv)o + 4

Thus,

Xo - (xv)o = 4 in.

Motion of Block B. We 1I0te that the total length of cable ACDEB differs from the quantity (XA + 2xt) + Xy) onl r by a constant. ince the cable lellgtl. is constant <llIring th(-' motion, II lis qllantit)' '1111 ·t also remain constant. Thus, considerin r the timl:'S I = 0 uud I = 1.333 s, WI:' write

XA + 2xI) + Xy = (XA)O + 2(xI)u + (Xy)o

[XA - (.\·A)O] 2[xo - (xt)u] + [XB - (Xy)o] = 0

(1) (2)

But we know that XA - (XA)O = ill. nnd XI) - (XD)O = " in.; slIhstituting these values in (2), we find

TilliS:

CIHllIgP in (,I(',aliOl' or R - 16 in. t

Difrt'r('ntiatillg (1) twice, we obtain equations r('latillg till' velocities and the accelerations or A, B. and D. Substituting for the velocities 'u.u accelerations of A und D at I = 1.333 S, we have

v + 2 IJ + Vn = 0:

12 + 2(3) + vn = 0

Vy = -I inis 9 I 2(0) I "s - ()

o« = 9 illis2

1111 - f) III./S~ t ....

til = II) in.ls i ....

a t 9L11) + "n - 0;

621

In this lesson we derived the equations that describe uniform rectilinear motion (constant velocity) and II II ifo rill 1'./ (/ iceleratetl rectilinear I1IOtiOIl (constant ace 1- eration). v'e also introduced th concept of relative motiol1. The equations for relative motion [Eqs. (11.9) to (11.11)] can be applied to the independent or c1ep nd nt motions of any two particles moving along the same straight line.

A. Independent motion of one or more particles. Thc solution of problems of this type should be organized as follows:

1. Begin your solution by listing the given information, sketching tb system, and selectin f til ori in and th positive dir ction or the coordinate axis [Sampl Prob. 11.4]. It is alway . ad ant-!geolls to have a visual repr sentation of problems of this typc.

2. Write the equations that describe the motions of the various particles as well as those that describe how these motions are related [Eq. (5) of Sample Prob, 11.4].

3. Define the initial conditions, i.e., specif the state of the system corresponding to 1 = O. This is esp ciall important if the motions of the particles begin at different times. In such cases, either of two approaches can be used.

a. Let t = 0 b the tim when th last particl be rins to mov . You must then determine the initial position Xo and the initial velocity Vo of each of the other particles.

b. L -t t = 0 b - the timc wh -II th - first particle begins to 1110V -. You I11lJst then, in each of the equations describing the motion of another purti ,I·, replace 1 with t - '0, \ her to is the time at which that sp ciflc particle begins to move. It is important to recognize that the equations obtained in this way are valid only for t ~ to.

622

B. Dependent motion of two or more particles. In problems of this type the particles of the system are connect d to each other, typically b ropes or by cables. The method of solution of these problems is similar to that of the preceding group of problems, except that it will now be necessary to describe the physical connections hetw ell the particles. In the Iollowing problems, the '01111 .tion is provided by one or more cables. For each cable, you will have to write equations similar to the last three equations of Sec. 11.6. We suggest that you use the following procedure:

1. Draw a sketch of the system and select a coordinate system, indicating ·Iearly a positive sens for a·h of th .oordtnate axes. For example, in ample Prob. 1l.S lengths are measured downward from the IIpper horizontal support. It thus follows that those displacements, velocities, and accelerations which have positive values are directed downward.

2. Write the equation describing the constraint imposed by each cable on thc motion of the particl s involved. Differentiating this equation twice, 'Oil will obtain the correspondin relations amon r V loci ties and accelerations.

3. If several directions of motion are involved, you must select a .oordinate axis and a positive sense for each of these directions. You should also tIy to locate the origins of your coordinate axes so that the equations of constraints \ViII be as simple as possible. For example, in Sample Prob. 11.5 it is easier to define the various coordinates by III asurinv th 111 downward Irom the IIpp r support than by measuring them upward from the bottom support.

Finally, keep in mind that the method of anal sis described in this lesson and the corresponding equations can be used only for particles moving with 1111 if 0,.111 or uniforlllly accelerated rectilinear lIIotion.

623

Fig. Pll.33

I

89.6 rt

Fig. Pll.36

Fig. PJJ.37

624

11.33 A motorist enters a free\ av at 4.5 km/h and a .celernres uniformly to 99 kill/h. From the odometer in the .ar, the motorist knov s that she traveled 0.2 kill while a' 'elerating, Determine (a) the acceleration of the car, (IJ) the time required to rea -h 99 knvh.

11.34 truck travels 220 III in lOs while h(:'ing decelerated at a constant

rate 01'0.6 Ill/S2. Determine (a) its initial \'(:')0 'iN, (b) its final velocity, (e) the distance traveled dllring the first 1.5 s.

--"'tu

• n 0.6 1111 ~

Fig. Pll.34

11.35 ssuming a uniform ac x-leration of 11 ftls2 [U1d knowing that the speed of a car a it passes i\ is 30 mi/h, determine (a) the time required for the car to reach B, (b) the speed of the car as it passes B,

Fig. Pll.35

11.36 A group of studeuts launches a model rocket ill the vertical direcLion. Based on trucking data, they determine that the altitude of the rocket was 89.6 ft at the elld of the powered portion of the night and that the ro 'kt't lauded 16 slater, Kllowing that the descent parachute failed to deploy so that the rocket fell fn'dy to the groulld after reachillg its ruuximum altitude and a ssumin ' that I!. = 32.2 ft/52, deteruiine (il) the peed 'I of the rocket at the end of powered night, (b) tlu- maximum altitude reached by the rocket.

H.37 sprinter in a 100-nl I'lIlt' a xx-lerutes Ilniforlllly IiII' th(' Iirst - III ami then I'InlS with constant wk 'i . I I' the printers lim!' IiII' tilt' Ilrst 35 in is .'5,4 s, deteJ'lnill(' (a) his a xx-lerutton. (b) hb final n'l< 'it', (e) his tiuu- IiII' lh(' ruce.

n.38 A small package is released from rest at A and moves along the skate wheel conveyor ABCD. The package has a uniform acceleration of 4. m/s2 as it moves down sections AB and CD, and its velocity is constant between Band C. If the velocity of the package at D is 7.2 mis, determine (a) the distance d between and D, (b) the time required for the package to reach D.

Fig. PH.38

11.39 A police officer in a patrol car parked in a 70 km/h speed zone observes a passing automobile b'awling at a slow, constant speed. Believing that the driver of the uutomobile might be intoxicated, the officer starts his car, accelerates uniformly to 90 k111/h in s, and, maintaining a constant velocity of 90 km/h, overtakes the motorist 42 s after the automobile passed him. Kno\\~ng that 18 s elapsed before the officer be an pursuin r the III otorist, determine (0) tile distance the officer traveled before overtaking tile motorist, (b) the motorist's speed.

11.40 As relay runner t\ enters the 20.m.long exchange zone with a speed of 12.9 m/s, he hegins to slow down. I-Ie hands the baton to runner B L. 2 s later as they leave the exchange zone with the same velocity. Determine (a) the uniform acceleration of each of the runners, (b) when runner B should begin to run.

Fig. Pll.40

11.41 Automobiles t\ and Bare traveliug in udjaceut highway lanes ami at I = 0 have the positions and speeds slrown. Kno\ving that autumubile has a .oustuut 1I . ,(·I(·ral;ou of' I. f'l/s· ami Ihat B has H '(Instant tic '('I(,l'lItiou of 1.2 f'tJ·2. determin(' (a) when lind where t\ will overtuke B. (b) the speed of' each uutumohil« lit that time.

Fig. Pll.41

Problems 625

626 Kinematics of Particles

11.42 In a hoat race. boat A is leading hoat 8 by 120 ft and both boats are traveling at a constant speed of 105 milh. At t = O. the boats accelerate at constant rates. Kno\\~ng that when B passes A. I = s and VA = 135 mi/h, determine (a) the acceleration of A. (b) the acceleration of B.

120rt~A

Fig. P11.42

11.43 Boxes an' placed on a chute at uniform intervals of tim' tH and slide down the chute with uniform acceleration. Knowing that as any box 8 is released, the prccedin box A has already slid 6 m and that I s later they arc 10 m apart, determine (a) the value of tH, (b) the acceleration of the boxes,

Fig. P11.43

11.44 1''''0 automobiles A and 8 ar", approaching each other in adjae",nt hi ,hway lanes. At I = O. ami 8 are I km apart, their speeds ar",

A = 10 km/li and 'H = 63 km/h, ami they are at points P ami Q. respectivel . Kn(lwin' that A passes point Q 40 s alier 8 was tlwl" and that 8 passps point P 42 s ufter A was there, d",tprtllittP (a) the uniform uccelerntlons (If and 8, (b) when thp \'I;'hicl",s pass ench other, (c) til(' spt·eli of 8 at that time.

Fig. PIl.44

11.48 Block B starts Iroin rest und moves downward with a constant ucce-lcratiou. Kuowinu thai aftt'r slider hlo·k 1\ has moved 400111111 its velo 'it is 4 III/S, detcrtnlue (II) the a . x-lcrutlons of und B. (IJ) IIIl' velo 'it und Ihe chan .(' in position (If B

after 2 s. Fig. Pll.47 and Pll.48

l1.45 em' A is parked along the northbound lane of a highway, and em' B is traveling in the southbound lane at a constant speed of 60 mi/h. At t = 0, A starts and accelerates at a constant rate {lA, while at t = 5 s, B begins to slow down with a constant deceleration of magnitude (lA/6. Knowing that when the cars pass each other x = 294 ft and 'A = Vg, determine (a) the acceleration (1,\, (b) when the vehicles pass each other, (e) the distance d between the vehicles at t = O.

i\ ',\ () = 0

I--------------------d--------------------

Fig. PJJ.45

JJ.46 Two blocks A und Bare placed on an incline as shown. At t = 0, A is projected up the incline with an initial velocity of 2i I' tis and B is n-leused from rest. The blocks p'L~S each other J s later, and B reaches the bottom of the incline when t = 3.4 s. Knowing that the maximum distance [rom the bottom of the incline reached hy block i\ is 21 ft and that the accelerations of 1\ and B (du to gravity and friction) are constant and are directed down the incline, determine (tI) the ace Ie rations of A and B, (b) the distance d, (e) the speed of A when the blocks pass each other.

Fig. PH.46

11.47 Slider block 1I10WS to the left with a constant velocitv of 6 III/S.

Determine (a) the velocity of block 8, (b) the velocity of portion D or the cable. (e) the relative velocity of I ortion C of the cable with respect to portion D.

Problems 627

628 Kinematics of Particles

Fig. PH.51 and PH.52

11.49 The elevator shown in the figure moves downward with a constant velocity of 15 ftls_ Determine (a) the velocity of the cable C, (b) the velocity of the counterweight \V, (c) the relative velocity of the cable C with respect to the elevator. (d) the relative velocity of the eountenveigbt 1\ with respect to the elevator,

IV

Fig. Pll.49 and Pl1.50

11.50 The elevator SItO\~l starts from rest und moves upward with a constant nee leration. If the count >rweight IV moves through 30 ft in 5 s, determine ((I) till:' acceleration of the el vator and the cable C. (lJ) th v loeity of the elevator after 5 s.

J 1.5 J Collar A starts from rest and IHOV S upward with a constunt aeceleration. Knowing that after s the relative velocity of collar B with respect to collar A is 24 infs, determine (a) the uceelerutions of A and B, (lJ) the velocity and the chan re in position of B after 6 s.

J 1.52 In the position shown, collar B moves downward with a velocity of 12 in.zs. Determine (a) the velocity of collar A, (b) the velocity of portion C of the cable, (c) tit . relative velocity of portion C of tile cable with respect to collar B_

11.53 Slider block B moves to the rigltt with a constant wlocity of 300 11 II n/s_ Determiue ({/) the velocity of slider block iI, (Il) the velocit - of portion of the cabll'. (c) the velocity of portion D of the cable, (d) the relative velocity of portion C of the cable with respect to slider block .

c

/J

Fig. Pll.53 and Pl1.54

11.54 At tile ill tunt shown, slider block 8 is t11()\;n' witll a constant a("(,(·I(·nltioll. alld ih ~pt'ed is 150 uun/s. Kllowill' tltat art .. r ~lid('1' hlo(-k " has ntov(·d 2LfO InIH to till' rigltt its \"(·Iodt ' b 60 II II tl/s. dl'l('rlllim' (II) till' at·t,(·I(·ratiolls of" ami 8. (II) tit .. :I('I'('lpratioll of portiou f) of til(' l-uhle• (c) tlu- ,,('Iodt)' und tlu- dtllnge ill positiou of slider block Barter" ,_

11.55 Block B moves downward with a constant velocity of 20 mm/s. At t = 0, block A is moving upward with a constant accel ration, and its velocity is 30 I11m/s. Knowing that at t = 3 s slider block C has moved 57 mill to the right, determine (a) the velocity of slider block C at t = 0, (b) the accelerations of A and C, (e) the c1HUlge ill position of block A after 5 s.

Fig. P11.55 and Pll.56

11.56 Block B starts from rest, block A moves with a constant acceleration, ancl slider block C 1110VC'S to th« light with a constant ace leration of 75 III Ill/52. KnO\\~ng that at f = 2 s the velocities of B ami Care 480 mm/s downward and 280 II1m/s to the right, respectively, determine (a) the :ICC I rations of A and B, (b) the initial velocities of 1\ and C, (e) the change in position of slider block C after 3 s.

11.57 ollar A st:uts from rest at I' = 0 and moves downward with a constant acceleration of 7 in.lsz. ollar B moves upward with a constant acceleration, and its initial velocity is 8 in.!s. Kno\~lIg that collar B moves through 20 in. between t = 0 and t = 2 s, determine (ll) the accelerations of collar B and block C, (b) the time at which the velocity of block is zero, (e) the distance through which block C will have moved at that time,

11.58 Collars A and B start from rest, and collar A moves upward with an

acceleration of 3,2 in./s-. Kncl\\~ng that collar B moves downward Fig. Pl1.57 and Pll.58 with a constant accelerution mul that its velocit is 8 in.ls after 1lI0V-

illg 32 in., d(!terllline (a) til(! acceleration of block C, (b) tht' distance throllgh which block C \\~II haw moved after 3 s.

n.S9 The systein shown starts fmlll rest, ami each componcut moves with a coustant uccek-ration. If the' relative acceleration of block C with respect to collar B is 60 IIII11/S2 upward and the relativ ' uccelerutiou of block V with respect to block A b 110 nlll1/s2 downward, determine (a) the velocity of block C after 3 s, (b) the dl<U1ge ill position of block D aftcr 5 s .

• rJ .60 The s)'stl'nl shown starts fro II I rest, ami the len rth of tilt' IIppl'r cord is adjusted so that A. B, and Care initiall at the sam« level. Each cOIll[lonPllt moves with a constant acceleration, 'lIIeI aftt'r 2 s the rplativl' chlillge ill positioll of block C with respect to block A is 280 IIl1n upward. Kllowing that when the relative velocity (If collar J3 with I'('slwc;t to block ;\ is 0 II1Il1/S downwurd, tlu- displac('lIlPnts of;\ alld J3 ar(> 160 111111 downward IIl1d 320 111111 downward, J'('sP('ctiwly, d(>tNlllilH' (II) tllP act-(·II·mtioll.~ of;\ :llId J3 if «u > )0 111111/S2, (IJ) tlu- -IIallgl' ill positiou (If hlu ·k D whe-n tIll'

1'(,10 +tv or block is 600 111111/s upwurd. Fig. PH.59 and PH.60

Problems 629

630 Kinemotics of Perticles

*11.7 GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF RECTILINEARMOTION PROBLEMS

clx

. =-

dt

and

It \ as obs rv d in Sec. 11.2 that the [undarn ntal formulas

cI·

a =-

ell

ha e a geometrical significance. The first formula ex-presses that the elocity at an instant is qual to the slop of the x-I curv at the same instant (Fig. 11.10). The second f0l111111a ex-presses that the accel-

"

Fig. 11.10

x

Fig. 11.11

a

ell

-=fI

eI,

ration is equal to the slope of the '-1 .urve. These two properties can be used to determin graphically th v-t and (I-I CUIV s of a motion when the x-t curve is known.

Integrating the two fundamental formulas from a time tl to a time 12, we write

X2 - XI = 1" o dt and '2 - '1 = 1" (f cit (11.12)

'1 I,

The first formula expresses that the area measured under the v-I curve from tl to t2 is equal to the change in x during that time interval (Fig. 11.11). Similarly, the sccond formula expresscs that the area measured under the (I-I '111,'(, lrom II to 12 is equal to the 'h'1I1ge ill 0 dllling that time interval. These two properties can he used to determine graphically the x-t curve of a motion when its v-t curve or its a-t ClJ)," is known (see Sample Proh, 11.6).

Graphical solutions are particularl useful \ hell the motion COI1- sider d is defined from experimental data and \ hen x, 0, and a are not analytical functions of t. They can also he used to advantage when the motion consists of distill .t parts and when its analysts requires writing a different equation for each of its parts, \'\ hen using a rraphical solution, however, one should be careful to note that (1) the area under the . t .urve measures the change in x, not r itself, and similarly, that lhe area under the II-I 'IIIV(:' measures the ·hal1 re ill ; (2) an ar a above the t axis corresponds to an increase in x 01' " while an area located below the taxis measures a decrease in x or 0,

ft will be IJst.f1J1 to re-me-mher in drawing motion .urves that if' the velo ·it is xmsuuu, it \ ill be represented by a hori ZOIl tal strai!J;hl line: the position ioordinate x will then he a linear fun .tion or I and will be r 'presented b an oblique strui rht lin '. If th - a- .clcruti in is

constant and different from zero, it will be represented by a horizontal straight line; 0 will th n be a linear function of t, represented by an oblique straizht line, and 1" will be expressed as a second-de r e polynomial in t, represented by a parabola. If the acceleration is a linear function of t, the velocity and the position coordinate will be equal, resp .tively, to se ·ond-d 'gree and third-degr e polynomlals, a will then be represented by an oblique strai rht line, v by a parabola, and x by a cubic. In general, if the acceleration is a polynomial of degree 11 in t, the velocity will be a pol nomial of degree 11 + 1 and the position coordinate a polynomial of degr t II + 2; these pol) 10- mials are represented b motion curves of a con-esponding degree.

*11.8 OTHER GRAPHICAL METHODS

An alternative graphical solution can be used to determine the position of a particle at a given instant directly from the a-t curve. Denoting the values of r and . at t = 0 as Xo and ·0 and their values at t = tl as Xl and 0), and observing that the ar a under the v-l curve can be divided into a rectangle of area vot I and horizontal differential elements of area (t. - t) dv (Fig. 11.12(1), we write

XI - Xo = area under ·-t curve = vot. + f·' (t. - t) dv

t::o

Substituting dv = a dt in the int gral, we obtain

x. - Xo = vot. + 1" (tl - t) a dt

o

Refening to Fig. 11.12/], we note that til integral represents tile first moment of the area under the a-t curve with r spec! to the lin

/ = t. boundinz th ar a 011 the ri rht. This method of solution is known, therefore, as tile moment-area method. If the abscissa l of til centroid C of tile area is known, the position coordinate x. can be obtained by wtiting

XI = Xu + otl + (area under a-t ·urve)(tl - t) (11.13)

H the area under the (I-t curve is a ·omposite area, the last term ill (11.13) can be obtaiu d by lHulliplyin, ·adl component area b the distance frOI11 its centroid to the line / = tl• reas above the t axis should be considered as positive and areas below the t axis as negative.

Another l)1)e of motion curve, the o-x curve, is sorn tim s used.

If such a CUIV has been plotted (Fig. 11.13), the acceleration a can be obtained at an timc by drawing the norma! A to tile curve and measurinu the subnormal Be. Indeed, ohselving that the angle between AC and AB is equal to tile angle () between the horizontal and th tangent at A (the slope of which is tan () = dolc/x), we write

d BC = AB tan () = vril-

anrl thus, re ·alling formula (11.4),

B =(/

11.8 Other Grophicol Methods 631

j-It-r

"t --T-------

I I I I

I

"0 --+-------- 1

1

I

(a)

fI

Fig. 11.12

v

Fig. 11.13

A

~~ X~~~-d-_~ ~

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.6

B

A subway car leaves station A; it gains speed at the rate of 4 ftls· for 6 s and then at the rat of 6 ftls2 until it lias reached the speed of 4 ft/s. The car maintains tile same speed until it approaches station B; brakes are then applied, giving the car a constant d celeration and bringillg it to a slop ill 6 s. The total ruuniug time from A to B is 40 s. Draw the a-I, v-I, and x-I curves, and determine the distance between stations A and B.

a (ftls2)

I I

at4 I l

I I I I

-----------~

o(ftts)

0<1 < 6: 6 < 1< 10: 10 < 1< 34:

OL-~~--------~-L------

6 10 .14 40 /(s) 34 < I < 40:

hange in .r = urea under V-I curve

xI> - 0 = !(6)(24) = 72 ft

.1"10 - .1"1> = !(4)(2.( + 4R) = 14.1 ft X~I - Xlll = (24)(4R) = 1152 ft

X411 - X).J = !(6)(4 ) = 144 ft

r(1t)

!l

: 1512 ft I

I

I

I

I

632

SOLUTION

Acceleration-Time Curve. Since th ucceleration is ith r constant or zero, the (I-t curve is made of horizontal straight-line segments. The values of t. and a4 ar determined 'L~ follows:

I(s)

Change in v = area 1I11der a=t .urve c() - 0 = (6 s)(4 ftls2) = 24 ftls

6 < I < t2: Since the velocity increases from 24 to 4 ftls.

hange in v = area under a-t curve

48 ("tis - 24 Ftls = (t2 - 6)(6 ftls2) '2 = 10 S

t2 < I < 34: Since the velocity is constant, the acceleration is zero.

0<1 < 6:

Chan re in v = area under {/-I curve

o - 48 ftJs = (6 5)(/4 (14 = -8 ftls2

The acceleration being negative, the corresponding area is below tilt' I ,I) is; this area represents a dt' .rease in vein ·ity.

34 < t < 0:

Velocity-Time Curve. Since the acceleration is either constant or zero, the v-I curve is made of straight-line segments connecting the points determined above.

dding the ·ltanges ill r. we obtuiu the distance Irom A to B: d = XIO - 0 = 1512 ft

d = 1512 It ...

Position-Time Curve. The points detl'rtnilll'd uhove should be joined by threl' arcs or parabola and OIlP straight-linl' segment. Tn constructing the x-I curve, keep in mind that for an value of I the slope of the tangent to till' x-I curve is equul to the value of lJ at that instant,

In this lesson (Sees. 11.7 and 11.8), we reviewed and developed several graphical techniques for tire solution oj problems inr;olving rectilinear motion. These te hniqu s can be used to solve problems dir ctly or to complement analytical m thods of solution by providing a visual description, and thus a better understanding, of th motion of a given body. \ e suggest that you sketch one or more motion curves for several of the problems in this lesson, ven if these problems are not part of your hom work assignment.

1. Drawing x-t, v-t, and a-t curves and applying graphical methods. The lollowin properties were indicat d in S c. ll.7 and should b kept in mind as you use a graphical method of solution.

a. The slopes of the x-t and v-t curves at a time t, are respective] equal to tile velocity and tile acceleration at time t I.

b. The areas under the a-t and v-t curves between the times t, and t2 are respectively equal to the change du in tile velocity and to the change dx in the position coordinate during that time interval.

c. If one of the motion curves is known, the fundamental properties we have summarized in paragraphs a and h will enable YOll to .onstru -t the other two curves. Howe er, when using the properties of paragraph b, tile velocity and the position coordinate at time tr must be known in order to determine the velocity and the position coordinate at time t2• Thus, in Sample Prob, 11.6, knowing that the initial valu of tit elocity was zero allox ed liS to lind the velocity at t = 6 s:

V6 = 00 + do = 0 + 24 ftls = 24 ftls.

If you have previously studied the shear and bending-moment diagrams for a beam, )Ou should recognize the analogy that exists between the three motion curves and tile three diagrams representing respectivel tile distributed load, the shear, and the bending moment in the beam. Thus, any techniques that you learned re t,lrding the coustru .tiou of these diagrallis ',111 he applied when draWing the motion curves.

2. Using approximate methods. Wh·n the a-t and -t curves are not represented h anal ical functions 01' when tltey are based on xperimental data, it is often necessai to use approximate methods to calculate the areas under these CllIVCS. In those cases, the given area is approximated by a series of rcctangl s of width dl. The smaller the value of M, the smaller the error lntrodu .ed hy the approximation. The velocity and the position coordinate are obtained h \V1iting

x = Xu + L uve dl

where ((.1'<' and "'" are lite Itei rhts of all a' 'eieratiOIl re ·tan rle and a velo ·ity rectangle, respectivel .

(COllI inucrl}

633

3. Applying the moment-area method. This graphical te ·hnique' is used when the a-I curve is given and the change in th position coordinate is to be det rmined. We found in Sec. 11.8 that the position coordinate x, can be expressed as

x, = Xu + vol, + (area under a-t curve)(t, - t)

(11.13)

Keep in mind that when the area under the a-t .urve is a ompo rite area, the same valu of t, should b used for <.-omputinC1 th contribution of each of the component areas.

4. Determining the acceleration from a v-x curve. You saw in Sec. 11. that it is possibl to determine the acceleration from a v-:1.' curve by direct measurement. It is important to note, however, that this method is applicable onl . if the same linear scale is used lor th v and x axes (for example, 1 in. = 10 ft and 1 in. = 10 ft/s). Wh n this condition is not satisf d, the ace I ration can still b det rmined from the equation

dv

{/ = '0-

dx

where the slope d 'ldx is obtained as follows: First, draw the tangent to the .urve at the point of interest. ext, usinz appropriate scales, measure along that tan rent corresponding increments ~x and t.v. The desired slop is equal to the ratio ~v/!lx.

634

11.61 A pnrti ·Ie moves in a straight line with tlte a . .eleration shown in the figure. Knowing that it starts from the origin with 0 = -I fth, (a) plot tlte 0-1 and x-I .urves for 0 < I < 20 s, (h) d termine its velocity, its position, and the total distance traveled when I = 12 s.

11.62 For the parti ·Ie and motion or Problem I 1.61, plot the '-1 and x-I .urves for 0 < f < 20 s and determine (a) the maximum value or the velo .lty of the parti .le, (/J) the maximum value of its position coonli nate.

11.63 particle moves in a straight line with the velocity hown in the

fI rure. Knowing that r = -.540 rt at 1 = 0, (a) .onstruct the a-I ami x-I '1I1'Ves for 0 < I < .50 s, and determine (h) the total distan 'e traveled h the parti ·Ie when I = .'50 s, (c) the two times at which r = O.

(rtls)

t (s)

Fig. Pl1.63

11.64 A particle moves ill a straight line with the velocity shown in the figure. Knowing that x = -540ft at I = O. (a) construct the (/-1 und x-I curves for 0 < I < SO s, and determine (b) the muxiuuun value of the position coordinate or til!' particle, (c) the values of I fill' which the particle is at x = 100 ft.

11.65 parachutist is ill free fall at a rate of 200 km/h when he opens

his parachute at un ultitude of 600 III. Following a rapid and constunt deceleration, he theu descends at a constant rate of 50 km/l) [roin .586 III to 30 III, where he maneuvers the puraclrute into the wind to further slow his descent, Knowillg thut the parachutist lands with a IIl'gligihl' downward velocity, determine ((/) the time required for the paruchutlst to lund after opellillg his puruchute, (b) th~' initial deceleration.

11.66 machine component is spray-puinted while it is mounted Oil a

pallet that travels 4 III ill 20 s. The pallet has an initial velocity or so 1I1111/S ami can 1)(' a xx-lcrntcd at a muxinuuu rate of 60 1lI11l/s2• Knowillg that the pailltillg process requires 1.5 S to 'olllpl('t(, and is pe'rforllled as the pallet InOH'S with a xmstaut speed. dl'te'J'lIlilll' the slIlallest possibh- value of the' maxiuuuu peed of the pnlk-t,

n(rtl~)~

6 -.--:

3 ( 10

Or-~4---7~-------------------

I(s)

~5 - - - - -"--------'

Fig. Pll.61

Fig. Pl1.6S

635

636 Kinemotics of Perticles

Fig. Pll.67

JJ.67 A temperature sensor is attached to slider AB which moves back and fortb through 60 in. The maximum velocities of the slider are 12 in.ls to the right and 30 in.!s to the left. When the slider is moving to the right, it accelerates and decelerates at a constant rate of 6 in.ls2; when moving to the left, the slider accelerates and decelerates at a constant rate of 20 in.ls2. Determine the time required Ior the slider to complete a full cycle, and construct the v-t and x-t curves of its motion.

1l.68 A commuter train traveling at 40 I1lUh is 3 mi from a station. The train then decelerates so that its speed is 20 mi/h when it is 0.5 mi [roru the station. Knowing that the train arrives at the station 7.5 min after beginning to decelerate and assuming constant decelerations, determine (a) the time required for the train to travel the first 2.5 mi, (h) the speed of the train as it arrives at the station, (c) the final constant deceleration of the train.

10 ",ill. ____,.

Fig. Pll.68

11.69 Two road rally checkpoints A and B are located on the sallie high. way and are 12 kill apart. The speed limits for the first kill and the last 4 km of the section of highway are 100 krn/h and 70 km/h, respectively. Drivers must stop at each checkpoint, and the specifled time between points A and B is 8 min 20 s. Knowing that a driver accelerates and decelerates at the same constant rate, determine the l1lagllitude of Iter acceleration if site travels at the speed limit as much as possible.

A

Fig. Pll.69

11.70 In a \ uter-tunk test involving the Iallnching of a small model hoat, the model's initial horizontul velocity is ~ m/s and its ltorizOl~tal acceleration varies liueurl [rom -12111/5' at I = 0 to -2 II1/S· at I = II and then remuins equu] to -2 I11/S2 until t = J.4 s. Knowillg that Ii = 1.8 111/5 ",llPn t = t .. dl!t!'nnilw (0) the value of tlo (h) tlte velocir r and the position of the model at I = 1.4 s,

Fig. Pll.70

11.71 A car ami a truck are both traveling at the constant speed of 35 mi/h; the car is 40 ft behi nd the truck. The driver or the car wants to pass the truck, i.e., he wishes to place his ear at E, 40 It in front of the truck, and then resume the speed of 35 mi/h. The maximum acceleration of the ear is 5 ft/s2 and th maximum deceleration obtained by applying the brakes is 20 ftls2. What is the shortest time in which the driver of the car can complete the paSSing operation if he does not at any time exceed a peed of 50 mi/h? Draw the I)-t curve,

Fig. P11.71

11.72 Solve Prob, 11.71, assumlng that the driver of the car does not pay any attention to the speed limit while passing and concentrates 011 read ling position Band resumillg a speed of 35 mi/l. in the shortest possible time. What is the I1I.LximUIIl speed reached? Draw the u-t eurve.

11.73 All elevator starts from rest ami moves upward. accelerating at a rate of 1.2 111/52 until it readies a speed of 7. m/s, which it then maintai ns. Two seconds after the elevator begins to 1I10ve, a man standing 12 III above the initial position of the top of the elevator throws a bull upward with an initial velocity of 20 m/s. Deterruine when the ball will hit the elevator.

11.74 The acceleration record shown was obtained for a small airplane traveling along a straight course. Knowing that x = 0 and . = 60 IIl/s when t = 0, determiue (a) tile velocity and position of the plane at I' = 20 s. (b) its average velocit during the interval 6 s < t < l4 s.

J J .75 ur A is tra\'eling on a highway at a constant speed ( A)O= 60 mi/li and is 380 ft from the eutran .e of an a' 'eS5 nUllp when .ar B enters the ac .eleration lane at that point at a speed ( 8)0 = 15 mi/h.

ur B a .celerutes uniformly and enters the main traffic lau . after l-mwling 200 rt ill 5 s. It then continues to accelerate at the same rate until it rea ·hes a speed of 60 mi/h, which it then maintains. Deu rmine the filial distance between the two urs.

Fig. PJJ.75

Problems 637

Fig. Pll.73

Fig. Pll.74

638 Kinemotics of Perticles

2

-L2 -----------------

Fig. Pl1.7S

11.76 Car A is traveling at 40 mi/h when it enters a 30 milh speed zone.

The driver of car A decelerates at a rate of 16 ftls2 until reaching a speed of 30 mi/h, which she then maintains. \ hen car B, which was initially 60 ft behind car A and traveling at a constant speed of 45 mi/h, enters the speed zone, its driver decelerates at a rate of 20 ftls2 until reaching a speed of 2 mi/h. Knowing that the driver of car B maintains a speed of 28 mi/li, determine (a) the closest that car B comes to car /\, (lJ) the time at which car A is 70 ft in front of car B.

Fig. PJJ.76

11.77 A C:II' is trav ling at a constant speed of 54 km/h wh nits driv r se s a child run into the road. The driver applies her brukes until the child returns to the sidewalk and then accelerates to r Slime her original sp d of .54 krn/h, th acceleration record of th car is shown in the figure. Assuminz X = 0 when f = 0, d t rmin (a) th tim II at which th velocity is again 54 km/h, (h) th position of the ear at that tim, (c) the avera ze velocity of the car dllring the interval I s :5 f :5 II'

2

o~~~----~----====~-----

4

I(S)

Fig. Pllo77

11.78 As shown in the figure, from t = 0 to t = 4 s the accelerutiou of 1I gin!n particle is represented bv a parabola. Knowing that x = 0 and o = 8 IIIls when t = 0, (a) construct the v-I and x-I curves lor 0 < f < 4 s, (iJ) determine the position of the particle at t = 3s. (Hint: se table inside tilt' [rout cover.)

11.79 During a 11111111Ifactllri11g process, a e011veY01" belt starts fl1J1I1 rest a11d travels a total of 1.2 ft before temporarily cOllli11g to rest. Kllowing that the jerk. 01" rate of 'hungl' of a x-leruuon. is limitt-d to 4. fils! P('I" second, determine (a) the shortest tilll<' rcqutred I()I" th(' helt to lIIoV(' 1.2 l"t, (b) th(' muxinnuu lind lIVl'I"a'(' '"olllles of the velo 'it of thl' belt dllrill' that tillll'.

11.80 An airport shuttle train travels between two terminals that are 1.6 mi apart. To maintain passeng r comfort, the acceleration of the train is limited to :t4 ftls2, and the jerk, or rate of change of acceleration, is limited to :to, ftls2 per second. If the shuttle has a maximum speed of 20 mi/lr, determine (a) the shortest time for the shuttle to travel between the two terminals, (b) the corresponding average velocity of the shuttle,

Problems 639

H.SJ The ac .elemtion re 'ort! howu was obtained dndng the speed trials of a sports car. Knox ing that the .ar starts from rest, determine by upproximate means (II) the velo 'it of the .ar at I = 8s, (b) the distance the .ar ha traveled at I = 20 s.

a (111/52)

7.0

\

f\.

-,

r-;

I r-- -

--.

I 6.0 -.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

o

o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 1(5)

Fig. PH.8l

J I.S2 Two seconds are required to bring the piston rod of an air cylinder to rest; the acceleration record of the piston rod during the 2 s is as shown. Determine by approximate means (a) the initial velocity of the piston rod, (b) the distance traveled by the piston rod as it is brought to rest.

-(I (111/.2)

4.0

1.0

:\ - - -

'\.

-, -,

....._ --

t-

O 0.2.5 0.5 0.7.5 1.0 I 2.5 1.5 1.7.'; 2.0 I (s) 3.0

2.0

o

Fig. Pll.82

640 KinemOlics 01 Porlicles

60

-15

-0.;5.,-1

~--------II----------~

Fig. PJJ.87

11.83 A tmining airplane has a velocity of 126 ftls when it lands on an aircraft carrier. As the an sting gear of the carrier btings the airplane to rest, the velocity and the acceleration of the airplane are recorded; the results are shown (solid curve) in the figure. Determine by approximate means (a) the time required for the airplane to come to rest, (b) the distance traveled in that time.

-n (ftl,l)

f-

~ I---:::..

=,

.~

-\

I

0 20 40 60 80 100 J20 140 v (fthi) 60 ·0

40 30 20 10 o

Fig. Pll.83

11.84 Shown in the figure is a portion of the experimentally determined v-x curve for a shuttle cart. Determine by approximate means the acceleration of the cart (lI) when .r = 10 in., (b) when v = 0 in.ls.

v (in.!,)

I I

~

-: I

/ I

V I

I JOO

80

60

40

20

00 Fig. Pll.84

40

50 x (ln.)

10

20

30

11.85 Usinz the method of, ec, LJ .8, derive the formula x = Xu + vot + tall for tile POSitiOIl coordinate of a particle in uniformly accelerated reetilin xir motion.

11.86 sill' the iuetlnxl of Sec. 11 .. tlelel'lIlille lhe positio» ufthe particle or Prob. 11.61 wheu I = 14.

1(,)

H.B7 Wltile testillg a new lifehoat, all uccolcrouu-tcr attached to the boat provides tht, record shown. I f the hoat has a velocity of 7.5 ftls at t = 0 and is at rest at time I), dctermiuc, llsing the method or Sec. 11. , (lI) tip time t I, (h) the distance thJ"Ollgh which the hoat moves hef(mo1 comillg to rest.

n.BB 'or tlu- parti 'k' of' Proh. 11.6 , draw th(, a-I curve and det('rtllill(', IISillg the Illethod olScc, II. , (a) the positlon of the purti ,If' when I = 52 s, (iJ) the muxinuuu vuh«- of its position coordiuau-.

PARTICLES

11.9 POSITION VECTOR, VELOCITY, AND ACCELERATION

Wh n a parti ·Ie moves along a curve other than a straight line, we say that the particle is in curvilinear motiol1. To define th position P OCCllpied by the particle at a gi\'en time t, we select a fixed reference system, such as the x, y, = axes shown in Fig. 1l.14a, and draw the vector r joining tit Oligin 0 and point P. Sine tit vector I' is charact rized bits magnitude r and its direction with respect to the reference axes, it COIllpletely defines the position of the particle with respect to those axes; the vector r is referred to as the position teeter of the particle at time t.

onsider now th vector r' definin , th position P' occnpi d by the same particle at a later time t + ill. The vector ~r joining P and P' repr iscnts the changc in the position vector during the time interval

t sin e, as we can easily ch ·k From Fig. 11.l4a, the ve ·tor I" is obtained by adding the vectors r and ~r accordinz to the triangl rule. \' e note that ~I' represents a change in direction as well as a change in magnttude of the position vector I'. The m;erage velocity of the partie] 0 er th tim interval ill is defill d as th quoti nt of ~r and ill. Since ill' is a vector and ilt is a scalar, the quotient ilr/ilt is a vector attached at P, of the same direction as ~r and of magnitude equal to the magnitude of ~I' divided by ill (Fig. 11.1417).

Th instantaneous velocity of the particl at time I is obtained b choosing shorter and shorter time intervals ilt and, correspondingly, shorter and shorter vector increments ~I'. The instantaneous velocity is titus represented hy tit ve ·tOI'

ill' v= limilt 0 ~l

(11.14)

11.9 Posilion Ve<:lor, Velociry, ond AccelerOlion 641

«(I)

(1))

s ~t and ill' become shorter, the points P and P' gct closer; the (c)

ve ·tor v obtained in the limit must therefore he tangent to the patl

of the particl (Fig. 11. 14c). Fig. 11.14

ince the position vector I' depends upon the time t, we can refer to it as a 'ector function of the s .alar variable t and d note it by I'(t). Ext endin r th concept of d I; alive of a scalar function introduced in elementary calculus, we will refer to the limit of the CIuoticnt 6.1'Iilt as the derioati 'e of the vc itor function I·(t). \' c write

ell'

v=-

cit

(11.15)

The Ina rnilllde of Iltt' ve '101' v is called tlte .\·pl'ed of the par1i .le.

It can b obtain d b substttuting for th > vector ill' in formula (11.14) the magnitude of this vector represented by the straight-line segment PP'. But the length 0(' the segment PP' approaches the length ~.\' of the arc PP' ,L~ ~I deer ases (Fig. 1l.14a), and we call write

PP' ils

= lim = liiu

ilt u ~I t:..r 0 I

I cis I r = til

•

(11.16)

642 Kinemotics 01 Porticles

(0)

11n<I""mph

(r-)

Ij

(d)

Fig. 11.15

v'

.t'

x'

The speed v can thus he obtained by differentiating with respect to t the I u rth s of th arc d S -ribed by th particl .

onsider the velocity of the particle at time t and its velocity v' at a later time t + l1t (Fig. 11.15a). Let us draw both vectors v and v' from the same OIigin 0' (Fig. 11.1.5b). Th ve tor l1v joining Q and Q' I' pr sents the chance in the velocit of the particle dming the time interval l1t, since the v ctor v' can be obtained by adding the vectors v and l1v. Wc should note that l1v represents a change in thc direction of' the velocity as well as a ·hauge in speed. The a seraee acceleration of the particle over th time interval IlJ is defined as the quotient of l1v and l1t. Since l1v is a vector and l1t a scalar, the quotient l1v/l1t is a vector of the sam direction as l1v.

The instantaneous nccel ration of lit particl at time l is obtained b choosing smaller and smaller values for l1t and l1v. The instantaneous a' x.lcration is thus represented by the vector

l1v a = lim - 6.1_0 l1t

(11.17)

Noting that til elocity v is a vector function v(t) of the time I, we 'an refer to the limit of the quotient l1v/l1t as the derivative of v with respe .t to I. \Ve write

rlv

a =-

rlf

(11.1 )

\\ e observe that the acceleration a is tangent to the curve described by the tip Q of the vector v when the latter is drawn from it I1xecl oligin O' (Fig. 11.15c) and that, ill gen rul, til(;' a . 'deration is not taugt'nt to tho path of tho parti ·Ie (Fig. 11.15r1). The .urve described by rho lip 0(' v and shown in Pi'. ) 1.15c is 'allNI the hodor/mp" of th ' motion.

11.10 DERIVATIVES OF VECTOR FUNCTIONS

We saw in the precedin J s ction that the velocity v of a partie] in curvilinear motion can be represented by the derivative of the vector function r(t) characteIizing the position of the particle. Similarly, the acceleration a of th particl can b I' pres nted by th d rivative of the vector fnnction v(t). In this section, we will give a formal definition of the derivative of a vector function and establish a few rules governing the differentiation of slims and products of vector functions.

Let P(lI) be a vector function of the scalar variable u . By that we mean that the scalar u completely defines the magnitude and direction of the ve ·tor P. If the vector P is drawn frOIll a R .ed oligin 0 and the scalar II is allowed to vmy, the tip of P will d scribe a (riven CUlV in space. Consider the vectors P corresponding, respectively, to the values II and II + llu of the scalar variable (Fig. lU6a). Let llP be the vector joining th tips of th two giv n ve tors; \V writ

llP = P(II + flll) - P(II)

Dividing through by llll and letting lllt approach zero, we define the cI zri oat! e oj I he ector [uuct iOll P(lI):

riP = lim llP = lim P(1t + llll) - P(II)

rill 6,,-0 Su 6,,-0 111l

(1l.19)

I I . I 0 Oerivolives of Vedor funClions 643

v

(a)

S lllt approach s zero, the line of action of llP becomes tangent to the curve of Fig. 11.100. Thus, the derivative c/P/ci" of the vector function P(II) is tangent to tli curce described hy the tip of P(lI) (Fig. 11.1Gb).

The standard rules for the differentiation of the sums and prodncts of scalar functions can be extended to vector functions. onsidcr first the srtm (if two ector [unctions P(rt) and Q(II) of the same s 'alar

variable It. According to the definition riven in (11.19), the derivative

of the vector P + Q is Fig_ 11.16

d(P + Q) = lim Il(P + Q) = lim (IlP + llQ)

du 6,,_0 llu d,,_O llll llu

or sin 'e the limit of a slim is equal to the sum of the limits or its terms,

d(P + Q) llP llQ

---'- __ "'-'- = lim - + li m --

du dll 0 llil ~II'O llll

d(P + Q) elP dQ

-~___.;:.;.. = - + -

rill du du

(11.20)

The product of (/ scalarjunction feu) and (/ vector [unction P(II) of the same scalar variable u will now be ·onsidered. The derivative of thp VI' .tor J P is

dlfP) . (J + llJ)(P + P) - JP (IlJ P)

-- = hili -=-----=---------=-- = lim -P + f-

<III 611 n llll dll (I llli All

(il)

644 Kinemotics of Perticles

or recalling the properties of the limits of sums and products.

d(fP) df elP --=-p+f-

du rill rill

(11.21)

Th tl rivarives of th scalar product and the cector product of lwo vector functions P(II) and Q(II) can be obtained in a similar way. \Ve have

rI(p· Q) dp rlQ

=-'Q+P'-

du du du

d(P X Q) elp dQ

-----=-=-XQ+PX-

du du du

(11.22)

(1l.23)t

The properties established above can b used to determin the rectangular components of the derivative of a vector [unction P(u). Resolving P into components along fixed rectangular axe' x, '1, c, we write

(11.24)

where Px, PIf, Pz are the rectangular scalar components of the vector P, and i, j, k the unit vectors corresponding, respectively, to thc x, '1, and z axes (Sec. 2.12). By (11.20), the derivative of P is equal to the sum of the d rivatives of the terms in th right-hand m mb r, Since each of these terms is the product of a scalar and a vector function, we should usc (11.21). But thc unit vectors i, j. k have a constant magnitude (equal to I) and fixed directions. Their derivatives are therefore zero, and we write

dP dP sr, eIP_ elu = d,:i + d;;j + du-k

(11.25)

Noting that the coefficients of the unit vectors are, by definition, the scalar components of th . vector dP/du, we conclud ' that the rectangular scalar components of the dericatice eIP/rllI of the vector [unclion P(II) ar obtained h dtfferentiating the corresponding scalar components of P.

Rate of Change of a Vector. \ hell the ve tor P is a [un tion of the time t , its derivative dPidt represents the rate of change of P with respect to th frame Ox'1::'. Resolving P into I' ct<mgular components. we have, b (11.25),

riP dP, dPy dP,

-= -'j + -j + _ok

dt elf dt cit

or, \Ising dots to indicate dllferentiation with respect to t ,

P = Pri + Pyj + I\k (11.25')

ISlne' 111(' vector 1"'0<1"('1 I, nul couuuututivr (Soc. 3.4). 111(' OI'd"r of II,.. f,,(I(I'" In E'I' (11.2.'1) 11111,1 hc' '"Jlll:oI,,,,<I.

As you will see in Sec. 15.10, the rate of change of a vector as observed from a mo 'ing frame of reference is, in general, differ nt from its rate of chance as obs rved from a fixed frame of ref renee, However, if the moving frame O'x'!J';:: is in translation, i.e., if its axes remain parallel to the corresponding axes of the fixed frame OX!J: (Fig. ] 1.17), the same unit v tors i, j, k ar used in both frames, and at any mven instant the vector P has the same components Px"Py, Pz in both frames. It follows from (11.25') that the rate of change P is the same with respect to the frames OX!J;; and O'x' y 'z', We state, th refore: The rate oj change oj a vector is the smile uiith respect to a fixed JIY/me and with respect to a Jmme ill translation. This property \ViII greatly simplify our work, since we will be concerned mainly with frames in tran ·Iation.

11.11 RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS OF VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

When th position of a particle P is J nn d at any instant by its rectangular coordinates x, y and z, it is convenient to resolve the v locity v and the acceleration a of the particle into rectangular components (Fig. 11.18).

Resolvin th position vector r of th particle into r ctan rular components, we write

r = xi + yj + zk

(11.26)

where the coordinates x,y.;:; are functions of t. Differentiating twice, we obtain

ell'

V = -1 =.i:i + ijj + :;k itt

dv .. .. "k

a = cit = xi + yj + ;:; .

(11.27)

(11.28)

where .i, ij, z and .\' , ij ,;; represent, respective] , thc first and second derivatives of r, 'l- and ;:; with rt'spe t to t. It follows [rom (11.27) and (11.28) that th scalar components of the velocity and accelera-

tion are

T = ;\. tiy = Y = ;;; (11.29)

ax = .\' {/y = ij «. = ;:; (11.30)

positive value for .r indicates that the vector component VT is dire ·t ·d to the right, and a II> rativ value indicales that it is directed to the left. The sense or each of th other vector compon ents can be determined in a similar wu from the sign of th ' corresponding scalar component. If desired, the magnitudes and dire .tions of the velocit and uccel ration can he obtain d from their scalar components b the methods of Sees, 2.- and 2.12.

Th • us' of 1" ·tang\llar '0 111 pO 11 -nts to d -scribe the position. the vclocit • and tlu- at't'el('ration or a part ide is paliit'nlariy <"I'Il'cti\'(' when the .omponcnt a, of' the a iccleration depends onl upon I, x, und/or ,., and when, similurl ,ay k-pcnds only upon I, y, and/or y'

11 . 1 1 Reclongulor ComponenlS of Velociry 645 o nd Accel.rOlion

II' »:

!I

0'

\ .

0 7

x

-' Fig. 11.17

.,,'

/

(!--

I I I I I I I ~---r~a,

~- __ J/_x

/k

Fig. 11,18

646 Kinematics 01 Particles

Photo 11.3 The motion of this snowboarder in the air will be 0 porobolo ossuming we con neglect oir resistonce.

(,,) Motion of a projectil ..

\,,'u

I----x----

(b) Equlvnlont rccttllncur motions Fig. 11.19

and 00 upon t, z, and/or VO' Equations (11.30) can then be integrated independently, and so can Eqs. (11.29). In other words, the motion of the particle in the x direction its motion in the I) direction, and its motion in the::: direction can be considered separately.

In the case of the motion of a projectile, for example, it can be shox n (see Se '. 12 . .5) that the 'ompol1 nts of the a' .el ration ar

a, = .i' = 0 (ly = I) = -g (fo = ;: = 0

if the resistance of the air is neglected. D noting by .ro, 1)0, and ;:-0 th coordinar s of a gun, and h ('J!)' (vy)o, and (v:)o the component of the initial velocity Vo of the projectile (a bullet), we integrate twice in t and obtain

Vx = .i- = (vx)o Vy = Y = (v,,)() - gt vo = .:: = (vJo

r = '>:0 + (vx)ot I) = I)u + (v,,)ot - kgt2 ;:; = ;:;0 + (vJot

If the projectile is fired in the xI) plane from the origin 0, we have :to = 1)0 = ;:;0 = 0 and (volo = 0, and the equations of motion reduce to

" = (vx)o r = (vx)ot

': = 0 ;:;=0

These equations show that the projectile remains in th xI) plane, that its motion in the horizontal dir ction is uniform, and that its motion in tile vertical direction is unilorrnly accelerated. The motion of a projectile can thus be replaced by two independent rectilinear motions, which are easil visualized if we as rum that til projectil is fired vertically with an initial velocity (v,,)o from a platform moving with a constant horizontal velocity (vx)o (Fig. 11.19). The coordinate x of the projectile is equal at any instant to the distance traveled by th platform, and its coordinat I) can b comput d as if til proj ctile were moving along a vertical line.

It can be observed that tile equations defining the coordinates r and I) of a proj .tile at any instant art: the param tric equations of a parabola. Thus, the trajectory of a projectile is parabolic. This result, however ceases to he valid when the resistance of the air or the variation with altitude of th . acceleration of rravity is taken into .1 .count.

11.12 MOTION RELATIVE TO A FRAME IN TRANSLATION

In the pre .edin 1 se .tion, a single frame of referen .e was used to describe the motion of a particle. In most cases this frame was attached to the earth and was considered as fixed. Situations in whi .h it is conveni nt to lise several frames of reference simultan - ou I)' \ ill 1I0W be anal zed. If one of the frames is alta .hed to the earth it will be call d a fixed frame of reference, and the other frames will be referred to as 1110 'illg frames of reference. It should be understood, however, that the sel -ctinn of a fixed frame of reference> is r"I'{'1 urbltrury. An [ramr- '<Ill he' deSignated as "fixed": all other frame'S not rigid I alta .hed to this frame will then be des -ribcd as "moving."

onsider two particles A and B moving in space (Fig. 11.20); the vectors rA and rB define their positions at any given instant with respect to the fixed frame of reference Oxy:. Consider now a system of axes r", v'. z' centered at A and parallel to the x, y, : axes. While the origin of these axes moves, their orientation remains the sallie; the frame of referen 'e Ax'y':;' is ill translation with respect to Oxy:. The vector r/JIA joining A and B defines the position of B relative to the moving frame Ar'y':;' (or, for short, the position of B relative to A).

\Ve note from Fig. 1l.20 that the position v ctor r/J of particle B is the Slim of the position vector 1'" of particle A and of the position vector 1'/J/iI of B relative to A; we write

(11.31)

Differentiating (11.31) with respect to t within the fixed frame of reference, and IIsing dots to indicate tim derivatives, we have

(11.32)

The derivatives i'A and i'l! represent, respectively, the velocities Vii and VB of the particles A and B. Since A;('y':;' is in translation, the derivative i'IJ/A r pres nts the rat of chang of I'WA with respect to the frame Ax'y'::,' as well as with respect to the fixed frame (Sec. 11.10). This derivative, therefore, defines the velOCity VWA of B relative to the frame A,'y'::,' (or, for short. the velocity V8hl of B relative to A). We write

(11.33)

Differentiating Eq. (11.33) with resp· ·t to t, and using the derivative V/Jlil to define the acceleration a/JIA of B relative to the [rame Ax'y'::,' (or, for short, the acceleration aWA of B relative to A), we write

aIJ = a,1 + "!JIll

(11.34)

Th motion of B with respect to th llxed [ram Oxy::, is referred to as the absolute motion of B. The equations derived in this section show that the absolute motion of B call he obtained by culIIlJillill/!, the motion of A find the relati 1II0tiOll {~f B ioit]: ,-('spec I 10 the lIIof)ill{,!. frame attached to A. Equation (11.33), for example, exppsses that the absolute velocity VIJ of particle B can be obtained by uddinu c .toriall the velo it of and the velocity 01' B relative to the [rame Ax'i]":', Equation (11.34) expresses a similar propert in terms of the accelerations. t We should keep in mind, however, that the [rame r'y':;' is ill translation: that is, while it moves with A, it maintains tire same orientation. As mu will see later (Sec, 1 .. 14), di Iferent I' elations must he used in the case or a rotating frame of rcforen '('.

I 'nt., Ih,,' Ihr r .... II'1(·1 ()f IllI' ,,,hs('rlpls A "",I B/A ",.'d In tilt' 'i~I'I.h""d memher of E'ls, (11.31) ,Iom,,),:10 (II. I) is "'1",,1 'I> 11,(· ,,,hscdpl B ,,«·(1 iu II",i,. 1,·n·lllllul 1I"·,,,I,,·r.

11.12 Motion Relotive to 0 Frome 647 in Translalion

Fig. 11.20

i •

Photo 11.4 The pilot of a helicopter must take into account the relative motion of the ship when landing.

11>0 m!,

I-----.r-----I

YI r=-g·81111." ------ I.'«lm!,

(,"III I

30· :

o

x

648

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.7

A projectile is fired from the edge of a ISO-Ill c1iIT with an initial velocity of 180 m/s at an angl of 30° with the horizontal. 'eglecting air resistance, find (a) the horizontal distance from tile gun to the point where the projectile strikes the ground, (b) the greatest elevation above the groulld reached by the projectile.

SOLUTION

The vertical and the horizontal motion will be considered separately.

Vertical Motion. Uniformly Accelerated Malian. hoosing tile positive

sense of tile I) axis upward and placing the Origill 0 at the gun. we have

(vy)o = (l 0 I11/s) sin 30° = +90 m/s

1I = -9. 1 IIl/s2

Substituting into the equations of uniformly accelerated motion. we have

I'y = (Lly)O + at

I) = (Lly)ot + kllt2 v; = (vy)t + 2L11)

Vy = 90 - 9.81!

I) = 901 - 4.90f2 v; = 100 - 19.621)

(I) (2) (3)

Horizontal Motion. Uniforlll Motiou. .\' axis to the right, we have

(v.)o = (180 111/5) cos 30° = + 15.5.9 I1I/s

hoosing tile positive sense of the

Substituting into the equation of uniform motion, we obtain

x = (v,)ol

(J)

x = 155.91

a. Horizontal Distance. When the projectile strikes the ground, we have I) = -150111

'lrrying this value into Ell (2) for the wrti 'al motion, we write

-150 = 90t - 4.90[2

,2 - 1 .371 - 30.6 = 0

I = 19.91 s

an)~ng I = 19.91 s into Eq, (4) for the horizoutul motion, we obtain

r = 155.9( 19.91)

x - 3100 III

b. Greatest Elevation. Whell the projectile I' aches its 'I'{'atest ele n Iion, w have y = 0; carryin, this value into Ell' (3) for the vertical motion, we write

0=,(00-19.621) 1)=413111

Cn'ah'st ('It', ,.11011 aho\(' groulld - ISO III + 41 II. .')n.) III ....

I A I

!-12,000 ft---I

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.8

A projectile is fired with an initial velocity of 00 ftls at a t<u-get B located 2000 ft above the gun A and at a horizontal distance of 12.000 ft. eglecling air resistance, determine the value of the firing angle a.

SOLUTION

The horizontal and the vertical motion \\~II be considered separately.

Horizontal Motion. PlaCing the origin of the coordinate axes at the gill, we have

«(;,)0 = 800 cos a

Substituting into the equation of uniform horizontal motion, we obtain

.r = (v,)ut x = (800 cos a)1

The time requir d for the pro] ctile to move through a horizontal distance of 12,000 ft is obtained by setting x equal to 12,000 ft.

12,000 = ( 00 cos a)1

12,000 15

1 = __:.:::!.:..::..c.._

00 cos a cos a

Vertical Motion

1I = -32.2 ftls2

Substituting into the equation of uniformly accelerated vertical motion, we obtain

!I = ( 00 sin a)t - 16.112

Projectile Hits Target. When x = 12,000 ft, W(' must have !I = 2000 ft. Suhstituting for !I and s('ttin' I (,(Jllal to th(' value found uhove, we write

15 ( 1.5 )2

2000 = 800 sin a-- - 16.1 --

ens a cos a

Since 1/ :052 a = sec2 ex = 1 + tan2 a, we have

2000 = 00(15) tan a - 16.1(152)(1 + tan2a) . 622 tan2 a - 12,000 tan ex + .'5622 = 0

Solving this quudratic equation for tan a, we have

and tan a = 2.75

ex - 2\) . .5° ,lUd a - 70.()O

The target \\~U be hit if either of these two filing angles is used (sec figure).

tall a = 0.565

649

111 III [ r,o ,

'N

a

1', .)() 111

" IlIml, 650

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.9

Automobile A is traveling east at the constant speed 0[36 kill/h. As automobile A crosses the iuterse 'lion SI.O\\~l, automobile B starts [rom rest 35 111 north or the intersection and moves south with a constant acceleration or 1.2 Ill/S2. Determine the position, velocity, and acceleration or B relative to A 5 s after A crosses the intersection.

SOLUTION

\Ve .hoose r and I) axes with origin at the in terse ·tion of the two streets and with positive senses directed respectively east and north.

x

Motion of Automobile A. First tI,C speed is expressed in m/s: !.iA = (36 km)(lOOO 111)(_1_1._) = 10111/5

h 1 kill 3600 s

oting that the motion of A is uniform, we write, for all)' time t, fill = 0

0" = +.10111/5

XII = (XII)O + 'Al = 0 + 101

For t = 5 S, we have fli, = 0

A - +10 m/s

Xi' = +(10 lll/s)(5 s) = +50 111

all = 0

Vi' = 10 Ill/S ~ rll = .50 1ll-4

Motion of Automobile 8. We note that the motion of B is uniformly accelerated and write

IIn=-1.2m/s2

(;IJ = (1)11)0 + at = 0 - 1.2 I

I)IJ = (YIJ)U + ( n)ol + !flB,2 = .'3.5 + 0 - ~(1.2)12

For t = 5 S, we hav«

1111 = -1.2 Ill/S2

Oil = -(1.2 1I1/s2)(5 s) = -6 III/S

1)8 = 3.5 - ~(1.2 111/52)(.5 s)- = +20 III

a~ = 1.2 Ill/52 ! VII = 6 m/s ]

rll = 20 III i

Motion of 8 Relative to A. We draw the triangl > corresponding to til vector eqnatioll "8 = rA + rHiA and obtaiu tlw l1lagllitude ami direction of til(' position vector of B relative to A.

i'H/A = 53,9 III ex = 21.80 "HI.' .5:3.9 III ~ 21,SO

Proceediu T in a similar fashion, we filld the velo 'it)' 1I11d uc 't'leration of B relative to A.

HIA = 1 I ,!iii I1Ils

• 111 - U" + UHI"

VB = VA + vn!.

f3 = aU)O

1'/.1

11.()!i 111/, :s:" .11.0° .... UH.I .. 1.:2 IIl/s2 J ....

In the problems for this lesson, you will analyze the two- and three-dimensional nlOfioll of a parti .le, While the physi .al interpretations of the velo ity and a .eleration ar th same as in th first lessons of the chapter, YOll should rem mb r that these quantities are vectors. In addition, you should understand from your experience with vectors in statics that it will often be advantageous to express position v 'tors, velo 'ities, and a .celerations in terms of th ir re 'tallgular s 'alar components [Eqs. (11.2-) and (11.2 )]. Furthermore, given two vectors A and B, recall that A . B = 0 if A and Bare perpendicular to each other, while A x B = 0 if A and Bare parall I.

A. Analyzing the motion of a projectile. Man' of the following problems deal with the two-dimensional motion of a proje .tile, where the re sistance of the air can be neglected. In Sec. ] 1.11, we de elop d the equations which describe this type of motion, and we observed that the horizontal component of the velocity remained constant (uniform motion) while the vertical component of the acceleration was constant (uuiforml accelerated motion). \ ewer able to consider s pararely the horizontal and the vertical motions of the particle. ssnming that the projectile is fired from the oligin, wc can writc thc two equations

r - (v ) t Y = ( . ) t - 1(Tt2

·-·,u yO 2

1. If the initial velocity and firing angle are known, the alue oflJ corresponding to any givcn value of x (or the value of r for any value of '1) can bc obtained by solving one of the above equations for t and substituting for t into the other; equation [Sampl Prob. 11.7].

2. If the initial velocity and the coordinates of a point of the trajectory are known, and on wish to determine the firillg angle a, begin YOllr solution bv expressing the components (vJ() and (vy){J of the initial velocity as functions of the angle 0'. These expressions and the known values of r and y ar th n substituted into the above equations. Finall , solve the [irst equation for t and subsutute that value of t into the second equation to obtain a tligonometric quation in a, which 'Oll ean solve for that unknown [ ample Prob. 11. J.

icontinued}

651

B. Solving translational two-dimensional relative-motion problems. You saw in Sec, 11.12 that the absolute motion of a particle B can he obtained by combining the motion of a particle A and the relative Illation of B with respect to a frame attached to A which is in translation, The velocity and acceleration of B can then be expres ed as shown in Eqs. (1] .33) and (J 1,34), respe .tively,

1. To visualize the relative motion of 8 with respect to A, imagine that rou are attached to particl A as YOIl observe th motion of particle B. For exampl , to a passenger in automobile A of Sample Prob. 11,9, automobile B appears to be hcading in a southwesterly direction (south should be obvious; and west is due to th fact that automobile Ai' moving to th east-automobile B then appears to travel to the west) .. ote that this conclusion is consistent with the direction of "IlIA'

2. To solve a relative-motion problem, first write the vector equations (11.31), (11.33), and (11,34), which relate thc motions of particles A and B, You may then use either of th foUo\Ving methods:

a. Construct the corresponding vector triangles and solve thcm for the desired position ve ·tor, velo 'ity, and a e1eration [Sample Prob. 1] .9],

b. Express all vectors in terms of their rectangular components and solve th two inc! P nc!ent s ts of scalar quations obtain d in that wa , If YOII choos this approach, be sure to select the same positi e direction for the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of each particle.

652

11.89 The motion of a parti ·11' is defined by tile equations x = 4,3 - 512 + 51 and I) = 512 - 15/, where x and I) are expressed in millimeters and I is expressed in se .onds. Determine the velo 'ity anti the a . .eleratton when (0) 1 = I s, (b) , = 2 s.

11.90 The motion of a parti .le is d fin d by the equutions x = 2 .os -trt and I) = I - 4 .os 2m, where x and I) are expressed in meters and, is expressed in seconds. Show that the path of the particle is part of the parabola .hown, and determine the velo 'ity and the acceleration when (0) I = 0, (b) 1 = 1..5 s.

X(Ill)

Fig. Pll.90

11.91 The motion of a particle is defiued hy the equations r = (2 - 81 + 7 and I) = 0 . .512 + 2t - 4, wlierer ami !I are e>qm .. ssed ill meters and till seconds, Determine (tI) the lIIagnitlldl! of the smallest velocity reached h the particle. (/,) the corr 'spollding time. position, uud direction of the velocity.

11.92 The motion of a particle is defined by the equations x = 41 - 2 sill t and I) = 4 - 2 cos t, where x and I) are expressed ill inches und I is expressed in seconds. Sketch till" path of the particle, and determiue (a) the IlIagllillld('s of the smallest and largest velocities reached by the particle, (b) the corresponding times, positions, and directions of the velocities.

H.93 The I1IOtiOIl of a particle is deflned hy the positiou vector " = I\(cos I + t sill t)i + A(sill 1 - I cos OJ, where t is expressed ill seconds. Determine the values of 1 (tIl' which the position vector and the acceleration are (a) perpeudlcular, (b) parallel.

J 1.94 The damped 1I10tiOll of a vihratillg particle is defined hy the position V(' '101' r - xl(1 - 1/(1 + J)i + (1)1(' ,,,,2 .os 21TI)j, where 1 is ('xprl'ssed in 5(' .ond . For XI 30 111111 ami 1)1 .. 20 111111. delel'lllilll' tlu- positioll. til(' velocity, ali(I tlu- acceleration of I Ill' parti 'Il' wlu-n

(a) f 0, (b) 1 - 1 . .5 s.

p

Fig. PJl.93

1.0

Fig. PJl.94

653

654 Kinematics of Particles

!I

x

Fig. PJI.96

11.95 The three-dimensional motion of a particle is defined by the position vector r = (Rt cos w"t)i + etj + (Rt sin w"t)k. Determine the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration of the particle. (The space curve described by the particle is a conic helix.)

• H.96 The three-dimensional motion of a partiel is defin d by the position v ctor r = (AI cos I)i + (A [2 + l)j + (81 sin t)k, where r ami I are expressed in fe!'t and seconds, r spectivelv, Show that the curve t~escrihed I~' th partlcl lies on the hyperholoid (I)/A)2 - (x/A)- - (-:.18)- = 1. For A = 3 and 8 = I, d terrnine (tI) the magnitmj s of the velocity and acceleration wh n I = 0, (b) the smallest nonzero value of I for which the position vector and rh velocity art' perpendicular to each other.

11.97 An airplane used to drop water on brushfires i Il);ng horizontally in a ·tmight line at 315 krn/h at an altitude of 0 Ill, Determine the distance d at which the pilot should release the water 0 that it will hit the fire at B.

'u

A

8

Fig. Pll.97

11.98 Three children art' throwiuz snowballs at each other, lukl throws a snowball with a horizoutul velocity "0' I r the snowbull just passe over the head of ·Itikl J3 and hits child C. determine (II) the value of u- (b) the distunce d.

1m

t

• 2111

_l_

Fig. PlU8

11.99 \\ Idle tlelivering newspapers, a girl throws a newspaper with a horizontal velocity "0. Determine the range of values of ·0 if the newspaper is to land between points B anti C.

Problems 655

1---- HI ----

Fig. Pll.99

11.100 A baseball pitching machine "throws" busebulls with a horizontal velocity vj. Knowing that height II varies between 31 in. anti 42 in., determine (il) the range of values of "0, (b) the values of Cl' eorr sponding to II = 31 in. and II = 42 in.

---------40(1----------1

,.

Fig. Pll.100

11.101 A volleyball player serves the ball with an initial velocity "0 of lIIagllitlldc 13.40 m/s at an all ,Ie of 20· with the horizontal. Determille (a) if the hall will cleur the top of the net, (b) how far [rom till' net tilt' hall will land.

1------9.11------

Fig. Pl1.101

656 Kinematics of Particles

11.102 Milk is poured into a glass of height L40 mm and inside diameter 66 111111. If the initial velocity of the milk is 1.2 m/s at an angle of 40° with the horizontal, determine the range of values of the Iteight II for which the milk \v;1I enter the glass.

h

-I

ROmm

Fig. Pll.102

ll.103 A golrer llits a golf hall with an initial velocity or 160 ft/s at an angle u('25° \ itl, the horizontal. Knuwing that the fairway slope' downward at an average angle or. 0. deteronine the distun 'e d between the golrer and point B where the hall first lands.

Fig. PH.J03

ll.104 Water flows Irorn a drnin spout witl: an initial velocuy or 2 . .'5 fils at an an rll' of 1.'50 \ itlt tltp hurizout»], Determine tl,e ran 'I' of mhws of thl' distatl '1' d for wlrk-h tl,l' wnter \ ill entpr tl,l' trou ,It Be.

Fig. PJJ.J04

11.108 TIlt, nozzle at A discharges cooling water with all initial velocity "0 at an Illlgie of 6· with tIll' horizontal onto a ,rinding wiu-el ,50 nun in dtnmcn-r. Dctcrmin« tlu- ran't' of vulues of t lit' initial velocitv till' whi 'll tll" wuter will land on tllt' 'rinding wheel

ht,tw('('11 points B al1d . Fig. Pl1.108

11.105 Sand is discharged at A from a conveyor belt and falls onto the top of a stockpile at B. Knowing that the conveyor belt forms an angle a = 20· with the horizontal, d terrnine the speed '0 of the belt.

11.106 A basketball player shoots when she is 16 ft from the backboard.

Knowin t that the ball has an initial velocit ' Yo at an angle of 3D· with the horizontal, determin > the value of (;0 wh n d is equal to (a) 9 in., (b) J7 in.

Fig. PIl.l06

11.107 A troup of childr n are throwing balls through a a.72-m-innerdiameter tir hanging from a tree. child throws a hall, ith an initial velocity Yu at :111 angle of 3· with the horizontal. I etermine the range of values of 00 for which the hall will go through the tire.

----

c

1-------6111 -------1

0.2.5111

Fig. Pll.l07

Problems 657

Fig_ PIl.l0S

658 Kinematics of Particles

S.im

Fig. PH.J09

ll.J09 While holding one of its ends, a worker lobs a coil of rope over the lowest limb of a tree, If he throws the rope with an initial velocity Vo at an angle of 65° with the horizontal, determine the range of values of liO for which the rope will go over only the lowest limb.

n.no A hall is dropped onto a step at point A and rebounds with a veloeitv Vo at an an tl of 15° with the vertical, D t rmine the value of u~ knowin r that jnst before the hall bounces at point B its velocity vs forms an angle of 12° with the vertical.

r

0.2m

1

Fig. PH.HO

11.111 mod I rocket is launched [rom point with <In initial veloci!

Vo of 250 ftls, If the rocker's des .ent parnchute does not deplo)' and the rocket lands 400 ft [rom A, determine (0) the an rle a that o forms with the verttcal, (b) the maximum height above point reached by the 1'0 .ket, (c) the duration of the ni rhr.

Fig. Pll.111

11.115 All o~dllating gardell sprinkler \ hich discharge~ water with all initial velocity "u of II1ls i~ used to water u vegptahl(? gardell. De-termine the distance d to the farthest point B that will he watpred and th correspondin r angle ex when (a) till' vpgetuhles

arlo' .illst 1)(> riunin r to grow, (M the Iwight II of tlu corn is 1.8 Ill. Fig. PH. JJ4

11.112 The initial velocity "I) of a hockey puck is 105 mi/h, Determine (a) the largest value (less than 45°) of the angle ex for which the puck will enter the net, (b) the corresponding time required for the puck to reach the net.

Fig. Pll.112

11.113 The pitcher in a softball game throws a hall with an initial velo 'it)' vo of 72 kmlh at an an Ie ex with the lrorizontul. If the height of the hall at point 8 is 0.68 111, determine (a) the angle ex, (b) the an le () that th velocity of th ball at point B forms with th horizontal.

1-------------i?---l~ln--------------------

Fig. Pll.113

• JJ. JJ4 A mountain climber plans to jump from 1\ to B over a crevasse.

Detennin th smallest value of the climber's initial velocity "0 and the corresponding value of angle ex so that he lands at B.

1..5 III

--------d----------------

Fig. Pll.115

Problems 659

r-l. 10

1.4 In

8 __ ....L..1

660 Kinematics of Particles

Jl.Jl6 A worker uses high-pr ssur water to dean the inside of a long drainpipe. If the water is discharged with an initial velocity Vo of 11.5 I1Ils, determine (1I) the distance d to the farthest point B on the top of the pipe that the worker call wash from his position at A. (b) the corresponding angle cx.

Fig. PH.1l6

11.117 As slider block A mov 'S downward at a speed of 0.5 mis, the velocity with respect to A of the portion of belt B between idler pulleys C ami D is v(;l)!" = 2 m/s dO. Determine the velocity of portion CD of the belt when (a) 0 = 45°, (11) 0 = 60°.

Fig. PIl.117

11.118 TI.e velocities of skier' :lml B are a shown. Determine tlte

vein 'ity of A wit h respect to B.

III '"'

-....

Fig. PIl.118

11.119 Shore-based radar indicates that a ferry leaves its slip with a velocity v = 9. knots 7'70°, while instruments aboard the ferry indicate a speed of 10 knots and a heading of 30° west of south relative to the river. Determine the velocity of the river.

Fig. Pll.119

11.120 irplaues 1\ uud B are nyillg at the same ultitude and are trackillg the eye of hurricane C. The relative velocit of C with respect to 1\ is ve,,,, = 235 lIli/l. 7'-5°, and the relative velocity of C with respect to B is ('J8 = 260 Illi/h ~40°. I etermine (a) the relative velocity of B with respect to 1\, (b) the velocity of A if groulld-hased radar iudl .ates that the hurricane is lIlovillg at a peed of 24 Ini/h due north (e) the chunze ill position of C with respe .r to B dllrillg a IS-min interval.

A

Fig. Pll.120

JJ.J2J The velocities of commuter trains A and B are as shown. Knowillg thut the speed of ea ·1, truin is constant and that B reaches the crossillglO min after passed tllrollgh the same crossiuz, determine (a) IIIP relut ive elocit I of B with I'Pspetl to A, (I,) tllP distuuce lx-tweeu IIIP Irouts of tIll' ell'ines 3 mill aft ... r A passed throu ,Jo tl, ... crussiuu.

• • • • • • •

Fig. PIl. J2J

Problems 661

B

662 Kinematics of Particles

ll.122 Knowing that the velocity of block B with respect to block A is "RIA = 5.6 m/s d 70°, determine the velocities of A and B.

Fig. Pll.l22

11.123 Knowin f that at the instant shown hlock A has a velocity of in.ls and an acceleration of 6 in.ls~ both directed down the inclin ,determine (tI) the veloeit of block B, (b) the acceleration of block B.

Fig. Pll.123

11.124 Knowing that at tlte instant shown assembly has a vt'lncityof9 in.ls and an ucceleration of 15 in.ls~ both dirt>cte<1 downwards, determin« (tI) the velocity of block B. (b) till! aceelerntion of block B.

Fig. PII.124

11.125 The assembly of rod A and wedge B starts from rest and mov S to the right with a constant ace ele ration of 2 I11l1l/l. Determine (a) the acceleration of wedge ,(b) the velocity of wedge C when t = 10 s.

Fig. Pll.12S

Problems 663

11.126 As the truck shown he rins to ha·k lip with a constant uc .elerutton of 1.2 III/s2, the outer section B of its boom starts to retract with a xmstunt a . .elerution of 0 . .'5 m/s2 relative to the tru .k, Determine (0) the uc x-leratto» or se .tion B. (b) the velocity or section B when

, = 2 s. Fig. Pll.126

11.127 Conveyor belt A. whi .h forms a 20° angle with the horiznntul, moves at a .onstant speed of 4 ftls and is used to load an airplane. Knowing that a worker tosses duffel hag 8 with an initial \'elocit), of 2 . .'5 ftls at an angle of 30° with the horizontal, determine the velo 'it)' of the bu r relative to the belt as it lands on the belt.

Fig. Pll.127

11.128 I eteruiiue tile required velocitv of the belt B if tile relative velo '. it)' with wlri ,II the sand hits helt B is 10 he (II) vertical, ('" as small as pussi hie,

11.129 s observed [rom a ship Illovillg due east at 9 km/li, tile wi lid appears 10 bk» from tire south, Iter tire ship has .lum red course ami spe('d, and as it is movin I north at 6 km/l), thl' wind appl'ars In blow fro II I thl' southwest. Assllming that the wind \'(,Io<:it is constant durin I the p('riod of obsc-rvntio», detl'rlllilw tlu- 1".1 ruit"dl' alld dire- .tiou of till' true wi lid v('ludl)"

B

Fig. Pll.128

664 Kinematics of Particles

11.130 When a small boat travels north at 5 km/h, a flag mounted on its stern forms an angle 8 = 50° with the centerline of the boat as ·hO\\11. A short time later, when the boat travels east at 20 km/h, angle 8 is again 50°. Determine the speed and the direction of the wind.

Fig. P11.130

H.131 As part of a department store display, a model train D runs on a slight incline b -twcen the store's np and down escalators. \Vhen the train and shoppers pass point A, the train appears to a shopper on the np escalator B to move downward at an uncle of 22° with the horizontal, ami to a shopper on the down escalator C to 1II00'e upward at an angle of 23° with the horizontal and to travel to the Icft. Knowing that the speed of the escalators is 3 ftls. determine the speed and the direction of the train.

Fig. PH.J3J

H.132 The paths of raindrops dnrin' a storm appear to form all allgle of 7.5° with the vertical alit! to he directed to the left when observed throuzh a left· ~tlc window of an automobile traveling north at a speed of 40 lIIi/h. \ hen observed through a ri rht-side window of an uuunnobile tnl\'clin' south at a speed of 0 mi/h, tlu- ruindrops app('ar to form an angll' 0(,60° with thl' vertical. I('thl' drh -r of till' untomohik- trawling north wert- to stop, at what an ,1(, ami with what speed would shl' ohs('l'v(' til(' drops to ftlll?

11.13 TANGENTIAL AND NORMAL COMPONENTS

We saw in Sec. 11.9 that th velocity of a particle is a vector tanzent to the path of the particle but that, in general, the acceleration is not tangent to the path. It is sometimes convenient to resolve the acceleration into umpon nts dir cted, respectively, along th tangent and the normal to the path of the particle.

Plane Motion of a Particle. First, let us consider a particle which mo es along a curve contained in the plane of th IIgl11'e. Let P b the position of the particle at a given instant. VVe attach at P a unit vector e, tangent to the path of the particle and pointing in the direction of motion (Fig. 11.21a). et e; b the unit ector corresponding to the position P' of th particl at a later instant. Drawing both vectors from the same origin 0', we define the vector 6.e, = e; - e, (Fig. 11.21b). Since e, and c; are of unit length, their tips lie on a circle or radius 1. D Iloting by 6.B til anzle formed bye, and e], \V lind that the magnitude of 6.c, is 2 sin (MJ/2). Considering now the vector 6.e,/6.B, we note that as 6.B approaches zero, this vector becomes tangent to the unit .ir le or Fig. 11.21b, i.e., perpendi ular to e, and that its masnttude approaches

I. 2 sin (6.0/2) I' in (6.8/2)

1111 = 1111 = 1

M~U 6.B :l1J->O 6.()/2

Thus, the ve ·tor obtained in the limit is a unit ve ·tor along the normal to th path of the particle, in the direction toward which e, turns. Denoting this vector by en, we write

. dc, ell = 1r111 ~ 110 U t..J.()

de, e, = de

(11.35)

Since the v elocity v of tile particle is tan rent to the path, it can be expressed as the product of the scalar I) and th unit vector e.. We have

v = ()C,

(11.36)

To obtain the acceleration of thc particl " (11.36) \\~U be differentiated with respect to I. Applying the rule lor the differentiation of th product of a scalar and a vector function (Sec. 1] .10), we write

rI rI dCI

a = -= -c, + 1)-

dt rll dt

(11.37)

But

IJ

11.13 Tongenliol ond Normol Components 665

<'"

o 6----------x

Fig. 11.21

(a)

(b)

de, _ dc, d() ds d! - dB ds tlt

Recallillg Irom (11.16) that dsldl = ,frolll (11. 5) thatd ',IdO = '",

and from {I rmentarv 'al .ulus that dBlds is equal to lip, \ here p is 0

the radius of nuvuturc of the path at P (Fl 1. 11.22), W' have Fig. 11.22

666 Kinemotics of Perticles

Photo 11.S The passengers in a train traveling around a curve will experience a normal acceleration towards the center of curvature

of the path.

de, 0

-=-c

dt p"

Substituting into (11.37), we obtain

(11.3 )

do v2

a = -e +-e

elt' p"

(11.39)

Thus, the . 'alar components of the a . leration ar d·

a =-

, dt

(11.40)

a" =-;;

The relations obtained express that the tanvential component of th a' .eleratiou is qual to the rate of change of the speed (if tlie particle, while the normal component is equal to the square of the speed dicided by the radius oj curoature of the path at P. If the speed of the particle increases, a, is positive and the vector component a, points in th dir ction of motion. If the P d or the particl decreases, a, is negative and a, points against the direction of motion. Thc vector component a", on the other hand, is a!tcays directed toicard the C inter of ell I' iature C (if the path (Fig. ll.2· ).

'I

06----------

Fig. 11.23

\\ e conclude from the above that the tangential component of the ac x-leration rene .ts a change ill the speed of the particle, while ils normal compon ent reflects a change in the direction of motion of the particle. The acceleration of a particle will be zero onl if both its components are zero. Thus, the acceleration of a particle moving with .onstant speed alan r a .urve will 1I0t he zero unless the patti ·Ie happens to pass throllgh a point of inflection of the curve (where the radius of curvature is infinite) or unless the CIII'Ve is a struight line.

The [a 't that the normal component of the ac :deration depend' "pon Ihe rudius or curvature or tile path followed by the parti ·Ie is taken into account in the design of structures or mechanisms as widely different as airplane wings, railroad tracks, and cams. In order to avoid sudclen .han es in the a' .eleration of the air particles flowillg past a \ i JIg, \ illg profiles are d{'sigJll:'d without all I sucldon 'hang(' in 'III aturc, imilar 'are is taken in dl:'signill r railroad .urvcs, to avoid sudden 'hanges ill th • a . x-lcrution of the cars (\ hi .h

would be hard on the equipment and unpleasant for the passengers). A straight section of track, for instance, is n ver directly followed by a circular section. Special transition sections are used to help pass smoothly from th infinite radius of curvature of the straight section to the finite radius of the circular track. Likewise, in the design of high-speed .ams, abrupt changes in a .cel ration are avoided b using transition curves which produce a continuous change in acceleration.

Motion of a Particle in Space, The relations (11.39) and (11.40) still hold in the case of a particle moving along a space curve. However, since there are an infinite number of straight lines which arc perpendi .ular to the tangent at a giv n point P of a space .urve, it is necessary to define more precise! the eli]' ction of the unit ector e u-

Let liS consider again the unit vectors e, and e; tangent to the path of the particle at two neighboring points P and P' (Fig. 11.24a) and the 'tor /1el I' presenting the difleren 'e hetwe n e, and e;

y

y'

OP----------------

.r

(a)

(h)

Fig. 11.24

(Fig. 11.24h). L t us now imagine a plane through P (Fig. 11.2 a) parallel to the plane defined by the vectors '1, .;, and Ac, (Fig. 1l,24h), This plane contains the tang nt to the curve at P and is parallel to die tangent at pi, If' we let pi approach P, we obtain in the limit the plane which IIts thc CUlVC most closely in the ncighborhood of P. This plane is 'ailed the osclilatillg plane at P. t It follows 1'1'0111 this definition that the oscillating plane contains the unit ector C,,' sine this vector represents th limit of the vector /1c,//18. The normal defined h en is thus ontained in the os ulatin r plane; it is 'ailed the IJrill(;il)(i/ normal at P. The unit vector c" = e, X C" which (.'Olllpletes the right-handed triad e., ell, ei (Fi r. 1l,24c) defines the binormal at P. The binormal is thus perpendicular to the osculating plane, We 'on .lude that the a' eleration of the particle at l' can be resol ed into two components, on' along the tang nt, the other alonv the prin 'ipal normal at P, as incli ated in Eq. (ll.39). ore that the a ' .clcration has no cOlllpon nt ulon 1 the hi normal.

11. 13 Tongenliol ond Normol Components 667

v

"[,

scnJating 1'1,111(,

r '

OP-----------------

(e)

668 Kinemotics of Perticles

11 .14 RADIAL AND TRANSVERSE COMPONENTS

Tn certain probl ms of plan motion, the position of the partie] Pis defined by its polar coordinates r and 0 (Fi<1. 11.250). It is then convenient to resolve the velocity and acceleration of the particle into compon nts parallel and perp eudicular, respecti ely, to th lin OP. These components are called radial and transverse components.

o

o

«(I)

Fig. 11.25

6(,O",VO c·

r , '-: 6c

("'0 •

c;

M 68

o·

(r)

\, e attach at P two unit vectors, e, and Co (Fig. 11.2.5b). The vector c, is directed alollg OP and th vector eo is obtain d by rotating e, through 90° counterclockwis . The unit vector e, defines the radial direction, i.e., the direction in which P would move if r were increased and () w re kept constant; the unit vector Co defines the transoerse dir ction, i.e., the direction in which P would move if 0 were increased and I' were kept constant. A derivation si milar to the on we used in Sec. 11.13 to determine the derivative of th unit ve 'tor " leads to the r lation

cleo

-=

d()

(11.41)

where + e, denotes a unit vector of sense opposite to that of c, (Fi r. 11.25c). sin r tip chain rille of diff rentiation, w e:"11r S5 th time derivatives of the unit vectors c, and CII as follows:

Photo 11.6 The fOOl pods on on elliplicol lrainer undergo curvilinear molion.

de; dc,dO do

--=--=CQ-

rtf dO rtf cit

dco dcodO do

--=---= -c-

dt do cit 'ell

(11~ lIsing dots to indicat differentiation with I' sp ct to f,

(11.42)

To obtain th > velocit "of til' particle P, W' x'Prcss the position vector .. of P as the product of the scalar r and the unit vector e, and differentiate with resp .ct to t:

cI . .

v = cit (re.) = rCr + rc,.

or, 1" .allin r the first of til rclunons (J 1.42).

= ;", + I'D 'Q

(11.43)

Differentiating again with respect to t to obtain the acceleration, we write

dv

a = -,. = rCr + re ; + rOco + ,.(jco + ,.Oc(J r I

or, substituting for e; and eo from (11.42) and factoJing e, and Co,

(11.44)

The scalar components of th velocity and the acceleration in th radial and transverse directions are, therefor ,

(11.45) (11.46)

((0 = r(j + 2r8

It is important to not that (I,. is not equal to th time derivativ of o, and that flO is not equal to the time derivative of vo.

In thc case of a particle moving along a circle of center 0, \V have r = onstant and r = i: = 0, and the formulas (11.43) and (11.44) reduce, r sp ctiv ly, to

v = rBee

(11.47)

Extension to the Motion of a Particle in Space: Cylindrical Coordinates. The position of a particle P in space is som times dcfined by its c lindrical coordinates H, 0, and z (Fig. 11.26a). it is then '011 enient to use the unit ve .tors 'II, '(I> and k shown in Fig. 11.26h. Resolving the position vector ,. of the particle P into components along the unit vectors, we write

r = Re" + zk

(J 1.48)

bserving that ell and eo define, respectively, the radial and transverse dlrectious in the horizontal xI) plane, and that the ve .tor k, which deflll·S the axia! direction, is constant in direction as well as in magnitude, we easily verify that

dr. .

v = -{ = Hell + ROco + :k at

(11.49)

dv "'0 ..

a = - = (H - RO-) 'II + (J~O dl

2Jie) II + Z k (I I.. 0)

11.14 Rodiol ond Tronsverse Components 669

p

y

.r

({/)

y

(/)

Fig. 11.26

MUli0:;f

, ,

a=a"

670

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.10

A motorist is traveling on a curved section of llighway of radius 2500 ft at the speed of 60 mi/h. The motorist suddenly applies the brakes, causing the automobile to slow down at a constant rat . Knowing that after s the speed has been reduced to 4.5 mi/l: determine the acceleration of the automobile immediately after the brakes hav been applied.

SOLUTION

Tangential Component of Acceleration. First the s[ tis ar expr 55 d in ft/s.

60 mi/h = (601;:i)C~{'~ift)(3~0~J = 8 It/s

45 rni/h = 66 ft/s

ince the automobile slows dow" at a constant rate, we have

~v 66 It/s - 8 ft/s

a = average (I = - = = -2.75 ft/s2

, '~t 8 s

Normal Component of Acceleration. 1 mmediately after the brakes hav been applied, the speed is still 8 ftls, and we have

(;2 (88ftls)2 .•

fI" = P = 2'-00 fl = 3 . .10 ftls-

MagnihJde and Direction of Acceleration. The magnitllde ,II d dire 'lion of tlw resultant a of the components a" and :1, are

0" 3.10 ft/s2

tan ex = - = ex ~ 4').40 <iIIl

a, 2.7.5 ft/s2

(I" 3.10 ftls2 t: '

n=--= a= .14,l/s- <iIIl

sin a sin 4 .40

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.11

Determine till.' minimum radius of curvature of the trajector), described by the projectile considered in Sample Prob, 11.7.

SOLUTION

Since 1I" = IFlp. we have p = f)2Ia". The rudius will be small when f) is small or when a; is large. TIlt' speed . is minimum at the top of the trajectory since f)~ = 0 at that poi lit; a" is maxiunun at that same point, SiIK,(, the direction of the vertical eoinckl >s with the direction of the nonnal. Therefore, the minimum radius of curvature occurs at the lop of the trajectory At this point, we have

= f), = 1.55.9 IIIls {I .. = II = 9. 1 nt/s2

2 (1.55.91ll/s)-

IJ - 21f;O 111

o

,,- V,.Cr + (;0 Co a - nrC,. + nacO

" - (-0. 119 111/<1("

/\

\

\ \

A

SAMPLE PROBLEM 11.12

The rotation of the 0.9-111 arm OA about 0 is defined by the relation (} = 0.1512. when: (} is expressed ill radians and f in seconds. Collar B slides along the arm in such a way thai its distance fro II I 0 i "= 0.9 - 0.1212, wliere r' is expressed in meters and I ill seconds. Iter the arm OA has rotated through 30°, deterrniu (iI) the total velocity of the collar, (b) the total a .celeration of tile collar, (c) tile relative acceleration of the collar with respect 10 tile arm.

SOLUTION

Time t at which () = 30°. Substituting (} = 30° = 0.524 rod into the expression for 8, we obtain

(J = 0.15t2

0.524 = 0.]512

1=1.69s

Equations of Motion. Substituting t = 1.869 s in the expressions for r, 8, and their Ilrst and second derivatives, we have

r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 = 0.48J m ;- = -0.241 = -0.449 m/s r = -0.24 = -0.240 nv's2

(J = O. L5t2 = 0.524 rad iJ = 0.301 = 0.561 rad/s ij = 0.30 = 0.300 rad/s2

a. Velocity of S. sing Eqs. (U.45), we obtain the values of v, and 1i0

when 1 = 1.869 s.

v, = ;- = -0.449 m/s

V8 = riJ = 0.4 1(0 .. 561) = 0.270 IIIls

Solving the right hiangle shown, we obtain the magnihlde and direction of the velocity,

I = 0..'52-1 nv's

(3 = 3Ulo <0lIl

b. Acceleration of B. Usillg Eqs. (11.46). we obtain n, = r - ,.iJ-

= -0.240 - 0.4 l(0.561}2 = -0.391 Ill/52 flO = rO + 2;-9

= 0.4 1(0.300) + 2( -0.4J9}(O .. 561) = -0.3.59 nv's2

fI - 0 . .'531 IIv'S~ -y - 12.6° <0lIl

c. Acceleration of S with Respect to Arm OA. We 1I0te that the motion of the collar with respect to the arm is rectilinear 'U1d defined by till' coordinate r, \ e write

{/HIOII = I' = -0.240 nv's2

(/WO.I 0.210 IIl/s~ toward O. <0lIl

671

YOU will be asked in the following problems to e"lJress the velocity and the a' .eleration of parti .les in terms of either their tangential ant! norma' components or their radial and transoerse components. Although thos components rna not be as familiar to you as the rectangular components, you will find that they can simplify the rolution of many problems and that certain types of motion are more easily d s .ribed wh n they are used.

1. Using tangential and normal components. These components are most often used when the particle of interest travels along a circular path or when the radius of curvature of th path is to be d termined. Rem mb I' that the unit vector e, is tangent to the path of the particle (and thus aligned with the elocity) while the unit vector ell is directed along the normal to thc path and always points toward its 'enter of urvature. It follows that, as the parti .le moves, the directions of the two unit vectors are constantly chan rin t.

2. Expressing the acceleration in terms of its tangential and normal components. \, e d riv d in Sec. U .13 the followill<t equation, applicabl to both th two-dimensional and the three-dimensional motion of a particle:

do 02

a = -d e, + -ell (11.39)

t p

The following obs rvations may help YOll in solving the problems of this I sson.

a. The tangential component olth ac .el ration measures th rate or chang of the sp ed: a, = do/dt, It follows that \ hen a, is constant, the equations for uniformly accelerated motion can be used with the acceleration equal to a.. Furthermore, when a particle 11l00'es at a constant speed, we have a, = 0 and the accel ration of the particl reduc s to its normal eompon nt.

b. The normal component of the a xeleration is always dire ted toward the center or curvature of the path of the particle, and its magnitude is fin = .2/p. Thus, the normal component can be easily determined if the speed of the particle and the radius of curvature p of the path are known. onvcrsely, when the speed and normal accel eration of the particle ar known, th radius of ell rvat lire of the path can he obtained by solving this equation for p [Sample Proh. 11.111.

c. In three-dimensional motion, a third unit ve 'tor is used, e" = e, X ell' which defines the dire .tion of the binormal. Since this vector is perpendicular to both the velo .ity and the accel .ration, it 'an be obtained by writing

v X a

Cl =---

) Iv X a]

672

3. Using radial and transverse components. These xnnponents are used to analyze the plan motion of a particle P, when the position of P is defined by its polar coordinates rand 8. As shown in Fig. 11.25, the unit vector en which defines the radial direction, is attached to P and points away from the fixed point 0, while the unit ve ror eo, whi .h d lines the iransoerse dire otion, is obtained by rotatlnz e, counterclockwise through 90°. The velocity and the acceleration of a particle were expressed in terms of their radial and transverse components in Eqs. (11. 3) and (11.44), r spectively, You will note that the expressions obtained contain the first and second derivatives with r·sp ct to I of both coordinates rand 8,

In the problems of this lesson, you will encounter tile following types of problems involving radial and transverse .omponenrs:

a. Both rand (J are known functions of t. In this case, you will compute tit first and s eoud d rivativ s or rand 8 and substitut th xpressions obtained into Eqs. (11.43) and (11.44),

b. A certain relationship exists between rand 8. First, you should determine this relationship from tile geomehy of the given system and use it to eXl1ress r as a function of 8. Once the function ~ = f(f)) is known, you c<~n .~pply the chain nile to determine i: in terms of 8 and 8, and j; in terms or 8, 8, 8:

" = f'«(})O

j: = J"(8)02 + f' (8)8

The expressions obtained can then be substituted into Eqs. (11.43) and (11.44).

c. The three-dimensional motion of a particle, as indicated at the nd of Sec. 11.14, can often be effectivel described in terms of tile cylindrical coordinates R, (}, and z (Fig. 11.26). The unit vectors thcn should consist of ell, co, and k. The corresponding components of the velo .ity and the acceleration are given in Eqs, (I] .49) and (11 .. 50). Please note that the radial distanc R is always measured in a plane parallel to the xy plane, and be careful not to confuse the position vector r with its radial component Hell,

673

-----8111-----1

Fig. Pll.133

8 Fig. Pll.137

674

11.133 Determine the peripheral speed of the centrif1lge test 'al-> A for which the normal .omponent of the a .celeration is 109.

11.134 To test its performun 'e, an automoblle is driven around a rircular test tra 'k of diameter d. Determine (a) the value of d if when the speed or the automobile is 72 km/h, the normal .omponent of the ac -eleratton i: 3.2 m/s2, (b) the peed or the automohile If d = I 0 III and the normal 'Olllponent or the a . :eleration is measured to be O.6g.

11.135 Determine the smallest mdius that should be used for a higl1\VlcI)' if the normal component of the fie .eleration of a car traveling at 4.'5 ml/h is 110t to ex x-ed 2.4 ft/52.

Fig. Pll.135

11.136 Determine the maximum speed that the cars of the roller-coaster can reach along the circular portion B of the track if the normal comp<)llPnt of tlwir ucceleratton cannot exceed 3g.

Fig. P11.136

11.137 Pill ,which is attached to link A8, is COil trained to move in the cil .nlar slot D. nowing that at I - 0 the pin starts rmlll rest and IIlOWS so t hat its speed increases ut a .onstuut rute or 20 1I1111/S-. d('«'nllill(' the Ilia tllitlld(' or its total uccelerutiou wlu-n (a) I ~ 0, (b) I - 2 s.

11.138 A monorail train starts from rest on a curve of radius 400 m and accelerates at the constant rate a.. If the maximum total acceleration of the train must not exceed 1.5 m/s2, determine {(I) the shortest distance in which the train can reach a speed of-2 km/li, (b) the corresponding constant rate of acceleration (I,.

11.139 An outdoor track is 420 ft in diameter. A runner increases her speed at a constant rate from 14 to 24 It/s over a distance of 95 ft. Determine the total acceleration of the runner 2 s after she begins to increase her speed.

11.140 At a given instant in an airplane nice, airplane A is flying horizontaUy in a straight line, and its speed is being increased at the rate of8 rn/s". Airplane J3 is fl ~ng at the sallie altitude as airplane A <U1d, as it rounds a pylon, is following a circular path of 300-m radius. Knowing that at the g,iven iJ1St~nt the speed ~f. B is beillg decreased at the rate 01 3 m/s", determine, for the POSltJOIIS shown, (a) the velocity of B relative to A, (b) the acceleration of B relative to A.

1-4OOm

8

_----- -_

1'30k1llJl, "

200 '"

~ )\

I

" .;wkll1'h I

/

I

Fig. PlJ.740

11.141 i\ motorist traveling ulon r a stmight portion of a hi Ihwa), is de .reasing the speed of his uutomobile at a .onstunt rate hefore exiting from th!:' highway onto a circular exit ramp with a radills of .'560-ft. He conti niles to decelerate at tile same .onstunt rate so that 10 s after enterin , till' ramp. his speed has decreased to 20 mi/h, a speed which he then muiutains. Knowing that at this coustnnt speed the total nccelerution of til(:' automobile is equal to olle-cl'mrter of its value prior to enteriuu the ralllp, determin the maximum value of the total acceleration of the uutomohile.

Fig. Pll.141

Fig_ Pl1.139

Problems 675

676 Kinematics of Particles

Fig. Pll.143

Fig. Pll.144

Fig. Pll.145

ll.142 Racing cars A and B are traveling on circular portions of a race track. At the instant shown, the speed of A is decreasing at the rate of 7 Ill/s2, and the speed of B is increasing at the rate of 2 tn/s2. For the positions shown, determine (a) the velocity of B relative to 1\. (h) the acceleration of B relative to A.

I

400 III

_[

Fig. PJJ.r42

11.143 A zolf r hits a golf Itall from point A with an initial velocity of 50 m/s at all an rle of 2.'5° with th horizontal. D termine tl1!' radius of curvatur of tlte traj ctory described by th hall (a) at point A, (/J) at the hi zhest point of th > trajectory.

11.144 Front a photograph of a homeowner using a snowblower, it is determined that the radius of curvature of the traj ctory of tlIP snow was 8 . .'5 m as the snow left the dlschur re chute at A. Determine (a) the discltarge velocity VA of th snow, (b) tit radius of curvature of the trajectory at its maximum h i zht.

11.145 A basketball is bounced on tlte rround at point A and rebounds with a V locity VA of rna znttude 7.5 ft/s :L~ shown. Determine tit radius uf curvature of til(! trajt'ctm described hy th ... hall (a) at poi Itt ,(lJ) at t lIP hi ,hest poi lit of I he I rajectory.

11.146 Coal is discharted from tlte tailgate A of a dump truck with all initial velocity V,I = 6 ftls 7 .'50°. I etermine tlte radius of curvature of tlte trujector . descrillPcI h 1 tlte coal (a) at point 1\, (b) at Ihe point of' the tn~iect()ry 3 ft below point A.

Fig. Pll.146

11.147 A horizontal pipe discharges at point A a stream of water into a r servoir, Express the radius of curvature of tb stream at point B in terms of the magnihlues of the velocities VA and Vn.

11.148 A child throws a ball from point A with an initial velocity VA of 20 m/s at an angle of 250 with the horizontal. Determine the velocity of the hall at the points of the trajectory described by the hall where the radius of curvature is equal to three-quarters of its value at A.

Problems 677

A

1l.J49 A projectile is fired from point A with an initial velocity v(). (a) Show Fig. Pll.147 that the radius of curvature of the trajectory of the projectile readies its minimum value at the highest point B of the trajectory, (b) Denoti ng by 8 the angle Iormed by the trajectory and the horizontal at a given point C. show tltat the radius of curvature of the trajectory at C is p = p",,,/cos38.

~------------------x--------------------I

B

Fig. PH.149 and PH. ISO

1l.J50 A proje ·tile is fired from point A with an initial elocit vow],i'], fOI'lHS all angle cr wit]. the horizontal. Express the radius of (;111'vuture of tIle trajectory of the projedile at poi lit C in tel'lll. of' r, 0, 0, aud g.

·11.151 1 eterruine tlte radills of curvature of tlte pat], described by the particle of Proh, 11.9.5 wlieu I = O.

·11.152 Detel'lllin(> the radills of curvature of th(' path descrihtd by tlw particle of' Prnh. 11.96 wlu-u I = 0, A = 3, 1I11d B = I.

11.153 through 11.155 A satellite will travel iudefinitel in a circular orbit around a planet if the normal component uf tltt' acceleration of the satellite is equal tu g(lUr}2, where If. is the acceleration of' gravity at the surface of the planet. /{ is the radius uf the plane-t, and r is the distance [rom the center of the planet to the satellite. Determine the speed uf a satellite relative tu the indicated planet if the satellite is to travel indefinitely in a circular orbit 160 kill abo (. tlu- surfu .(. of' the planet.

11.153 V('nlls: If. - . .5 tll/~2. /{ 6161 kill. 11.1S4 Mars: J!, - 3. 3 Ill/S2, R .. 332 kill. 11.1S5 Jnpiler: If. - 26,0 III/S2. /{ - 69 93 kill,

Fig. Pll.148

678 Kinemotics 01 Porticles

/."".------- .... , 8

/ /

/ I I I

Fig. PJJ.160

Fig. P11.161

Fig. P11.163 and P1J.J64

11.156 and 11.157 Knowing that the diameter of the ~'JI1 is 64,000 mi and that the acceleration of gravity at its surface is 900 ftJs2, determine the radius of the orbit of the indicated planet around the sun assuming that the orbit is circular. ( ee information gh·en in Probs, 11.153-11.155.)

11.156 Earth: (v"w.").,,hh = 66,600 mi/h 11.157 Saturn: (v"."",)",t, .. = 21,5 0 mi/li

11.158 Knowing that the radius or the earth is 6370 kin, determine the time of one orbit or the Hubble Space Telescope knowing that the telescope travels in a circular orbit 590 kill above the surface of the earth. (See information gin!n in Probs. 11.153-11.155.)

n.159 A satellite is trav ling ill a .ircular orbn around Mars at an altitude of IRO mi. After lhe altitude of tlte satellite is adjusted. it is found tltat the time of one orbit has ill .reased b 10 per x-nt. Knowing that llle radius of Mars is 2071 mi, determine tlte nev altitude of tlte satellite. (See information given in Prohs. 11.1. 3-11.1.~.~).

n.l60 Satellites A and B are traveling in the same plane in circular orhits around the earth at altitudes of 120 and 200 mi, respectively. If at 1 = 0 th sat lIit s are aligned as shov nand knov ing that th radius of the arth is R = 3960 mi, d terrnine wh n the satellites will next Iw radially aliglwd. (See information riven in Probs. 11.1.53-11.15.5.)

11.161 Th path of a particle P is a lirnacon. The motion of the particle is clefin d b the relations r = b(2 + cos 7T/) and e = -ttt, where 1 and e are expressed in seconds ami radians, respectively. Determine (a) the velocity and the ace lerution of th particle when 1 = 2 s, (b) the values of (J for which the l1lagnitlld of the v locitv is maximum.

11.162 The two-dimensional motion of a particle is defined hy tIl(> relation r = 2h cos wt ami e = wt, where band w are constant. Determine (a) the velocity and acceleration of the particle at any instant, (b) the radius of curvature of its path. \Vhat conclusions can )1)11 draw regarding tlu- path of the particle?

11.163 The rotation of rod OA about 0 is defined 11)' the relation () = 1T(4t2 - t), where () and t lire expressed in radians ami seconds, respectively, Collar B slides along the rod so that its distance [rom 0 is r = lO + 6 sin 7Tt, where rand t are expressed ill inches and seconds, respectively. \Vlten I = 1 s. dcterurim' (a) the velocity of the collar, (b) the total accelcratiou of the collar, (c) the accclerntiou of the collar rclutive to tlu- rod.

H.l64 The oscillation of rot! 0 about 0 is defined by the relation () = (2/7T)(sin 1Tt), where 0 and I ar expressed in rudiuns und secouds, respe .tively, ollar B slide along the rod so that its distauce

J\ [rom 0 is r .. 2 1(1 + 4) wh('l"(' rand 1 art' t·)(pr('.~st'd in ill 'll('s ant! seconds, !"('SP(' 'tin·I)". \ lu-n I I x, deterlllin(' (a) tlu- velo ·it . of tlt(· collar. (b) tlt(· total a . ·plenltion of tIll' xillur. (c) tlu- uc ·(·It'ration of tlt(' collar rt'lath·(· to tlu- rod.

11.165 The path of particle P is the ellipse defined by the relations r = 2/(2 - cos 'iTt) and () = trt. where r is expressed in meters, t is in seconds, and 0 is in radians. Determine the velocity and the acceleration of the particle wh n (a) t = 0, (b) t = 0.5 s.

11.166 The two-dimensional motion of a particle is defined by the relation r = 2a cos 8 and 0 = 1112/2, wher (/ and b are constants. Determine (a) the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration at any instant, (b) the radius of curvature of the path. \ hat conclusion call you draw regardillg the path of the particle?

J J. J67 To study the performance of a race car, a high-speed motionpicture camera is positioned at point A. The camera is mounted on a mechanism which permits it to record the motion of the car as the car travels on straigl.ltaway Be. Determine the speed of the car in terms of b, 0. and 0.

\ "

l!

t-----b----I

Fig. PIJ.167

JJ _ J68 Determine the magnitude of ~ht:. nccelerution of the race car of Prob. 11.167 in term. of b, 8, 8, 8.

11.169 Artpr taking off, a helicopter climhs in a straight line at a constuut anglp {3. Its night is trucked b radar Irom point~. Determiue the sp{,pd of the Iwlicopter in terms of d, {3, 0, and 8.

---

------

--

--

-----

--- fJ

I--------d --------1

Fig. Pll.169

Problems 679

Fig. Pll.165

B

680 Kinematics of Particles

*11.170 Pin P is attached to BC arid slides freely in the slot of OA. Determine the rate of change e of the angle e, knowing that BC moves at a constant speed Vo. Express your answer in terms of Vo. II, {3, and 9.

Fig. Pll.170

11.171 For the race car ofProb. 11.167, it was found that it took 0,5 for the car to travel [rom tilt> position e = 60° to the position 9 = 35°. Knowing that!J = 25 Ill, determine the average speed of the car during the O,5-s interval.

11.172 For the helicopter of Prob, 11.169, it was found that when the helicopter was at B, the distance and the angle of elevation of the h elicopter were r = 3000 ft and e = 20°, respectively, Four seconds later, the radar station si fitted the helicopter at r = 3320 ft and 9 = 23,1°, Determine the aVPr.Jge speed and the angle of climb {3 of the helicopter during the 4-s int rval.

JJ.J73 and JJ.J74 A particle moves along th spiral shown; determine, the ma mitutle of the velocity of the particle in terms of b, e, and e,

IIJl'M'rholtc~p'ml rO.h

Fig, PJI.173 and Pll,17S

Fig, PIJ,J74 and Pll.176

11.175 and 11.,176 purticlc moves along tit' spiral shown, Know-

ing that 9 is .onstunt and denotillg this constant h w, dt'l(,rtltim' till' lila fuitml" or the a' ,(·Ienttion of tite particle in terms of b, 0, and w.

11.177 Show that ;- = h4>sin 0 knowing that at the instant shown, step AB o~ the step exerciser is rotating counterclockwise at a constant rate cp.

Fig. Pll.177

JJ. J 78 The motion of a pal-tide on the surfac of a ri rht circular c lincler is de filled b th relations, R = A, 0 = 27ft, and z = At2j. , where A is a constant. Determine the ma mitudes of the velocity and acceleration of the particle at an time t.

J J. J79 The thrce-dimeusionul motion of a particle is defined by the c -lindrical coordinates (se Fi t. 1l.26) R = AI(t + I), 0 = BI, uncl z = GI/(I + I). Determine the magnitudes of th(> velocity and acceleratiou when (II) t = 0, (b) t = Xl.

·11.180 For tlu- COllie helix of Proh. 11.95, determine the an tlt' that tht' OSCillating plane forms with tlu- IJ axis.

Problems 681

"11.181 Determiue the direction of tile hinormul of the path described h ' x

tllP purticle of Prob. 11.96 when (a) I = O. (11) t = 'TT12 s. Fig. PJI.J78

!J

Position coordinate of a particle in rectilinear motion

o

I I I I I ¢ I I I

Fig. 11.27

Velocity and acceleration in rectilinear motion

Determination of the velocity and acceleration by integration

682

In the first half of the chapter, we analyzed the rectilinear motion oj (f particle, i.e., the motion of a particle along a straight line. To define the position P of the particl 011 that lin ,we chos a fixed origin 0 and a positive direction (Fig. 11.27). The distance x from 0 to P, with the appropriate sign, completely defines the position of the parti ·Ie on th lin and is ailed the position coordinate of the partiel [Sec. 11.2J.

The celociuj v of the particle was shown to be equal to the time derivative of the position coordinate x,

clx

v = - (11.1)

cit

and the acceleration a was obtain d b differentiating v with resp ct to t,

dv

(f=-

ell

(11.2)

or

(11.3)

We also noted that a could be expressed as d

a = v-

dx

(11.4)

\.\ e observed that til v 10 'it and th ace I ration (f wer

represented h a1gehraic numbers which can be positive or ne rative. A positive valu . for . indicates that the parti .lc mov , . in thc positive dire 'lion, and a negative value that it moves in the negath'e direc!ion. positiv value for a, however, rna 111 an that th particle is trul accelerated (i.e., moves faster) in the positive direction. or that it is decelerated (i.e., moves more slowl ) in the ne rutive dire .tion. A n 'ali e alue lor a is suhj ect to a similar int erpretattou [Sample Proh. 11.11.

In most problems, the conditions of motion of a particle are defined by thc type of acceleration that the particle possesses and b the initial conditions [Set'. 11 .. '3]. Tlu- velocit I a 11(1 ( ositiou or tlu- particle 'all then 1)(' obtained b integrating two of the equations (11.1) to (11.4). Whi .h of th sc cquutlons should be sole red depends upon the type of a -celeratiun invol cd [Sample Probs, 11.2 and 11.3].

Two types of motion are frequently encountered: the unijorm recti- Review ond Summory 683

linear motion [Sec. 11.4). in which the velocity v of the particle is

constant and Uniform rectilinear motion

x = Xo + vt

(1l.5)

and the ImiforJnly accelerated recti/if/ear motion [Sec. U.5). in which the acceleration a of the particle is constant and we have

v = (;0 + at

x = Xo + Vol + ~(//2 v2 = v~ + 2a(x ..: xu)

(11.6) (lJ.7) (1l.8)

Uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion

When two particles A and B mo e along th same sh'aight lin. Relative motion of two particles we may wish to consider the relative motion of B with respect to A

o

A

B

Fig. 11.28

[Sec. 11.6). D noting b XB/A the relative position coordinate of B with respect to A (Fig. 11.28), we had

(11.9)

Differentiatin t EC]. (11.9) twic with respect to t, we obtained successively

VB = VA + VB/,I aB = {fA + {fB/il

(ILlO) (11.11)

where VB/A and all/A repre. ent, respectively, tile relative uelociti] and the relative acceleration of B with respect to A.

When several blocks are connected by inextensible cords, it is possible to write a linear relation between their position coordinates. Similar relations can then be written between their velo .ities and between their uccel rations and can be us d to analyze their motion [Sample Prob, U.51.

It is 'ometill'les .onvenient to lise a gmlJ/'ical solution 101' problems involving the rectilinear motion of a particle [Sees. 11.7 and U.8). The graphical solution most commonly used involves tile x-t, v-t, and (I-t ClllVCS [Sec. 11.7; Sample Frob. 11.6). It was shown that. at all giv II tim I,

v = slope of x-t curve

a = slope of v-t CUI'VC

whil ,0 .1' all riven lim> int 1 ,d from il to /2, V2 - VI = area under (f-l' cUlve X2 - XI = area under v-t curve

III the S(' .ond half of the .hupter, wp anal zed the ('1'" ilinear motion of (f partlclr, i.c .. the motion of a parti ·1 . along a .urvcd path. The position P of' the p,1I1i ·Ie at a riven time [Sec, 11.9] was defined b

Blocks connected by inextensible cords

Graphical solutions

Position vector and velocity in curvilinear motion

684 Kinemotics 01 Porticles

Fig. 11.29

Acceleration in curvilinear motion

Derivative of a vector function

Rectangular components of velocity and acceleration

Component motions

Relative motion of two particles

Fig. 11.30

v

the position vector r joining the 0 of the coordinates and point P (Fig. 11.29). The velocity v of the partiel was defined by the relation

clr

,,= -

cit

(11.15)

x

and was found to be a vector tanvent to the path of the particle and of magnitude Ii (call d the speed of the parti ,1) qual to th time deli ative of the length s of the arc described by the particle:

cis

u = - (11.16)

cit

The acceleration a of the particle was defined by the relation elv

a = - (n.is)

elt

and we noted that, in gcncral, the acceleration is IIOt tangent to the path of the particle.

Before proceeding to the consideration of the components of velocity and acceleration, we reviewed thc f0I111al definition of the derivative of a ve .tor fun ·tion and established a few rules govellliTw the differentiation of sums and products of vector functions. \\le then showed that the rate of change of a vector is the same with respect to a fixed frame and with respect to a frame in translation [Sec. 11.10).

Denoting by x, I), and z the re -tangular ordinates of a parti ·Ie P, we found that th r ctangular components of th velocity and ace 1- eration of P equal, respectively, the first and second derivatives with respect to t of the corresponding coordinates:

Dx = X ax = .r

=::

(11.29) (11.30)

y = !/ ay = ij

x '

When thc componcnt ax of the acceleration depends only upon t, x, and/or 'x, and when similarl (I" depends onl upon t, I), and/or vY' and a: upon t, z, and/or :, Eqs. (11.30) can be integrated independent! . The anulysis of the given curvilinear motion can thus be redu x.d to the analysis of three independent re ·tilinear component motions [Sec. 11.11). This approach is particularly effectiv ill til stud of the motion of projectiles [Sample Probs. 11.7 and 11. ).

For two particles A and B moving ill space (Fig. 11.30). we considered th relative motion of B with r spect to A, or 11101'· pr cis I" with respect to a moving [rarne attached to and in translation with 1\ [ cc. 11.12). D 'noting by 1"Il/A the relative position vector of B with respect to A (Fig. 11. 0), we had

r/j = rA + rIJ/A (11.31)

enoting b V/JIII and a/JIA, respectively, the relative oelociti] and the relative acceleration or B with resp' 't to A, we also showed that

(11.33)

and

(11.34)

It is sometimes convenient to resolve the velocity and acceleration of Review ond Summory 685

a particle P into components other than the rectangular x, y, and ;:;

components. For a particle P movinz alonz a path contained in a

plane, we attached to P unit vectors e, tangent to the path and ell Tangential and normal components normal to the path and directed toward the center of curvatur of

til path [S '. 11.13]. ''''' th 11 expressed the velo 'it)' and a .eleration

of the particle in tel111S of tan ential and normal components. Vie

wrote '1

v = vet

(11.36)

and

dv 1)2

a = -e +-e

cit' p"

where v is the speed of the particle and p the radius of curvature of its path [Sumpl Probs. 11.10 and 11.11]' We observed that whil the velocity v is directed along the tangent to the path, the acoeleration a consists of a t'Ol1lpon nt a, directed along th tanzent to th path and a component a" directed toward the center of curvature of th path (Fig. 11.31).

(11.39)

Fur a particl P moving along a spac CHI e, we d fined the plan which most closely fits the curve in the neighborhood of P as the osculating plane. This plane contains the unit vectors e, and ell which define, respecti ely, the tangent and principal 1101111al to the curve. The unit v ctor e" which is P 11) ndicular to the osculating plan defines the binormal.

WIl n the position of a particle P moving in a plane is defined b . its polar coordinates rand 8, it is conv nient to lise radial and transv rs components directed, r spectively, along the position ctor r of th particle and in the direction obtained by rotating r through 900 counterclo ·kwise [Sec. 11.14]. We attach d to P unit vectors c, and Co directed, r spectivel ,in the radial and transv rse dir ctions (Fi r. 11.32). 'I'Ve then expressed the velocity and acceleration of the particle in terms of radial und transverse compon mts

" = rc, + "Oco

a = (r - r02)c,. + (rii + 21'0)CII

(11.43) (11.'14)

where dots are used to indicate differentiation with respect to time. The scalar components of the vclo 'it)' and acceleration in thc radial and transverse dirt' 'lions are therefore

I), = i'

(/, = i - r02

(11.45) (11.46)

'0 = r8

(10 = rli = 2i-0

It is important to note that a, is not equal to the time deri ativ of ',., and that lIo is IJOt equal to the time derivative of 00 [Sample Proh. 11.12).

The 'hapt'cr ended \\ ith a dis mssion of the IIS(, of . linch; 'al -oordinates to d ,fin(' the position and motion of a purti .lc ill spa .c,

c'\

p

o 6---------x Fig. 11.31

Motion along a space curve

Radial and transverse components

o~--~~-----------------

Fig. 11.32

Fig. P11.184

Fig. P11.186

Fig. P11.187

v

c

.

'II

"(;---1--

Fig. PH. ISS 686

11.182 The motion of a parti ·Ie is defined b the relation' = 2t3 - 1.512 + 241 + 4, where x and 1 are expressed in meters and seconds, respectivelv Determine (a) when the velocity is zero, (11) the position ami the total distance traveled when the ac .elerarion is zero.

JJ.183 The a' .eleratlon of a particle is defined by the relation a = -60X-I.5, where a and x are expressed in m/s2 and meters, respe tivelv, Knowin r that the parti ·11' starts with no initial velocity at x = 4 m, determine the velo 'ity of the parti ,11' when (a) x = 2 Ill, (I}) r = I m, (e) x = 100 mm.

11.184 A projectile enters a resisting medium at x = 0 with an initial v loclty Vu = 900 I' tis and travels 4 in, b for coming to rest. Assuming that the v locity of the proj ctile is d fined by th r lation 0 = DO - kx, where v is expressed in I' tIs and x is in fi'et, determine (a) the initial ace lerntion of tip projectile, (b) th time required for the projectil(' to penetrate 3,9 in. into the resistinu medium,

11.185 A freight elevator moving upward with a constant velocit of 6 ftls passes a lXL~seng I' elevator which is stopped. Four seconds later the plL~sen~er elevator starts upward with a constant accelerution of 2.4 Ir/s". Determine (a) when and where the elevators will lIP at the same height, (b) the speed of th passen er elevator at that time.

11.186 Block C starts from rest at t = 0 and moves upward with a constant nee lcration of 25 mm/s2. Knowing that block A 1II0\les downward with a constant velocity of 75 mm/s, determine (a) the time fi)r which the velocity of block B is zero, (b) the corresponding position of block B.

11.187 TI.e three blocks shown 11l0W with constant velocities. Find the velocity of each block, knowin I that the relative velocity of A with respect to C is 300 mm/s upward and that till' relative velocity of B with respect to is 200 nllnls dowuwurd.

ll.J88 An OScillating water sprinkler at point A rcsts on an incline wluch furl1ls an angle ex witlr tilt' horizontal. Tire sprinkler disclrar x-s , <Iter with an initial velocity Vu at' an angle cf> with tire vertical which varies [rum -cf>u to +cf>u. Knowinv that Gu = 30 ft/s. cf>u = 40°, ami ex = 10°, dt-tr-rmiuo til(' horizontal distance between tire sprinkler

and points Band which define the watered area.

11.189 As tire driver of an automobile travels north at 2.5 klll/h in a parking lot, Ire observes a truck approaching from the northwest. Aftt'r Ire reduces Iris .peed to 15 km/h anti turns so that he is travelin ' in II northwest dirt' '!i(III, tlu- truck appt'ars to be appma 'hillg [rom til(' west. SSllInillg tluu t Irt' velo 'it)' of til(' tru ·k is constunt duriu , tilt' period of obscrvutiou. Ilt-tenl1im' til(' Ilia 'nitndl' and thl' dirt' 'liun of till' velocity of tire truck,

11.190 The driver of an automobile decreases her speed at a constant rate from 45 to 30 mi/h over a distance of 750 ft along a curve of 1500-ft radius. Determine the magnitude of the total acceleration of the automobile after the automobile has traveled 500 ft along the curve,

JJ.J9J A homeowner uses a snowblower to dear his driveway. Knowing that the snow is discharged at an average angle of 40· with the horizontal, determine the initial velocity Vi) of the snow.

1< 2/t ~~"~

~J4n------------~

3.5 n

I

Fig. PJI. J9J

JJ.J92 From measurements of a photograph, it has been found that as the stream of water shown left the nozzle at A, it had a radius of curvature of 2.5 111. Det -rrnine (a) the initial velocity ",\ of the stream, (b) the radius uf cui .... aturc of the stream as it reaches its IIIlLXi IIl1l1n height at B.

11.193 t the bottom of a loop in the vertical plane an airplane has a horizontal velocity of 1.50 I11/S and is speeding up at a rate of 2.5 IlI/S~. The radius uf curvature of the loop is 2000 m, The plane is l~eing tracked by radar at O. What arc the recorded values of i; 'r, (J and (J for this instant?

2000",

,

",

'----

---

~ ~~

---

~()(Im

Fig. Pll.193

Fig. PJI.J92

Review Problems 687

B

/,

) 2/'

Fig. PI i.ct

o

Fig. PII.C3 688

D 11.Cl The mechanism shown is known as a Whltworth quick-return mechanism. The input rod P rotates at a -onstant rate 4>, and the pin ~ is free to slide in the slot of the output rod Bl). Plot 0 versus 4> and 0 versus cf> for one revolution of rod AP. Assume cf> = I rud/s, I = 4 in., and (0) h = 2 . .5 in., (b) b = 3 in., (c) b = .5 in.

11.C2 A hall is dropped with a velocity Vo at an angle a with the vertical onto the top step of a night of stairs :onsistin of steps. The hall rebounds and bounces down the steps as shown. Each time the hall bonn .es, at points A, B, C, ... , the horizontal component of its velocitv remain constant and the magnitude of the vertical .omponent of its velo it)' is redu .ed hy k percent. se mnputattonal software to determine (0) if the hall bounces clown the steps without skipping any step, (b) if the hall bounces down the steps without boun 'ing twice on the same step, (c) the first step on which the hall bonne s I\~Cf'. Sf' values of Vo from I. m/s to 3.0 I1Ils in 0.6·m/s increments, values of a from I ° to 26° in 4° increm nts, and mines of k

(lual to 40 and .50.

0.1.5 III

Fig. Pll.C2

11.C3 )11 ill I umuseuu-nt park ride, "uirpluue" A is atta 'hed to the 10'111' IOllt:( ligid member DB. To operate the ride. the airplane and DB are rotated so that 70· :S 00 :S 130· "lid then are allowed to S\\~IIg freely about O. The airplane is subje ted to tile ac .elerution of grad!)' ami to a deceleration due to air resistau 'e, -kv2• whi ·h ads ill a direction opposite to that of its velocit v, leglectillg the mass and the uerod 'numic drag of DB und the friction ill the bearillg at O. lise .omputationul software or write a computer pro· gram to determine the speed of the airplane for gil'ell values of 00 and 0 ami the value of 0 at wlri ·h the uirplune first come to rest after bein , released. se ulues of 00 frolll 70· to 130· ill 30· increments, and determint- til(' mnxinuun spt't'd of tIl(' nirpl.uu- and tln- first two vulucs of 0 at which I) - O. For ('a·h .1111(' or 011. It,t (II) k - O. (b) k 2 x 10 I III I, (c) k - <I X 10 Z III I. tllint, I!:Al"'t'SS thl' tan '('II.tilll a 'cl'lemtioll of the uirplunc ill terms of g. k, "11(1 O. Ht, 'all thut V8 ... rO.)

l1.e4 A motorist traveling on a highway at a speed of 60 milh exits onto an ice-covered exit ramp. \-\fishing to stop, be appli s his brakes until his automobile lX)l1IeS to rest. Knowing that the magnitude of the total acceleration of the automobile cannot exceed 10 ftls2, use computational software to determine the III inimun I time required for the automohile to come to rest and the distance it travels on the exit ramp during that time if the exit ramp (a) is straight, (b) has a constant radius of curvature of 00 1'1:. Solve each part assuming that the driver applies hi' brakes so that dvldt. during each time interval, (1) remains constant, (2) varies linearly.

Computer Problems 689

l1.e5 All oscillating garden sprinkler discharges water with an initial velocity Yo of 10 m/s. (a) Knowing that the sides but not the top of arbor BCD£ are open, use computational software to calculate the distance tl to the point F that will be watered for values of u from 20° to 80°. (b) Determine the maximum value of d and the corresponding value of u.

c

D

-,

1.8 III

B

1~2.2 1ll--~+-----3.2 III ----~

---------------------ri-------------------------

Fig. P11.CS

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd