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Milk: Processing of Milk

RS Chavan, R Sehrawat, and V Mishra, National Institute of Food Technology & Entrepreneurship Management (NIFTEM),
Kundli, India
S Bhatt, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, India
ã 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Introduction irradiated milk, fermented milk (natural buttermilk, cultured


buttermilk, acidophilus milk, kumis, and kefir), reconstituted/
Milk is nutritious, appetizing, and nature’s perfect food (except rehydrated milk, recombined milk, soya milk, toned, double
vitamin C, copper, and iron) and is recommended by toned milk, filled milk, and imitation milk that are generally
nutritionists for development of sound body and consumed pasteurized or UHT treated (Figure 1). Standardized milk,
by all sectors of people. People suffering from lactose intoler- toned and double toned are those milks in which standardi-
ance and old age are unable to digest milk, but can easily digest zation of fat and solid not fat (SNF) content are done by
fermented foods like yogurt (as lactic acid bacteria converts addition or removal of cream. Fermented milks are categorized
lactose into lactic acid). Demand for milk was greater in devel- depending on inoculation of different cultures of bacteria for
oped countries as compared to developing countries, but the example Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and
gap has narrowed due to an increase in urbanization, Streptococcus lactis. Flavored milk is prepared by incorporated
population, and consumption. Total production of milk up flavors like chocolate, strawberry, mango, butterscotch, and
to 20 July 2014 was 5339.4 million liters, which is exhibiting vanilla along with fruit pulps, cocoa powder, sugar, permitted
an increasing trend from the previous year. Pasteurized milk color, and stabilizers followed by sterilization/UHT treatment.
and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk market share in 2014 Milk products available in the market include cream, butter,
increased to 83.7% and 6.9% (in volume), respectively, as butter oil, ice cream, cheese, powdered milk, and condensed
compared to 81.9% and 5.2% in 2013. India is the largest milk. Manufacturing of milk products varies worldwide as a
producer of milk with a total volume of 121.8 million tons consequence of traditional practices, different dietary habits,
followed by the United States and China. and social, cultural, and religious dissimilarities. Market milk is
One of the disadvantages associated with heating of milk is available in different packaging materials including glass con-
destruction of nutrients like water-soluble vitamins, but tech- tainers, PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles, tetra packs,
nological advancement and research have made it possible to and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) laminate pouches. In
prepare fortified milk or milk with added supplements. Milk is the dairy market, liquid milk (54%) occupies the largest seg-
a perishable commodity, and being rich in nutrients it acts as ment followed by ghee, yogurt, and whiteners 14%, 8%, and
the perfect substrate for growth of microflora, and to reduce 4%, respectively.
this, different thermal and nonthermal techniques are imple-
mented. Thermal treatments are the common techniques used
for extending the shelf life of milk, for example pasteurization, Collection and Storage of Raw Milk
sterilization, and UHT, but loss of nutrients is a concern asso-
ciated with these treatments. Nonthermal treatments like high- Previously milk was collected by small-scale dairies directly
pressure processing (HPP), pulse electric field, ultrasonication, from nearby farms so there was no critical requirement of
and irradiation are also explored to process milk to minimize chilling centers. However, with an increase in distance between
the loss of nutrients as compared to thermal treatment. collection and processing, large dairy processing units required
Postprocess contamination is a major factor that can affect chilling centers, as on many occasions it took 3 days for trans-
the shelf life of milk, and to maintain the product, safe pack- portation from distant places. Milk can be collected directly
aging plays an important role when the milk and milk products from producers, through cooperative societies, or by the chill-
are stored at refrigeration or ambient temperature. Aseptic ing centers. If the processing plant or dairy is near a village/
packaging of milk when used in combination with high tem- town, then farmers individually can contact processors on a
perature can considerably extend shelf life of milk for more daily basis. Sometimes a middleman is also involved for trans-
than 6 months at room temperature. porting raw milk from villagers to the dairy using cans on
rickshaw, bike, and so on. A cooperative society is formed by
a group of persons at the village level. They do not ensure to
take milk on daily basis and can deny on various grounds.
Types of Products The milk is procured either on a weight or a volume basis, and
payment is made on the basis of percentage of fat, SNF, and other
With judicious preservation technique and by harnessing the quality attributes. Generally cans, insulated tankers, trucks, or
potential of milk into different types of products, milk could be rail tankers are used as a means to transport milk to a processing
made available year-round in those sectors where it is not plant. At a chilling center the milk is usually stored at a temper-
being produced or during the lean season. Different types of ature below 5  C in insulated tanks/silos, and the cooling of milk
liquid milk include pasteurized milk, sterilized milk, homoge- can be achieved by implementing techniques like can immer-
nized milk, and special milk. Special milk includes whole milk, sion, in-can cooling, rotor freeze, bulk milk cooler, plate chiller,
standardized milk, soft curd milk, flavored milk, vitaminized/ tubular cooler, brine cooling, and ice cooling. Milk storage

Encyclopedia of Food and Health http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384947-2.00464-5 729


730 Milk: Processing of Milk

Stirred yoghurt
Low-fat yoghurt
Yoghurt
Sweetened or flavored
Fermented Strained yoghurt
products
Fermented Kumiss
milk Kefir
products Acidophilus milk
/Beverage Bulgarian buttermilk

Concentrated
Heat milk Khoa Burfi, Peda, Gulabjamun
desiccated Sweetened condensed milk
products Condensed Sweetened condensed skim milk
milk Unsweetened condensed milk
Unsweetened condensed skim milk
Clotted cream
Pressed Cheeses
(Mimolette)
Semi-Pressed
On basis of Cheeses (Cheddar)
Cheese manufacture Pressed and
Cooked Cheeses
(Gruyère)
Coagulated
products Hard (Cheddar)
Whole On basis of Medium-hard
milk texture (Gouda)
Soft (Port Salut)
Chhana
Clarified Butter oil
butter fat Butter
products Butter milk

Frozen Ice cream


products Frozen yoghurt

Whole milk powder


Skim milk powder
Butter milk powder
Dried
Whey powder
products
Butter powder
Ice cream mix powder
Cheese powder
Infant milk powder
Figure 1 Milk and milk products.

temperature is generally kept low, as it will minimize the bacte- Standardization


rial growth and thereby avoid milk spoilage, which is very high if
Standardization involves adjustment of the fat/SNF content of
the milk is stored at 30–40  C, as it is the optimum growth
milk, or a milk product, by addition of cream or skim milk as
temperature for most of the microorganisms present in milk.
appropriate to obtain a given fat/SNF content. Generally raw
Quality assessment is the foremost requirement as soon as
milk is standardized before processing, and it also depends on
the milk is received. It includes a platform test like organoleptic
regulatory authorities, as standardization is not allowed in
(taste, smell, and visual), temperature, clot on boiling (COB),
some countries. Depending on scale of automation in the
sediment test, neutralizer test, and alcohol-alizarin test, which
dairy, either direct inline or batch standardization can be car-
are performed on the dock itself and are indicators of the quality
ried out. Milk products that are utilized for adjusting fat in milk
of the milk. Based on the results of platform tests, a decision is
include cream, butter oil, and whole milk powder, and for
taken to accept or reject the milk. After acceptance of the milk,
increasing the SNF content skim milk powder is often used.
tests are further conducted in a laboratory that will include
determination of fat, SNF, acidity, methylene blue reduction
test (MBRT), microbial counts (direct microscopic, standard
Preservation Techniques
plate count, and presumptive coliform test), and tests for adul-
terants that ensure the quality of raw milk. Milk is further Because milk is a rich source of nutrients, it is susceptible to
pumped into large storage insulated tanks (silos) in which growth of microorganisms if not processed or stored at a low
milk is stored at temperature less than 4  C until it is further temperature. Second, to meet the demand of the urban popu-
pasteurized or sterilized, depending on the requirement. lation and to supply the milk in the lean season, milk needs to
Milk: Processing of Milk 731

be dried and stored in the flush season. With the growing to 5  C or below. LTLT involves a water jacketed vat, water-
demand for milk and milk products and changing lifestyles, spray, or a coil vat pasteurizer. LTLT has benefit of low equip-
it is necessary to increase the shelf life of the milk not only by ment cost, but the energy and labor requirement is high
days or months but up to years while maintaining the nutrients compared to HTST. LTLT impairs creaming properties due to
present. Extension of shelf life can be achieved by implement- excessive agitation that leads to churning. The HTST pasteuri-
ing one of these techniques: lowering the temperature (chill- zer provides a continuous flow of milk, occupies less floor
ing, freezing), heat treatment (pasteurization, sterilization, area, uses automation (clean-in-place [CIP] cleaning), and
UHT), removal of moisture by concentrating (evaporation, requires low operating cost (effective regeneration). Other
drying, sweetening, or salting), modified atmosphere (removal time–temperature combinations are 89, 90, 94, and100  C
of oxygen), or microfluidization and cold pasteurization tech- for 1, 0.5, 0.1, and 0.01 s, respectively (US code of federal
niques (HPP, pulse electric field, oscillating magnetic field and regulation). Regeneration allows heating of incoming milk
irradiation; Figure 2). and cooling of outgoing milk, where 80% of pasteurization
temperature is achieved and 94–95% of heat from the outgo-
ing milk is recovered.
Pasteurization
In HTST, plates are generally used for exchanging the heat
Louis Pasteur in 1860 demonstrated that heat treatment and are made of stainless steel (SS type 320) of 0.8–2.0 gauge
(50–60  C) killed most of the spoilage microorganisms in with a gap of 2.5–4.0 mm between two consecutive plates.
fruit juices. In the case of milk, pasteurization means treating Apart from the fact that copper has an excellent heat transfer-
every particle of milk with a time–temperature combination ring capacity of 218 BTU h1 ft1 F1 as compared to stainless
effective to destroy bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Coxiel- steel (10 BTU h1 ft1 F1), it is not used in fabrication of
laburnetii and Listeria monocytogenes as indicator) without alter- plates as it may produce off flavor by catalyzing the oxidation
ing nutritional status, as well as color and flavor. At the of milk fat. The heating medium used for heating of milk may
industrial level batch pasteurization or low temperature for be steam or hot water, and for cooling of milk, glycol, brine,
longer time (LTLT) and high temperature for short time water, or ice water can be used. Capacity of the dairy plant
(HTST) are carried out at 63  C for 30 min and 72  C for using plate heat exchanger can be as high as 1 00 000 L h1,
15 s, respectively, which is immediately followed by cooling which can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the size of

Receiving raw milk

Cooling to 5 ⬚C

Preheating (35 − 40 ⬚C)

Filtration/Clarification

Cooling to 5 ⬚C

Standardization and storage (5 ⬚C)

Preheating (60 ⬚C)

Homogenization (2500 Psi) (60 ⬚C)

Ultra-high Filling and Pasteurization Pasteurization (HTST


temperature capping (LTLT/63 ⬚C for 15 min) /72 ⬚C for 15 s)
(135 − 150
⬚C/1 − 2 s)

Aseptic Sterilization Cooling Cooling


Packing (108 − 121
⬚C/25 − 30
min)

UHT milk Sterilized Pasteurized milk in Pasteurized milk in


milk finished tank finished tank

Cooling Cooling Packing Packing

Storage Storage Storage/Distribution Storage/Distribution


/Distribution /Distribution
Figure 2 A flowsheet for the manufacture of pasteurized liquid milk, sterilized milk, and UHT milk.
732 Milk: Processing of Milk

the plate and the number of plates. In the plate heat exchanger, exchanger provides more surface area for heat transfer, low
the heat of the pasteurized milk is utilized to warm the incom- cost, and simple design. Tubular heat exchangers are more
ing cold milk that is simultaneously precooled. This in turn commonly used for thick liquids; do not need to acquire an
saves the cost of heating and refrigeration, and this capacity of aseptic homogenizer, as they can withstand 200–300 bar pres-
the plate exchanger is called regenerative heat exchange or, sure required during homogenization; and by employing
more commonly, heat recovery. The regeneration section is homogenizer valve will serve the purpose as a source of con-
divided into different subsections with the help of a block, tamination in a homogenization pump thus eliminating the
and these blocks are further connected to processes like requirement of a pump. The rate of fouling of tubular heat
homogenization, clarification, microfiltration, and separation. exchangers is less as compared to a plate heat exchanger that
Shell and tube heat exchangers are used for pasteurization of has narrow channels for milk flow. Cooling to around 20  C is
highly viscous products like cream, and an added advantage of achieved in a vacuum chamber. Direct heating requires steril-
shell and tube heat exchanger over plate heat exchanger is of ization temperatures 3–4  C higher than indirect heating to
low maintenance. achieve an equal sterilization effect because of the greater
heat input during the heat-up phase of indirect heating. As
compared to direct heating systems, indirect systems have a
UHT
low heat transfer rate and a higher rate of deposition over the
UHT processing of milk involves heating milk in a continuous surface that requires frequent cleaning, but less processing and
process to temperatures higher than 135  C for a few seconds, operational cost (less pumps and accessories, regeneration of
cooling rapidly, and aseptically packaging in the milk into energy) and require less controls. To exploit the benefits of
sterile containers. UHT treatment must be sufficient to produce direct as well as indirect processes, systems using a combina-
a commercially sterile product in which bacterial growth will tion of direct and indirect heating are available commercially
not occur under normal storage conditions, but not severe (e.g., the High-Heat Infusion system of APV88 and the Tetra
enough to cause chemical changes that result in an unaccept- Therm Aseptic Plus Two system of Tetra Pak). These achieve
able flavor, color, and nutritive loss. In general, the heating better energy economy than conventional direct systems (due
should be equivalent to a minimum of 9 log reduction of to greater heat regeneration) and cause less chemical damage,
thermophilic spores (referred to as a B* value, >1) and a especially flavor change, than conventional indirect UHT sys-
maximum reduction of 3% in the level of thiamine (referred tems. Some of the adversely affected nutrient components in
to as a C* value, <1). UHT was invented in 1960, and milk after UHT treatment are ascorbic acid, folacin, vitamin
UHT-treated milk was commercially available in 1970 with B12, vitamin B6, thiamine, and riboflavin up to an extent of
an objective to reduce nutritional loss caused by in-container 15–25%, 10–20%, 0–30%, 0–10%, <10–18%, 0–10%, respec-
sterilization. UHT-treated milk is generally packed in paper- tively. Fat-soluble vitamins, proteins, and amino acids are
board made of six different layers. A polyethylene layer is used affected to a much lesser extent.
for sealing in the milk and also acts as a moisture barrier;
aluminum foil acts as an oxygen barrier and protects from
off-flavors and light. UHT-treated and aseptically packed milk
Sterilization
can have a long shelf life extending up to 6 or even 9 months
without any preservatives at ambient temperature. The disad- In-can sterilization of milk is usually carried out above 100  C
vantage associated with UHT treatment of milk is that in many with a time–temperature combination of 121  C for 15 min at
instances the milk appears to have a cooked taste with a slight 15 psi. The sterilization process may be a batch (autoclaves) or
to dark brown color that may be due to Maillard browning. continuous process (vertical hydrostatic towers or horizontal
Development of sulfurous flavor is also associated with UHT sterilizers) and can be carried out in either cans or glass bottles,
milk, which is developed on thermal treatment as a result of which are prefilled and hermetically sealed.
unfolding of whey proteins. Milk with a high preprocessing Sterilization effect is achieved by using hot water or satu-
microbial count is more susceptible to gel formation than milk rated steam, which transfers the heat to milk and milk products
with a low count. Microorganisms that produce heat-stable through the walls of the container. The main objective of
enzymes cause the most serious gelation problems. Longer sterilization is to kill vegetative cells and endospores or reduc-
refrigeration times prior to sterilization allow increased growth tion of 12 log cycles (12 D reduction) of Clostridium botulinum
of psychotropic microorganisms and concomitant production by using a suitable time–temperature combination. The fact
of heat-stable enzymes, especially proteinases and lipases. that sterilization takes place after bottling eliminates the need
Two main types of UHT processes are used commercially: for aseptic handling, but on the other hand, heat-resistant
direct heating, in which milk comes into direct contact with the packaging materials must be used. Sterilized milk usually has
heating medium, that is, steam; and indirect heating, in which a creamy appearance and an extended shelf life of more than 6
the heating medium, steam or superheated water, is separated months as compared to a few days for pasteurized milk. Ren-
from the milk by a stainless steel plate or wall of a tube. In dering milk to high temperature with a long holding time often
direct systems, heating to the specified temperature and cool- results in burnt flavor and brown color, which may be a result
ing from the high temperature is very fast due to transfer of the of the Maillard reaction. Popularity and consumption of ster-
latent heats of condensation and evaporation, respectively, ilized milk declined after introduction of UHT processed milk.
between the steam and liquid milk. A plate heat exchanger Nutrient loss is a major concern associated with sterilization, as
used in UHT processing is able to withstand high temperature it is reported by various scientists that almost 50% of vitamin C
and internal pressure as compared to a pasteurizer. A plate heat and 30–40% of thiamine and vitamin B12 are lost, but
Milk: Processing of Milk 733

components like vitamin A, riboflavin, carotene, and nicotinic water retention property. Some of the characteristics associated
acid remain unaffected. with microfluidization include chances of contamination,
hard to scale up the production rate, loss of product, and
encapsulated material structure due to high shear and striking
Homogenization and Microfluidization
coerces during microfluidization.
Homogenization of milk has become a standard process that is
applied as a means of stabilizing the fat emulsion against
gravity separation. Gaulin, who invented the process in 1899, Novel Nonthermal Milk Processing Techniques
described it in French as ‘fixer la composition des liquides.’
Homogenization is carried out by using a homogenizer that Consumers prefer products that are minimally processed; have
pumps the milk under pressure through an orifice of 0.1 nm to natural aroma, fresh taste, and no additives; are stable; are
disintegrate the fat globules to less than 2 mm. The disintegra- convenient to use; and are microbiologically safe. Although
tion of the milk fat globules is achieved by a combination of thermal processing (heating or cooling operation) maintains
contributing factors such as turbulence and cavitation that do safety of food, it adversely affects nutritional value. However
not allow visible cream separation in milk and also increase the irradiation, pulse electric field, and HPP are alternatives to tra-
mouthfeel, color, and digestibility. Homogenizers used in the ditional thermal processing. Technologies such as ohmic heat-
milk industry are either single-stage or two-stage, depending ing, dielectric heating (which includes microwave heating and
on the number of homogenizing devices. Single-stage radio-frequency heating), and inductive heating have been
homogenization is used to homogenize products with a high developed that can replace, at least partially, the traditional
viscosity, whereas two-stage homogenization is applied for heating methods that rely essentially on conductive, convective,
products with a high fat content or where high homogeni- and radiative heat transfer. They all have a common feature: heat
zation efficiency is desired. Homogenization temperatures nor- is generated directly inside the food and this has direct implica-
mally applied are 60–70  C, and homogenization pressure is tions in terms of both energetic and heating efficiency. Among
between 10 and 25 MPa (100–250 bar), depending on the these nonthermal techniques, HPP of milk is well studied
product. In a two-stage homogenization, pressure of 2000 psi although other techniques has attracted little attention and
and 500 psi is applied at the first stage and second stage, commercial application but has considerable potent future.
respectively. Pressure at the first stage reduces fat globules size
and increases viscosity, whereas a second stage is used to
• High Pressure Processing

prevent fat cluster reformation. The purpose of homogeni- HPP is a technique that involves the application of pressure in
zation of milk is to stabilize the milk fat emulsion, as during the range of 100–900 MPa, which is instantaneously and uni-
storage and distribution a creamy layer appears at the top formly transmitted throughout the product irrespective of its
surface as a result of separation under gravitational force. size and shape. The principle of HPP is based on Le Chatelier’s
Homogenized milk cannot be efficiently separated and also principle (with increase in pressure, decrease in volume occurs)
on many occasions it leads to development of sunlight flavor. and isostatic transfer (uniform transmission of pressure in all
Moreover, the homogenized milk is also reported to have low sides). Pressure of 300–600 MPa breaks ionic and electrostatic
heat stability, and also the milk is not suitable for production bonds but does not disrupt covalent bonds. HPP processing of
of semihard and hard variants of cheese, as the coagulum milk usually has least effect on color, flavor, and nutritional
formed will be too soft, which will make it vulnerable during value, but is effective enough to reduce microbial load as well
dewatering. Homogenized milk is more sensitive to light and to enhance rennet or acid coagulation of milk. Milk processed at
enzymatic activity of lipase, so pre-heat treatment is recom- a pressure of 600 MPa was found to enhance the shelf life of
mended before homogenization of milk to inactivate lipase. milk by reducing the microbial population, and factors that
Microfluidization is a novel technique, using high pressure govern the microbial reduction are duration of exposure and
up to 241 MPa by combining high velocity, shear, turbulence, target species, as well as composition. Microbial quality of HPP
and collision inside the chamber for a short duration of 5 s to (400–600) treated raw milk was found to be comparable with
obtain high-quality products by breaking down large particles. pasteurized milk (72  C for 15 s), and treatment at 400 MPa for
It is a continuous process that has a chamber for fluid flow, in 15 min and 600 MPa for 3 min is effective enough to increase
which pressure stream is forcibly directed to flow into two the shelf life at 10 and 20 C, respectively, for 10 days.
different fine orifices. At the point of intersection, both splited
microstreams clash into each other at high speed, resulting in
• Pulse Electric Field (PEF)
the reduction of large-size particles to very small sizes. Break- PEF has proven to have a potential for increasing the milk shelf
down into fine particles inside the interaction chamber occurs life, as it is highly applicable to liquids. PEF had shown min-
due to high speed, high shear, cavitation, air compression, and imal effects on the nutritional, flavor, and functional charac-
coerces of the microstreams. The milk obtained after teristics of milk and also has an ability to inactivate
microfluidization is more homogenized and viscous when microorganisms. PEF is based on the application of pulses of
compared with commercially available homogenized milk high voltage (typically 20–80 kV cm-1) delivered to the product
using a two-stage homogenizer. Microfluidized milk, when placed between a set of electrodes that confine the treatment
used for cheese preparation, can improve textural and melting gap of the PEF chamber. The process can be conducted at
characteristics and also lower the microbial population. Yogurt ambient temperature for a fraction of second, and energy loss
prepared from homogenized milk was comparable to low-fat due to the heating of foods is minimized. Preservation of milk
(1.5%) microfluidized yogurt in terms of texture profile and and fluid dairy products seems to be one of the main market
734 Milk: Processing of Milk

niches for PEF technology because it is mainly intended (light, temperature, humidity, mechanical stress during
for preservation of pumpable fluid or semifluid foods. When transportation, and storage). The ideal packaging material for
self-inoculated (Salmonella) milk was treated with PEF milk should be an inert, nontoxic, safe, and hygienic design and
(36.7 kV cm1 and 40 pulses, 25 min) and stored at 7–9  C should not directly or indirectly impart smell. Packaging mate-
for 8 days, the level of Salmonella was below detection limit. rial should be well labeled with manufacturing, expiration date,
PEF-treated cheese milk has not shown any significant changes storage conditions, and ingredients. Single-use packages are
on physicochemical characteristics and quality of cheese. No used for packaging of fluid milk that is predominately plastic
adverse effect of PEF on water-soluble vitamins in milk (ribo- pouch (PE, LDPE, HDPE, polyvinylchloride) that has a good
flavin, thiamin, and ascorbic acid) and fat-soluble vitamins moisture barrier properties but poor recyclability and disposal
(cholecalciferol and tocopherol), after applying treatments of complications. Cartons are generally used as a secondary stor-
up to 400 ms at field strengths from 18.3 to 27.1 kV cm1, was age of milk; paper and paperboards materials include laminates
found except for ascorbic acid. As compared to LTLT- and consisting of outer kraft paper with PE coatings and aluminum
HTST-treated milk, PEF-treated milk retained more ascorbic foil. The advantage of single-use packaging material is that they
acid after a 400 ms treatment at 22.6 kV cm1 (93.4%) than decrease the use of detergents, which is required for washing
either a LTLT (49.7%) or HTST (86.7% retained). returnable glass bottles. Apart from sterilizing the milk and
milk products and also the packaging material, sterilization of
• Other Techniques
equipment, line, and filling area can enhance the shelf life of
Milk irradiation is a process of exposing milk to ionizing radia- milk. Aseptic packaging is being utilized in developing coun-
tion (gamma rays, beta-particles), emitted by a source (cesium tries for presterilized packages under sterile environment into
and cobalt) to destroy the spoilage-causing microorganisms. sterile packaging material.
Treatment of milk with 2–5 kGy reduced bacterial population For storage and distribution of milk, insulated tanks, cans,
by around 99%, but to achieve complete sterilization of milk, a bottles, tetrahedral package, paperboard cartons, and automatic
dosage of 10–20 kGy is required. A hurdle in irradiation of milk vending machines are used. The most important factor to be
is development of off-flavor and color change. Irradiation can be considered during the storage and distribution of milk is the
effectively used for sterilization of packaging material used for temperature of storage, which should be kept at 5  C. Hygienic
packing of milk and milk products. Ultrasound waves are sim- conditions must be maintained throughout the supply chain so
ilar to sound waves but have a frequency that is above 16 kHz. It that the milk products are not cross contaminated and are also
produces very rapid localized changes in pressure and tempera- free from defects like off flavor due to exposure to chemicals.
ture that cause shear disruption, ‘cavitation’ (creation of bubbles
in liquid foods), thinning of cell membranes, localized heating,
Quality Assurance and Quality Control
and free radical production that have a lethal effect on microor-
ganisms. A combined heat and ultrasound treatment under Quality assurance is an important element for safe milk and
pressure was termed ‘manothermosonication’ (MTS) and can milk products from any of the contaminants that can render
be used for enhancing the shelf life of milk. Unfortunately, the product unsafe for consumers. Addition of water by deceit-
ultrasound does not inactivate alkaline phosphatase or lactoper- ful middlemen is one of the challenges faced by the dairy
oxidase enzymes and hence cannot be used to indicate a suc- industry in developing countries. To provide a quality milk
cessful ultrasonic treatment. If ultrasonication is to be used as an and milk product it is of utmost importance to start the process
alternative to thermal pasteurization, a need exists to find a by procuring good-quality raw milk and maintaining strict
quick and efficient method to indicate whether ultrasonication quality measures at different checkpoints (collection, transpor-
was sufficient in terms of ensuring a microbiologically safe tation, receiving dock, after processing, and during dispatch),
product. including transportation and storage. Quality testing
includes a platform test at the receiving dock and physico-
chemical cum microbiological analysis in the processing
(before–after) industry and should follow up the standards as
Packaging, Storage, and Distribution
laid out by regulatory agencies/bodies. To ensure the quality,
Packaging is a medium between product manufacturers and dairy industries should follow good manufacturing policies
consumers aiding the maintenance of original quality of the (GMP), hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP), and
packaged products and providing information and character- ISO:22000 (2005) based programs, which will help in control-
istics of the packaged products to the consumers. The functions ling the quality by identifying and reducing the hazards within
of packaging are to enable efficient food distribution, maintain a safe limit for consumers. Other key factors that control qual-
product hygiene, protect nutrients and flavor, and reduce spoil- ity are hygiene, safety, adequate thermal treatment during
age and waste. Immediately after heat treatment, milk products manufacturing, packaging, and postprocess contamination.
need to be packaged to avoid postprocess contamination that
will affect the shelf life. In earlier days returnable glass bottles
Steps Where Preventive Measures Are Required to
were used for packaging and distribution of milk, but with
Maintain Quality
technological advancement plastic bottles, tetra packs,
laminates, and sachet are now preferred over glass bottles. • Good and hygienic milking practices must be carried out at
Before a packaging material is selected for milk and milk the farm level that can minimize the proliferation of micro-
products it is important to know the type, composition, organisms from environment, dirt, soil, feces, human
compatibility, conditions of storage, and transportation beings, and equipment into milk.
Milk: Processing of Milk 735

• Utensils and equipment used for milking the animals must Origins and Applications; Fermented Foods: Use of Starter Cultures;
be well sanitized and preferably manufactured using stain- Functional Foods; Lactic Acid Bacteria.
less steel.
• Milk mulched from mulching animals suffering from mas-
titis and other diseases must not be mixed with a batch of
good raw milk.
• Longer storage temperatures of raw milk must be avoided as Further Reading
it allows few psychrotrophic organisms (L. monocytogenes
and Pseudomonas species) to grow that in return can secrete Antonio JT, Marta C, Jordi S, Ramon G, and Buenaventura G (2002) Applications of
high-hydrostatic pressure on milk and dairy products: A review. Innovative Food
enzymes like proteases and lipases, which produces defects Science and Emerging Technologies 3: 295–307.
like sweet curdling in UHT-treated milk. Chavan R, Kumar A, Mishra V, and Nema PK (2014) Effect of microfluidization on
• Monitoring the milk for adulteration with adulterants mango flavoured yoghurt: Rheological properties and pH parameter. International
including urea, sugar, neutralizers, and nondairy proteins. Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences 3: 84–90.
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Good farming practice, animal health management, control of


feed, hygienic milking operations, inspection, quality analysis, Relevant Websites
sanitation, and hygiene during manufacturing as well as pack- http://www.dairyco.org.uk/.
aging and effectively monitoring every parameter during pro- http://www.dairyco.org.uk/market-information/dairy-sales-consumption/liquid-milk-
cessing will help in reducing microbial load to render products market/liquid-milk-market/#.VFmq3TSUflE.
safe for end consumers. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/T0045E/T0045E02.html.
http://www.fil-idf.org/Public/PublicationsPage.php?ID¼27121&highlight¼true.
http://www.fonterra.com/global/en.
http://www.idmc.coop/.
See also: Acidophilus Milk; Cheese: Chemistry and Microbiology; http://www.tetrapak.com/in/products-and-services/processing-equipment/dairy-
Fermented Foods: Composition and Health Effects; Fermented Foods: equipment.