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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY (IJRT) ISSN No.

2394-9007
Vol. V, No. II, April 2018 www.ijrtonline.org

Energy Improved Ad-hoc On Demand Distance


Vector Routing Protocol for MANET
Lakhan Sisodiya, Khushboo Saxena

Abstract— Proposing energy efficient routing protocols for


Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is challenging task.
Performances of many of these routing protocols have been
evaluated focusing on metrics such as delay, routing overhead,
and packet delivery. We will discuss about the Energy
consumption in a MANET routing protocols. A performance
comparison of original AODV and Proposed EI-AODV protocols
with respect to average energy consumption and routing energy
consumption are explained thoroughly. We are distributing
packet on ten different routes so, energy of overall network will Fig. 1: Node 1, Node 2 & Note 3 are the mobile nodes
improve. The execution measurements utilized for assessment are
Packet delivery ratio, throughput and Average Delay. The A. Current Challenges/Open Research Issues:
simulation will be done using NS2. In a mobile ad hoc network, all the nodes cooperate with each
Keywords: NS-2, AODV, CBR, CH, MANET. other to forward the packets in the network, and hence each
node is actually a router. Thus one of the most important
I. INTRODUCTION issues is routing. This thesis concentrates mainly on routing
MANET is a collection of self organized mobile nodes with issues in ad-hoc networks. In this section, some of the other
dynamic topologies and no fixed infrastructure. Nodes issues in ad hoc networks are:-
communicate with each other through wireless channel. Nodes  Routing
form a group of wireless nodes which agree to forward  Quality of Service (QoS)
packets for each other. When network topology changes nodes  Internetworking
still remains connected. In the absence of central control of the  Power Consumption
network. Operation, the control and management of the  Security and Reliability
network is distributed among the mobile nodes. The nodes are
B. AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing):
required to collaborate amongst themselves. The flexibility of
Ad-Hoc on Demand Vector Routing is Reactive routing which
mobile nodes allows nodes in the network to join and leave
is also known as „On-demand Routing‟ protocol. Here route
the network at any instance. Limited bandwidth, memory and
between the source and the destination are find out whenever
processing capabilities are major disadvantage and due to
that route is needed whereas in proactive need to maintain all
open medium these are more prone to malicious attacks.
routes without regarding its use. Discovering route on demand
Interest in this area is growing since last few years because of
avoids the cost of maintaining routes that are not being used
its practical applications and requirement of communication in
and also controls the traffic of the network. Time delay in
mobile devices.
reactive protocols is much greater than proactive types since
In fig. 1, Node 1, Node 2 and Node 3 are the mobile
routes are calculated when it is required. AODV uses
nodes and they are connected to each other through wireless
sequence numbers to ensure the most recent routes. AODV is
links.
loop-free, self-starting routing protocol. Routes are builds
using route request and route reply process. When source
packet receives a packet to transmit and it does not have a
route to destination then it form a route request packet
(RREQ) and broadcast it to its neighbors. When node receive
Manuscript received on April, 2018.
RREQ packet it update their information for that source node
Lakhan Sisodiya, M.Tech Scholar, Department of Computer Science & and set a backward pointer in the route table to that source
Engineering, Oriental Institute of Science & Technology, Bhopal, M.P., India. node. RREQ packet has most recent sequence number. On
Prof. Khushboo Saxena, Asst. Professor, Department of Computer Science receiving RREQ packet node may form a route reply packet
& Engineering, Oriental Institute of Science & Technology, Bhopal, M.P., (RREP) only when either it is a target node or it has a route to
India. the target node having sequence number in RREQ greater than

Impact Factor: 4.012 68


Published under
Asian Research & Training Publication
ISO 9001:2015 Certified
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY (IJRT) ISSN No. 2394-9007
Vol. V, No. II, April 2018 www.ijrtonline.org
or equal to it. RREP is unicast to source in this case. Else node so, energy of overall network will improve. The execution
is an intermediate node having no information about route measurements utilized for assessment are Packet delivery
then broadcast the RREQ to its neighbors. If nodes have ratio, throughput, and Average Delay. The simulation will be
already processed the RREQ packet before then they reject it. done using NS2.
When RREP is received by the source then nodes set up We have proposed the model for EI-AODV it is an
forward pointer to the destination. important part of routing protocols. There are two data model
As soon as RREP is received by source, it can initiate Route-Info and Packet-Distribution
data packet transfer to destination. If afterwards source Route-Info:
receives RREP having a greater sequence number or contains For the proposed EI-AODV we have introduced new route
the same sequence number but with a smaller path length, then cache. There are four fields in new routing protocol. Route,
source update its routing information for that destination and Route-Address and Time-Out
starts using this new route. When the link breaks between Packet-Distribution:
source and destination then nodes send route error packet For the proposed EI-AODV we have introduced Packet-
(RERR) to source informing that destination is no more Distribution, in the Packet-Distribution there are two fields.
reachable. On receiving RERR by source, it again initiates Route-Name and Packet-Reader
route discovery procedure. The Algorithm is given below:
1. Source When Data Packet received following these steps
C. Energy Aware Routing in Mobile DHOC:
a. Retrieve Destination from packet
Wireless mobile devices are useful if they can be used
b. Is Route Available?
anywhere. But we have limited battery power of using it,
If YES Get Path P Available from Packet Distribution
Therefore, in wireless communication; one of the most
c. Else Initiate Route Discovery
challenging problems is power management. Several energy
d. Check number of path in data structure Packet-
aware routing protocols have been developed. Most of these
Distribution
routing protocols aim to minimize the energy consumed
2. If path is less than ten Initiate Route Discovery
per packet needed to deliver this packet to its destination.
3. Update data structure Packet-Distribution from new path
Some of the more sophisticated routing algorithms associate a
4. If path new path is less than existing path replace with
cost with routing through a node with low power reserve.
new path
Other routing protocols aim to maximize the network lifetime.
5. Send packet one by one on existing path in data structure
All previous protocols are using single path to distribute data
Packet-Distribution
traffic through the network. The routing protocols, described
previously are based on the single path routing between a
source and a destination. However, in a reasonably well-
connected network, there may exist several paths between a
source-destination pair. The concept of multipath routing is
to give the source node a choice at any given time of
multiple paths to a particular destination by taking
advantage of the connectivity redundancy of the underlying
network. The multiple paths may be used alternately,
namely, traffic taking one path at a time, or they may be
used multiple paths simultaneously .Multi-path routing
consists of three components: route discovery, route
maintenance, and traffic distribution among multiple paths
II. PROPOSED WORK
Energy Consumption for AODV:
Proposing energy efficient routing protocols for Mobile Ad
hoc Network (MANET) is challenging task. Performances of
many of these routing protocols have been evaluated focusing
on metrics such as delay, routing overhead, and packet
delivery. Although, no studies have been done to investigate
energy aspect of these routing protocols. Thus, we will discuss
about the Energy consumption in a MANET routing protocols.
A performance comparison of original AODV and Proposed
EI-AODV protocols with respect to average energy
consumption and routing energy consumption are explained
thoroughly. We are distributing packet on ten different routes Fig. 2: Flow Chart Describing Data Packet Transmission Process

Impact Factor: 4.012 69


Published under
Asian Research & Training Publication
ISO 9001:2015 Certified
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY (IJRT) ISSN No. 2394-9007
Vol. V, No. II, April 2018 www.ijrtonline.org
III. RESULT ANALYSIS
To analysis of original AODV and EI-AODV Network B. Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) Vs Speed:
Simulator (NS2) was used. The simulate are run for existing
AODV and under same environment it will again be run for
ZYM-AODV or Modified AODV to see the comparison of
performance on differences against Average Delay, Packet
Delivery Ratio (PDR) and Throughput. The Modified AODV
(EI-AODV) is simulated using with following scenarios
settings:
TABLE I: SIMULATION SCENARIOS
Ns-2 Version ns-2.35

Number of nodes
60
Number of nodes Ns-2 Version
Number of sources 30
Area 1000 x 1000
Link layer type LL
Model Random Waypoint
Network Interface Type Fig. 4: Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) Vs Speed
Phy/WirelessPhy
Mac Type Mac/802_11 C. Throughput Vs Speed:
Propagation TwoRayGround
Speed 10,20,30,40, and 50 m/s
Antenna Model Antenna/OmniAntenna
Buffer Size 100000 bits
Transmission Range 250 meters
Mac Type Mac/802_11
Packet Size 512 bytes
Routing Protocol AODV
Simulation Time 200s

A. Average Delay Vs Speed:

Fig. 5: Throughput Vs Speed

IV. CONCLUSION
This dissertation work on a number of routing protocols for
MANET, as we know that there are so many challenges of
Ad-Hoc network such as mobility, limited energy and route
maintains mechanism for node. In this research work we have
improved energy of node for long time by using path
distribution algorithm. In this algorithm, have use ten path for
packets sending from source to destination. Source decide
which path is load free and send packets on this path one by
one and if route is last route then counter is reset from path
Fig. 3: Average Delay Vs Speed
ten to path one and improve node energy, as compare to one
path from source to destination.

Impact Factor: 4.012 70


Published under
Asian Research & Training Publication
ISO 9001:2015 Certified
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY (IJRT) ISSN No. 2394-9007
Vol. V, No. II, April 2018 www.ijrtonline.org
V. FUTURE SCOPE [7] K. G. Santhiya and N. Arumugam, “Energy Aware Reliable
Routing Protocol (EARRP) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using
As compared to the existing AODV, our proposed scheme Bee Foraging Behaviour and Ant Colony Optimization” ,
future work we will develop intermediate node and International Journal of Computer Science Issues, vol. 9, no. 2,
destination decision working for reduced source load , route pp. 171, March 2012.
maintain mechanism for improve source node energy.
[8] S. Misra and G. Rajesh, “Bird Flight-Inspired Routing Protocol
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