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Interconnecting Cisco Networking

Devices Part 1
ICND1 100-105

Instructor
Paul A. Parker

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Chapter 19

Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2

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Chapter 19
Foundation Topics
v Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
▼ Routers add IP routes using connected routes, static routes, and
dynamic routes where the routes are learned from neighboring
routers. There are a few related terms as follows:
➘  Routing protocol: A set of messages, rules, and algorithms used
by routers for the overall purpose of learning routes. This process
includes the exchange and analysis of routing information. Each
router chooses the best route to each subnet (path selection) and
finally places those best routes in its IP routing table. Examples
include RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP.
➘  Routed protocol and routable protocol: Both terms refer to a
protocol that defines a packet structure and logical addressing,
allowing routers to forward or route the packets. Routers forward
packets defined by routed and routable protocols. Examples include
IP Version 4 (IPv4) and IP Version 6 (IPv6).

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Chapter 19
Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
v Routing Protocol Functions
▼ Cisco IOS supports several IP routing protocols that perform
these general functions:
➘  1. Learn routing information about IP subnets from other
neighboring routers.
➘  2. Advertise routing information about IP subnets to other
neighboring routers.
➘  3. If more than one possible route exists to reach one subnet, pick
the best route based on a metric.
➘  4. If the network topology changes—for example, a link fails—react
by advertising that some routes have failed and pick a new currently
best route. (This process is called convergence.)

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Chapter 19
Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
v Thee of the Four Basic Functions of Routers

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Chapter 19
Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
v Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols
▼ IP routing protocols fall into one of two major categories: interior
gateway protocols (IGP) or exterior gateway protocols (EGP)
defined as follows:
➘  IGP: A routing protocol that was designed and intended for use
inside a single autonomous system (AS)
➘  EGP: A routing protocol that was designed and intended for use
between different autonomous systems
▼ An autonomous system is a simply a network under the
administrative control of a single organization.

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Chapter 19
Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
v Comparing Locations for Using IGPs and EGPs

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Chapter 19
Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
v Comparing IGPs
▼ The term routing protocol algorithm refers to the logic and
processes used by the different routing protocols.
▼ Three main branches of routing protocol algorithms exist for IGP
routing protocols:
➘  Distance vector (sometimes called Bellman-Ford after its creators)
➘  Advanced distance vector (sometimes called “balanced hybrid”)
➘  Link-state

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Chapter 19
Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
v Metrics
▼ Routing protocols choose the best route to reach a subnet by
choosing the route with the lowest metric.

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Chapter 19
Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
v Interior IP Routing Protocol Comparison

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Chapter 19
Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
v Comparing RIP and EIGRP Metrics

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Chapter 19
Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features
v Administrative Distance
▼ Many companies and organizations use a single routing protocol,
however, some use multiple routing protocols to share route
information between networks.
▼  Administrative Distance
is a number that denotes
how believable an entire
routing protocol is when
compared to another
routing protocol.
▼ The router will use the
AD to choose which route
to put in the routing table
for a learned subnet.

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Chapter 19
Understanding the OSPF Link-State Routing Protocol
v Topology Information and LSAs
▼ Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) organizes topology information
using link-state advertisements (LSA) and the link-state database
(LSDB).
▼ The show ip ospf database lists information about the LSDB
on the router by listing some of the information in each of the
LSAs in the LSDB.

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Chapter 19
Understanding the OSPF Link-State Routing Protocol
v Flooding LSAs Using a Link-State Routing Protcol

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Chapter 19
Understanding the OSPF Link-State Routing Protocol
v Applying Dijkstra SPF Math to Find the Best Routes
▼ The Dijkstra Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm is used to
process the LSDB and choose the best route to place in the
routing table.
▼ ICND2 discusses SPF more with enough depth to plan OSPF
configurations.

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Chapter 19
Understanding the OSPF Link-State Routing Protocol
v Using OSPF Neighbor Relationships
▼ OSPF uses three major categories of internal operations to
eventually build routes:
➘  Neighbors: A relationship between two routers that connect to the
same data link, created so that the neighboring routers have a
means to exchange their LSDBs.
➘  Database exchange: The process of sending LSAs to neighbors so
that all routers learn the same LSAs.
➘  Adding the best routes: The process of each router independently
running SPF, on their local copy of the LSDB, calculating the best
routes, and adding those to the IPv4 routing table.
▼ The show ip ospf neighbors command will display the list of
neighbors and their relationship to the router.

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Chapter 19
Understanding the OSPF Link-State Routing Protocol
v Meeting Neighbors and Learning their Router ID
▼ The OSPF Hello Process is used to form neighbor relationships.
▼ The process starts with each router announcing its Router ID
(RID) which uniquely identifies the router.
▼ OSPF RIDs are 32-bit numbers displayed as dotted decimal
numbers.
▼ OSPF will use an active interface IPv4 for its RID or it can be
configured specifically.
▼ The Hello messages have these features:
➘  The Hello message follows the IP packet header, with IP protocol type 89.
➘  Hello packets are sent to multicast IP address 224.0.0.5, a multicast IP
address intended for all OSPF-speaking routers.
➘  OSPF routers listen for packets sent to IP multicast address 224.0.0.5, in part
hoping to receive Hello packets and learn about new neighbors.

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Chapter 19
Understanding the OSPF Link-State Routing Protocol
v Scaling OSPF Through Hierarchical Design
▼ OSPF can be used in some networks with very little thought
about design issues, however, in large networks, engineers need
to think about and plan how to use several OSPF features that
allow it to scale well.
▼ The problems with large OSPF networks can be summarized as
follows:
➘  A larger topology database requires more memory on each router.
➘  Processing the larger-topology database with the SPF algorithm
requires processing power that grows exponentially with the size of
the topology database.
➘  A single interface status change (up to down, or down to up) forces
every router to run SPF again!

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Chapter 19
Understanding the OSPF Link-State Routing Protocol
v To break up the complex task of running SPF on a large
LSDB the engineer uses areas to define smaller networks.

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Chapter 19
OSPF Configuration
v OSPF configuration includes only a few steps but it has
many optional steps. The process is defined as follows:
▼ Step 1. Enter OSPF configuration mode for a particular OSPF
process using the router ospf process-id global command.
▼ Step 2. (Optional) Configure the OSPF router ID by:
➘  A. Configuring the router-id id-value router subcommand
➘  B. Configuring an IP address on a loopback interface
▼ Step 3. Configure one or
more network ip-address
wildcard-mask area
area-id router
subcommands, with any
matched interfaces being
added to the listed area.

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Chapter 19
OSPF Configuration
v OSPF Single-Area Configuration

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Chapter 19
OSPF Configuration
v IPv4 Address Configuration on R3

v OSPF Single-Area using one network command

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Chapter 19
OSPF Configuration
v Matching with the OSPF network Command
▼ The OSPF network command compares the first parameter to
each interface IP address trying to find a match.
➘  Wildcard 0.0.0.0: Compare all 4 octets. In other words, the
numbers must exactly match.
➘  Wildcard 0.0.0.255: Compare the first 3 octets only. Ignore the
last octet when comparing the numbers.
➘  Wildcard 0.0.255.255: Compare the first 2 octets only. Ignore the
last 2 octets when comparing the numbers.
➘  Wildcard 0.255.255.255: Compare the first octet only. Ignore the
last 3 octets when comparing the numbers.
➘  Wildcard 255.255.255.255: Compare nothing—this wildcard
mask means that all addresses will match the network command.

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Chapter 19
OSPF Configuration
v Example OSPF network Commands on R3

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Chapter 19
OSPF Configuration
v Verifying OSPF
▼ The show ip ospf neighbor, show ip ospf database, show
ip route, abd show ip protocols commands can be used to
verify OSPF is configured correctly.
▼ The show ip ospf neighbor displays the following information:
➘  Interface: This is the local router’s interface connected to the neighbor. For
example, the first neighbor in the list is reachable through R3’s S0/0/0
interface.
➘  Address: This is the neighbor’s IP address on that link. Again, for this first
neighbor, the neighbor, which is R1, uses IP address 10.1.13.1.
➘  State: While many possible states exist, for the details discussed in this
chapter, FULL is the correct and fully-working state in this case.
➘  Neighbor ID: This is the router ID of the neighbor.

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Chapter 19
OSPF Configuration
v Configuring the OSPF Router ID
▼ To find its RID a Cisco router uses the following logic when the
OSPF process start:
➘  1. If the router-id rid OSPF subcommand is configured, this value
is used as the RID.
➘  2. If any loopback interfaces have an IP address configured, and the
interface has an interface status of up, the router picks the highest
numeric IP address among these loopback interfaces.
➘  3. The router picks the highest numeric IP address from all other
interfaces whose interface status code (first status code) is up. (In
other words, an interface in up/down state will be included by OSPF
when choosing its router ID.)

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Chapter 19
OSPF Configuration
v Miscellaneous OSPF Configuration Settings
▼ OSPF Passive Interfaces
➘  Quit sending OSPF Hellos on the interface
➘  Ignore received Hellos on the interface
➘  Do not form neighbor relationships over the interface
▼ Configured using the passive-interface type number in router
configuration mode.

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Chapter 19
OSPF Configuration
v OSPF Default Routes
▼ The most classic case for using a routing protocol to advertise a
default route has to with the enterprise’s connection to the
Internet. As a strategy, the enterprise engineer uses these
design goals:
➘  All routers learn specific routes for subnets inside the company; a
default route is not needed when forwarding packets to these
destinations.
➘  One router connects to the Internet, and it has a default route that
points toward the Internet.
➘  All routers should dynamically learn a default route, used for all
traffic going to the Internet, so that all packets destined to locations
in the Internet go to the one router connected to the Internet.
▼ The default-information originate router configuration
command is used to share the default route via OSPF.
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Chapter 19
Exam Preparation Tasks

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Chapter 19
Command Reference
v Configuration Commands

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Chapter 19
Command Reference
v EXEC Commands

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Questions?

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