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Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive

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Theses and Dissertations Thesis and Dissertation Collection

1960

Propulsion shafting arrangement and alignment

Markle, William D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

http://hdl.handle.net/10945/12919

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DUDLEY KNOX LIBRARY
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
MONTEREY, CA 93943-5101
DUDLEY KNOX LIBRARY
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
MONTEREY, CA 93943-6101
V
PROPULSION SHAFTING ARRANGEMENT AND ALIGNMENT

by

WILLIAM D. MARKLE, JR., LIEUTENANT, U.S. Coast Guard


B.S., U.S. Coast Guard Academy
(1953)

and

GRAEME MANN, LIEUTENANT, U.S. Coast Guard

B.S., U.S. Coast Guard Academy


(1953)

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE


REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREES OF NAVAL ENGINEER
and

MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN NAVAL ARCHITECTURE AND MARINE ENGINEERING

at the

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


June I960
DUDLEY KNOX LIBRARY

PROPULSION SHAFTING ARRANGEMENT AND ALIGNMENT, by


WILLIAM D. MARKLE and GRAEME MANN. Submitted to the
Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering
on 21 May i960 in partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the Master of Science degree in Naval Archi-
tecture and Marine Engineering and the Professional
Degree, Naval Engineer.

ABSTRACT

The object of this investigation was to determine


the feasibility of increasing the shaft system flexibility
through use of increased lineshaft bearing spans. It is
proposed that this increased flexibility will result in a
shaft system which is less sensitive to initial misalign-
ment and to misalignment resulting from hull deflections,
thermal effects and bearing wear. The effect of variation
of system dimensions and loading, as they influence the
shaft system alignment and strength, are investigated and
a design formula is proposed which accounts for the effect
of alignment on shaft stress.

The investigation is based on the analysis of a


representative family of shaft systems which are developed
from statistical data for single screw solid shaft systems.
The analysis uses vertical alignment of the first lineshaft
bearing to provide equal gear bearing loads. Limitations
of natural frequency, bearing loads and combined stress
are imposed throughout the analysis.

The results of the investigation indicate that the


use of increased lineshaft spans is very feasible. Under
the imposed condition that the lineshaft bending moment
be equal to that produced by the propeller overhand, line-
shaft span to diameter ratios were obtained which represent
a minimum increase of 23 per cent over the values indicated
by statistical data.

It is shown that the design, arrangement of bearings


and alignment of the shaft must be considered concurrently.
It was further ascertained that there is a direct relation-
ship between alignment and shaft strength. For the align-
ment condition imposed, it was determined that the use of
the relationship

M - I W
b " 16
^

ii
in computing the shaft diameter by means of combined stress,
will provide for the increase in stress created by the
alignment procedure. Also determined was the fact that the
variation of all other major geometries of the systems had
no effect upon this relationship.

It is qualitatively shown that an improved alignment,


making use of vertical adjustment of all bearings to meet
the gear alignment criteria, will reduce the value of the
coefficient in the above relationship. It is therefore
recommended that further studies be conducted to evaluate
the coefficient for other conditions of alignment.

Pending additional study, it is recommended that


bearing span to diameter ratios of 20 be adopted for single
screw ships and that the shaft diameter be computed by com-
bined strength using the above relationship.

Thesis Supervisor: S. Curtis Powell

Title: Associate Professor of


Marine Engineering

iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to express their gratitude

to the following for their generous and timely

assistance:

Professor S. Curtis Powell of the Department


of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, their

thesis supervisor.

Messrs. Larry J. Collins and Henry C. Anderson

of the General Electric Company, Lynn, Massachusetts,

for their help in obtaining statistical data and for

their unfailing technical assistance and encouragement.

Messrs. Edward T. Antkowiak and Joseph Luvisi

of the Boston Naval Shipyard for arranging and super-

vising the use of the computer, and for their continuous

encouragement

The U. S. Navy, Bureau of Ships, for underwriting

the cost of computer time, and to Mr. J.C. Reid, Jr.,

of the Bureau of Ships for his encouragement.

iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgments iv
Table of Contents v
List of Figures vii
List of Tables viii
List of Symbols ix

I. INTRODUCTION
1 Background 1
2 Effects of Misalignment 2
3. Factors Influencing Alignment 5
4. Object of the Thesis 4

II THEORY
1 The Basic Theory 5
2 Alignment Theory 6
5 Limitations 8
4. The Representative System 12

III PROCEDURE
1 Method of Solution 16
2 Reduction of Variables 17
3. Development of the Family 26
4. Analysis of Computer Solutions .... 31
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(con'd)
Page

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OP RESULTS


1 Results 46
2 Discussion of Results 46

V. CONCLUSIONS 59

VI RECOMMENDATIONS 6l

VII. APPENDIX

A. Supplementary Introduction 64

B. Supplement to the Theory 70

C Supplement to the Procedure 77


D. Statistical Data 93

E Sample Calculations 97

P . Calculated Data 101

0. Computer Program Description 151

H. Bibliography 168

vi
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Title Page

I Representative Shaft System 15

II L_ vs D J 18
'ts

1/3
III Lf vs fam) 19

IV w k 20
g RPM'

V W vs SHP and RPM 21

2
VI W r vs SHP and RPM 22

VII D. and D. vs SHP and RPM 23


Is ts

VIII 24

IX D VS D 24(a)
gS ls

X Statistical Range of SHP and RPM 27

XI Maximum Moment vs Bearing Span (System 5) 36

XII Allowable Bearing Span vs SHP and RPM 39


XIII Comparison of Statistical and Calculated
RatjLo 4*
V^ls
XIV Comparative Alignments 42

XV Maximum Moment vs Bearing Span -System 5


Special 45

XVI Eccentric Thrust Analysis -Four Bladed


Propeller 83

vii
LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page

I Characteristics of the Families 33


II Natural Frequency of the Line shaft 35
III Natural Frequency of the Tailshaft £5
IV Maximum Bending Moment for the Systems 37
V Limiting Percent L^max), Allowable L
and L /D ratio of the Lineshaft Span 40
n ls
VI Effect of Stern Tube Wear and Reduction Gear
Settlement for Odd and Even Number of Bear-
ings 43
VII Maximum Lineshaft Bearing Pressures 44

VTII Effect of Variation of Gear Bearing Span 51


IX Effect of Variation of Tailshaft Span 51
X Percent Ctiange in Bearing Reactions and
Shaft Moments for Percent Changes in W 90

viii
LIST OF SYMBOLS

B - number of propeller blades


Cb block coefficient

Dgs - gear shaft diameter, inches


Dh m equivalent bull gear diameter, inches
Dls - lineshaft diameter, inches
Dts - tailshaft diameter, inches
Dp - propeller diameter, inches
d inner diameter of shaft, inches

E - modulus of elasticity, psi


e - thrust eccentricity, inches
EHP - effective horsepower

f natural frequency of lateral vibration, cpm


P.S. * factor of safety

G - modulus of shear, psi


4
I - moment of inertia of shaft about diameter, in
Ix - mass moment of inertia of propeller about diameter,
lb in sec 2

Kb - stress concentration factor in bending


Kt « stress concentration factor in shear

L - total length of shaft system, inches


Ln - length between lineshaft bearings, inches
LI - length between stern tube bearings, inches
Lb - length between reduction gear bearings, inches
Lf - length of bull gear face, inches
Lp propeller overhang, inches

Mb shaft bending moment, Kip-in


Mg » bending moment due to propeller overhang - W D LD Kip-in
Moc » bending moment due to off center thrust, Kip^in
Mp - Mg + Moc, Kip-in .. 2
m - mass,
In
N-RPM-shaft revolutions per minute

P.C. - propulsive coefficient


p pressure, psi

ix
Q * mean or steady torque, in-lb

R - bearing reaction, lb.


RIN - reaction influence number
r - radius of gyration of propeller, inches

SHP shaft horsepower

T-Tt propeller thrust, lb.


t - thrust deduction

Vk » ship speed, knots

Wp - weight of propeller in air, lb


Wp* » weight of propeller in water, lb
Wg « weight of bull gear assembly, lb
AWg » Wg (-) weight of equivalent gear assembly, lb
Wts - weight of tailshaft, lb per inch 2
W r2 - mass moment of inertia of propeller about its axis, lb in

(Tar resultant alternating stress, psi


0"b - compressive stress due to bending, psi
<Te - compressive stress due to thrust, psi
(Ts shear stress due to torsion, psi
CTsr - resultant steady stress, psi
0"sa - alternating shear stress, psi
OJrp - yield point stress, psi
Orl - fatigue or endurance limit, psi

- vibration amplitude, radians

x
I.

INTRODUCTION

9.

1. Background

In past years, notable advances have been made in

the field of marine propulsion machinery. In particular,

propeller and gear design has progressed to a highly refined


state. However, propulsion shafting design has been con-

sidered primarily with regard to strength considerations.

There has been little concern as to the overall effect of


the shaft design arrangement upon the power transmission

system. Only in very recent years has interest developed

in the alignment and arrangement of the shafting system

and their integrated effect upon the overall design and per-

formance of the system.


it-

Prior investigations of the subject, (1), (5)

indicate that a deficiency exists in our knowledge of shaft

behavior as it effects the design, arrangement, and ship-

board alignment of the shaft system. At present, the shaft-

ing system is not being designed as an integrated system.

g _
() indicates literature citations as noted in the
Bibliography

-1-
In numerous cases, (1), (5), this has resulted in a system

of such poor design and arrangement that it has been im-

possible to achieve an alignment which would give satisfactory


performance of bearings, reduction gear and other attached

propulsion units
Similarly, there are no well defined alignment
criteria. Most shipyards have their own particular align-

ment procedures based on past experience and tradition.

Many of these procedures involve the use of equipment and

concepts which are obsolete (3).

2. Effects of Misalignment

Some of the more important effects of misalignment

are:

(a) Improper loading of reduction


gear bearings resulting in
mismatch of gear teeth. This
leads to uneven or excessive
wear, a high noise level and
in severe cases to ultimate
tooth failure.
(b) Unloading of stern tube and/or
line shaft bearings causing
vibration, leakage of stern
tube packing and damage to
bearings
(c) Overloading of bearings causing
excessive heating, or failure,
and in the case of stern tube
bearings, accelerated weardown.

The invididual problem areas are discussed in detail


in Appendix "A".
-2-
5. Factors Influencing Alignment

Numerous factors influencing the final alignment

and performance of the shaft system are of an unpredictable

nature, or time variant. Therefore, even if it were possible

to obtain* an initially perfect alignment, at some later time

the system may be subject to severe conditions of misalign-

ment.

Bearing movement may be caused by hull deflection

or by movement of the bearing relative to the hull. When


a ship is sitting on the blocks its hull undergoes continual

deflection due to the heating effects of the sun. Similar

deflections are realized with the ship afloat. Docking,

undocking, and changed loading also produce deflection of


the hull through the obvious effects of the load and

buoyancy distribution. Even more pronounced effects may be


experienced when the ship is underway, working in a seaway.

During operation, bearing wear produces an effective

movement of the shaft support points relative to the hull

which results in a shift of the distribution of bearing loads


This effect is greatest for water- lubricated bearings and

practically negligible for oil- lubricated bearings. Relative

bearing movements may also be caused by thermal expansion of

reduction gear casings or of any other bearing foundations

which are subject to thermal effects.

-3-
4. Object of the Thesis

In appreciating the above causes and effects, it is

apparent that needless time and money may be expended aligning

and realigning bearings in an attempt to obtain satisfactory


operating conditions unless the shaft system is designed to
be insensitive to reasonable degrees of misalignment.

This thesis proposes that the problems associated


with alignment may be reduced by increasing the span between

line-shaft bearings. The feasibility of the proposal is in-

vestigated by the use of a representative family of shaft


systems developed and analyzed, subject to limiting criteria.

The effect of alignment upon shaft stress is investigated

and the effect of system geometry on alignment is considered.

It is anticipated that the use of shaft systems with

increased line -shaft spans will lead to higher permissible

bearing loads, increased wear limits for water- lubricated


bearings and quieter gear operation.

-4-
II.

THEORY
«

1. The Basic Theory

All of the problems encountered with shafting systems

appear to be directly, or indirectly, related to the stiffness

of the system as designed and installed. Since the shaft

system is basically a continuous beam of finite length, it is

proposed that the system stiffness may be controlled by vary-


ing the support spacing. This in effect says that, if i/L

of the shaft is decreased the system becomes more flexible.

The same effect could be accomplished by decreasing the shaft

inertia, but this would result in a decrease in shaft strength

In a similar sense it must be realized that an increased shaft

span will result in increased shaft stress and requires an in-

crease in I. It may therefore be stated that I is the de-

pendent and L the independent variable. The shaft system,


however, represents a continuous beam of non-uniform loading

and support spacing. Under these conditions I/L does not

give a true picture of the overall system stiffness.

A more representative, but equivalent, measure of the

system flexibility is obtained by a collective consideration

-5-
of the support reaction influence number (RIN) matrix.

High reaction influence numbers indicate a high shaft sensi-


tivity to misalignment, while lower influence numbers indicate

low sensitivity. Low RIN's mean that greater alignment may


be absorbed by the system without significantly changing the

bearing loads or the shaft stress. This in turn indicates

that the system factors of safety (F,S.) are maintained at

near designed values for moderate degrees of misalignment.

Just as I/L may be reduced by increased support spacing,

so may the reaction influence numbers be lowered. The

exact, generalized, trend of RIN, or i/L , with variation


of span remains to be determined by analysis of the shaft

system. Qualitatively this trend has been recognized in


previous investigations, (1), (5). However, these investi-

gations were specific in nature' and did not consider the

system as an integrated design.

2. Alignment Theory

For the purposes of this study alignment shall be


considered as a matter of vertical bearing position. Initially

the bearings may be assumed to be aligned when they all lie

on a straight line in the vertical plane. Such alignment is

referred to as "straight line alignment". Any deviation

IP

For definition of Reaction influence numbers, refer to the


Theory of the Computer Program, Appendix "G".

-6-
from this line is considered a misalignment and in the past

has been considered detrimental to the system performance.

However, it has been shown, (5), that intentional misalign-

ment, when properly used, acts in a manner to benefit the

overall sfyaft system. Such intentional misalignment is

referred to as "fair curve alignment". The use of this

"fair curve alignment" theory is essential to the success

of the basic theory.

It must be realized that as L is increased and

the RIN's lowered, the effect of localized loading will be

most pronounced on the bearing in that vicinity. Effectively

the high RIN's restrict the distribution of the moments in-

duced by the shaft loads. While this may be of considerable


benefit in the region of the propeller, it creates a major

problem in the gear region.

As the first lineshaft span aft of the gear is

increased, the load differential of the gear bearings in-

creases. If the span is decreased to obtain a favorable split

of gear bearing loads, the system becomes overly sensitive

to the slightest misalignment. The most logical means by


which this conflict may be resolved is through recourse to

the theory of "fair curve alignment". Basically this involves


vertical alignment of the line -shaft bearings in such a manner

as to maintain the desired bearing load distribution.

-7-
5. Limitations

If no limitations were imposed upon the basic

theory, the bearing span could be increased indiscriminately

However, numerous limitations exist which may act individu-

ally, or in combination, to restrict the variation of the

span. These limitations are therefore developed in the

sense that they will be used to further investigate the

feasibility of the basic theory.

Maximum allowable combined shaft stress


The maximum allowable combined shaft stress may be

calculated in numerous ways. For the purpose of this in-


vestigation the combined stress theory used by the Bureau

of Ships, United States Navy, (7), appears most inclusive

and is adopted. This theory states that

(Tsteady . (T"alt
m 1 /, %

CTyp Oil FtS '

where
2
(2<T8 )
(Tsteady " VcTe* +
(a)

and

or.it = V\^* (av^f (5)

When L is increased, the alternating bending com-


p
ponent of the stress, q-"., is increased proportional to L

-8.
Vertical alignment of the shaft will cause a further change
in bending stress. Other stress components will remain un-

changed.

Since the combined stress solution and the deter-


mination of the shaft diameter are interrelated, it is
possible to vary L as desired so long as the diameter is

varied simultaneously.

Reduction gear alignment criteria

The manufacturer generally specifies a maximum

allowable load and load differential for the bull gear

bearings. Within these allowable limits the gear should

not experience detrimental misalignment due to cocked gear

and meshing pinions. The values of these limitations are

determined by the manufacturer on the basis of gear loading,

bearing clearance, and permissible misalignment of gear


teeth, but the following are typical.

Maximum allowable load differential 5000 lb. (R.O. hot)

Maximum allowable gear bearing pressure .. 150 psi (R.G. hot


or cold)

To meet these limitations some vertical alignment


of the lineshaft is required which, as previously mentioned,

IF

Discussion with H.C. Anderson of the General Electric Do.,
Medium Steam Turbine and Gear Division and E. Antkoviak of
the Boston Naval Shipyard, Design Division, Computer
Application.

-9-
will alter the shaft stress. The most severe effect of this

limitation upon the shaft stress occurs when a minimum "fair

curve alignment" is used.

For this investigation the "minimum fair curve

alignment" shall be that alignment in which only the first

line -shaft bearing is adjusted vertically. It is recog-

nized that a more satisfactory alignment can be achieved


by adjusting the other bearings in the system in con-

junction with the first line -shaft bearing, but this im-

poses less severe conditions on the system.

Lateral critical frequency of vibration

The calculated lateral critical frequency of vibration


should not enter the operating range of the system. Current
practice, based on past experience, indicates that satis-

factory operation will occur if the calculated frequency is

greater than 115$ of the maximum shaft RPM. This lateral

frequency is calculated for two cases, the tailshaft area

and the line -shaft area:

Tailshaft (9)

IE (4)

ix(l + g*)+
p j^^^ )m Q^j^LA^)

-10-
Line-shaft (App. B-2)

(5)

The frequency as calculated should be reduced by 60$


to account for the unknown elastic and damping charac-

teristics of the shaft bearings and supports.

It is recognized that formulas (4) and (5) are approxi-

mate; however, they are entirely satisfactory for this

investigation.

It should be noted that formula (5) can also be

interpreted as a measure of buckling stability. The limit

of buckling stability is approached as the frequency goes

to zero.

Bearing Load

The maximum allowable bearing load can limit the shift


span. The most difficult problem is to specify these maxi-

mum loads. Present practice is considered conservative,

the following being typical maximum allowable pressures:

Water lubricated, p (max.) 1Z> 20 psi

Oil lubricated, p (max.) 7& 50 psi

Pressure oil lubricated, p (max.) £^150 psi

-11-
For equivalent land based application, such pressures are
considered unusually low (6). Recent advances (1), (5)

have shown that the bearing loads can be determined to a

high degree of accuracy. In addition, with the increased

spans proposed, there is less possibility of the bearing

load changing due to misalignment caused by thermal

effects, variation in hull loading, and effects due to

working of the hull in a seaway. Finally, the shafting

will be analyzed under "minimum alignment" conditions

which produce the most severe loading on the bearings.

Based on the above argument, bearing pressures up to about


100 psi (oil lubricated) will be considered as acceptable

for line -shaft bearings.

The minimum bearing load is an equally important


consideration, since inadvertent unloading of a bearing may

cause serious damage. Experience indicates that a minimum

bearing load of 2000-5000 lb. in the final aligned condition

is satisfactory (1). Although not considered in this in-

vestigation, a more satisfactory loading will result if the

bearings are equally loaded. In the same manner, a calcu-

lation of the bearing loading with maximum allowable stern

tube weardown should be made.

4. The Representative System

An analysis of the shaft system as a continuous

beam is impossible unless refinement is made with regard

-12-
to system loading. This requirement is imposed by the many

unsolved problems which arise when considering the system


and the ship jointly, in a time variant sense. These may

be summarized as problems resulting from:

(1) Dynamic loading and deflection


of the ship girder.

(2) Thermal deflection of the hull


girder.

(3) Variation of the bearing loads


due to system operation.

(4) Variation of hull induced


hydrodynamic effects on exposed
components of the shaft system.

Inasmuch as each of these problems involves a

study in itself, it is assumed for the purposes of this

investigation that the shaft system is a "statically

loaded continuous beam". In actual practice, this assumption

has produced satisfactory results (1), (5). This indicates

that load variations due to these effects are usually quite

small, since shafting is generally designed with a low

F S
. . s^ 2.0.

In order to generalize the problem, it is necessary

to assume that the effects of small concentrated loads, such

as shaft flanges and journal sleeves, are negligible compared

to the concentrated loads of the propeller and gear and the

distributed load of the shaft itself. Similarly, it is

-13-
necessary to neglect the localized effect of flanges and
sleeves upon shaft stiffness. This latter assumption will,

in reality, closely approximate the actual conditions that

exist because of the short length of flanges and the low

degree of fixity of the sleeves. For the purposes of a


generalized approach both assumptions are considered

reasonable. Their effect on qualitative results should


be completely negligible and quantitative results should

be effected only slightly.

Also, in order to obtain a representative system,

it is necessary to distinguish between single and multi-

screw shaft systems and solid or hollow shafts. The very

nature of this problem could greatly extend the scope of


the analysis if each combination were considered separately.

For this reason a brief preliminary analysis was made in


order to determine which type of system could be expected
to produce the most severe problems as regards shaft stiff-

ness (App. B.5). It was decided that the solid single screw

system presented the most severe conditions due to (a)


higher w/l, (b) shorter; overall-shaft length and (c) heavier
concentrated gear and propeller loads. This decision was

further influenced by the type of ship for which data was

available locally.

The final representative shaft system is shown in

Figure I.

-14-
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III.

PROCEDURE

1. Method of Solution

In order to determine the general feasibility of

the basic theory, subject to limitations, a solution of

the representative shaft system as shown in Figure I is

necessary. Several possible approaches were considered;

however, the only method which appeared practical was

that based on a family of representative shaft systems.

This method of analysis is made possible by the existence

of a computer program (Appendix "G") which permits the

rapid solution of a large number of problems. The program

was originated and developed by personnel of the Boston

Naval Shipyard. The Bureau of Ships, United States Navy,

arranged to provide the required computer time on the

Datatron 205 computer located at the Boston Naval Shipyard.


The use of the family approach was adopted partly

out of expedience and partly because it included the possi-

bility of realizing some design criteria which could be of


general use.
In order to make use of the program the various

dimensions and weights of the shaft systems are required

-16-
input information: They are:

1. Length of system (L)

2. Length between lineshaft


bearings (L )
n
3. Length between stern tube
bearings (L.

4. Length from aft stern tube


bearing to propeller (L )

5. Length between bull gear


bearings (1^)

6. Length of gear face (L~)

7. Weight of reduction gear (W


s)
8. Weight of propeller (W )

9. Gear Shaft diameter (D )

10. Equivalent bull gear diameter


(gear stiffness) (D,)

11. Lineshaft diameter (D^g)


12. Tailshaft diameter (D*_)

2. Reduction of Variables

It was immediately realized that, to analyze a

family of representative systems, the total number of system


variables would have to be reduced. However, for different

classes of ships (e.g., merchant and combatant) the design

concepts, by which the variables are determined, are quite

different. It was therefore decided that the study should

be centered around that class whose shaft system most closely

-17-
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satisfies the requirements of the representative system.

The merchant ship class was selected.

Because of the large number of factors involved

with each of the variables which depend upon designer's

choice, recourse was taken to a statistical approach. The


statistical data was compiled from the files of the Lynn

Gear Works, General Electric Co., Boston Naval Shipyard,


and the Department of Naval Architecture, Massachusetts

Institute of Technology (Appendix "D").

Analysis of the statistical data permitted many


of the variables to be expressed in terms of the two in-

dependent variables, SHP and RPM. Where possible, direct

calculations were made and checked against the statistical

data; in other cases the statistical data was used to per-

form the calculation. The detailed analysis of data and

reduction of variables is covered in Appendix "C" . The

results of the analysis as shown in Figures II through IX,

permitted a reduction to the five independent variables:

1. SHP 3. L 5. L,
n
2. RPM 4. L

It should be noted, that in the reduction of the

lineshaft diameter, a decision was made which imposes an


additional limit upon the problem. Through use of the

combined stress equation, the lineshaft bending stress, M^,

-25-
and the maximum allowable bearing spacing are directly re-

lated. A preliminary survey of typical shaft system


solutions made available at the Lynn Gear Works, General

Electric Co., indicated that, with bearing spacings


currently in use, the maximum bending moment in the line-
shaft was very low compared to that at the after stern

tube bearing. It was, therefore, decided that a more

uniform picture of bending moment would be provided by


setting the maximum lineshaft bending moment equal to

the maximum tailshaft moment, W JL This requires that,


.

p p
in the analysis of the results, the lineshaft bending

moment shall not exceed W L after the shaft has been given
P P
a "minimum alignment".

3. Development of the Family

The range of SHP and RPM used in the development

of the family of representative systems is based on a plot

of SHP and RPM (Figure X) for the class ship under con-

sideration. Nine systems were chosen for analysis which

effectively cover the entire operating range. The values

of SHP and RPM were then used to determine the required

dependent dimensions and loadings of each system.

L and L for each system

By varying I> *M, (the bending moment) is changed.


n

-26-
F\CURS X.
ISO UlllIM

l<Jo

/3<J
W-

t&o
m& ;[5:
mz
m
3:3!

RP/I i:\\

//o :#

$
m jji!;

m m -U-
\Bl
ft
loo _
zm': m\

:j:f:

--Oik ;P
°I0
=s;

7
cis;
H8 lifti

ifti

go

70
S/2>° /0,0oo /"Togo Aoooo ZS'ooo
SUP
S] /I I /5TIG/I L R AM I

OF SHP i RP'Y
-27-
However, M^ has previously been set equal to W L . This,

then, is the maximum allowable moment which may be permitted

to occur through the variation of L without reducing the

factor of safety for the shaft.

Because of the gear alignment criteria, it was

known that some vertical alignment of the straight line

beam solution would have to be made which, for any specific


L would increase M,. A preliminary analysis was therefore

made, using a shaft system selected at random (G-2 Series,

Appendix "p") from the statistical data, which indicated


that in the straight line condition M, could be closely

approximated by the clamped beam relationship

w J?s Ln 2

and in this case L^ was defined as L^(max.). When the


first lineshaft bearing was raised to balance the gear

loads, M. increased quite rapidly. It was therefore de-

cided to set 1^ equal to 70$, 80$, and 90$ of L^max.) and

compare the maximum adjusted bending moment for each of these

values against the design moment.

Using the family characteristics, determined by


SHP and RPM, and L (max.), it was determined that the
n
natural frequency of the lineshaft, reduced 60$ for support

-28-
.

elasticity, was very near to critical. However, recalling

that the frequency is approximately inversely proportional

to 1^2, there is no reason to suspect that 90$ of L (max.)

will be a critical length.

By varying L , L will also change for a given

number of bearings. The total length of the shaft system

for merchant ships varies from a minimum of about 60 feet

for machinery aft to a maximum of about 200 feet for

machinery amidships. On this basis, it was determined

that, by using one, two, and three lineshaft spans for

each value of L , the usual range of L was covered.


n
The result of using three values of L and L for

each of the systems established by SHP and RPM increased

the number of systems requiring solution and analysis to

eighty -one

L-, for each system

The length between the last two bearings (L,)

is largely determined by the length of stern tube which

may be used within the physical dimensions of the ship,

and by a consideration of the lateral frequency of vibration.

Evaluation of the lateral frequency for the tailshaft area

indicated that L-^ could be any reasonable value for the size
ship associated with the SHP and RPM of the particular family.

£. was therefore fixed for each of the families at a value

given by;
-29-
\ = -5 \\
E , B (7)

Family number 5 was also analyzed for

(8)

so as to have an indication of the effect of varying this

dimension on the overall system. These two values of L,


encompass the range that one might expect would be required

by the geometry of the ship.

The final nine families, as described in Table I,

and their associated systems with variables L and L, were

then prepared for computer solution of bending moment, shear,

deflection, slope, bearing reaction, and reaction influence

numbers . They were assigned reference numbers as per the

example below

S - 1 - 90 5

Series Family 90$ L (max.) three line


shaft spans

Where reference is made to S -1-005 the meaning is "all


values of L for 3 spans".

The computer solutions for S-5-001, S-5-002, and

S-5-003 are shown in Appendix "F". In all but a few specific


cases, family 5 was used for sample calculations.

-30-
4. Analysis of Computer Solutions

The basic computer solution is for the shaft

aligned in the straight line condition. In all cases, as


predicted, the aft reduction gear bearing was very heavily

loaded and the forward one lightly or negatively loaded.

It was decided that, for purposes of uniformity, the re-

duction gear bearing loads, R 1 and R 2 , should be made equal.

This was accomplished through use of the "minimum align-

ment criteria" in the sense that only the No. 3 bearing

(first lineshaft bearing) was aligned vertically. Such

was accomplished through use of the reaction influence

numbers of No. 3 bearing. By making use of the change in

reaction at each bearing, the change in shear was computed.

Then by stepwise integration over the length of the system


the change in bending moment at any location could be ob-

tained. Adding the original moment, M , the moment is

found for any station in the aligned condition. It should

be noted that in the "minimum aligned" condition the

maximum moment occurred at bearing No. 3. For bearing No. 3


we may then say

l f.
AR
1
&£ + (AR- + AR )d/
2 (9)
5
°
J
o !/:

-31-
.

This value of lyu was then plotted against percent

L (max.) so that, for example, systems S-5-901, 801, and

701 could be used to plot a fair curve. The intercept of

this curve with the design moment then indicated the maxi-

mum value of L which could be used for family 5 with one


n
lineshaft span. The plots indicated that M. = M (max.)
allowable at some value less than 70$ L (max.), hence

additional problems using 2 spans, were run for each system

using 60$ L (max.). These runs definitely established the


percent L (max.) at crossover and justify extrapolation

of the curves for one and three spans . Other calculations

were made by a similar analysis, to show the effect of re-

duction gear settlement, stern tube wear down and variation


of 1^, AW , W , and 1^.
g
Similar calculations were made for S-5-801A using
minimum alignment and an overall alignment to indicate the
method by which M-, may be reduced so as to realize a higher

value of L The overall alignment is performed by trial


n<
and error until the desired condition is obtained. Skill in

the use of this method is attained only through practice and

was not considered practical for use with all of the systems

Once the shaft had been aligned and the new bearing

reactions obtained, a check was made to insure that the pre-

scribed bearing pressure of 100 psi had not been exceeded.


This calculation was based on the use of a bearing L/D of

1.5.

-32-
)

TABLE I

Characteristics of the Families

Family
SHP 5,000 12,500 20,000 5,000 12,500
RPM 120 120 120 105 105
W 20,900 43,600 64,900 23,500 51,200

V P

D ts
18,130
14.98
37,800
20.72
56,300
24.68
20,400
15.81
44,400
22.01
W ts 50.00 95.25. 135.25 55.50 107.50
D ls 13.51 18.68 22.03 14.27 19.67
W ls 40.45 77.50 107.70 45.20 85.80
31.45 43.50 51.85 33.20 46.20
s
L 30.50 39.00 44.50 31.70 40.50
f
h> - Lf 16.50 21.50 25.60 17.20 22.80
47.00 6O.5O 70.10 48.90 63.30
*b
Dh 30.20 36.50 41.60 30.80 37.80
Dgs 15.68 21.65 25.55 16.54 22.80
Wg 18,100 44,700 65,300 21,800 49,800
Wg (equiv 7,102 13,825 20,870 7,750 15,520
AWg 10,998 30,875 44,430 14,050 34,280
M (Kip-in) 657 1,897 3,365 780 2,365
6 '

Wr (10' ) 29.5 91.0 160.5 40.5 124.5:


Ln (max] 442 542 612 455 575
L-, (max] 398 490 546 411 514
50* % 1 [max) 199 245 273 206 257
70* L x 1 [max) 278 343 382 287 360
90* 1^ 1
[max) 398.0 488.0 551.0 409.5 517.5
80^ 1^ !
[max) 353.0 434.0 490.0 364.0 460.0
70* i^ 1 [max) 309.0 379.0 428.0 318.5 402.5
60$ i^ 1
[max) 265 325 367.0 273.0 345.0

-33-
)

TABLE I (con'd)

Family 6 7 8 9

SHP 20,000 5,000 12,500 20,000


RPM 105 90 90 90
W * 77,300 28,300 60,000 90,400
P
W p* 67,100 24,550 52,100 78,400
D ts 26.27 16.78 23.43 28.10
w ts 153.00 62.55 122.00 175.50
D ls 23.42 15.11 20.92 24.93
W 121.70 50.60 97.10 138.00
ls
55.20 35.20 49.30 59.00
h 46.25 42.30 48.30
L 32.85
f
" Lf 27.00 17.70 23.80 28.70
*b
73.25 50.55 66.10 77.00
h>
Dh 43.30 31.80 39.50 45.50
Dgs 27.05 17.55 24.25 28.90
Wg 72,300 25,600 56,700 81,100
Wg (equiv 23,650 8,587 17,760 27,560
AWg 48,650 17,013 38,940 53,540
Mb (Kip -in) 4,267 996 2,958 5,334
2 6
Wr (10~ ) 226.0 56.5 175.0 320.0
L (max] 649 486 604 680
L-, (max] 573 436 538 604
50# L x 1
[max) 289 218 269 302
7<# L x (
[max) 405 302 376 422
9<%>1^ 1
[max) 584.0 437.4 544.0 612.0
80# I^ |
[max) 519.0 388.8 483.0 544.0
70£ 1^ |
[max) 454.0 340.2 423.0 476.0
60# Ln {
[max) 389.O 292.0 362.0 408.0

-34-
)

TABLE II

Natural Frequency of Lineshaft


(reduced 60$ for bearing elasticity)

f f f
Family RPM I^Onax) 90$ Ln (max) 80$ Ln (raax) 70$ L^max)

1 120 131* 162 204 267


2 120 119* 147 186 243
120 111* 137* 173 226
I 105 129 159 202 263
5 105 112* 140 177 230
6 105 106* 131 166 216
7 90 121 149 189 247
8 90 108 133 169 220
9 90 101* 125 158 206

Calculated value less than 215$ RPM,

TABLE III
Natural Frequency of Tailshaft

Family RPM L-, (max 70$ L^max) 50$ L 1 (max)

1 120 287 466 660


2 120 190 409 598
3 120 138* 382 572
4 105 313 481 636
5 105 223 410 570
6 105 178 376 538
7 90 316 458 595
8 90 232 386 542
9 90 210 378 517

Calculated value less than 115$ RPM.

-35-
FIGURE XI

MAXIMUM MOMH/VT
13 £ ARIA/ 6 SPAM {systems)

% L *r*«.x

E3F — m

-56-
7

TABLE IV

Maximum Bending Moment for the Systems*

System M (max) System M (max)

S -1-701 728.0 S-4-701 867.5


801 5>75.7 801 1165.5
901 ,1270.5 901 1508.0
602 543.0 602 644.3
702 726.5 702 863.I
802 942.9 802 1113.4
902 1179.4 902 1396.1
703 692.1 703 821.4
803 890.9 803 1028.2
903 1128.0 903 1337.6

S-2-701 2107.0 S-5-701 2674.9


801 2850.7 801 3594.6
901 3671.4 901 4635.7
602 1570.5 602 1909.0
702 2101.2 702 2649.9
802 2719.1 802 3384.9
902 3400.6 902 4246.6
703 2002. 703 2506.2
803 2596.9 803 3233.2
903 3254.5 903 4020.6

S-3-701 3795.9 S-6-701 4847.7


801 5111.8 801 6471.2
901 6593.0 901 8360.4
602 2791.8 602 3612.5
702 3727.3 702 4741.1
802 4839.4 802 6116.7
902 6029.8 902 7577.7
703 3562.8 703 4518.3
803 4617.2 803 5845.1
903 5783.6 903 7330.4
¥
The maximum moment occurred at bearing No. 3 in all
cases under the alignment conditions imposed.

-37-
A

TABLE IV (con'd)

System M (max) System M (max)

S-7-701 1104.7 S-5-701A 2521.2


801 1484.3 801 5341.6
901 1919.6 901 4294.4
602 822.7
702 1100.3 702A 2567.O
802 1418.7 802A 3338.0
902 1777.5 902A 4198.9
703 1048.5 703A 2506.0
805 1355.9 803A 3235.6
903 1700.2 903A 4056.7
s-8-701 3326.5 S-6-701 4772.4
801 4452.7 801A 6404.3
901 5764.8 901A 8252.1
602 2439.6
702 3275.8 702 4697.0
802 4217.8 802A 6062.7
902 5298.7 902A 7601.3
703 3080.2 703A 4476.6
803 4027.4 803A 5787.2
903 5064.3 903A 7269.1

S-9-701 6039.6
801 8108.9
901 10441.6
602 4411.2
702 5905.4
802 7616.9
902 9545.1
703 5629.8
803 7274.6
903 9130.7

-38-
-39-
flh< VkzlLh
)

TABLE V

Limiting Percent ^(max), Allowable L and Ln/D ls Ratio


n
of the Lineshaft Span

System L (max
n V D ls

S -1-001 67.0 296.14 21.8


002 66.4 295.49 21.6
005 68.0 500.56 22.1

S-2-001 66.9 562.60 19.2


002 66.5 560.45 19.5
005 67.8 567.48 19.5

S-5-001 66.8 408.81 18.5


002 66.8 408.81 18.5
005 68.0 416.16 18.8

S -4-001 66.9 504.59 21.2


002 66.7 505.48 21.2
005 67.8 508.49 21.6

S-5-001 66.6 582.95 19.4


002 66.0 579.50 19.5
005 67.8 589.85 19.7

S-6-001 66.2 429.65 18.5


002 66.4 450.95 18.4
005 67.7 439.57 18.7

S-7-001 66.5 522.22 21.7


002 66.0 520.76 21.6
005 67.8 529.51 22.1

S-8-001 66.5 401.66 19.2


002 66.5 401.66 19.2
005 68.5 415.74 19.7
S -9-001 66.7 455.56 17.9
002 66.4 450.84 17.7
005 68.0 462.40 18.1

-40-
figure %m

26

It

'.i
V.

2d
if

iliiiiij^

u
tS

5^

ES

O statistical
10
A l/, CALCULATED £2

ii

I :

it

/0 /5" 2 25~ 3o

C0A7 PA ft /50 /V OF STATISTICAL


AA/D CAL CUL ATS p> L n/ ft A JIO
D
-41-,
r/CURF. X/T

C M P AR /» T vh
I A L i u /V Ay
/'
' AT 5 ( 5-S ? / /\)

-2i r» Ki> «•"•* -l|W8 K|*p-m J. -7 K,p -i#i


1

v—^==»-r
69607
T
337 W 7 73o«r ,f
*
1
584

CASF. X - STFlAI6.Hr LIME.

+35** »>-'**
148^7* -7 «fi> -in

62600

CASH U -M/A'iniJN AU&VtlEh'r

-ZlO K.jo-«n

V-T -2Z7i K-.j-m

-7 Ki>«M

3273/ 3273/

CASE /Z7. - IMPRtmb Al\Gls/Mf:,NT

-42--
TABLE VI

Effect of Stern Tube Wear and Reduction Gear


Settlement for Odd and Even Number of Bearings

Bearings
S-5-801A 1 2 3 . 4 , t>

R* - in line -586 73085 33747 68607


R - aligned (1) 31647 31648 48957 62600 -
M - aligned -7.5 +335,7 -3^41.6 -2151.3 -
R-gear cold (2) 32230 29679 '49554 62388 -
M-gear cold -7.5 +435.9 -3419.0 -2151.3 -
R-wear down (2) 38799 21793 53822 60432 -
M-wear down -7.5 +788.4 -4132.3 -2151.3 -

S-5-802A
R - in line 3178 67763 40957 34058 68534
R - aligned 31644 31645 55053 24202 71947
M - aligned -7.5 +335.7 -3338.2 +72.7 -2151.7
R - gear cold 33084 29873 55553 23974 72002
M - gear cold -7.5 +426.9 -3399.7 +88.5 -2151.7
R - wear down 31621 31951 53113 27605 70204
M - wear down -7.5 +2431 -3147.9 -576.5 -2151.7

Note: (1) aligned refers to minimum aligned condition.


(2) gear cold refers to 0.020 inch settlement
of reduction gear from aligned condition.
(3) wear down refers to 0.219 inch weardown
of stern tube in the hot aligned condition, (BSM-43)

* R - bearing reaction, lb.


+ M - moment at bearings, Kip-in.

-43-
TABLE VII

Maximum Line shaft Bearing Pressures

System Maximum Reaction DL s P(psi)*

S-l-701 14121 15.51 51.5


S -1-702 17845 it
65.O
S-l-705 16870 11
61.5

S-2-701 55285 18.68 65.5


S-2-702 41757
11
79.8
S-2-705 59654
11
75.9
S-5-701 52755 22.05 72.5
S-5-702 65760 11
90.1
S-5-705 62564 it
85.4

S -4-701 16119 14.27 52.8


S-4-702 20456 11
67.O
it
S-4-705 19450 65.7

S-5-701 59258 19.67 67.5


it
S-5-702 49076 84.5
n
S-5-705 46681 80.2

S-6-701 65575 25.42 77.0


ti
S-6-702 78781 95.7
S-6-705 74655 90.8

S-7-701 19401 15.11 56.6


11
S-7-702 24546 71.6
S-7-705 25241 it
67.9
S-8-701 46765 20.92 71.0
S-8-702 58509
tt
89.O
S-8-705 55598
11
84.2

S-9-701 75489 24.95 81.0


S-9-702 95665 11
100.0+
S-9-705 88887 it
95.2

Bearing L/D ratio assumed at 1.5.

-44-
FIGURE ZF

10, 00

°IOOO

$000

700 o ill!

i
A1 *
if;

ill

6000 ;!:

s?

i!!

/V/JX. DESIGN Hon EM


500O 23

;?;

yooo
j
;i*

50% C07 70% 80% 9 0%


Ln /£ (im<\y.)

MAtiriUM riOMF.tvr *s> 5£Af\\h/& spaV


sys run *5" - SPECIAL
-45-
IV.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

1. Results

The major results of the investigation are presented here

in graphical and tabular form. All results, except those for

system S -5 -SPECIAL, are subject to the previously imposed

conditions of alignment and combined stress. System S-5-

SPECIAL was based on an arbitrarily selected value of line-

shaft bending moment in order to explore the possible effect

of geometric similarity.

Data and sample calculations appear in the appendices.

2. Discussion of the Results

The results of this investigation, as compared to

statistical data, (Pig. XIII ), indicate that it is feasible

to increase lineshaft spans at least 25$ over those used in

current design practice. Within the range of variables


covered by the investigation and subject to the stated

assumptions, the most important limitation is that imposed

by the maximum bending moment occurring in the lineshaft

span (Table IV). It is possible that with other ranges of

-46-
SHP and RPM the limitations of increased bearing pressures,
critical natural frequency and buckling stability may be

important considerations.

The analysis of the nine families indicated that the

maximum allowable L was, for all the systems, approximately

equal to 67$ of 1^ (max.), (Table V), where L^ (max.) is

defined by equation (6). Further, this allowable L was


~ 20 D^ s , slightly greater for low (5000) SHP and slightly

less for high (20,000) SHP.

That these findings are not a result of investigating

geometrically similar shaft systems will be explained in


detail (Variation of Parameters), but they are dependent

upon the imposed alignment criteria. Since the "minimum

alignment criteria" adopted for this investigation tends


to reduce the allowable L. it can be presumed that greater

lineshaft bearing spacing than that indicated in this in-

vestigation is possible, subject to some limitation other


than shaft stress. Consequently, these results can certainly
be used in the preliminary design stage, and can be revised

subject to further analysis of the particular system being

considered.

It is suggested that further investigation be conducted

to determine the effect of unequal lineshaft bearing spans

and that a computer program be devised which will determine

the optimum spacing subject to criteria of gear alignment,

-47-
bearing pressures, buckling stability, and natural frequency.

Such a program could be used to develop a set of design

charts or could be made general enough to be used for the

complete design of individual systems.

Effects of Lateral Frequency Limitation

The lateral critical frequency of vibration was cal-

culated for both lineshaft and tailshaft (Tables II and III).


The results of this calculation show that for the geometries

and RPM involved, there is little possibility of tailshaft

vibration, but the lineshaft approaches the critical range.

It is recommended that further investigation of this limi-

tation be made, with the lineshaft designed for a higher M,,

varying the lineshaft diameter only, until the lineshaft

critical frequency is a limiting criteria.

It is also recommended that future studies be made for

those shaft systems operating at high RPM, where this limiting

criteria takes on greater importance.

Effect of Bearing Pressure Limitation

As a possible limitation on increased bearing span, the

bearing pressures are the most controversial. Since the

maximum L^ occurred at approximately 67$ LR (max.), the bearing


pressures were calculated from the nearest set of reactions

-48-
available, which was the lOfi series. The maximum load on
the lineshaft bearings after "minimum alignment" occurred

at the first lineshaft (No. J>) bearing, and the resulting

pressures based on an i/D^ - 1.5* are shown in Table VII.

The stern tube bearing was not considered in this calculation,

since the length of this water lubricated bearing will be

several diameters long. Also, the majority of the load on

this bearing is due to the propeller overhang and only

slightly changed by the concepts used in this investigation.

The table indicates that for the allowable L resulting from

this investigation, the maximum bearing pressures are great-

er than present practice indicates, but in no case would they

exceed 100 psi, when corrected to the 67$ Ln (max.) case.

Referring to Figure XIV, it can be seen that the improved

alignment will reduce the load (bearing pressure) on No. 3

bearing. In addition, the shaft will have a bearing journal

sleeve installed, so that for a given bearing L/D ratio,

the total bearing area will be greater, further reducing

the pressure. It is felt, that in view of the above argu-

ments, the higher pressures calculated be considered

acceptable.

It can also be noted from Table VII that the maximum

bearing pressure occurred for the two span systems. This is

due to the influence of the propeller weight. For the one

lineshaft span system, the propeller tends to unload No. J>

bearing, but for the two lineshaft span system, the pro-

.49-
peller tends to load the No. 3 bearing. For the three line-

shaft span system, the effect of the propeller is negligible.

Variation of Parameters

Because of the large number of problems required for

solution, no deliberate attempt was made to determine the

effect of variation of parameters on the shaft system. The

one exception, that of varying lineshaft diameter, will be

explained in detail.

However, because of errors in setting up the problems,

and errors in card punching, many of the parameters were

changed. Comparisons were made where possible, and are


discussed individually.

It is recommended that further investigation of the

effects of varying each parameter be made, since the system

may be sensitive to changes in certain of these parameters.

The length of the span between gear bearings was varied

14$ for the complete family No. 6. The results of this

variation are shown in Table VIII. The variation of the span

resulted in a negligible change in the per cent of L (max.)

at which the design moment was realized. It is therefore

concluded that, as all the systems had approximately the same

limiting per cent 1^ (max.) in the initial condition, all the

systems will behave similarly to system No. 6 for variations

in gear bearing spacing.


-50-
)

TABLE VIII

Effect of Variation of Gear


Bearing Span

S-6-000 S-6-000A
L„ - 75.25" Ljj - 65.24"
Number of
Spans (£1^ (max.)) (%L (max.))
n

1 66.2 66.7
2 66.4 66.4

5 67.7 68.2

The complete family No. 5 was computed using two values

of L- as defined by equations (7) and (8). as shown in

Table IX, a 40$ increase in L-, over that used in the original

nine families resulted in a negligible change in the allowable

per cent of L_ (max.). As above, it may therefore be con-

cluded that variation of L, will have negligible effect upon

all of the families.

TABLE IX
Effect of Variation of Tailshaft
Span
S-5-000 S-5-000A
Number of L-, 50$ L 1 (max. L - 70$ L (»ax.)
x 1
Spans (max.)) ($L (max.))
(jft^
n

1 66.6 67.8

2 66.0 67.2

5 67.8 67.8

-51-
The effect of variation of propeller weight was con-
sidered using systems S -9-801 and S-9-801A. The propeller
weight was reduced from 78,400 to 28,400 pounds in problem

S-9-801A. With the exception of reduced reactions in the

vicinity of the propeller, no major changes in the behavior

of the system were noted. In the aligned condition the

maximum lineshaft moments were:

S-9-801 (W - 78,400 lb) M(max) - 8108.9 kip-in

S-9-801A (W - 28,400 lb) M(max) - 8266.4 kip-in


XT

Inasmuch as the effect of propeller overhang is most serious


in systems with very short overall length, it is logical to

conclude that the propeller weight has an insignificant effect

on the alignment behavior of the shaft system.

The effect of varying the concentrated gear weight can

be seen from problems S -1-702 and S-1-702A. The gear weight

was omitted entirely in S-1-702A. As with the propeller

weight, the only effect was a change in the reactions in the

vicinity of the gear. The maximum lineshaft moments in the

aligned condition were:

S-l-702 (AW - 10,998 lb) M(max) - 726.5 Kip-in

S-1-702A (AW - 0) M(max) - 725.4 Kip-in

Because of the similar behavior of the original systems, it

is concluded that variation in gear weight will have no effect

upon the lineshaft stress in the aligned condition.


-52-
)

The total length of the system was varied by changing

the number of spans. Prom Table IV it is seen that this


caused a negligible effect on the crossover point, the

effect resulting in a maximum change in allowable Ln of

1 to 2 per cent.

It is noted that for values of 1^ greater than

L (max.), the maximum lineshaft bending moment decreased

with increased total length (increased number of spans).


The variation of the line shaft diameter was not con-

templated until the analysis of the family of systems

originally chosen was completed. Since the 67$ L^ (max.)

value was a consistent limitation for all nine of the

families investigated, the possibility existed that nine

similar families had resulted through the use of M, (max.

« W L and the combined stress equation by which the shaft

diameter was calculated.

This possibility of similarity was eliminated by

assuming an arbitrary M. not equal to W L and calculating

D1 by combined stress. This was done for family No. 5,

(S-5-SP602, S-5-SP702, and S-5-SP902). The results are

shown in Figure XV. Although similarity was eliminated,


the resulting allowable L was 67$ of L (max.).

Because of this result, and the results of varying the


other parameters previously discussed, it is concluded that

as long as the lineshaft diameter is calculated on the basis

of some allowable Mb > and this M, is not exceeded in the final

-53-
aligned condition, the allowable L will be some constant
n
percentage of L (max.). The exact percentage will depend

upon the alignment criteria adopted by the designer.

Effect of Alignment Criteria

By using the minimum alignment criteria outlined in

the procedure, certain phenomena were found to exist. The

maximum lineshaft bending moment and maximum lineshaft

bearing reaction occurred at No. 3 bearing. In performing

the vertical alignment, the changes in moments and re-

actions were calculated expediently by means of a desk

calculator. This method is recommended in lieu of a second

computer solution as more rapid and less costly to perform.

However, the required accuracy (no closure error) of the

calculations can only be obtained if the RIN are given to

two decimal accuracy (one hundredth of a pound change per

mil of bearing rise). It is recommended that the computer

output be modified to give this required accuracy in the

RIN. At present a "dump" must be used.

To illustrate the beneficial effect of performing


more than a "minimum alignment", modified calculations for

S-5-801A were made, and are illustrated in Figure XIV. It

can be seen from the figure, that in the straight line

condition (Case I) there is a serious differential in gear

bearing reactions which will result in misalignment of the

-54-
gear. By performing the "minimum alignment", (Case II),

the requirements of the gear manufacturer are met, but a

large maximum lineshaf t bending moment results . Case III

illustrates how, by using "improved alignment" (adjusting

more than No. 3 bearing), the gear manufacturer's require-

ments are satisfied and a lower maximum shaft bending

moment results. Further refinement of Case III could be


made, the optimum alignment occurring (in this case) when

It should be noted, however, that this optimum align-

ment at present is a trial and error process, and increases

in difficulty as the number of bearings is increased.

Effects of Gear Case Expansion and


Stern Tube Weardown

These phenomena are included together because of the

effect they have on the gear manufacturer's alignment

criteria. Additionally, the number of bearings in the system

has a major effect on the interpretation of the gear manu-

facturer's requirements. Two cases were used to illustrate

this point; the results are given in Table VT.

Problem S-5-801A is for an even number of bearings.

It can be seen that, starting from the hot aligned condition,

the effect of cooling of the gear case is to increase R, and

decrease R 2 ; the effect of stern tube weardown is also to

-55-
increase R, and decrease R 2 . Since both effects tend to in-

crease R, and decrease R2 , the alignment should be made so

that all of the maximum allowable load differential of the

gear bearings is added to the after gear bearing, Rp. Hence

the alignment specification should be to make R greater


2
than R, by the maximum allowable load difference with the
gear hot. If the alignment is made on the cold ship, the

effects of gear case contraction can be taken into account

so that the specifications can be met in the "hot" condition.

On the other hand, problem S-5-802A is for an odd

number of bearings. Again, starting from the hot aligned

condition, the effect of cooling of the gear case is to in-

crease R and decrease R . However, the effect of stern tube


1 2
weardown is to decrease R, and increase R . Since these two
2
conditions tend to oppose each other, an analysis of the

system should be made to determine the more important effect.

The specification can then be adjusted to provide the best

alignment under both conditions, with more emphasis being

placed on the hot aligned condition.

In conjunction with the vertical alignment, two other

points should be noted,* first, no limits were placed on the

allowable vertical distance required for proper alignment

nor were they deemed necessary. Consequently a future in-


vestigation to determine the effect of vertical alignment
on buckling stability should be made. Second, the effects

-56-
of stern tube weardown on alignment should be thoroughly

investigated.

Proposed Preliminary Design Method

The design, arrangement, and alignment of the system

cannot be treated as separable problems. The maximum allow-

able lineshaft bending moment is a component of the line-

shaft diameter calculation, hence it affects the design of

the shaft. This moment, in addition, cannot be exceeded

in the lineshaft without lowering the F.S. Consequently

the bearing spacing must be limited to insure that this

moment is not exceeded. However, vertical alignment to

satisfy the gear manufacturer's requirements is necessary,

and since this alignment will change the maximum shaft bend-

ing moment, then the design (D/ )> arrangement (bearing


s
spacing) and alignment (gear bearing load) must be considered

concurrently.
The authors consider the results of this investigation

to be of a conservative nature, yet using "minimum align-

ment criteria" increases in the value of L of the order of

25$ over current design practice appear possible. Accepting

this increase in L , the logical approach to preliminary de-

sign of the shaft would be to obtain L from Figure XII.

Where the desired SHP and RPM exceed the limits of this figure,

-57-
.

extrapolation should be possible because of the constancy

of the results. Adjust Ln so that a minimum number of line-

shaft spans will satisfy the total length required. Then

express the lineshaft bending moment in terms of the line-

shaft diameter D ls such that

2 2
Mb - K . D I^ . 0.284)
lg (J

2
where K - (Jjgy) . iy or §,-

Substitute this moment in the combined stress equation for

the lineshaft and solve for D n •


Is
At this stage the shaft has been designed so as to

satisfy combined stress in the "minimum alignment" condition.

Checks should than be made to insure that other requirements

(bearing load, lateral frequency and buckling stability) have

not been exceeded.

It is recognized that the constant in the above equation

will vary with other alignment criteria, or with other de-

signer's limitations. However, for the purposes of preliminary

design, and until other alignments are investigated, the value

of the constant, K, resulting from the investigation appears

reasonable

-58-
v.

CONCLUSIONS

1. The design, arrangement and the alignment of a

shaft system must be considered concurrently.

2. Within the range of SHP and RPM considered, it


is feasible to increase the lineshaft bearing

spacing by a minimum of 25$ over current design

practice.

3. As long as the lineshaft diameter is calculated

on the basis of some allowable bending moment,

and this bending moment is not exceeded in the

final aligned condition, the maximum allowable

lineshaft span will be related to the bending

moment by the equation

"b- K *l. ^
For the alignment criteria that reduction gear

bearing reactions be made equal by vertical

alignment of the first lineshaft bearing only,

the value of the constant, K, is 3/l6.

-59-
.

4. The above relationship is not influenced by

variation of the weight and geometry of the


propeller and gear assemblies, or by variation
of the span between the stern tube bearings

5. The number of bearings in the system has a

major effect on the gear manufacturers


alignment criteria. To permit maximum stern
tube weardown, an even number of bearings

system should be aligned so that Rp is greater

than R^ by the allowable load differential,

while for an odd number of bearings system,

an analysis must be made to determine the

more important effect, either stern tube

weardown or gear case expansion.

6. The results of this investigation may be used

in the preliminary design of single screw,

low RPM shaft systems.

-60-
VI.

RECOMMENDATIONS

It is recommended that the program of investigation

started by this group be continued. The results ob-

tained thus far indicate the existence of a direct re-

lationship between shaft stress, alignment, and line

shaft arrangement, but are limited in scope. The follow-

ing specific recommendations are made:

1. Future investigations should be conducted to further

determine the effects of variation of the physical

shaft dimensions and loads.

2. The range of the investigation should be expanded

to include all types of shaft systems, particularly

those operating at higher RPM.

5. The effect of vertical alignment upon the buckling

stability of the shaft should be investigated to

determine possible limits for vertical alignment.

4. The present shaft system computer program should

be modified so that the RIN output will be accurate

to two decimal places.

-61-
5. A computer program should be devised which will

determine the optimum bearing spacing for various

alignment criteria. Such a program should include

limitations for maximum bearing loads, critical

natural frequency and buckling stability. It

should compute the shaft diameter for each con-

dition of alignment. The suggested alignment

criteria are:

(a) R x = R2 ; bearing pressures at


all water lubricated bearings
equal, pressures of all oil
lubricated bearings equal.
(b) R. « R ; The maximum shaft
2
bending moments at all bearing
location equal.

This program could be used to develop design charts for

the use of those who do not have access to a computer.

It could also be used to design, arrange and determine

the required alignment of any shaft system.

6. Following the development of design charts, the effect

of stern tube weardown should be investigated to de-

termine new allowable limits which will not adversely

affect the system alignment.

-62-
VII . APPENDIX

-63-
APPENDIX "AA
It tl

SUPPLEMENTARY INTRODUCTION

-64-
APPENDIX "AA
II II

SUPPLEMENTARY INTRODUCTION

1. Problems of the Shaft System

The increased use of higher shaft powers, shorter

shafts and an increased interest in noise reduction has

brought to light many new problems in the shafting system

and increased the importance of many others, previously

considered as inconsequential. These problems can best be


discussed by segregating the system into three areas of

major interest:

(1) Tailshaft and stern tube area.

(2) Lineshaft area.

(5) Reduction gear area.

Tailshaft Area

The major problem encountered in the tailshaft area is

caused by the large weight of the overhanging propeller.

This tends to unload the next to last (forward stern tube)

bearing, and overload the after part of the last (after

stern tube) bearing. As the last bearing wears, which is

similar to a support settlement, the loads on the rest of

the bearings change. This is considered as a misalignment

-65-
in the sense that the load distribution has changed from

the original set-up.

In addition, the center of pressure of the long after

stern tube bearing will shift forward with weardown.

Although the exact amount of this shift is not definitely

determined, unpublished work by Boston Naval Shipyard and

General Electric, Lynn Gear Works, indicate that the

initial center of support of a new stern tube bearing is

approximately located one shaft diameter from the after

end of the bearing. After weardown, the support is best

represented by four or five equal supports distributed

over the length of the bearing, with the settlement at

these individual locations equal to the location wear-

down.

In considering the possible unloading of the next to

last bearing, some of the effects which may result are:

(1) An unintentional increase of


span. This may lower the
natural frequency of lateral
vibration into the operating
range.
(2) An increased, non-critical,
lateral motion of the shaft.
This motion, generally a
maximum in the region of the
packing gland, causes rapid
destruction of the packing.

-66-
Non- concentricity of thrust also has an effect in this

area. The superimposed moment of thrust can increase or


decrease the shaft bending moments and bearing loads, de-

pending upon the actual location of the center of thrust.

At present the 'magnitude of this moment is not sufficiently

defined to be considered in the alignment problem. How-

ever, due to the possible severity of this moment, it should

be considered in strength calculations.

Line Shaft Area

The major deficiency in the line shaft area is con-

cerned with the longitudinal location of the line shaft


bearings. Some of the criteria in use for locating these

bearings are arbitrary and apparently have no real justi-

fication. Examples of this are:

1. Two bearings are provided for each


shaft span, so located that the slope and de-

flection of the uncoupled shaft at the flange

is zero,

2. Equal lengths of line shaft are pro-

vided, each with a specified number of bearings,

symmetrically located from section to section.

-67-
5. Bearings are spaced at a specified

number of shaft diameters (11).

4. Certain bearings are located by


tradition, an example of which is the practice

of using two water lubricated stern tube bearings.

The major objection to such criteria is that they are


not based on a consideration of the shaft system as a whole.

The major effect of such criteria is that an excessive


number of bearings are required, resulting in a system that
is very stiff, lightly loaded, and consequently extremely

sensitive to misalignment.

Reduction Gear Area

Problems in the reduction gear area result from the

fact that any significant mismatch of the gear faces will

cause serious injury to the tooth surfaces, or complete tooth

failure. The manufacturer usually specifies the required

alignment of the gear faces in terms of maximum load dif-

ferential for the bull gear bearings. This load differential

must be satisfied with the reduction gear hot and expanded

vertically. In addition, the load must be within reasonable

limits when the gear is cold.

The exact amount that the gear case will expand cannot

be determined analytically. Experimental determination is

-68-
.

necessary and the amount will vary with different gear cases

and different manufacturers. Evidence indicates, this ex-

pansion generally varies from 10 to 40 mis with an average


of about 20 mils. The allowable mismatch, and hence load
differential for the bull gear bearings also varies with
different gears and gear manufacturers . It is felt that

an average load differential of the order of magnitude

of 5000 pounds is not difficult to attain. These average

values have been used in actual alignment calculations

and have produced satisfactory results

*
Discussion with H.C. Anderson of the General Electric Co.
and E. Antkowiak of the Boston Naval Shipyard.

-69-
APPENDIX tin"
"B

SUPPLEMENT TO THE THEORY

-70-
APPENDIX tir>n
"B

SUPPLEMENT TO THE THEORY


«

1. Effect of Increased Shaft Span

The many problems of the shaft system have been


considered in terms of three separate areas. Therefore,

the effect of increasing the shaft span can most easily

be realized through a similar discussion.

Tailshaft Area

Increased bearing span will decrease the possibility

of unloading the forward stern tube bearing. Not only

does the increased flexibility reduce the influence of the

overhanging propeller weight, but the increased span of

the distributed shaft weight contributes significantly to

loading the forward stern tube bearing.

The effect of stern tube bearing weardown will be re-

duced because of the increased shaft flexibility (lower RIN)


associated with these bearings. Also, the adverse effects

of unpredicted eccentric thrust will be reduced due to the

increased flexibility and more uniform initial bearing

loading.
-71-
Llneshaft Area

The major effect of increased span in this area is to


reduce the transmitted effects of the propeller overhang

and of stern tube weardown. The increased flexibility


also provides for an inherently more uniform heavy load-

ing and reduced deviation from design loads through

unintentional misalignment of individual bearings, caused

by unknown factors previously mentioned.

Reduction Gear Area

One of the greatest benefits of increased bearing span

is the simplification of the reduction gear alignment pro-

blem. It must be realized, that the gear itself is fixed

in its dimensions and that the gain here is accomplished

through increased lineshaft span. The gear manufacturer

is forced to provide a short span between gear bearings

to avoid excessive bending deflections along the gear face.

In addition, in the straight line condition, the after

gear bearing will have a greater load than the forward


bearing due to the weight distribution of the lineshaft.

Past practice has been to place the first lineshaft bear-

ing close enough to the after gear bearing to obtain a

satisfactory gear bearing load split, but this makes the

gear very sensitive to the slightest misalignment from any


source.
-72-
.

By increasing the span between the after gear bearing

and the first line shaft bearing, the RIN of the gear and

lineshaft bearings are lowered. At the same time the gear

bearing load distribution becomes more severe, but this

may be corrected by intentional misalignment of the line-

shaft bearings . The end result is a gear system which is

insensitive to unintentional misalignment from any source

and which may have more accurately controlled bearing

loads

2. Natural Frequency of Lateral Vibration


for Lineshaft Spans

This derivation is similar to that for a simply supported,

uniformly loaded beam such as may be found in most vibration


textbooks. However, in this case provision is made for axial

loading of the span.

Consider the simply supported beam of length L shown

below:

T ^.-- =^- t t_

The bending moment at x is given by the equation

M • E I 1-J dxdx - Ty (10)


J J

-73-
from which the "loading" per running inch, f> 9

P - E I ±£ - T %Z (11)
dx 6aC

If the beam is* in a state of sustained vibration the

"loading" acting is an alternating inertia load, or

ffl 4-El4-T4
dt dx dx
(12)

where
W

Assuming simple harmonic motion and the solution

y - C sin 52 (15)

there results

mo)
2
- ?.
Y* + l£ - (14)

i
from which we obtain

f(c P m).|2 ySi^-Sj^' (15)


m ^ "Si

3. Types of Shaft Systems

In the attempt to establish a representative system

-74-
for analysis, it was necessary to distinguish between solid

and hollow shafts and between single and mult i -screw systems

The solid shaft was chosen as being most representative for


the merchant type ship used in the analysis.

A simple qualitative comparison of the use of single

and mult i -screw shaft systems suffices to indicate that

single screw shaft systems generally operate at a lower

RPM than the multi-screw systems. This in turn indicates

that, for equal powering requirements, the single screw

system will have heavier concentrated gear and propeller

loads. It must also be realized that the single screw

system propeller will be heavier as it operates in a


region of more severe wake variation which necessitates
increased strength requirements.

Prom the foregoing, it is anticipated that the single


screw solid shaft system will create the most severe con-

ditions of loading. On this basis, it may be assumed that

any qualitative results of such a system analysis will be

equally valid for a multi -screw hollow shaft system.

-75-
M/i a
APPENDIX "C

SUPPLEMENT TO THE PROCEDURE

-76-
. -

APPENDIX "C

SUPPLEMENT TO THE PROCEDURE

1. Development of the Family of


Shaft Systems

Propeller Weight

In attempting to determine the propeller weight, unless

BTP, MWR, and the number of blades are known, none of the

usual formulae can be utilized. Fortunately, a set of

curves was made available which portrayed the required in-

formation; W vs SHP and RPM (Fig. V) . This set of curves

was developed by Tassaron and is used by LIPS Screw Works,

Ltd., Drunen, Holland for preliminary propeller weight es-

timates. A comparison of the statistical data with these


curves shows that, with few exceptions, the actual propeller

weight varies from the predicted weight by less than 12 per

cent.

Propeller Inertia

In order to determine the propeller inertia, the various

blade sections should be known. Since these were not avail

* From the files of Prof. L. Troost, Department of Naval


Architecture, M.I.T. (origin unknown)

-77-
.

able, the approximation

2
W r
- p (i6)
iv
*x " -Hhr-
2 g

was used (11), where

r - 0.20 to 0.22 D (17)

Taking a mean r « 0.21 D , it is still necessary to deter-

mine the propeller diameter. If it is assumed that the

propeller is designed for the largest practical diameter


and highest propulsive efficiency at optimum RPM, with a

given SHP and RPM we can solve for the maximum diameter by
using the relationships developed by Troost (12). By using

a weighted mean coefficient for the relationships,

SHP - 1.06 PHP and inverting (12) there results

0,2
48.16 SHP
.
Dp " —^UT6 ,,ox
(
l8 )

p
With D we can solve for W r by using W from
Tassaron's curves (Fig. V). This results in a series of
2
curves of W r as a function of SHP and RPM (Fig. VI). A
2
comparison of the few available values of W r $ in this

operating range, shows little difference between calculated

and statistical values

-78-
Length of Shaft from Stern Tube
to Propeller

An analysis of the statistical data indicated that this


length is independent of SHP and RPM, and is a function of

shaft diameter. Fig. II portrays the data and the fitted

curve. It is seen that

L 2& 2.1 D,
p ts

Shaft Diameter

The shaft diameter was calculzted on the basis of the

combined stress relationship used by the Bureau of Ships,

U.S. Navy (7). This combined stress formula is given by

CTsr , (Tar 1
F.S. (19)
(Typ <Til

Lineshaft P.S. 1.75


Tailshaft P.S. 2.00

The stress equation should ordinarily be investigated

for both full power RPM and for that RPM at which the

torsional critical occurs. It is very seldom, however, that

the resonant stress is greater than the full load stress;

hence we assume that the critical stress condition occurs

at full power.

-79-
a. Steady shear stress

m 5.1 x 6^,025 SHP


^s D^ x RPM
(20)

b. Steady compressive stress

PC x RPM
12" (21)
(Jc
d* 63,025

From a study of statistical data, it may be seen that


the following approximate relationships hold

v 1 -t 'merchant ^>
v
1 -t ' naval

/ RPM x ,RPM\
TK 'merchant <. Mk 'naval

Consequently, it is expected that, for both merchant and

naval ships

PC X RPM il-cill
constant
\ (1-t)

Prom Ref . 12, the following data is typical of merchant ships

PC/l-t RPM/V^ l1 «t PC X RPM


C
B F (l-t)x^
.60 .899 4.796 4.312
.65 .902 4.146 3.739
.70 .917 4.303 3.946
.75 .948 4.242 4.021
.80 .975 4.372 4.263
Ave - 4.056

-80-
From Ref . 7, for a typical destroyer:

P.C. - .625

t = .035

VK - 33.1
RPM,« 320

For this destroyer, Q » 6,900,000 in-lb.

T - .0323Q - 223,000 lb.


j-' - 8610 psi and (f - 1385 psi

and neglecting ^, ,j^ r - 17,220 psi

while including q^q , g-£v - 17,280 psi

Since "F", for the merchant ship is not very much different

from "F" destroyer, similar results would prevail for the

merchant ship. Taking a conservative attitude, we assume

for the calculations, that the resultant steady stress is

increased 3$ by the effect of (j-r.

With this assumption, CTsr "2.03 <j< (22)

c. Alternating bending stress

K. x 10.2 M.
IS (Tb - ^~p * (23)

-81-
In the tailshaft Kb - 1.0 is assumed as there is usually
no configuration to cause bending stress concentration at

the point of maximum M,. M, is the combined moment due to

propeller overhang (M ) and eccentric thrust (M ) . The


thrust eccentricity is not known nor is there any method

currently available for predicting the eccentricity with

accuracy greater than 50$ due to inaccuracy of the wake


calculations (4). Therefore, it is necessary to make an

assumption as to the nature of thrust eccentricity.

The Bureau of Ships (7) specifies that the moment due

to eccentric thrust (M ) should equal 2 W L for single

screws and W L for multi -screw ships and that (f, £. 6000 psi.

Investigation of these values reveals that although apparently

arbitrary, some justification for their use exists (8).

Further investigation indicates that the worst con-

figuration for eccentric thrust is encountered with a four-

bladed propeller (Fig. XVI), for which we may say:

T = T + T2 + T + T4
t l 3

For the single screw ship under consideration:

Tt x e t - m = 2 WpLp
oc

It is then assumed that the longitudinal and transverse

components of wake are symmetrical about the center line of

-82-
>

FIGURE XVI

%2k^Q?

(CL) Cb;

*>x i

0.7-

= -Pfc>

o
0,3--

02
MLl. O.I\ X-
/j— — —
i?Y
I I
l
I

-o.i-
zx

-0.3--
U)
-o.r-

I
ZtCE/vrniC THRUST ANALYSIS
FOUR (3LADB PROP »

-83-
the ship. In this case it is also assumed that the tangential

variation is small or negligible for symmetrical positions.


With these conditions imposed, the torque bending moment in
the vertical plane is zero, or

Z_ / L dQ/R' - (24)
2,4 / p

where R - propeller radius

and rn _ rp
2 ~
l x
4

It may also be observed (4), that

e«x/R» ^ 0.65 x e1 ^e 2 ^ e =t e^ (25)

We than say:

V
T, - Z x T^
x!t

T 2* T r yT t

from which we obtain:

1 - x(l-Z) + 2y (26)

Taking moments about a diameter in the horizontal plane

there results:

2 e (y-ra x) - et + e (27)

-84-
)

Combining (26) and (27)

- x(Z-l) (28)
~T
It is then necessary to evaluate Q. as defined in equation

(28). This evaluation is shown below:

Ship SHP RPM T M


1 JL
USNS James E. Robinson (8) 8,500 85 132,000 177,500 0.263

SS Cryssi (10) 15,000 112 177,000 219,000 0.256

Hypothetical 20,000 100 264,000 386, 000 0.264

It is assumed that 6t 0.26. From (25) and (28) there is


obtained:

0.4 - x(Z-l) (29)

Using (26) and (29), Fig. XVI (d) is obtained from which

is seen that the use of 2 W i* for Pi is justified if the


p p oc
thrust distribution factor, Z, is greater than 2.5. This

indicates that the existence of a very severe condition

of thrust distribution is necessary to obtain the prescribed

Jfl . However, it is possible that such a distribution may


oc
occur with the ship in a light condition or pitching in a
seaway. Any condition of greater severity is hard to

visualize. It is therefore assumed that

l*b °b ;
tailshaft * --£ £ (30

-85-
In the lineshaft Kb ^1.9 (average value, reference 7,

Fig. "5)l Mx. is the maximum bending moment in the lineshaft

span and is approximately equal to the moment for a clamped


end beam. Since it is assumed that the maximum moment in
the lineshaft equals that in the tailshaft, then

M, VTL and
b p p

40.7 W D ts
(K " (51)
b ^Vlineshaft T~~3
^ls

d. Alternating shear stress

K, G D $

Unf ortunately $ is indeterminate in this analysis, however

i Alt, propeller torque 1


t » '
025
* mean propeller torque B

For destroyers (7)

^a * 5* <r~,

and for merchant ships*

:
_f
Course notebook, "Mechanical Vibrations" by Professor
F.M. Lewis.

-86-
:

We assume

and

Kt » 1.9 (34)

Then for both tailshaft and lineshaft

(
*
r Sa ,
= 61 f 071 SHE
D 5 RPM
(35)

Finally it is assumed that the shafting material is

Class 2 steel, and that

(J^p = 30,000 psi

(Jjj_
- 27,000 psi

Combining the individual stress components in the combined

stress relationship, equation (1), there results

Tailshaft

1 652,500 SHP
D ts- N - <^P (Tf

Lineshaft
40.7WDfQ \ /
P 122,142 SHP
+ I

D ls 3 7 \ Z
D ls t>
1 = 652,500 SHP + 1^\
V
±2 /
/ \1_J^ i
T7T5 '^ s .n. (Tvp C77i
(57)
yp

-87-
The curves resulting from these equations are shown as D
ls
and D. as a function of SHP and RPM (Fig. VII). Comparison

of these results with statistical data indicates that, in

the majority of cases, the curves are slightly conservative;

i.e., a larger diameter shaft is prescribed by the curves

than is installed in the ship.

Gear Weight

A review of the statistical data did not present any

clear-cut trend for the gear weight as a function of the

independent variables SHP and RPM. It was decided to con-

sider

W = f(L , D
g f g£ )

where D 2 is the bull gear diameter. Then combining the


relationship for tooth pressure and the Hertz equation for
compressive stress between two cylinders (11) it is deter-

mined that

1 /SHP\ (
r2+ 1 )

'P 2 '

^ L /D
\/K( f P2) \ Rm ) ~r7~
where

K design factor for gears


Do - lQW speed pinion diameter
r 2 * second reduction ratio
-88-
Also

V - D p2 r 2

Lf = C 2 D
p2

From the geometry of the gear it was suspected that

or, neglecting the variation in K, C , and r


2 2

n+1

g °^ K
R?W

Trial plots of the data, with various values of n,

indicated that n - 1 provided the most satisfactory dis-

tribution of the statistical data. A root mean square

solution for the data was performed with the results shown

in Fig. IV.

Because of the large variation in W , a trial system


o
was computed (Q-2 series, Appendix "F") using a shaft

system picked at random from the statistical data. The

value of W was varied plus 15$ and minus JOfo from that
o

-X-

From the statistical data it is seen that r2 varies from


6.5 to 8.7, C 2 from 1.9 to 2.2 and K from 60 to 80.
Although these variations are not large, their combined
effect on either D 2 or Lf may be quite large. However
the variation of s D « and L counter each other.
f

-89-
.

indicated by Pig. IV. The resultant change in reactions

and moments for the gear bearings and the first lineshaft

bearing are shown in Table X below.

TABLE X

Per Cent Change in Bearing Reactions


and Shaft Moments for Per Cent Change
in W
S

System W AW AR AR AR^ AM AM
g g 2 2 2

G-2 43,609 - - - - - -

G-2-A 50,200 +15 +10.9 +5.5 -0.14 +1.1 -0.3

G-2-B 30,500 -30 -21.7 -11.1 +0.28 -2.2 +0.6

These results indicate that, outside of the gear span, the

system is relatively insensitive to changes in W Pig. IV .

o
was therefore considered acceptable for use in the development

of the shaft system families, subject to further investi-

gation in the family analysis

Gear Pace Length (L^)

By reasoning similar to that used in reducing the gear

weight, the possible relationship

cup */ -5
L <* (rpm^
f

-90-
was determined. A plot of the statistical data using this

relationship gave reasonable results . The resultant root


mean square curve is shown in Fig. III. Random trials with
other relationships produced completely negative results.

Gear Hub Diameter (D^)

There is no definite design criteria here which could

be used to indicate a suitable relationship. However,

the desire to keep the deflection of the gear low would

result in keeping D, proportional to W or

2/5
^ <* (§!>

Although the plot and fitted curve, Fig. VIII, were not
particularly good, no more favorable relationship could be

found. The curve was therefore considered representative,

subject to later investigation of the effect of gear stiff-

ness upon the system characteristics.

Length Between Gear Bearing (L K )

Consideration of the gear stiffness (i/lO indicated


a relationship similar to that for Dh , however this did not

produce reasonable results. It was finally determined by

trial and error that

-91-
)

SHP \

produced the most favorable data spread. The fitted curve

using this relationship is shown in Fig. VIII. As for fr,

the investigation of the effect of varying L^ was delayed

until final analysis.

Diameter of the Gear Shaft (D„„

In considering the gear shaft it was suspected that

the diameter would be governed by deflection considerations;

however, trial plots of the data did not prove satisfactory.

Following the possibility that the gear shaft diameter was


governed more strictly by combined stress, the data was

plotted proportional to the lineshaft diameter. The results

were considered satisfactory and the curve fitted as shown

in Fig. IX.

Equivalent Gear Weight (AW )

The weight of the equivalent gear is determined by

calculating the weight of the gear hub and shaft assembly

and subtracting from the total gear weight (W ) . The equi-


o
valent gear weight is then applied as a concentrated load

at the center of the gear. This equivalent weight was cal-

culated only for the nine families considered.

-92-
M
rtr\M
APPENDIX D

STATISTICAL DATA

-93-
APPENDIX "T\"
"D

Statistical Data for Merchant Ship Shaft Systems

System SHP RPM D D L w W


ts ls P p g
1 10,000 120 19.56 17.00 47.5 28,000 40,500
2 18,750 106 24.42 22.00 57.42 75,600 74,150
3 4,000 165 13.50 11.38 25.25 9,240 13,600
4 18,500 102 24.42 22.00 49.61 73,000 54,400
5 11,000 93 22.28 19.13 44.97 49,500 41,275
6 16,000 102 22.42 21.00 46,61 71,500 69,257
7 9,000 90 20.00 18.00 45.50 42,600 46,998
8 17,500 102 23.30 21.65 46.46 80,000 73,431
9 12,500 107 22.00 19.00 45.50 43,400 52,587
10 20,000 107 26.25 22.25 62,25 66,370 67,090
11 25,000 100 27.87 24.50 55.87 83,000 95,000
12 3,000 92 16.61 12.44 32.91 19,400 17,165
13 19,000 103 24.00 21.63 55.05 67,000 66,200
14 15,780 102 24.00 21.25 43.77 57,000 40,662
15 9,000 100 21.00 17.50 53.75 45,600 27,000
16 12,500 100 22.12 19.68 45.41 50,400 49,583
17 18,600 101 - - - 72,100 -

18 8,500 85 - - - 40,980 -

19 4,000 90 - - - 27,600 -

20 8,500 85 - - - - 64,567
21 5,000 90 - - - - 45,200
22 9,000 107 — - — — 43,240

-94-
System L Dh gear 2 oa
1 56.3 37.75 36.OO 2530.5 5,000 7.69 53.69
2 70.5 56.65 42.25 1100.4 5,000 7.28 61.45
3 41.0 27.50 27.00 1254.7 5,000 7.05 35.10
4 71.0 45.00 37.50 730.9 10,000 6.87 61.60
5 61.9 35.50 40.00 2384.3 7,500 7.26 67.70
6 70.5 43.00 42.25 698.I 10,000 7.28 64.00
7 61.0 35.50 40.00 1641.0 7,000 7.62 71.00
8 70.5 43.00 42.25 2510.1 5,000 7.28 64.09
9 68.0 42.50 40.00 2320.1 6,000 6.86 61.50
10 71.5 48.00 40.00 2491.0 7,000 7.24 60.79
11 85.O 54.87 46.00 1110.2 14,000 6.74 60.90
12 41.0 24.75 27.00 556.1 2,500 9.67 97.06
13 80.5 47.00 42.00 1147.3 14,000 7.38 57.00
14 71.2 42.50 45.00 949.5 9,000 6.80 6O.90
15 53.5 35.00 32.00 818.4 5,000 8.75 96.06
16 68.0 49.00 40.00 792.1 5,000 - -

17 - - - - - - -

18 - - - - - - -

19 - - - - - - -

20 65.O 45.0 39.5 - - 8.89 72.5


21 57.0 37.5 23.5 - - 9.59 66.0
22 59.8 41.3 36.75 — - 6.95 57.2

-95-
)

RPM
System (turbine K V D
p2 V D ls D „«
gs
W: r
2
x 10"
-
6

1 6443 66.2 1.78 12.7 18.40


2 6514 76.3 2.03 9.3 26.00 -

- - 16.2 13.00 -
3 5791
4 6514 - - 7.3 25.50 -

6302 72.1 2.17 14.5 25.00 -


5
6 6538 79.6 1.94 7.8 26.00 -

6398 - - 14.0 25.50 -


7
8 6533 78.2 2.13 15.4 26.00 -

79.4 2.07 12.0 25.50 -


9 6593
10 6504 - - 12.9 31.50 -

11 6090 71.5 1.98 7.2 30.12 -

12 8901 2.07 - 17.60 -


95
15 5870 72.1 2.14 - 20.00 -

14 6210 63.0 2.07 - 20.00 -

15 9606 84.3 1.97 12.4 13.50 -

16 - 72.3 2.09 - - -

17 - - - - - 216.0
18 - - - - - 123.3
19 - - - - - 56.3
20 6160 58.8 - - 16 -

21 5940 58.2 - - 15 -

22 6130 59.4 — - 12.5 —

-96-
APPENDIX "E'

!
SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

-97-
IIt?
APPENDIX "E II

Sample Calculations

1. Frequency Calculation

a. Lineshaft-S-5-Ln (max)

V4
V E
m L
- IZp.
m L
2 W
where m - -*£
s

SHP = 12,500 ; RPM = 105

From Table I, obtain D-,„» calculate W_ and I


is Is

4
D ls " 19 67 *
' w " 86 lb/in; I - 7,320 in
is

From Eqn. 21, T - 326 ||| 4.056 = 157,000 lb

Then f - 279 cpm on rigid bearing

f m 112 cpm reduced 60$ for bearing elasticity

b. Tailshaft-S-5-50$ L, (max)

Basic Eqn. (Ref . 9)

f m 22\ /
IE
F Ln W L? L L_ L
4
L.L 5 ~7lF"
\

SHP » 12,500; RPM = 105


-98-
From Table I, 50$ L-^max) - 257 in

I. - 46.20 in

2 6 2
Wr - 124.5 x 10 lb -in

W - 64,000 lb (increased 25$


p for entrained
water)

I x . 1/2 ^ 2
x 1.6 = 2.58 x 10 5 m-lb-sec 2

(increased 60$ for virtual inertia of entrained water)

Then, f « 570 cpm

2. Sample Series Analysis (S-5-all)

a. Required Data:

Dgs - 22 8 ' 70$ I^Onax) - 402.5

D ls - 19.67 80$ Ln (max) =» 460.0

*>
qs -
22 01
- 90$ Ln (max) - 517.5

1^ = 65.5 M (max) * 2365


b
L X - 250

-99-
b. Consider computer solution S-5-701 and analyze

No. 4 No. 3 No. 2 No. 1

66,378 22,099 66,548 4,088 R Q (lb)

-46.3 99.3 -207.2 +154.2 RIN No. 3


on (lb/mil)

-8002 +17162 -35810 +26650 AR No. 3 up


172.83 mil

58376 39261 30738 30738 R aligned


(lb)

+8002 -9160 +26650 A Shear (lb)

+2000.50 -3686 90. +1686.94 A Shear


JJ (Kip -in)

+0.54* -1999.96 +1686.94 AM (Kip-in)

-2151.44 -674.65 -1408.67 -7.5 M (Kip-in)


Q
-2674. 25
+
-2151.98 +278.27 -7.5 M (Kip-in)
- 1.5 1.0 1.0 L/D oil
bearings
— 54.6 59.4 59.4 Bearing
pressure
(psi)

* Closure error

+ Maximum moment

c. Perform similar calculation for the remaining eight


systems in the series.

d. Plot results of calculations, Fig. XI, to determine

intercept with VL. The intercept is the limiting fo Ln (max)

-100-
"-rati
APPENDIX "F

CALCULATED DATA

-101-
o O o e> o o o o
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