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1 SYNOPSIS

2 Diesel and petrol are widely used in automobiles , generators. In spite of
3 high thermal efficiency , one cannot ignore the fact about the effect of their exhaust
4 , in the atmosphere. To conserve the earth’s environment from degradation and
5 also the public health from air pollution , it is very imperative than serious steps
6 are to be taken for conserving them and Aqua Silencer is an attempt to do so. An
7 aqua silencer is a concept which is designed to replace conventional single unit
8 engine silencers on board structure. It is made to deal with the control of overall
9 emissions and undesirable sound at the engine exhaust of the vehicle. Sound
10 produce due to working of the engine can be controlled by using water as sound
11 produce in water is less hearable than produce in open air. This is mainly because
12 of small sprockets in water molecules which lowers its amplitude, thus lowers the
13 sound level. Exhaust emissions are controlled by applying a layer of activated
14 charcoal on a perforated tube. Activated charcoal is highly porous and possesses
15 free extra valances and has good absorption properties. So it absorbs the gases
16 from the engine and releases much less portion to the atmosphere. The level of the
17 sound and smoke coming out of the aqua silencer is considerably less than
18 conventional silencer.

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[2] carried out the analysis in which the lime stones are 39 originally intended to reduce the toxic ingredients of the exhaust.80 mm. Because of the introduction of the scrubber. against the original intention according to his study they 44 conclude that water in scrubber tank can itself play an important role in absorbing the 45 obnoxious products of combustion like the oxides of nitrogen.Balashunmugam et.21 LITERATURE REVIEW 22 23 Keval Patel et. 35 36 37 38 P. It is also noted for its low pressure drop.35 to 0. Bead Activated carbon is used as a 26 charcoal layer. The exhaust pipe connects with shell and inner side of it perforated tube is arranged. According to operational parameter they conclude that 33 CO is reduced 60-70% compared to ordinary silencer. It is evidently affected the flow of resistance and hence the combustion 41 characteristics of the engine will finally contribute the increased toxic ingredients of the 42 exhaust gas. [1] designs the dimensions of aqua silencer for two stroke petrol 24 engines. high mechanical 31 strength and low dust content. gas through chemical 40 reaction. But it is big in size and more space is 34 required. the net length of the exhaust gas flow 43 path is also increased which is again. Bead activated carbon is made from petroleum pitch and supplied in diameters from 30 approximately 0. It is a process by which the carbonized product develops porous structure of 27 molecular dimensions and extended surface area on heat treatment in the temperature range 28 of 800 – 1000℃ in presence of suitable oxidizing gases such as steam and carbon dioxide 29 (CO2). Its spherical shape makes it 32 preferred for fluidized applications. 25 The charcoal layer is pasted over the perforated tube. 47 48 49 . NO is converted into NO2 after 46 emission which highly toxic is mainly absorbed in the water scrubber. but with a smaller grain size. al. It is used in both two-wheeler and four-wheeler. al.

the sound 65 levels have been reduced and by using activated charcoal in water. lime water and 55 charcoal layer. 69 This project analyzed the smoke content of the exhaust gas before and after treatment and it 70 was found that there is a considerable reduction in the emission as pointed out by the test 71 results. [3] investigated that emission can be controlled by the activated 52 charcoal and lime water.A et. the back pressure will remain constant and fuel 56 consumption remain constant and sound level is reduced. 72 73 74 75 76 77 . al. By using perforated tube.M. They conclude that the silencer is more effective in 54 the reduction of emission gases from the engine exhaust using perforated tube. By using water as a medium. in heavy weight vehicles. Also by using activated charcoal in 57 water we can control the exhaust emission to a greater level it is smokeless and pollution free 58 emission equivalent to the conventional silencer. They compared the results between simple silencer and silencer with 53 lime water and activated charcoal layer. 59 60 61 62 63 Akhil Anil Kumar et. it produces almost 66 pollution-free and smokeless emission and is also cheap considering long term use. The 67 aqua silencer’s performance is almost equivalent to the conventional silencer.al had observed that the aqua silencer is successfully effective in 64 reducing emission of gases from the engine exhaust. It can be 68 widely used in industrial engines and with a little improvisation.50 51 Alen.

93 94 95 96 97 . How 92 pollution affects human health.2WCC. These are very recent technology & having it’s potential to reduce emission. In future all previously manufactured vehicle need to use 84 emission control devices in order to satisfy emission norms.3 way catalytic converter which uses oxidizing as well as reduction catalyst like 89 rhodium to convert additionally NOX into N2 90 . In INDIA from 1st April 2017 all gasoline automobile industry need to 83 manufacture BS4 satisfied engine.78 INTRODUCTION 79 80 Automobile source has been found one of the major contributor in air pollution & due to 81 increase of the demand of the automobile day by day the emission norms become more 82 stringent. Devices which can be used to 85 reduce emission from automobiles are listed below: 86 .3WCC.2 way catalytic converter which uses oxidation catalyst like platinum & palladium 87 to convert HC & CO into H2O & CO2. 88 .Aqua silencer – Which uses aqua means water to mix with exhaust gases & reduce air 91 pollution.

In order to 110 avoid this type of gases. 122 etc. overall exhaust emissions. 125 126 127 . domestic fuel 124 consumption. simultaneously increasing of carbon 109 dioxide levels in our atmosphere and thus the rapid increase of global warming. in today’s life the air pollution causes physical ill 102 effects to the human beings and also to the nature. unburnt hydrocarbons 116 (UBHC) & oxides of nitrogen (NOx). they are called 107 as carbon emissions. and many more gasses. Since 106 greenhouse gas emissions are often calculated as carbon dioxide equivalents. The main contributors to climate change. Automobile exhaust is not the only cause of air pollution. when discussing global warming or the greenhouse effect. other sources like electric 123 power generation stations. industrial processing. The carbon emissions are directly 105 referred to the greenhouse gas emissions. refuse burning etc. 111 112 113 Currently. Evaporative losses are 119 occurred due to vehicle parking it under direct sunlight. Muffler is used for 117 controlling undesirable noise at tail pipe of vehicle exhaust system. The main 101 objective why we go for aqua silencer is. In industries 108 the burning of fossil fuels has growing in high value. 98 99 100 Aqua silencer is made to reduce the level of noise and emission in IC engines. thermal power plants. Unburnt Hydrocarbons (UBHC) & Lead (Pb). also contributes heavily to degradation of our environment. aqua silencer is introduced. Carbon 104 emission is the release of carbon into the atmosphere. It also controls the 118 exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling crankcase blow by. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx). crankcase blow by & evaporative losses are the main 114 constituents contributing towards exhaust emissions in case of automobiles catalytic 115 converter is used for getting control over carbon monoxide (CO). The main reason behind the air pollution 103 is automobile releasing the gases like carbon dioxide and unburnt Hydrocarbon. releasing hazardous gases like Carbon 121 Monoxide (CO). The reason of continuously 120 increasing air pollution is the vehicle exhaust.

Generally 4 sets of 134 holes are cut on the tube. 141 142  Non – Return Valve 143 The use of non-return valve is to enable the flow of fluid in one direction only. The non-return valve is 145 used to prevent the back flow of gases and water and to maintain upstream pressure.128 CONSTRUCTION OF AQUA SILENCER 129 Aqua silencer consists of 130  Perforated Tube 131 132 It is a very essential component of Aqua silencer. 135 136  Charcoal Layer 137 138 It is basically an Activated charcoal . It has a Cylindrical shape with different 133 diameter holes to convert high mass bubbles into low mass bubbles. The Charcoal layer is pasted on it. It is made by burning a coal on burner at 1500 oc for 139 several hrs. 20 mm 144 diameter non-return valves are fixed at both inlet and outlet. 146 . It has high absorbing capacity as its surface area gets increasing and it is very 140 porous and having extra free valance electrons hence gases get purify.

It is used to join the silencer to the 150 engine.147  Flange 148 149 It is a component used for joining purpose. 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 . It is made of Iron or 156 Steel and having cylindrical shape. The whole unit is kept inside it. 151 152 153  Outer Shell 154 155 It is an outer casing of the unit.

172 after that they come into contact with lime water they chemically react with it and pass 173 through the charcoal layer which again purify the gases.169 WORKING OF AQUA SILENCER 170 An Aqua silencer is an updated version of a normal silencer. The charcoal is highly porous and possesses extra free valences 175 so it has high absorption capacity. The gases like HC. The purified gases are then released into atmosphere. the perforated tube converts high mass bubbles into low mass bubbles. This is mainly because of small sprockets in water molecules. The 176 contaminated lime water which has precipitates of calcium carbonate and bicarbonates in the 177 aqua silencer is replaced once in a year. The charcoal layer is covered with an outer shell 178 which is filled with water. lowers the sound level hence aqua silencer reduces noise and pollution. which lowers 180 its amplitude thus. CO are 174 absorbed from the emission. As the exhaust gases enter into 171 the aqua silencer. 182 183 184 185 186 . Sound produced under water is less hearable than sound produced 179 in atmosphere. A 181 schematic diagram is shown below.

which gives suffocating smell. The 196 petroleum products contain phenols. 202 . which give rotten egg smell. acids like carbonic acid. These should be 198 controlled to prevent the water pollution. The exhaust gases mix with 195 water to form carbonates. 201 2. The sulfur gas mixes 197 with water to form hydrogen sulphide. sulphuric acid. To control the water pollution following methods 199 are used in this project. and Nitrous acid. 200 1. Lime water wash method. Absorption method.187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Treatment of water 194 In aqua silencer the water gets polluted by the dissolved gases.

..203 Lime water wash method 204 Lime wash is a mixture of slaked lime.. After mixing the heavy precipitates. The water is added with charcoal before the coagulation with the 224 sediment. which is available generally. which is actually in powdered form.... The precipitates of carbon dissolved as calcium carbonate and 209 bicarbonate converts into carbonates.... It has excellent properties of attracting gases... It has high valences and is porous in nature..CaSO4 + 2H20 214 Ca(OH)2(a) + CO2(g) ⎯→ ⎯ CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) 215 CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 ⎯→ ⎯ Ca(HCO3)2 (colourless) 216 Thus the harmful gases are converted into precipitates and are removed from aqua silencer... The reactions with 210 water are.. The water is treated with slaked lime. 225 226 227 228 . The equations are given below.. is used in 221 the aqua silencer. 207 Lime can neutralize any acid present in the water.. which enables high absorption 222 capacity... SO2 is removed from the flue gases 208 forming calcium sulphate. 211 CO(g) + H2O(l) ⎯→ ⎯ CO2(g) + H2(g) 212 2HCL + Ca(OH)2.CaCl2 + 2H2 213 H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2. Quantitative 205 analysis of water has to be taken for this process. 217 218 219 Absorption process 220 Granular or powdered form of Activated charcoal. It’s finely divided solid particles 223 enable absorption of gases. they 206 settle down as sludge at the bottom of the tank and they are thus removed from time to time.

229 230 231 .