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Essentials of Fire Fighting,

5th Edition

Chapter 8 — Rescue and


Extrication
Firefighter I
Chapter 8 Lesson Goal

• After completing this lesson, the


student shall be able to summarize
procedures and guidelines for rescue
operations and perform basic victim
removal following the policies and
procedures set forth by the authority
having jurisdiction (AHJ).

Firefighter I
8–1
Specific Objectives

1. Distinguish between rescue and


extrication operations.
2. Summarize safety guidelines for
search and rescue personnel
operating within a burning building
3. Explain the objectives of a building
search.
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–2
Specific Objectives

4. Describe primary search and


secondary search.
5. Discuss conducting search operations.
6. Explain what actions a firefighter
should take when in distress.

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–3
Specific Objectives

7. Describe actions that should be taken


by a rapid intervention crew (RIC)
when a firefighter is in distress.
8. Discuss victim removal methods.
9. Discuss emergency power and lighting
equipment.

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–4
Specific Objectives

10. Conduct a primary and secondary


search. (Skill Sheet 8-I-1)
11. Exit a hazardous area. (Skill Sheet 8-
I-2)
12. Demonstrate the incline drag. (Skill
Sheet 8-I-3)

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–5
Specific Objectives

13. Demonstrate the blanket drag. (Skill


Sheet 8-I-4)
14. Demonstrate the webbing drag. (Skill
Sheet 8-I-5)
15. Demonstrate the cradle-in-arms
lift/carry — One-rescuer method.
(Skill Sheet 8-I-6)
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–6
Specific Objectives

16. Demonstrate the seat lift/carry —


Two-rescuer method. (Skill Sheet 8-I-
7)
17. Demonstrate the extremities lift/carry
— Two-rescuer method. (Skill Sheet
8-I-8)

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–7
Specific Objectives

18. Demonstrate the chair lift/carry


method 1 — Two rescuers. (Skill
Sheet 8-I-9)
19. Demonstrate the chair lift/carry
method 2 — Two rescuers. (Skill
Sheet 8-I-10)
20. Illuminate the emergency scene. (Skill
Sheet 8-I-11)
Firefighter I
8–8
Rescue and Extrication
Operations

• Rescue — Involves removal of victims


from entrapment by
– Fires
– Terrain features
– Structural collapse
– Elevation differences
– Confined spaces
– Non-extrication situations (Continued)

Firefighter I
8–9
Rescue and Extrication
Operations

• Extrication — Involves disentanglement,


removal of victims from vehicles
• Differences between rescue and body
recovery operation
– Rescues involve risk to life
– Body recoveries should not involve risk to
life

Firefighter I
8–10
Safety Guidelines for Search and
Rescue Personnel

• Do not enter building in which fire has


progressed to point where viable
victims are unlikely to be found
• If backdraft conditions are apparent,
attempt entry only after ventilation
• Work according to IAP
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–11
Safety Guidelines for Search and
Rescue Personnel

• Maintain radio contact with supervisor;


monitor radio contact
• Continuously monitor fire conditions
that might affect search team safety
• Use established personnel
accountability system

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–12
Safety Guidelines for Search and
Rescue Personnel

• Be aware of secondary means of egress


• Wear full PPE, including SCBA, PASS
device
• Work in teams of two or more, stay in
contact with each other
• Search systematically
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–13
Safety Guidelines for Search and
Rescue Personnel

• Stay low, move cautiously


• Stay alert
• Continuously monitor structure’s
integrity
• Check doors for excessive heat before
opening
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–14
Safety Guidelines for Search and
Rescue Personnel

• Mark entry doors into rooms


• Maintain contact with wall, hoseline, or
tagline
• Have charged hoseline at hand
• Coordinate with ventilation teams before
opening windows
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–15
Safety Guidelines for Search and
Rescue Personnel

• Close door, report condition, follow


supervisor’s orders if fire encountered
• Inform supervisor of inability to search
any rooms
• Report to supervisor when search
complete

Firefighter I
8–16
Building Search Objectives

• Locating victims
– Primary search
– Secondary search
– Rapid intervention
• Obtaining
information about
location/extent of
fire
Firefighter I
8–17
DISCUSSION QUESTION

What should be worn when conducting


interior search and rescue operations?

Firefighter I
8–18
Primary Search

• Rapid but thorough search performed


before or during fire suppression
• Often carried out under extremely
adverse conditions
• Check known/likely locations of victims
• Confirm fire conditions

Firefighter I
8–19
Secondary Search

• Conducted after fire under control


• Conducted by personnel other than
primary search personnel
• Slower, more thorough search to ensure
no occupants overlooked during primary
search

Firefighter I
8–20
Primary Search Operations

• Standard search priorities


• Use buddy system
• Appropriate equipment
– Radio
– TIC
– Flashlight
– Forcible entry tools
(Continued)
– Search rope
Firefighter I
8–21
Primary Search Operations

• Search may be conducted by


– Walking upright
– Crawling on hands/knees

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–22
Primary Search Operations

• When searching
– Move systematically
– Search each room
completely
– Listen for sounds from victims
– Start as close to fire as possible
– Proceed as directly as possible from entry
and pay out tagline (Continued)

Firefighter I
8–23
Primary Search Operations

• When searching
– Search bathrooms, bathtubs,
etc.
– Search perimeter of rooms
– Extend arms/legs or use tool to
reach under furniture
– After perimeter searched,
search middle of room (Continued)

Firefighter I
8–24
Primary Search Operations

• Visibility
– May be limited;
use TIC
– May be obscured
by smoke; report
to IC

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–25
Primary Search Operations

• Making reports
– Report essentials to supervisor/Command
– Maintain radio contact with supervisor
– Negative information also important
– Inform IC of unsearched areas

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–26
Primary Search Operations

• Search line system


– Consists of 200 feet (60 m) of ⅜-inch (10
mm) rope with Kevlar™ sheath
– Every 20 feet (6 m) along length, 2-inch
(50 mm) steel ring tied into line

(Continued)
Courtesy of Jeff Seaton.

Firefighter I
8–27
Primary Search Operations

• Search line system


– Rings also provide anchor
point for lateral tethers Courtesy of Jeff Seaton.

– Implementing search line system


– May become necessary to search areas
perpendicular to search line
– Navigator keeps Command informed of
progress

Firefighter I
8–28
Secondary Search Operations

• Assigned to personnel other than


primary search personnel
• Speed not as important as
thoroughness
• Conducted as systematically as primary
search to ensure no spaces missed

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–29
Secondary Search Operations

• Conducted more
slowly, carefully
than primary search
• Any negative
information should
be reported immediately

Firefighter I
8–30
DISCUSSION QUESTION

When is it safe to remove your SCBA


during a secondary search?

Firefighter I
8–31
Searching Multistory Buildings

• Most critical areas


are fire floor, floor
directly above fire,
and topmost floor
• Once critical areas
searched,
intervening floors
should be checked (Continued)

Firefighter I
8–32
Searching Multistory Buildings

• During primary search,


unless a part of
ventilation, doors to
uninvolved rooms should
be closed
• Exits, hallways, stairs
should be kept clear as
possible
Firefighter I
8–33
Search Methods

• When rooms, offices, apartments


extend from center hallway, search line
system can be used

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–34
Search Methods

• If search line system cannot be used


– Teams should be assigned to search both
sides of hallway
– Critically important to control access/egress
– Entering first room, searchers turn right or
left and follow walls around room

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–35
Search Methods

• If search line system cannot be used


– As rescuers leave room, turn in same
direction used to enter room
– When removing victims to safety or exiting,
rescuers must turn opposite direction used
to enter
– Important that rescuers exit through same
doorway entered
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–36
Search Methods

• In some departments, small rooms are


searched by using a thermal imaging
camera (TIC)

Firefighter I
8–37
If No TIC Available

• One member stays at door while other


searches
• Searcher remains oriented by
maintaining constant dialogue with
member at door
• Searcher keeps member at door
informed of progress
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–38
If No TIC Available

• When search completed, two rejoin at


doorway, close and mark door, proceed
to next room
• When searching next room, exchange
roles

Firefighter I
8–39
Marking Systems

• Several methods used


• Latch straps serve function of
preventing other rescuers
from being locked out of
room
• Departmental SOPs usually
dictate accepted method
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–40
Marking Systems

• Marks should be placed on lower third


of door
• Some departments train teams to use a
two-part system

Firefighter I
8–41
DISCUSSION QUESTION

What are some examples of marking


systems used by your department?

Firefighter I
8–42
Building Search Safety

• Search initiated on arrival


• Guidelines for rescuers
– Work quickly, operate safely
– Always be alert for weakened/hazardous
structural conditions
– Feel floor to be sure intact

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–43
Building Search Safety

• Firefighters on or directly below fire


floor should be alert for sagging floors,
etc. to indicate floor/ceiling above or
below has weakened

Firefighter I
8–44
When Searching Within A
Burning Building

• Open doors cautiously


• Feel top of door and
door knob to
determine heat level
• Do not remain in front
of door while being opened

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–45
When Searching Within A
Burning Building

• Stay on hinge side of outward-opening


doors
• If inward-opening door difficult to open,
do not kick door; place strap behind
knob to maintain control while opening

Firefighter I
8–46
If in Imminent Life-Threatening
Danger

• Transmit Mayday!
• Activate PASS device
• Communicate situation to
supervisor/Command
• Actions when contact made

Firefighter I
8–47
If Hoseline Can Be Located

• Crawl along and feel for couplings


– Female – Toward nozzle, has smaller lugs
– Male – Toward water source, has lungs on
shank
• Follow hoseline to exit or nozzle team

Firefighter I
8–48
If Unable to Retrace Steps

• Look for exit from


building
• Search by locating
wall and crawling
along while sweeping floor with one
hand and sweeping wall as high as
possible without standing up
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–49
If Unable to Retrace Steps

• Sweeping hand back and forth on floor


will help avoid holes, other openings
into which fall may be possible
• Sweep walls while crawling to help
locate window
• Take appropriate actions if outside
window found

Firefighter I
8–50
If Possible to Escape Without
Assistance

• Take appropriate action if


equipped with escape rope
• If not equipped with
escape rope, safely drop
from second story window
by removing SCBA and
hanging from windowsill by
hands
Firefighter I
8–51
If Door Can Be Found

• Secure door with rope/strap attached to


knob so can be closed quickly
• Check door for heat before opening
• If cool to touch, open slowly, carefully
• If door leads to closet or fire on other
side, continue along wall in same
direction

Firefighter I
8–52
If Exit Through Door/Window
Not Possible

• Break through
interior or
exterior wall
• Follow guidelines
for attempting to
breach interior
wall

Firefighter I
8–53
DISCUSSION QUESTION

What should be done if the space


between studs is not enough to escape
through?

Firefighter I
8–54
If Unable to Exit

• Activate PASS device and move close to


wall
• If exhausted, sit on floor and lean
against wall
• If unable to reach wall, position
flashlight toward ceiling

Firefighter I
8–55
When Trapped Suffering Injury

• Find place of relative safety


and activate PASS device
• If against wall, tap or
pound on wall with tool or
hard object
• Try to maintain composure
to maximize air supply

Firefighter I
8–56
Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)

• Must be standing by when firefighters


are in hazard zone inside burning
building
• Composed of at least two firefighters
equipped to enter hazard zone to
locate/rescue firefighter in distress
• IC may decide RIC needs more than
two firefighters (Continued)

Firefighter I
8–57
Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)

• Members may be assigned nonessential


duties as long as they can be
abandoned
• Other allowable assignments
– Location relatively close to hazard zone
– Must not require much physical exertion

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–58
Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)

• May be more than one at a given fire,


especially if interior crews entered
building at different points

Firefighter I
8–59
Actions by Rescuers Searching
for Firefighter in Distress

• Remember firefighter will probably be


wearing SCBA
• Try to establish radio contact
• IC may order noise-producing devices
be shut down

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–60
Actions by Rescuers Searching
for Firefighter in Distress

• If actions unsuccessful, attempt to


determine last known location
• TIC should be used
• RIC should stop frequently to listen
• Crew members may hold breath for
complete silence

Firefighter I
8–61
Actions Once Downed Firefighter
Located

• Air supply should be checked


• Firefighter should be medically
evaluated
• Level of consciousness, vital signs
should be checked

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–62
Actions Once Downed Firefighter
Located

• If unable to walk, use any safe means


possible to move

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–63
Actions Once Downed Firefighter
Located

• Need to exit hostile atmosphere usually


overrides need to stabilize injuries prior
to moving
• If firefighter has functioning SCBA,
carefully move him/her so as not to
dislodge mask

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–64
Actions Once Downed Firefighter
Located

• If no functioning SCBA, connect mask


to functioning SCBA from RIC kit or
quickly remove victim from hazardous
atmosphere

Firefighter I
8–65
Tracking Devices

• Some departments
equip firefighters with
digital radio
transceivers
• Approximately same
size as PASS device
and mounted on SCBA Courtesy of Exit Technologies.

harness (Continued)

Firefighter I
8–66
Tracking Devices

• Have range of approximately 100 feet


(30 m) and do not interfere with radios
• Operate on 457 kHz
• Always turned on when entering
burning building

(Continued)
Courtesy of Exit Technologies.

Firefighter I
8–67
Tracking Devices

• Signal allows fellow team members or


RIC to locate downed firefighter
• If firefighter becomes separated from
team, his/her transceiver can be
switched from standby to search mode

Firefighter I
8–68
Removing Located Firefighters

• Even though a two-firefighter RIC can


locate a firefighter in distress, unlikely
to be able to remove him/her from
hazard zone

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–69
Removing Located Firefighters

• If firefighter in distress
waited until low-air
alarm sounded before
calling Mayday,
firefighter will almost
certainly be out of air
• RIC must take specific actions when
searching for missing firefighters
Firefighter I
8–70
Victim Removal

• Injured victims should not be moved


unless in immediate danger
• Situations where emergency moves are
necessary

Firefighter I
8–71
Remember During Victim
Removal

• Chief danger is possibly aggravating


spinal injury
• If necessary to perform emergency
move, pull victim in direction of long
axis of body
• Better to have two or more rescuers
when lifting/carrying adult
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–72
Remember During Victim
Removal

• Unconscious victim always more difficult


to lift
• Rescuers helping carry victim should
guard against losing balance
• Lifting incorrectly is one of the most
common causes of injury to rescuers

Firefighter I
8–73
Carries and Drags

• Incline drag
• Blanket drag
• Webbing drag
• Cradle-in-arms
lift/carry
• Seat lift/carry
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–74
Carries and Drags

• Three-person lift/
carry
• Moving victim onto
long backboard or
litter
• Extremities lift/carry
• Chair lift/carry

Firefighter I
8–75
Emergency Power/Lighting
Equipment

• Many rescue/extrication incidents occur


in poor lighting conditions
• Conditions create need to artificially
light scene
• Firefighters must know how to operate
available emergency power/lighting
equipment

Firefighter I
8–76
Power Plants

• Inverter
– Step-up transformer
– Used on emergency
vehicles when small
amounts of power
needed
– Advantages/disadvantages
(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–77
Power Plants

• Generators
– Most common power source for emergency
services
– Portable – Vehicle-mounted

Firefighter I
8–78
Portable Lighting Equipment

• Can be carried to/used in


areas where vehicle-
mounted lights cannot
illuminate
• Range from 300 to 1,000
watts

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–79
Portable Lighting Equipment

• Supplied with power by cord from


vehicle-mounted or portable power
plant
• Usually have handles and large bases
• Mounted on telescoping stands

Firefighter I
8–80
Fixed Lighting Equipment

• Mounted to vehicle
• Usually mounted so it
can be raised, lowered,
turned
• Often mounted on
telescoping poles

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–81
Fixed Lighting Equipment

• Some larger units include hydraulically


operated boom with bank of lights
• Amount of lighting should be matched
with amount of power available
• Overtaxing power plant has
consequences

Firefighter I
8–82
Auxiliary Electrical Equipment

• Electrical cables or extension cords


• Junction boxes
• Adapters

Firefighter I
8–83
Summary

• Firefighters must be capable of


performing basic rescue and extrication
operations as a member of a team.

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–84
Summary

• As firefighters progress in their careers,


they must be willing to pursue
specialized training in each of the
rescue areas, including fireground
search and rescue operations, vehicle
extrication operations, and a variety of
technical rescue operations.

Firefighter I
8–85
Review Questions

1. List four guidelines that should be


used by search and rescue personnel
operating within a building.
2. What is a primary search?
3. What should primary search teams
carry with them?

(Continued)

Firefighter I
8–86
Review Questions

4. How can firefighters help operate


safely while conducting building
searches?
5. What should a firefighter in distress
do?

Firefighter I
8–87