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LABORATORY MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER 1: CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT 3. Directing


o How one gets all personnel to accomplish
MANAGEMENT: the organization’s objectives
 The art of getting things done through people o Involves both motivation & communication
 Process consisting of…
o Planning 4. Controlling
o Organizing o Checking the work accomplished against
o Actuating/Directing plans/standards
o Controlling  Bases for Controlling:
 Involves effective motivation of personnel and  Standard quality
utilization of laboratory resources for the  Standard quantity
accomplishment of objectives  Standard time
 Standard cost
NATURE OF MANAGEMENT: Management is…
… I HONESTLY DON’T KNOW HOW TO CATEGORIZE
…an ART THESE TERMS
o Uses human effort to accomplish objectives 1. Manager
o Requires skill and careful study in its o Guides the organization to attain its
application objectives
o Plans, organizes directs, & controls the work
…a SCIENCE of his subordinates
o A systematic body of knowledge o Uses his resources to get things done
o Involves formulation of general properly
laws/principles based on gathered & 2. Director
analyzed facts o Establishes the goals and priorities that
determine the direction of the organization
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT o Formulates laws/principles of the
1. Planning organization
o Mental effort; requires anticipation of 3. Administrator
possible causes/factors affecting the o Implements the laws/principles established
organization’s activity/objectives by the director in the organization
o Controls the nature/direction of change 4. Supervisor
o Determine the necessary course of action o Oversees the efficiency of the specific tasks
 Think of alternative measures to be being performed by the personnel
taken o Assures that the laws established by the
 BUT choose the best course of action director and implemented by the
under the given circumstances administrator are being practiced

2. Organizing ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A MANAGER


o Grouping together of personnel and 1. Motivation
establishing relationships among them 2. Vision
o Define the authority and their 3. Decision-making ability
corresponding responsibilities 4. Good health
 Maximizes the organization’s resources 5. Humility

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2. Leader – hires, trains, encourages, fires,


WHAT MAKES A GOOD MANAGER? remunerates, judges
1. Appearance 3. Liaison/Bridge between outside contacts—
2. Personality – acts according to proper decorum community, suppliers, and other
3. Articulate organizations
4. Energy-driven – has ambition  Informational
5. Positive attitude – shows a constructive, 1. Monitors – gathers information
cheerful outlook in life 2. Disseminators of information flowing from
6. Thoughtfulness both external & internal sources
7. Overall composure 3. Spokesperson/representatives of the
8. Aura of leadership – agreeable manner; has self- organization
confidence  Decisional
9. Bright, informed, a bit of sparkle 1. Entrepreneurs – initiators, innovators
10. Breadth of interest – likes to learn a little about 2. Disturbance handler
many fields 3. Resource allocator
4. Negotiators when conflicts arise
LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
1. First-line Manager/”Supervisors” MANAGEMENT SKILLS
o Lowest level  Technical Skills
o Direct the operating employees, NOT the o Ability to use equipment, procedures, &
other managers techniques of a specialized field
o Ex. Staff/ Head of each laboratory section  Human Skills
2. Middle Manager o Ability to work with, understand, and
o More than one level in an organization motivate other people individually or
o Directs activities of first-line managers &, collectively as a group
sometimes, the operating employees  Conceptual Skills
o Principal responsibilities: o Ability to coordinate and integrate all of the
 Direct the activities implementing the organization’s interest and activities
organization’s policies
 Balance the demands of their INDICATORS OF LACK OF MANAGEMENT SKILLS
supervisors with the capabilities of 1. Inability to maintain adequate staff
their subordinates 2. Recurring/Persistent misunderstanding with
o Ex. Chief medical technologists hospital administration
3. Top Manager 3. Frequent/Recurrent confusion concerning
o Small group of executives requisitions/reports of laboratory work
o Responsible for the overall management of 4. Frequent rush orders for supplies
the organization 5. Low moral in the laboratory
o Establishes the policies 6. Requests for deserved pay raise by competent
o Guides the organization’s interactions with workers
the environment 7. Excessive cost of operation
8. Ignorance of cost of operation
ROLES OF MANAGERS: 9. Wasting too much time on minor decisions
 Interpersonal 10. Inability to do one or more tests when key
1. A Symbol/Figurehead individual has a day off
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CHAPTER 2: MANAGEMENT PLANNING INDICATORS OF POOR PLANNING IN THE


LABORATORY
PLAN 1. Late submission of results/reports
 Predetermined course of action intended to 2. Idle machines
guide people to fulfill their objectives 3. Materials wasted
4. Some machines doing jobs supposedly done by
PLANNING smaller machines
 Methodical selection of a set of complimentary 5. Some laboratory personnel are overworked
actions for the pursuit of a goal while others are underworked
6. Skilled workers doing unskilled work
IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING 7. Laboratory personnel fumbling on jobs for which
 To achieve the objectives of the organization they have not been trained
8. Quarreling, bickering, and confusion
TWO KINDS OF PLANNING
 Long-Range Plans (LRP) BENEFITS OF GOOD PLANNING
o Plans done over a long period of time in 1. Jobs turn out on time
order to obtain a certain objective 2. Good relationship with other departments
 Short-Range Plans (SRP) 3. People use their best skills
o Plans done over a short period of time in 4. Workers know how to fit into the total pattern
order to obtain a certain objective 5. Machines do their proper jobs
o May be done to fulfill an objective for a LRP 6. Equipment is in good shape
7. Materials available
QUALITIES OF A GOOD PLANNER: A Good Planner 8. Waste is kept to a minimum
has…
1. Good judgment, imagination, foresight, & SETTING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
experience  The first step in laboratory planning
2. Ability to evaluate laboratory opportunities &  Establishing of general goals and specific
hazards objectives
3. Proficiency in determination of objectives o Aka. “Management by Objectives” (MBO)
4. Ability to accept changes  Encourages…
 Discussion
VALUES DERIVED FROM PLANNING  Interaction
 Achievement of objectives in the most efficient  Consensus decision-making
and economical manner
 Use of efficient methods and the development STRATEGIC VS. TACTICAL PLANNING
of standards necessary for accurate control Strategic Planning
 Integration of activities of the different units in  Conceptual; deals with the sweeping of “what to
the organization toward goal-directed actions do”
 Reduction of emergencies and unexpected  Concerned with the identification of the mission
problems & objectives that will allow its most efficient
pursuit
 Function of the upper supervisory personnel
o Final authority & responsibility is vested in
the laboratory director
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Tactical Planning
 Implies action & deals with the method(s) for 6. Laboratory sections with greater turn-around-
achieving the goals identified in the strategic time (TAT), less volume, and/or requiring special
planning process safety features (ex. Bacte, Radio assay) might be
 Often requires an operational/technical skill removed from the central area
 Generally, a logical responsibility of the
supervisory staff 7. Intralaboratory traffic flow should be separated
from the outside
PLANNING THE LABORATORY DESIGN o Provisions should be made for ambulatory
Who Plans It? patients and BB donors going into the
1. Laboratory director & entire laboratory staff laboratory
o Prevents misunderstandings
o All changes and recommendations to be
documented in writing
2. Consultants/Designers of Laboratories
3. Architects/Architectural firm
o Essential in preparing the various drawing
and contractor for construction
4. Contractor Construct Facility

Spatial Considerations
1. Blood bank & critical care laboratory sections
should be readily accessible to the ER, OR, & ICU
o BB should allow rapid access of donors and
adequate parking donors if it is responsible
for donor procurement, phlebotomy,
and/or apheresis

2. Specimen collection should be placed near the


ambulatory care facility and the admitting office

3. If it serves the in-patient population, there


should be accessible corridors and elevators
going to the main patient care unit

4. Specimen receiving area, data processing, and


reporting center serve as the hub of the
laboratory
o The various laboratory sections should be
radiating

5. Critical care laboratory sections & large volume


laboratory sections (ex. CC, Hema) should be
closely related to the central areas

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CHAPTER 3: ORGANIZING & STAFFING THE  Diagram/chart that identifies the major
LABORATORY operational units, attending job
position
ORGANIZING:  Provides an important means of
 Involves the… managing and monitoring all of its
o Division of labor, authority, and activities
communication responsibilities  Gives the members an understanding
o Presence of one or more authority centers of their position and how each position
which control the concerted efforts of the relates to one another
organization and direct them towards its  One position should be in charge of 4-
goals 12 positions
o Substitution of personnel  4 if dissimilar functions
 12 if similar
CONCEPTS OF ORGANIZATION: o Job Description
 Herd Concept  Written declarations of a given job
o “Obey now, questions later” description
o The subordinates will all answer to the  Supplements the organizational chart
superior who yields exclusive power to by:
decide and enforce unquestionable  Providing definition to all positions
obedience in his subordinates  Identifying operational duties and
 Man-to-man Concept responsibilities
o The subordinate works in a direct personal  Providing salary classification and
relation with his/her superior order to job performance
 Social Concept o Job Specification
o The superior and subordinates are  Represents the requirements for
members of a team employment in a given job
o Not exactly man-to-man but as a part of a  Provides the organization with the
group personnel requirements considered to
match the demands of the job
GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN ORGANIZING & STAFFING efficiently
THE HOSPITAL LABORATORY
 Organizing  Work Schedule
o Denotes an effort to divide total operations o 8-hour shifts – usual method of dividing 24
into size and types of units by which hours
efficient and effective services are best  The first 8 hour shift usually has the
assured and needs and weaknesses are largest number of personnel scheduled
most easily identified o “Two-deepness”
o Efficient & effective selection, grouping, and  At least two people who know every job
utilization of personnel constitutes a major (probably a senior) must be present in
responsibility every shift
o Table of Organization: o Basic Rules of Scheduling
 An individual should have no more than
5 consecutive working days

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 Each one should have two consecutive


days off, unless they wish it split
 Within the possibilities, give the
individual shift he wants
 Rotate weekend and holidays off with
as much fairness as possible
 Post schedules at least three (3) weeks
in advance, even more if possible
 Stick to the schedule as closely as
possible & make changes ONLY when it
is essential and only after discussion
with the workers affected
 Provide the opportunity for an
individual to ask for a specific day off on
occasion
 Reorganization
o Process which an existing organization
undergoes to bring about changes in the
size and shape of the organization structure
o Main reasons:
 Growth
 Adaptation

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CHAPTER 4: DIRECTING AND SUPERVISING  Avoids lengthy discussions


THE LABORATORY
3. Absenteeism/Inattention – must be
GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN DIRECTING & condemned
SUPERVISING THE LABORATORY:
Directing: MANAGERIAL GRID
 Directions MUST be written, comprehensive, 1. Concern for Production
current, clearly stated, and reinforced by o Conceived as the attitudes of a supervisor
example & discussion towards a variety of things
2. Concern for People
Supervision: o Involves goal achievement while
maintaining self-esteem of workers, basing
 Entails responsibility in assuming that policies
responsibility on trust rather than
and procedures are followed
obedience and maintaining good working
conditions and having satisfying personal
CHARACTERISTICS OF A LEADER:
relations
 Has a liking for people – most important
 Natural optimism
Four Extremes of Basic Styles
 Good self-esteem
 1.1 style/”Impoverished”
 Ambitious
 9.9 style/”Team Management”
 Self-discipline – to force himself to do necessary
 1.9 style/”Country Club Management”
things even when they are unpleasant
 9.1 style/”Autocratic Task Management”
 Good listener
 Poise – especially in the face of errors, disasters,
and accidents
 Accessibility
 Good memory
 Good sense of values and sound judgment

LEADERSHIP STYLES:
1. Decentralized Authority
o Delegation of responsibility
o Each group has their own authority
o Weakness:
 If one part performs poorly, the entire
system is jeopardized
 There is a sense of isolation by the
lower ranks

2. Centralized Authority
o Authority is concentrated at the very top
o Strength
 One person authority: actions and
decisions are quick

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CHAPTER 5: CONTROLLING 3. Compare the performance with that of the


standards/basis to determine the deviations or
CONTROLLING: difference
 involves measuring, restraining, and correcting
performance to accomplish an objective as it 4. Remedy the deviations
was planned
 involves the measurement of certain elements
such as time, quality, quantity, and cost against
a yardstick of standards or models which have
been established and the evaluation of the work
or performance of various personnel in the
organization
 A good control system encourages the
employees to practice self-control
o Only possible when the standards of criteria
for performance exists to the point that the
employee knows the specific level of
performance expected of him

TYPES OF FORMAL CONTROL:


 Pre-Action
o By means of personal supervision and
utilizing control checks consisting of
procedures for any given task or function
 Post-Action
o Controlling as the task/function is being
performed or may have been performed
and corrective deviations from
standards/plans

STEPS IN CONTROLLING:
1. Determine the standards/basis of control based
on appraisal of past experience
o Standards must be expressed in
quantitative terms whenever possible
o May mean the average unit of output an
average employee may be able to perform
per hour/day/week
o Varies per institution

2. Measure the performance via observation,


reports, or statistical data

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CHAPTER 6: INFORMATION MANAGEMENT  Know the department’s table


organization and all the communication
COMMUNICATION: channels so indicated
 Process of passing information from one person  Be certain of the job description and all
to another duties set forth
 Most frequently written or spoken but may be  Confer messages by memo if face-to-
conveyed by presence or lack of gestures, face or telephone communication is not
manner of dressing, personal appearance, and available
general behavior  Minimize unrelated conversations
 Maintain effective contact with the
The data generated by the laboratory is potential members of all shifts
information and cannot be used as actual  Be constantly alert to the posting of all
information until it has been utilized in patient care. schedules and notices

KINDS OF COMMUNICATION PUBLIC RELATIONS


 Interdepartmental The Ten Commandments of Human Relations
o Transmission of information between or (Caltex. Phil.)
among departments 1. Speak to people.
 In transmitting information… 2. Smile.
 Be courteous at all times 3. Call people by name.
 Speak with a distinct and pleasant 4. Be friendly and helpful.
tone of voice 5. Be cordial.
 Be certain all questions and
answers are clearly understood WAYS TO COMMUNICATE
 Do not answer questions about  Informal talks
which there is uncertainty. Consult  Planned appointments
resources of the department  Telephone calls
before answering them.  Interoffice memos
 Do not delay answering the
telephone
 Never leave telephones
unattended after call is received; if
placed on hold, reassure that you
will quickly come back to them.
 Intradepartmental
o Transmission of information within the
department
o Better than interdepartmental
communication
 Proximity, similar education, common
goals, and related duties among co-
workers
o Recommendations:

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