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AAE 556 - Aeroelasticity

Flutter-a scary small disturbances


instability - big effects

restrict to small angle


x
h(t)
(t) c.g.

shear
center

xcg

Purdue Aeroelasticity 19-1


Lockheed Electra - 1959

19-2
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Quasi-steady flutter

• Flutter is a self-excited, dynamic,


oscillatory instability requiring the
interaction between two different modes
of motion and an external energy supply
• Quasi-steady aerodynamic loads ignore
the unsteadiness of the flow created by
lags between motion and developing
forces and momemts
19-3
Purdue Aeroelasticity
What we are looking for

19-4
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Unsteady aerodynamics

x
restrict to small angle

h(t)
 c.g.
(t)

shear
center

xcg

19-5
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Airfoil start-up with vortices

19-6
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Wagner function - response to a
sudden increase in angle of
attack

steady-state lift
1.0
f t
o f
il

n
o y
i d 0.5
t
c a Wagner’s function
a e
r
f
t
s s  1  0.165e0.0455 s  0.335e 0.3s

0
0 6 12 18
distance traveled in semi-chords (s=Vt/b)

19-7
Purdue Aeroelasticity
We’ll start with simplified models of
the airloads due to motion

M AC  0  M dis t 
V

lift

L  qSCL   Ldis  t 
19-8
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Free vibration with quasi-steady loads

 m mx  h  K h   h  0


0
mx   
I        
KT    0
  0

h h   L
START M    K   
   Le 
ij ij
   2

divide by m
FINISH
 Kh  L
1 x   h   m 2
0
  h   m  2
1   
2
  x
   
r    
2   
KT     Le


 0 
2
2  m 
 m 
19-9
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Warning – algebra!!!!

19-10
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Define new collections of terms

 Kh   L 
0 
1 1 x  h  m2    m 
h 2

    
r2   
   
KT    Le 
2  x 0  2 
 m2   m 

  2
  L 
1 1 x   h  2 h
0  h  2
m 
    
r2    

     Le 
2  x    2 
 0 r2   m 
19-11
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Aerodynamic loads in terms of
displacements

 L 
 m 2
 
qSCL 0 1   h
     2


Le
 m 
2 m 
 0 e  

 2

1 1 x   h   h 0  h qSCL 0 1 h
    2
   

r       
2 2  2
  x  m 0 e 
 0 r  2

19-12
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Finally - free vibration with the wind
blowing

 2 
1 1 x  h  h2 0  h  qSCL 0  1  h 
    
r2           
2  x 2   m2 0 e   
 0 r 

 
2

1 1 x   h   h 0   h  qSCL 0   1  h 0
      
 
2
 

  
2
  x r    
2

2
e
 0 r   
 2
m 0    0

19-13
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Solve these equations by assuming a
harmonic time solution

ht  h  st h  it
    e   e
 t     
results after division by ei t

  h2 
  1
2
x   h   2 0  h  1   h  0 
qSCL 0
       m 2 0  e    0 
 
 r2     
2  x      
 0 r2   

19-14
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Combine terms and look for similarity
parameters

 h2 
  1
2
x   h   2 0  h  qSCL 0 1   h  0 
       m 2 0  e    0 
 
 r2     
2  x      
 0 r2   


 q
1
V 2
 2

 2
 2
1 x   h   h 0  h  
V SCL 0 1   h  0
  2
  

0  e    0
  
2

 x r     
2
2 2m 
2
    
 0 r 

19-15
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Define new parameters

 2  V 2 SCL 0 1   h  0
1 x   h   h2 0  h  
 2       

0  e    0
 x r2      
2   2 m  2
     
 r  
0

q  1 V 2  m  airfoil mass
 b 2l air volume mass
2
b=speed
2
qSCL  V 2 clCL  V   CL 
2
 2
 b   

m 2m  b    
Reduced velocity 19-16
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Nondimensional parameters called reduced
velocity, frequency ratios... Characterize the
models and phenomena causing flutter

V 
V  
b

 h2 e r
R  e r 
2

2 b b

19-17
Purdue Aeroelasticity
Non-dimensionalization

 2

1/b   2
1 x   h   h 0  h  
qSCL 0 1   h  0
    

   m 0  e   0
 
2
2 x r     
2 2

2   
1/b 
 0
2
r 

 h2 x  
h b    R  h b   qSCL 0 1  h b   0
   1 0
2
2

R2  2   
   mb  0  e     0
2 2
 x r      0 r  
2  

2
qSCL  V   CL 
2
 b   

m  b    

x  h   R  h   CL  0 1  h  0


2
1 2
0  V
     b        b    
2
  b  

 x r2      0
  r2        b  0  e     0

19-18
Purdue Aeroelasticity
The prize

1 x  
 h  R  0  h
2

 
2
  b     b
 x r 2     0  r 2

    
1  h   0
2
 CL  V   0

b
  b   0
    e
      0
x
restrict to small angle

h(t)
(t) c.g.

shear
center

xcg

19-19
Purdue Aeroelasticity