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YISHUN JUNIOR COLLEGE

H2 CHEMISTRY 9729

Tutorial 6: Intermolecular Forces

(A) Instantaneous dipole-induced dipole interactions


1. The bond energies and the boiling points of the halogens show a trend as follows:
bond energy boiling point
element
(kJ mol−1) (C)
Cl2 244 34
Br2 193 59
I2 151 184

Explain why the bond energies of the halogens decreases down the group but the
reverse was observed for the boiling points
o (Concept from lecture notes page 2 – 5)
o The size of the valence orbital of the atoms / size of the atoms increases
down the group from Cl to Br to I
o Hence and this result in a less effective overlap between the orbitals from
Cl2 to Br2 to I2 (as the electron cloud in the valence orbital is more diffused)
Hence, the covalent bond formed between the atom is weaker and has
lower bond energy.
o Cl2 ,Br2 and I2 have simple molecular structures and are non-polar
o Weak instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions exist between
the molecules
o [Note: During the boiling process, energy is absorbed to overcome the
intermolecular forces of attraction between the molecules and not the
intramolecular covalent bonds between the atoms.]
o Down the group, the size and polarisability of the electron cloud increases from
Cl2 to Br2 to I2.
o More energy is required to overcome the stronger intermolecular
instantaneous dipole- induced dipole interactions from Cl2 to I2
o Hence boiling point increases down the group.

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2. Explain why oxygen is a gas at room temperature whereas sulfur is a solid melting at
130 C.
o (Concept from lecture notes page 5)
o Both oxygen and sulfur have simple molecular structures and are non-polar.
o S8 molecules has a larger electron cloud which is more polarisable than O2
molecules
o More energy is required to overcome the stronger instantaneous dipole – induced
dipole between its molecules. Hence the boiling point / melting point of sulfur is much
higher than that of oxygen.
o Since the boiling point of oxygen is way below room temperature, oxygen a gas at room
temperature; and since the melting point of sulfur is 130C (much higher than room
temperature), it exist as a solid at room temperature.
(Note: Sulfur in the solid state ordinarily exists as cyclic crown-shaped S8
molecules. Sulfur has many allotropes besides S8. Removing one atom from the crown
gives S7, which is responsible for sulfur's distinctive yellow color. Many other rings have
been prepared, including S12 and S18. )

3. Explain the difference in boiling point of CH3CH2CH2CH3 and HC(CH3)3.


o (Concept from lecture notes page 6)
o CH3CH2CH2CH3 has a higher boiling point than HC(CH3)3.
o Both CH3CH2CH2CH3 and HC(CH3)3 have simple molecular structures and are non-
polar. (Mr is the same , number of electrons is the same – in fact they are structural
isomers),
o CH3CH2CH2CH3 is a straight chain alkane while HC(CH3)3 is branched
o Hence, CH3CH2CH2CH3 has a larger surface area to form more extensive
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interaction between its molecules than the
highly branched HC(CH3)3.
o Consequently, more energy is required to overcome the stronger intermolecular
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions in CH3CH2CH2CH3 than that in
HC(CH3)3 causing it to have a higher boiling point.

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4. Explain why iodine solid is insoluble in water but dissolves in benzene, C6H6.
o (Concept from lecture notes page 19 – 20)
o I2 , C6H6 and H2O have simple molecular structures
o I2 and C6H6 are non-polar.
o Instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions exist between I2
molecules and between C6H6 molecules.
o H2O molecules are polar and are able to form hydrogen bonds between its
molecules.
o I2 dissolves in benzene C6H6 because the energy released in forming
instantaneous-dipole – induced dipole interactions between I2 and C6H6
molecules are sufficient to overcome the instantaneous dipole – induced
dipole interactions between I2 and between C6H6 molecules.
o I2 do not dissolves in water as the energy released in forming instantaneous
dipole – induced dipole interactions between I2 and H2O molecules are
insufficient to overcome the hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules and
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions between I2 molecules.

(B) Permanent dipole- permanent dipole interactions


5. State whether the following molecules are polar or non-polar.
HCl, H2S, CF4, OF2, CH2Cl2, XeF4

o (Concept from lecture notes page 8 – 9)


o Polar: HCl, CH2Cl2, H2S, OF2
o Non-polar: CF4, XeF4

6. Explain why PCl3 has a higher boiling point than SiCl4


o (Concept from lecture notes page 10)
o PCl3 has a higher boiling point than SiCl4
o Both PCl3 and SiCl4 have simple molecular structures.
o PCl3 is a polar whereas SiCl4 is non-polar
o Hence, more energy is required to overcome the stronger permanent dipole –
permanent dipole interactions between PCl3 molecules than the weaker
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions between SiCl4 molecules.
(Recall: permanent dipole – permanent dipole interactions is stronger than weaker
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions if the size of the electron cloud of the
molecules is relatively similar.)

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7. The bond energy data and boiling points of the group halogen halides are given below.
bond energy boiling point
HX
(kJ mol1) (C)
HCl 431 85
HBr 366 66
HI 297 34

(a) Compare the trend in bond energy and boiling point of the halogen halides.
(b) Account for the trend in boiling point of the halogen halides.

(a)
o The bond energy decreases from HCl to HBr to HI whereas the boiling point
increases from HCl to HBr to HI.
(b)
o (Concept from lecture notes page 5,6,10)
o HCl, HBr,HI have simple molecular structures and are polar molecules
o Permanent dipole – permanent dipole interactions as well as
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions exist between the
molecules
o The boiling point increases from HCl to HBr to HI as the size and polarisability
of the electron cloud increases from HCl to HBr to HI.
o More energy is required to overcome the stronger intermolecular
instantaneous dipole- induced dipole interactions from HCl to HBr to HI.
o Hence, boiling point increases down the group.

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(C) Hydrogen Bonding


8. The formation of a hydrogen bond between two molecules RXH and R’Y may be
represented as:
R – X – H .................. Y – R’
(a) Suggest the possible identity of elements X and Y. What are the common
feature(s) among these elements.
(b) In which of the following compounds will hydrogen bonding occur
i. between its molecules
ii. with water molecules
(a) C2H5OH (b) C2H5NH2 (c) CH3F (d) CH3COCH3

(a) (Concept from lecture notes page 11)


X and Y could be nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine, all of which being highly electronegative and
has lone pairs electrons.
(bi) (a) and (b) only
(bii) (a), (b), (c), (d)
9. N08/P2/1
Ethane-1,2-diol and noradreanaline are organic compounds containing hydroxy
groups. Ethane-1,2-diol, (CH2OH)2, is an important solvent.

Draw a diagram to show how hydrogen bonding occurs between two molecules of
ethane-1,2-diol.
(Concept from lecture notes page 11)
Hydrogen bond

- +
||||||||||||||

..
+
-

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10. Explain why the boiling point of H2O (100 oC) > HF (19.5 oC) > NH3 (−33.5 oC).

o (Concept from lecture notes page 13 - 14)


o H2O ,HF and NH3 are have simple molecular structures and are polar molecules
capable of forming hydrogen bonds between their molecules.
o In the liquid state, H2O forms 2 H-bonds per molecule as compared to only 1 H-
bonds per molecule for NH3 and HF.
o Hence, more energy is required to overcome the stronger, more extensive
hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules than the hydrogen bonding between
NH3 and between HF molecules. Thus H2O has the highest boiling point (despite
the fact that the strength of each H-bond formed between two H2O molecules is
weaker than a H-bond formed between two HF molecules).
o HF has a higher boiling point than NH3 because F is more electronegative than
N.
o Hence the + charge on the H in HF will be greater than the + charge on the H
in NH3, resulting in stronger H bond formed between HF molecules.
o OR The dipole moment of the H-F bond is greater than the dipole moment of
the H-N bond, resulting in stronger H bond formed between HF molecules.
o Hence, more energy is required to overcome the stronger hydrogen bonds
present between HF molecules than between NH3 molecules.

11. Explain the following observations O


O
(a) 4-hydroxybenzoic acid has a higher C OH
C OH
boiling point than 2-hydroxybenzoic acid. OH
(b) The apparent Mr of propanoic acid,
CH3CH2COOH is twice as expected when
it exists as a vapour than when dissolved OH
4-hydroxybenzoic acid 2-hydroxybenzoic acid
in water.

(a) (Concept from lecture notes page 17 - 18)


o 2 hydroxybenzoic acid has a lower boiling point than 4-hydroxybenzoic acid.
o 2−hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid have simple molecular structures
and are polar.
o 2-hydroxybenzoic acid has intramolecular hydrogen bonding due to the proximity of
the −COOH and –OH groups.
o This reduces the extent of inter-molecular hydrogen bonding between the
2−hydroxybenzoic acid molecules
o Hence the predominant intermolecular force between 2−hydroxybenzoic acid
molecules is instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interaction.
o As the –COOH and –OH groups in 4−hydroxybenzoic acid are too far apart for
intramolecular hydrogen bonding to occur, it has a much more extensive

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hydrogen bonds between its molecules.


o Since boiling point involves overcoming the intermolecular forces, more energy is
required to overcome the stronger more extensive hydrogen bonds between
4−hydroxybenzoic acid molecules than the weaker instantaneous dipole –
induced dipole interactions between 2-hydroxybenzoic acid molecules.
o 4−hydroxybenzoic acid has a higher boiling point.
(b)
o This is because propanoic acid exists as a dimer in the gaseous phase due to
hydrogen bonding between its molecules as shown:
o
- + 

O: H O
CH3CH2 C C CH2CH3
  
O H :O

Hydrogen bond

o Hence the Mr that was measured is double that of a molecule of propanoic acid (Mr =
74.0)
o When dissolved in water, propanoic acid forms hydrogen bonds extensively with
water molecules, and is therefore unable to form dimers.

12. N09/P3/4b
The molecules of ammonia and methane contain the same number of electrons, and have
approximately the same size and mass. Their boiling points differ widely, however.

compound boiling point


(C)
CH4 164
NH3 33

Suggest an explanation for the difference in boiling points.

o CH4 and NH3 have simple molecular structures.


o CH4 is non-polar with instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions between
its molecules.
o NH3 is polar and is able to form hydrogen bonds between its molecules.
o Hence more energy is required to overcome the stronger hydrogen bonds
between NH3 molecules than the instantaneous dipole – induced dipole
interactions between CH4 molecules. Thus NH3 has a higher boiling point than CH4.

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(D) Physical Properties of Molecules


13. The data below refer to some organic compounds with similar Mr values.

boiling point
name formula Mr
(C)

pentane C5H12 72 36
butan-1-ol C4H9OH 74 117
propanoic acid C2H5CO2H 74 141
1-aminobutane C4H9NH2 73 78

(i) Explain the difference in boiling points of the organic compounds


(ii) Pentane is insoluble in water whereas propanoic acid is soluble in water.
Explain why
(i) Boiling Point:
(The strength of the instantaneous dipole –induced dipole interaction between the four
molecules is similar, since all four compounds have similar Mr.)
o Pentane, butan-1-ol, propoanoic acid and 1-aminobuntane have simple molecular
structures.
o Pentane is a non-polar molecule, whereas butan-1-ol, propoanoic acid and 1-
aminobuntane are polar molecules.
o Hence, only a small amount of energy is required to overcome the instantaneous
dipole –induced dipole interactions that exist between pentane molecules. Hence it has
the lowest boiling point, as stronger hydrogen bonding exist in the other 3
compounds
o The hydrogen bonds formed between 1-aminobutane molecules is weaker than
that formed between butan-1-ol molecules which is weaker than that formed
between propanoic acid molecules.
o This is because nitrogen is less electronegative than oxygen, and hence the +
charge on the H atom directly bonded to the N atom is the smallest compared to
the + charge on the H atom directly bonded to the O atom in butan-1-ol and
propanoic acid.
o OR The dipole moment of the H-N bond in 1-aminobutane is smaller than the O-H
bond in butan-1-ol and propanoic acid.
o Less energy is thus required to overcome the hydrogen bonding between 1-
aminobutane molecules, and hence 1-aminobutane has a lower boiling point than in
butan-1-ol and propanoic acid.

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o In propanoic acid, the presence of another electronegative oxygen atom causes the
+ charge on the H atom directly bonded to the O atom in propanoic acid to be
greater than the + charge on the H atom directly bonded to the O atom in butan-
1-ol.

o OR In propanoic acid, the presence of another electronegative oxygen atom


causes the dipole moment of the O-H bond to be larger.
o Hence the hydrogen bonds formed between propanoic acid molecules are
stronger than that formed between butan-1-ol molecules
o More energy is thus required to overcome the hydrogen bonding in propanoic acid.
Therefore the boiling point of propanoic acid is higher than butan-1-ol.
(ii) Pentane is insoluble in water whereas propanoic acid is soluble in water:
o Both pentane and water have simple molecular structure.
o Pentane is non-polar while water is polar
o Energy released in form instantaneous dipole – induced dipole between pentane and
water molecules are insufficient to overcome the hydrogen bonds between water
molecules and the instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions between
pentane molecules. Hence, pentane is insoluble in water.
o Propanoic acid molecules have simple molecular structures and are polar.
o The energy released in forming hydrogen bonds between propanoic acid
molecules and water molecules is sufficient to overcome the hydrogen bonds
between propanoic acid molecules and between water molecules.
o Hence, propanoic acid molecules are soluble in water.

14. Explain why the boiling points of water (H2O), ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and ethoxyethane
(C2H5OC2H5) are in the reverse order of their molecular masses, unlike those of their
analogous sulfur compounds: H2S, C2H5SH and C2H5SC2H5.
o Both water, ethanol and ethoxyethane are have simple molecular structures and are
polar
o Intermolecular hydrogen bonds exists between water molecules and between
ethanol molecules, whereas only permanent dipole – permanent dipole interactions
exist between ethoxyethane molecules.
o More energy is thus required to overcome the much stronger hydrogen bonds in water
and ethanol, than the permanent dipole – permanent dipole interactions in
ethoxyethane.(even though the instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions in
ethoxyethane is the strongest of the 3 compounds due to its largest molecular size.)
o Hence, the boiling point of ethoxyethane is the lowest.

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o The hydrogen bonding between water molecules is more extensive than that
formed between ethanol molecules.
o Hence more energy is required to overcome the more extensive hydrogen
bonding between water molecules than that between ethanol, and hence water
has a higher boiling point than ethanol.

o For the sulfur compounds, the trend of boiling point is expected to be: H2S < C2H5SH <
C2H5SC2H5
o H2S ,C2H5SH ,C2H5SC2H5 have simple molecular structures and are polar (Note: The
order of the boiling points is the same as the order of the molecular masses. All three
compounds are polar molecules but are not capable of forming hydrogen bonds,instead
permanent dipole – permanent dipole interaction and instantaneous dipole – induced
dipole interactions exists between the molecules. Difference in boiling point is due to
the difference in strength of the instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interaction since
the Mr and hence size of the electron cloud of each compounds is significantly
different. )
o The Mr of : H2S < C2H5SH < C2H5SC2H5
o C2H5SC2H5 has the largest Mr and hence a larger more polarisable electron than
C2H5SH and H2S.
o Hence, more energy is thus required to overcome the stronger instantaneous dipole
– induced dipole interactions between C2H5SC2H5 molecules than that between
C2H5SH molecules and H2S molecules.

15. DHS/2011/P2/Q4(a),(b)
Group 14 elements progress towards metallic behaviour down the group. The table
below shows selected data for the dioxides from carbon to germanium.
melting point
compound formula
(°C)
carbon dioxide CO2 78
silicon dioxide SiO2 1600
germanium dioxide GeO2 1200

a) State the valence shell electronic configuration of these elements (group 14) ,
and their oxidation state in the above dioxides.
b) Explain in terms of structure and bonding, the difference in melting points
between carbon dioxide and silicon dioxide, with respect to bonding and
structure.

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(a) ns2 np2, +4


(b) CO2 has a simple molecular structure. It is non-polar and instantaneous dipole
- induced dipole interactions exist between molecules. Hence only a small
amount of energy is required to overcome the weaker instantaneous idipole -
induced dipole interactions between the CO2 molecules . Thus it has a very low
melting point.
SiO2 has a giant molecular structure. It has a lattice of silicon and oxygen
atoms held together by strong electrostatic force of attraction between the
nuclei of Si and O atoms and the shared pair of electrons. Thus, a lot of energy
is required to overcome the numerous and strong covalent bonds in SiO2.
Hence, SiO2. has a very high melting point.

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(E) Integrated Questions

16. N07/P3/Q4b(i)
The melting point of beryllium nitrate, Be(NO3)2, is 60 °C, whereas that of calcium
nitrate is 561 °C. Use these data to suggest the nature of the bonding in beryllium
nitrate and in calcium nitrate, explaining your answer.

o Be(NO3)2 has a simple molecular structure since it has a low melting point.
o Ca(NO3)2 has a giant ionic lattice structure since it has a high melting point.
o Hence, lesser amount of energy is required to overcome the instantaneous-
dipole induced dipole between the non-polar Be(NO3)2 molecules whereas a
larger amount of energy is required to overcome the stronger electrostatic
forces of attraction between Ca2+ and NO3− ions.
17. N12/P3/Q4c(ii)
Na, Si, P and Cl differ greatly in their melting points.

name melting point


(oC)
sodium 98
silicon 1414
phosphorous 44
chlorine 101

Describe how their melting points differ and explain this variation

o melting point: Si > Na > P4 > Cl2


o Silicon has a very high melting point due to its giant molecular structure. A
large amount of energy is required to break the strong covalent bonds
between the silicon atoms which are the electrostatic forces of attraction
between the nuclei of the silicon atoms and the shared pair of electrons.
The Si atoms are held in a three-dimensional tetrahedral network.
o Sodium has giant metallic lattice structure. A large amount of energy is
required to break the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the
sea of delocalised electrons and the Na+ cations.
o Sodium has a lower melting point than silicon because the metallic bonding in
sodium are weaker than the covalent bonding in silicon.
(Note: Based on data provided, the conclusion can be made that for in this case,
the metallic bonds in sodium are weaker than the covalent bonds in silicon)
o Phosphorus and chlorine have lower melting points since they have simple
molecular structures and are non-polar with weak instantaneous-dipole
induced-dipole between the molecules. A lower amount of energy is

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required to overcome the weak intermolecular instantaneous-dipole induced-


dipole attractions.
o Phosphorus has a higher melting point than chlorine as it has a larger more
polarisable electron cloud.
o Hence, a larger amount of energy is required to overcome the stronger
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interaction between P4 molecules
than between Cl2 molecules.
o The instantaneous-dipole induced-dipole interactions between P4
molecules is only marginally weaker than the metallic bonds in sodium and
hence phosphorus and sodium have relatively close melting points.
18. Adapted from N13/P3/3b
The structures of oxides can be simple or giant, and their bonding can be covalent or
ionic. Use these terms to describe the structure and bonding in each of the oxides
W, X, Y and Z.
Explain your reasoning in each case.

oxide melting point electrical


(C) conductivity
when molten
W 2850 good
X 1720 poor
Y 1280 good
Z 580 poor

o W and Y are ionic oxides with giant ionic lattice structures.


o In the molten state, it has free ions acting as mobile charge carrier to
conduct electricity.
o They have a high melting point because a lot of energy is required to
overcome the strong electrostatic forces of attractions between the
oppositely charged ions.
o X is a covalent oxide with a giant molecular structure.
o Strong covalent bonds exist between the atoms, which are the electrostatic
forces of attraction between the nuclei of the atoms and the shared pair of
electrons.
o It is a poor electrical conductor in the molten state as all the electrons are
involved in bonding and there are no mobile charge carrier.
o It has a high melting point because a lot of energy is required to overcome
the strong covalent bonds between the atoms.
o Z is a covalent oxide with a simple molecular structure. Weak intermolecular
forces of attraction exist between its molecules.
o It has a low melting point because lesser amount of energy is required to
overcome the weak intermolecular forces of attractions between the
molecules.
o It is a poor electrical conductor in the molten state as all the electrons are
involved in bonding and there are no mobile charge carrier.

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(F) Additional Questions


19. Account for the differences in boiling point of the 3 organic compounds.

boiling point
compound Mr
(C)
methanoic acid, HCOOH 46.0 100
ethanol, CH3CH2OH 46.0 78
ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2 45.0 17

o HCOOH, CH3CH2OH and CH3CH2NH2 have simple molecular structures. They are
polar and are capable of forming hydrogen bonds between their molecules.

o HCOOH has the highest boiling point. As the dipole moment of the H−O bond in
methanoic acid, HCOOH, is largest of the three organic compound due to the two
highly electronegative O atoms. Thus more energy is required to overcome the
hydrogen bonding in methanoic acid than in the other two compounds.

o As the dipole moment of the H−O bond is larger than that of the H−N bond (as O is
more electronegative than N), the hydrogen bonds formed between ethanol
molecules are stronger than those between ethylamine molecules. Hence more
energy is required to overcome the hydrogen bonding in ethanol than in ethylamine.
Hence boiling point: methanoic acid > ethanol > ethylamine

20. Arrange the following compounds, CH3CH2CH3, CH3CH2OH, and CH3COCH3, in order
of increasing boiling point and explain your reasoning.

o Increasing boiling Point: CH3CH2CH3 < CH3COCH3 < CH3CH2OH


o CH3CH2CH3 (propane) has a simple molecular structure and is non-polar. (since it
only has C−H bonds which are considered to be non-polar). Instantaneous dipole –
induced dipole interaction exist between its molecules.
o CH3COCH3 (propanone) and CH3CH2OH (ethanol) have simple molecular structures
and are polar.(because there is an overall dipole moment as the C=O bond is polar
and its dipole moment is not cancelled off by the non-polar C−H bonds)
o Permanent dipole – permanent dipole interaction exist between CH3COCH3
molecules whereas hydrogen bonds exist between CH3CH2OH molecules. (since a
H atom is directly bonded to the highly electronegative O atom, which in turn has two
lone pairs of electrons).
o Hydrogen bond is stronger than permanent dipole – permanent dipole interactions
which in turn is stronger than instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions.

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o Hence more energy is required to overcome the stronger permanent dipole –


permanent dipole interactions between CH3COCH3 molecules than the weaker
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions between CH3CH2CH3 molecules.
o CH3CH2OH has the highest boiling point because a large amount of energy is
required to overcome the strong hydrogen bonds between CH3CH2OH molecules
o (Note: All 3 compounds contain instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions
between their molecules. Since the Mr of the 3 compounds are similar, the number of
electrons and the size of the electron cloud in the 3 molecules is more or less the
same, and hence the strength of instantaneous – induced dipole interactions in the 3
compounds is more or less the same)

21. Adapted from N15/P2/2c

Methanol has the advantage of being a liquid at 25 oC, so it can be stored in


conventional fuel tanks.
Explain in terms of the intermolecular forces involved, two reasons why methanol has a
significantly higher boiling point than methane

o Both methanol and methane have simple molecular structures.


o Methanol is a polar molecule while methane is a non-polar molecule.
o Reason 1: More energy is required to overcome the stronger hydrogen bonds
between methanol molecules than the instantaneous dipole – induced dipole
interactions between methane molecules.
o Reason 2: Moreover, methanol has a larger and more polarisable electron cloud
than methane. Hence, more energy is required to overcome the stronger
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions between methanol molecules
than that between methane molecules.
o Hence, methanol has a significantly higher boiling point than methane.

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22. VJC/2010/P2/Q4(b)
Sulfur dichloride oxide (thionyl chloride), SOCl2, is a useful reagent in organic
synthesis, converting −OH groups into −Cl groups.
R−OH + SOCl2  RCl + HCl + SO2
(i) Draw a dot-and-cross diagram of SOCl2.
(ii) Suggest the size of the bond angle around the sulfur atom in SOCl2.
(iii) Methanol, CH3OH, and thionyl chloride, SOCl2, differ in their boiling points
boiling point
compound
(C)
CH3OH 65
SOCl2 75

Account for the difference in the boiling point of these two compounds in terms of
relevant intermolecular forces.
(i)

(ii)
o (Not required according to the phrasing of the question: As there are 3 bond pairs and
1 lone pairs of electrons around the central sulfur atom, to minimise the repulsion, the
electron pairs will space themselves out as far apart as possible, and the electronic
geometry would be tetrahedral. However, as the lone pair − bond pair repulsion is
stronger than bond pair – bond pair repulsion, the bond angle would be smaller than
the standard angle of a regular tetrahedron - 109)
o 107
(iii)
o CH3OH and SOCl2 have simple molecular structures and are polar.
o Hydrogen bonds exist between CH3OH molecules, while permanent dipole –
permanent dipole interactions exist between SOCl2 molecules.
o (Note: Hydrogen bond are stronger than permanent dipole – permanent dipole
interactions if the size of the electron cloud of both molecules are similar. i.e. similar Mr.
In this question, Difference in boiling point is due to the difference in strength of the
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interaction since the Mr and hence size of the
electron cloud of each compounds is significantly different. )
o SOCl2 contains significantly more electrons and hence have a significantly

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larger, more polarisable electron cloud than CH3OH (as seen from the Mr: CH3OH –
32.0; SOCl2 – 118.1). Hence, more energy is required to overcome the stronger
instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions between SOCl2 molecules
than the hydrogen bonding between CH3OH molecules.

23. PJC/2010/P3/Q5(a),(b)
(a) Hydrazine, N2H4, has an ammonia-like odour and is derived from the same
industrial chemical processes that manufacture ammonia. In some cases
hydrazine behaves like ammonia in chemical reactions. For example, hydrazine
is able to form a product when it reacts with boron trifluoride, BF3, in a mole ratio
of 1 : 1.
(i) Draw the ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram of a molecule of N2H4. Use the electron pair
repulsion theory to predict the shape and state the H-N-H bond angle of this
molecule.
(ii) Draw a diagram to show the shape of the product formed when hydrazine
reacts with BF3, in a mole ratio of 1 : 1.
(b) Ethene, C2H4, and hydrazine, N2H4, are hydrides of elements which are adjacent
in the Periodic Table.
The boiling point of hydrazine is much higher than that of ethane. Account for this
difference in terms of their structure and bonding.

(a)(i)

As there are 3 bond pairs and 1 lone pairs of electrons around the central nitrogen atom, to
minimise the repulsion, the electron pairs will space themselves out as far apart as
possible, and hence the shape of the molecule (around each central N atom) is trigonal
pyramidal.
(Not required according to the phrasing of the question: As the lone pair − bond pair
repulsion is stronger than bond pair – bond pair repulsion, the bond angle would be smaller
than the standard angle of a regular tetrahedron - 109)
 107
(ii)

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JC1 Chemistry Tutorial 6: Intermolecular Forces YISHUN JUNIOR COLLEGE

(b)
o C2H4 and N2H4 have simple molecular structures.
o C2H4 is non-polar while N2H4 is polar.
o Instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interactions exist between C2H4
molecules, while hydrogen bonds exist between the polar N2H4 molecules.
o (Note: the strength of the instantaneous dipole – induced dipole interaction in the two
compounds are similar, as both compounds have similar Mr)
o More energy is required to overcome the stronger hydrogen bonding that exist
between N2H4 molecules than the weaker instantaneous dipole – induced dipole
interactions between C2H4 molecules

24. Radioactive CsCl has high a rather high toxicity to humans and animals due to the
137
radioactive caesium ion. Spread of solid CsCl powder from a 93-gram container in
1987 in Goiania, Brazil, resulted in one of the worst-ever radiation spill accidents killing
four and directly affecting more than 100,000 people who consumed the contaminated
water. Describe the structure and bonding of CsCl and draw a simple labelled diagram
to explain why aqueous caesium ions are found in the water.

Solid CsCl has a giant ionic lattice structure with strong electrostatic forces of
attraction between the oppositely charged Cs+ and Cl- ions.

In water

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Cs+
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|
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Ion – dipole
interaction

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