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Voltage Stability and System Security

M. El Arini

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to derive a systematic procedure f o r reactive power control to decide the optimal

location and size of compensation shunt capacitors so a s to improve the system voltage profile. The proposed

algorithm f o r locating the compensators is based on the sensitivities of the reactive powerflow of system lines

with respect to the reactive power injection at system buses where the reactive power of shunt compensation

is considered as an important strategy in controlling voltage stability. After identifiing the candidore buses,

the problem isformulated a s linear programming problem of the minimization of the possibility of voltage col-

lclpse and improving the system voltage profile by defining f e w e r equations and constraints, and saving com-

puter storage and time. A test system is selected to verifi the effectiveness and to confirm the accuracy of the

proposed method. We therefore conclude that the practical application of this technique would enhance the se-

curity of a power system b y reducing the risk of voltage collapse.

non-linear relationship between voltage levels and

Reactive power has been recognized as a main fac-

reactive power injected,

tor in the planning, operation and control of the perfor-

mance of electric power systems. Its presence is neces- non-linear load characteristics,

sary not only for maintaining balance between electric

discrete nature of rated capacity of compensators,

power network elements, but also for voltage security as

to improve the voltage profile of consumer loads. A de- constant component factor in compensator costs and

ficiency of reactive. power causes voltage reduction requirement for reactive power adjustment corre-

throughout the system and hence may develop voltage

sponding to system load change.

instability. Contingencies which leave the system tran-

siently stable, but degrade the voltage stability margin, Several methods have been suggested in the litera-

and slowly but continuously increasing loading of the ture, mostly for highly loaded systems. Quadratic of

system, especially when part of the system load, consists non-linear programming (NLP) methods have been used

of equipment designed to operate without loss of perfor- to solve this problem [ 1-61. These methods are imple-

mance within a wide range of supply voltages, may mented as a series of computational steps corresponding

move the system state closer to voltage stability boun- to different aspects of the problem, but they have gener-

dary, until it reaches static bifurcation and descends into al drawbacks such as insecure convergence properties.

voltage collapse. Accordingly, voltage security can be On the other hand, Linear programming (LP) techniques

ensured by the system reactive power balance, which is seem to have some advantages in convergence proper-

maintained by locating inductive or capacitive compen- ties and are an promising alternative tool for solving the

sators in the network. The purpose of reactive power reactive power optimization. In [7] a technique for plan-

compensation is the determination of the compensator ning compensation in power system has been presented

(inductive or capacitive) size and allocation at different using simplified fast decoupled power flow.In [8] the

nodes of the system. The capacitive compensators are bus voltage regulation has been used by calculating the

used to supply any shortage of reactive power to main- voltage changes at load buses for a small change in the

tain an acceptable voltage profile in heavily loaded con- generated power. Buses with high voltage variations in-

ditions. In contrast, inductive compensators are used to dicate the locations for compensators. In [9] the use of a

absorb any surplus of reactive power in the network; steady-state stability index for the location of reactive

they are mainly used in lightly loaded conditions in compensation has been suggested; this index is defined

which the bus voltages are usually high. The main prob- as the change of the load reactive power to the change of

lem is where to locate these compensators with lower the load voltage.

cost and optimal performance. The optimal location of shunt compensation based

During the last two decades much effort has been de- on sensitivities of total generated reactive power with re-

voted to the development of the mathematical methods spect to shunt compensation is reported in [ 101. In [ 101

for solving this problem, the complexity of which is minimum sinpular values of Jacobian matrix and total

based upon the following factors: generated reactive power were calculated as indicators

ETEP

of stability margin, and sensitivity methods were used The change of reactive power flow in the line con-

for reactive support allocation. The coordination nected between bus i and busj in the direction of bus i to

between variation of generator voltages, transformer tap busj is given by

settings and switchable reactive power devices with

minimizing the power loss [ 1 1,141 or cost of capacitor

installation [9] is used to determine the optimal alloca-

tion of compensators.

A linear reactive power dispatch algorithm, which where 6; and U;are bus voltage angle and magnitude at

incorporates a voltage collapse proximity indicator, bus i, respectively, and:

based on the optimal impedance of the system and load,

to minimise the possibility of voltage collapse in the aQ.. aQ..

system and to improve the voltage profile is reported in L=-a,-&.,

as, 2-

asj - -a, + p,.

[ 121. In [ 161a method is developed using a security per-

formance index and a linear programming technique to au = UiU jg, cos (6,- 6,),

provide an acceptable voltage profile and to maintain Pii =U,Ujb,sin(6j -a,),

the reactive limits of the generators. The method in [ 171

aQ.. - U jg, sin (aj - 6;)

L-

determines the location and size of compensation shunt

capacitors based on the sensitivity of voltage variation, au,

real power loss and harmonic distortion to the reactive

power source.

In meeting the objective of compensation,a method

is developed that combines the sensitivities of the line

reactive power flow with respect to the reactive power

injection with voltage collapse indices. The proposed Assuming the reactive power flow is:

technique enhances the LP to find an optimal solution

for a test system by defining power equations and con- Q, =UiUig,sin(6, - 6 ; )

straints, and saving computer storage and time. In the + UiUi b, cos (6,- sj)- U,?b, - U,?B,. (4)

proposed work, for reactive power planning,control and

voltage stability, some aspects of this problem are: Similarly, one can get:

existing sources must be considered; aQ .. aQ.. aQ.. aQ ..

the candidate bus set for installation of new sources AQji = L A 6 , + --Uai + LAU,

+ LAU;.

must be defined carefully, since a poor definition asj as, auj au, (5)

may lead to impractical solutions; Using eqs. (3) and (5). the magnitude of AQ, and

the reactive source type to be considered must be de- AQji of all lines in the system are calculated and then

fined (sources can be classified as fixed or discrete ranked in descending order. The bus with the largest

(capacitor/reactorbank), or controlled (synchronous sensitivities give the appropriatebus locations to install

machines or static controlled VAR devices)). the reactive power compensator. The calculations of

AQu (eq. (3)) and AQji (eq. ( 5 ) ) need only a few multi-

plications using the predetermined values of system

Sensitivity of the Reactive Power and data and variables and the voltage deviation of eq. (2).

Identification of the Candidate Buses This procedure to identify the best location of shunt

compensator reduces or eliminates the effort to solve a

The sensitivityis ameasureof the line reactivepower set of equations in some other methods (e. g. [lo]), sav-

dependency to the reactive power injection at buses. If a ing computer storage and time.

shunt compensator Q, is added at bus i, the injection re-

active current source is calculated as,Is, =j Ql/u:.

Then

the system voltage variation (complex) is: 3 Proximity to Voltage Collapse

[AUbusl= [ Ybus1-l [Aibus] = [&US]

U IS]^ (1) For each line in the system,there are some active and

where reactive factors which are a function of the voltage, inject-

ed active and reactivepower, at sendingand receivingend

[ Y,,] system bus-admittance matrix with

order N x N, and the line resistance and reactance. These factors may

be named the line stability factors. The lines stability fac-

[zbusl = [ ybus1-’9 tors are estimated and may be defined as follows.

[ Afb,] bus current vector variation with order N x 1

and Al, = 0 forj # i, AI, = Isi, For line i (i = 1.2, ...,NL), where NLis the number

of system lines) connected between bus j and k, with

[ A&,,s] bus voltage vector variation with order N x 1,

N total number of system buses. R, and X; line resistance and reactance, respec-

The change in bus voltage (in complex form) at the tively,

two buses i andj is: Pi (Pr)?Qi (Qr) active and reactive power injected at

busj (k),respectively, and

ALL1 = Zi All, M L j = 51 All. (2) Uj and Uk voltage at busj and k, respectively.

E TEP

One can get the active and reactive power at bus k as

function of active and reactive power at busj, voltage at F,, = 4 ( l4c)

busj and line parameters as:

Qr (7) gives the proximity to voltage collapse. Therefore, to

improve the voltage stability and profile, a method is

Rearranging eq. (6) and eq. (7) into their second used to reduce the values of the lines stability factors by

order form with respect to Pi and Q;,respectively,D'

Dives: installing reactive power devices at the best locations as

determined before.

4 Optimization Procedure

x.Q; - Q; + Qr + X;f

+ 7 p'

= 0. (9) The candidate buses for the locations of compensa-

U,- U;

tors are identified as mentioned before. Maintaining an

Thus, for equal or unequal real roots of second order acceptable voltage profile with reactivecompensation at

equations o f f , (from eq. (8)) and Q; (from eq. (9)).the a minimum number of locations and at a minimum cost

following conditions are satisfied: is an optimization problem. The objective function will

be investigated. based on the sum of the voltage collapse

proximity indicators. The system variables are:

- dependent (state) variables including the reactive

power output of the generator QG and the voltage

g]

U; Qr + X, UJ 2 0.

I - 4%-

magnitudes U of the buses other than the generator

buses;

- control variables, i. e. transformer tap settings, the

the power flow from node generator excitation settings UG,and the switchable

to nodej , one can get the necessary conditions for equal reactive-power compensator settings pS.

or unequal roots of P and Qr (if P and Qrare expressed

as function of PI,Q,, voltage at bus k and line parame- The constraints included are the upper and lower

ters) as follows: limits on the dependent and control variables.

The problem involves an objective function C to re-

duce the risk of a voltage collapse by minimizing the

(I2) LSF of all lines in the system. The linearized formof the

objective function is stated mathematically as follows:

occurred if these conditions are not satisfied. Using the where j and k are the sending end and receiving end of

left side of inequalities (lo)to ( 13),a set of factors at both line i. Separating the voltage 17,

at the generators and at

ends of each line, for all system lines, may be estimated the load bus ULof AC, eq. (15) becomes

and indicate the lines stability. These factors may be

Ac=[AGI [AuGl+[ALl [AULI, (16)

named the line stability factors. The line stability factors

(LSF) of line i may be defined as Flj(line stability fac- where AG and AL are one-row vectors with order 1 x NG

tor at sending end for active power), F2,(line stability and 1 x (N-NG), respectively, and their elements are the

factor at sending end for reactive power), F3;(line stabil- coefficients of 0; and u

k of eq. ( 15), and NG is the number

ity factor at receiving end for active power) and F,, (line of generators. Let the control variables be the generator

stability factor at receiving end for reactive power), voltage UGand the reactive power of sources QSinstalled

where: at selected buses in the system. Then, using the system

nodal reactive power equation [Q] = [ a Q / a U l [ A ~ l ,

one can get the variation of load voltage AULas result of

variation of generator voltage (IG and reactive power

source Qs.

The Q-equation at bus i is given by:

ETEP

Then, one can get total buses and set of buses at which the reactive sourc-

es are located, respectively. AUti in eq. (22) is ex-

pressed as function of AU, and AQs as given in eq. ( 17).

AQGiin eq. (21) is used as function of AUG and AUL

using the system nodal reactive power which can be

or

written as

eq. ( 17), it yields

and

with

nGB set of generator buses, where SGG (with order NGx N G ) matrix and SGL(with

nLB set of load buses.

NG x N- NG)matrix are the partial form of the matrix SG

The elements of [AQ] are zero except the elements (with order NG x N). After identifying the candidate

correspond to buses at which the compensators are in- buses, the proposed model (eqs. (18) to (24) is then in-

stalled,then[AQ]canbe writtenas[AQs].Fromeq. (17a) corporated in the optimization problem in which the lin-

one can get [A&] as function of [AUG]and [AQsI as ear programming optimization technique is used to de-

termine the optimal voltage profile, which minimizes

the risk of voltage collapse and satisfies the system con-

straints.

=[SLGI[AuGl + [ s ~ l [ A Q s l , ( 17b)

5 Simulation Algorithm

where SL is the part of [ aQ/dU]-l corresponding to the and Solution Methodology

~ SE are the partial form of SL.

load buses, and S L and

Substituting AULin eq. (16) by AUL from eq. (17) we The computation procedure of the developed algo-

get rithm is programmed and described with the following

eight steps:

A c = [A,] [AUcl+ [AQ] [AQsl, (18)

where [A,]and[Aq] areafunctionofAG,ALandSL(SLG 1. Run load flow on the original network to calculate

the bus voltage and the generation reactive power

andSu)*[AYI=[AGI+[ALI [SLGIand [AQ]=[ALI [&I-

The objective function defined by eq. (1 8) subject to QG-

set of parametric constraints 2. Identify the candidate buses for location using the

Utiin- UGiI AUGiI Uzy - UGi,i = 1, ...,NG. ( 19)

ranked sensitivitiesQ,,and Q,,.

3. Set the initial maximum and minimum values of the

Q$" - Q,; IAQs, IQZ" - Qsi.i E Ns. (20)

voltage (generators and load) and dependent (QG)

and functional constraints and independent (Qs) reactive power. Evaluate the

sensitivity matrices and linearize the constraintsand

- QG; AuGi , I QG- - QGi.

( A ~ GAQS) objective function about the operation state.

i = 1, ..., NG, (21) 4. Calculate U,"""- U,,U,"'"-U, (generators or loads),

Upii"- ULi IAULi (AUG,AQ,)I UL- - U L , Q,"""-Q,and Q,mx-Ql (dependent or independent)

at aII proper values of i according to eqs. ( 19) to (22).

i=NG+l. ...,N, (22)

5 . Run linear programming for optimization of the lo-

where the actual minimum and maximum values of the cation (using the pre-specified candidate buses ob-

variables (voltage UGand ULand reactive power QGand tained in step 2. and size of compensation.

Qi) tobe Ui(Qi). UY'"(Q,!"'")and UY"(Q,!""). thequan-

tities NG, NL, N, NS are number of generating buses 6. Modify the network with the compensation and find

(coded 1,2, ..., NG),load buses (coded NG+1, ..., N), the operating point.

E TEP

$ From To P Q P1i.s Qlnir R~up Node P, Qinj U 6

e

a

bus bus (inMW) (in Mvar) (in MW) ( i n Mvar) (in P.u.) name (in M W ) (in Mvar) (in p.u.) (in rid)

~ ~

I I 2 187.4642 33.5456 5.0972 12.4797 I .m 2 58.3000 37.3000 I .0038 -0.085 1

2 I 16 25.5540 42.20 13 4.5 I29 16.4586 I .m 3 -4L.2000 4o.oooo 0.9720 -0.23 I3

3 2 17 66.7286 28.7569 2.9522 7.2847 I .oooo 4 -l o . m 40.oooO 0.9253 -0.2355

4 16 17 86.2411 23.3447 1.1827 3.0293 1 .m 5 20.oooO 24.oooo 0.9 I47 -0.2838

5 2 3 72.6492 3.024 I 2.4799 8.3785 I .m 6 20.0000 50.0000 0.946 I -0.3852

6 2 18 81.2892 28.5848 4.3 I26 I 1.3636 I .m 7 - I I .6000 - 4 . m 0.8062 -0.4374

7 17 18 62.0920 4.7897 0.54 I5 1.5041 I .m 8 -22.4000 - 15.oOOO 0.8726 -0.4191

8 3 19 25.9693 34.5456 0.929 1 0.443 15 I .m 9 - 16.4000 -5.oooO 0.8100 -0.467 I

9 18 19 20.7378 -11.5806 0. I779 -0. I665 I .m 10 - 1 8 . m - I 1.6000 0.7984 -0.4505

10 18 4 16.3998 - 30.0 I 87 0. I666 0.2027 1 .m II -4.4000 - I .4000 0.7720 -0.49 I6

II 4 29 6.2330 9.7786 0.1 138 - 1.4207 I .m 12 - 3 5 . m -22.4000 0.77 15 -0.4648

12 18 29 30.8995 15.3428 0.2402 0.3 I80 I .m 13 -6.1000 -3.2000 0.7684 -0.4855

13 20 5 -2O.ooOO -2 1.5739 0.0000 2.428 I I .m 14 - 17.4000 - I3.40OO 0.7355 -0.4899

I4 20 7 63.5049 46.4 I35 O.oo00 9. I726 I .oooo 15 -4.8000 - 1.8000 0.6972 -0.5483

15 8 6 -200000 -45.4642 0.0000 4.5358 I .m 16 -4.8000 -2.4000 0.9444 -0.1594

16 8 21 16.8126 7.48 I4 0.5474 1.1380 I .m 17 - 15.2000 -3.2000 0.9235 -0. I933

17 8 9 37.3408 23.3373 I .7 I83 3.3849 I .oooo 18 O.oo00 o.ooO0 0.9 I36 -0.223 I

18 8 22 14.4894 13.5826 0.4895 1.0293 I .0000 19 -45.5000 -21.8000 0.9 I79 -0.2469

19 21 9 3.3551 3.1434 0.0800 0.0723 I .m 20 O.oo00 O.oo00 0.86 I4 -0.3366

20 22 10 6.9999 8.9534 0.1559 0.3639 1 .oooo 21 - I2.4OOo -3.2000 0.8279 -0.4660

21 9 23 12.3019 8.8549 0.3235 0.5605 I .m 22 -7.m -3.6000 0.8262 -0.4413

22 23 24 5.5784 4.3944 0.0536 0. I083 I.oooo 23 -6.4000 - I .so00 0.7756 -0.4982

23 24 I I -13.4751 -2.5 I39 0.1095 0.2191 I .m 24 -I 8 . m -6.8000 0.7637 -0.5057

24 7 II 18.5194 5.327 1 0.5338 1.1941 I .oooo 25 O.oo00 0.0000 0.7725 -0.464 I

25 7 10 11.2239 3.1875 0.0679 0. I770 1 .oooo 26 O.oo00 O.oo00 0.7349 -0.4853

26 7 12 33.1605 22.298 I 0.8550 I .8402 I .m 27 -7.m -4.6000 0.6829 -0.5 150

27 7 25 16.1868 10.4445 0.4151 0.8559 I .oooo 28 O.oo00 O.oo00 0.7603 -0.4652

28 12 25 -2.6945 -1.9421 0.0022 0.0044 1.m 29 0.oooO O.oo00 0.8979 -0.2423

29 9 13 11.2056 11.1686 0.38 I5 0.7707 I .m 30 -21.2OOO -3.8000 0.6608 -0.6148

30 25 14 13.0749 7.6422 0.4420 0.6880 I .oooo

31 13 14 4.4240 7.1979 0. I596 0.3264 l ~ mTab. 2. Nodal quantities (base case), system

32 26 27 7.3827 5.1717 0.3827 0.57 I7 lMoO heavily loaded

33 26 28 -7.8869 -4.7487 0.1715 0.3275 J .m

34 28 15 I 3.24 I 6 4.9886 0.7614 1.4386 I .m

35 28 30 15.2784 5.3624 I A524 2.7338 I .oooo

36 15 30 7.5802 I .7500 0.3063 0.5787 connected between buses 18 and 20, 18 and

37 18 20 43.5049 3 I .a75 I 0.0000 0.0355 1'0150

6.8720 0.9650

7, 17 and 8, and 28 and29. The state variables

38 18 7 27.1855 ' 14.8884 0.0000

39 17 8 7 I S428 3 I .7980 0.0000 17.86OY are the voltages at load buses 7-30 and the re-

40 29 28 36.5785 26.2240 0.0000 10.7968 0,9600 active power of generators at buses 1-6. The

41 14 26 -0.5027 0.4256 0.00 I5 0.0026 1.oo00 test system is heavily loaded to operate close

___ ~~~ ~

Tab. 1. Branch flow (base case), system heavily loaded the system loads as given in [ 121. Tab. 1 and

Tab. 2 show the branch flow and nodal quan-

tities at the beginning (base case of our study)

7. Check if all constraints of thesystem are satisfied. If where P,Q, PI^,,, QL,,,. vaP, Pin,, U and 6 are line

Q q y

so. then comDensation is comolete. active power, line reactive power, line active loss, line

reactive loss, Tap setting of transformers, net injected

8. If the constraints are not satisfied then decrement and bus active power (generation power minus load power),

modify the control variables setting of the candidate net injected bus reactive power, bus voltage magnitude

buses and go back to step 4. and bus voltage angle, respectively. A snapshot of the

results heavy demand are shown below. Total system

generation (433.023 MW/328.738 Mvar), total system

6 Simulation Results load (400.9 MW/l90.7 Mvar), total power loss

(32.123 MWMvar), line and transformer series loss

The proposed work was tested on the IEEE-30-bus ( 139.753 Mvar) and capacitive (1.587 Mvar). For volt-

system. Improvement in stabile margin under progres- age constraints 0.95 IU,I i .1 at generators buses and

sive loading was investigated on the IEEE-30-bus test 0.9 IU,5 1.05at load buses, the voltages at 23 buses are

system for different allocations and amounts of reactive less than their lower limits as shown from Tab. 2. The

support with reactive generation capabilities taken into smallest value of the voltage magnitude is 0.6608 at bus

account. The line date of the test system is given in [ 181, 30 with largest angle 35.24" at bus 30. The candidate

and the loads and generation is given in [ 121. The follo- buses for the location of compensator are identified

wing control variables were considered: Voltages of using the calculated values of the voltage collapse prox-

generators at buses 1-6,reactive power of shunt cornpen- imity indicators (AQ,, and AQ,, calculated by eqs. (13)

sators at buses 7- 15, and tap setting of four transformers and (15) at both ends of each line as result of reactive

ETEP

Bus code Line code Bus voltage IQ,JQj I Voltage (in p.u.1 Reactive power injection

30_

. 25-30 0.6608 15.026 BUS Base Limits Final Base Limits Final

28

~- 29-28 0.7603 10.587 code ease Lower Upper value case Lower Upper value

15 28- 15 0.6972 8.940 I 1.05 0.95 1.1 1.0968 75.75 -25.00 175 -5.48

27 26-27 0.6829 7.968 2 1.0038 0.95 1.1 1.0813 37.30 -30.00 75 37.08

26 14-26 0.7349 5.719 3 0.9720 0.95 1.1 1.0700 40.00 -40.00 60 40.68

7 18-7 0.8062 5.335 4 0.9253 0.95 1.1 1.0395 40.00 -40.00 80 40.00

13 14-13 0.7684 2.4 I 5 0.9147 0.95 1.1 1.0718 24.00 -10.00 60 12.75

21 8-2 I 0.8279 2.27 50.00 -20.00 70 36.82

6 0.9461 0.95 1.1 1.0867

II 7-1 1 0.772 I 2.226

23

22

8

9-23

8-22

17-8

0.7755

0.8262

0.8726

i:(.69p2:

I I

Tab. 4. Voltage and reactive power injection at generator buses

20 18-20 0.86 14 I.494 Buscode Basecase Limits Proposed

29 4-29 0.8979 I.03 Lower Upper values

Tab. 3. Bus code and line sensitivities > 1 .O p.u. 7 -4.0 -4.0 I .O 1 .o

8 - 15.0 -15.0 -10.0 -10.0

9 -5.0 -5.0 0.0 0.0

10 - 11.6 -11.6 -6.0 -6.6

power source AQI. is added at bus k for all values of k. I1 -1.4 -1.4 3.5 3.6

The obtained results of line sensitivities which are great- 12 -22.4 -22.4 - 17.4 -17.4

er than I .Owith the bus location and bus voltage is given 13 -3.1 -3.2 I .8 I .8

in Tab. 3. From Tab. 3, bus 30 is the first selected to be

14 - 13.4 - 13.4 - 8.4 -8.4

15 -1.8 -1.8 3.2 3.2

the largest ranking factor, bus 28 is the second, bus 19 is

the third, etc. Tab. 5. Net reactive power injection at the buses 7-15

The optimal size of the compensators at the candi-

date buses is then solved by linear programming. The

sparse matrix and the optimal ordering techniques are 8 List of Main Symbols and Abbreviations

used in the program to improve the computing effi-

ciency. total number of generators

The step-size lengths, which are used with the vari- total number of system buses

ables during the iterative procedure, are adopted to avoid total number of system lines

the zigzagging [ 1 I ] and get faster convergence. For the number of buses at which the compensators

study system, the resultant system voltage profile is bet- are installed

ter than the base case, where all load buses voltage lim- bus voltage angle at bus,

its are not violated (0.9 I U i I 1.05,i. e. set of load buses). bus voltage magnitude at bus

The final values of the voltage and the injected reactive complex voltage and current at bus i

power (in Mvar) at the generators buses are shown in system bus-admittance matrix

Tab. 4. The propose net reactive power injection (in system bus-impedance matrix

Mvar) at the buses 7 to 15 are given in Tab. 5. The trans- bus voltage vector

formers taps limits are 0.9 I nTapI 1.1 and the used val- bus current vector

ues in the proposed work are the same values which are real and imaginary part of element Yli of bus-

used in [ 121 as 1.03, 1.1,0.99 and 1.08 for lines 37,38, admittance matrix

39, and 40,respectively. reactive power flow in the line connected

between bus i and busj from i t o j

resistance and reactance of line i

7 Conclusions active and reactive power injected at busj of

line i connected between bus j and k

In this paper, a simple and efficient algorithm has active and reactive power injected at bus k of

been developed to determine the candidate buses for in- line i connected between busj and k

stalling reactive power devices based on the sensitivity reactive power output of generator i

of the lines reactive power. The linear programming op- objective function

timization technique is used to solve the optimization reactive power of the compensator at bus i

problem of the proposed objective function based on the minimum value of the bus voltage at genera-

voltage collapse proximity indicators under the previous tor bus i

shown constraints of the state and the control variables. maximum value of the bus voltage at genera-

The proposed model uses fewer equations and is saving tor bus i

computer storage and time. A computer program imple- minimum value of the generation reactive

menting the present work was testedon the IEEE-30-bus power at generator bus i

system. The results show the efficiency and capability of maximum value of the generation reactive

the proposed algorithm to solve the problem. The results power at generator bus i

of the proposed algorithm are consistent with the results minimum value of the generation reactive

in [ 121 for the same system. power at generator bus i

ETEP

0,";"" maximum value of the compensator at bus i Comes E.rposito, A. er. ul.: Sensitivity-based reactive

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[ 121 Chebbo. M.: Irving, M. R.; Sterling, M. J. H.: Reactive University, Faculty of Engineering. Electr. Power Engineering

power dispatch.incorporating voltage stability. IEE Proc. Dept., ZagazigEgypt, Fax: +2055324987 or +2055345452.

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