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Optimal Capacitor Placement Incorporating

Voltage Stability and System Security
M. El Arini

The purpose of this paper is to derive a systematic procedure f o r reactive power control to decide the optimal
location and size of compensation shunt capacitors so a s to improve the system voltage profile. The proposed
algorithm f o r locating the compensators is based on the sensitivities of the reactive powerflow of system lines
with respect to the reactive power injection at system buses where the reactive power of shunt compensation
is considered as an important strategy in controlling voltage stability. After identifiing the candidore buses,
the problem isformulated a s linear programming problem of the minimization of the possibility of voltage col-
lclpse and improving the system voltage profile by defining f e w e r equations and constraints, and saving com-
puter storage and time. A test system is selected to verifi the effectiveness and to confirm the accuracy of the
proposed method. We therefore conclude that the practical application of this technique would enhance the se-
curity of a power system b y reducing the risk of voltage collapse.

1 Introduction large and complex network configuration,

non-linear relationship between voltage levels and
Reactive power has been recognized as a main fac-
reactive power injected,
tor in the planning, operation and control of the perfor-
mance of electric power systems. Its presence is neces- non-linear load characteristics,
sary not only for maintaining balance between electric
discrete nature of rated capacity of compensators,
power network elements, but also for voltage security as
to improve the voltage profile of consumer loads. A de- constant component factor in compensator costs and
ficiency of reactive. power causes voltage reduction requirement for reactive power adjustment corre-
throughout the system and hence may develop voltage
sponding to system load change.
instability. Contingencies which leave the system tran-
siently stable, but degrade the voltage stability margin, Several methods have been suggested in the litera-
and slowly but continuously increasing loading of the ture, mostly for highly loaded systems. Quadratic of
system, especially when part of the system load, consists non-linear programming (NLP) methods have been used
of equipment designed to operate without loss of perfor- to solve this problem [ 1-61. These methods are imple-
mance within a wide range of supply voltages, may mented as a series of computational steps corresponding
move the system state closer to voltage stability boun- to different aspects of the problem, but they have gener-
dary, until it reaches static bifurcation and descends into al drawbacks such as insecure convergence properties.
voltage collapse. Accordingly, voltage security can be On the other hand, Linear programming (LP) techniques
ensured by the system reactive power balance, which is seem to have some advantages in convergence proper-
maintained by locating inductive or capacitive compen- ties and are an promising alternative tool for solving the
sators in the network. The purpose of reactive power reactive power optimization. In [7] a technique for plan-
compensation is the determination of the compensator ning compensation in power system has been presented
(inductive or capacitive) size and allocation at different using simplified fast decoupled power flow.In [8] the
nodes of the system. The capacitive compensators are bus voltage regulation has been used by calculating the
used to supply any shortage of reactive power to main- voltage changes at load buses for a small change in the
tain an acceptable voltage profile in heavily loaded con- generated power. Buses with high voltage variations in-
ditions. In contrast, inductive compensators are used to dicate the locations for compensators. In [9] the use of a
absorb any surplus of reactive power in the network; steady-state stability index for the location of reactive
they are mainly used in lightly loaded conditions in compensation has been suggested; this index is defined
which the bus voltages are usually high. The main prob- as the change of the load reactive power to the change of
lem is where to locate these compensators with lower the load voltage.
cost and optimal performance. The optimal location of shunt compensation based
During the last two decades much effort has been de- on sensitivities of total generated reactive power with re-
voted to the development of the mathematical methods spect to shunt compensation is reported in [ 101. In [ 101
for solving this problem, the complexity of which is minimum sinpular values of Jacobian matrix and total
based upon the following factors: generated reactive power were calculated as indicators

ETEP Vol. 10, No. 5 , SeptembedOctober2000 319

of stability margin, and sensitivity methods were used The change of reactive power flow in the line con-
for reactive support allocation. The coordination nected between bus i and busj in the direction of bus i to
between variation of generator voltages, transformer tap busj is given by
settings and switchable reactive power devices with
minimizing the power loss [ 1 1,141 or cost of capacitor
installation [9] is used to determine the optimal alloca-
tion of compensators.
A linear reactive power dispatch algorithm, which where 6; and U;are bus voltage angle and magnitude at
incorporates a voltage collapse proximity indicator, bus i, respectively, and:
based on the optimal impedance of the system and load,
to minimise the possibility of voltage collapse in the aQ.. aQ..
system and to improve the voltage profile is reported in L=-a,-&.,
as, 2-
asj - -a, + p,.
[ 121. In [ 161a method is developed using a security per-
formance index and a linear programming technique to au = UiU jg, cos (6,- 6,),
provide an acceptable voltage profile and to maintain Pii =U,Ujb,sin(6j -a,),
the reactive limits of the generators. The method in [ 171
aQ.. - U jg, sin (aj - 6;)
determines the location and size of compensation shunt
capacitors based on the sensitivity of voltage variation, au,
real power loss and harmonic distortion to the reactive
power source.
In meeting the objective of compensation,a method
is developed that combines the sensitivities of the line
reactive power flow with respect to the reactive power
injection with voltage collapse indices. The proposed Assuming the reactive power flow is:
technique enhances the LP to find an optimal solution
for a test system by defining power equations and con- Q, =UiUig,sin(6, - 6 ; )
straints, and saving computer storage and time. In the + UiUi b, cos (6,- sj)- U,?b, - U,?B,. (4)
proposed work, for reactive power planning,control and
voltage stability, some aspects of this problem are: Similarly, one can get:
existing sources must be considered; aQ .. aQ.. aQ.. aQ ..
the candidate bus set for installation of new sources AQji = L A 6 , + --Uai + LAU,
+ LAU;.
must be defined carefully, since a poor definition asj as, auj au, (5)
may lead to impractical solutions; Using eqs. (3) and (5). the magnitude of AQ, and
the reactive source type to be considered must be de- AQji of all lines in the system are calculated and then
fined (sources can be classified as fixed or discrete ranked in descending order. The bus with the largest
(capacitor/reactorbank), or controlled (synchronous sensitivities give the appropriatebus locations to install
machines or static controlled VAR devices)). the reactive power compensator. The calculations of
AQu (eq. (3)) and AQji (eq. ( 5 ) ) need only a few multi-
plications using the predetermined values of system
Sensitivity of the Reactive Power and data and variables and the voltage deviation of eq. (2).
Identification of the Candidate Buses This procedure to identify the best location of shunt
compensator reduces or eliminates the effort to solve a
The sensitivityis ameasureof the line reactivepower set of equations in some other methods (e. g. [lo]), sav-
dependency to the reactive power injection at buses. If a ing computer storage and time.
shunt compensator Q, is added at bus i, the injection re-
active current source is calculated as,Is, =j Ql/u:.
the system voltage variation (complex) is: 3 Proximity to Voltage Collapse
[AUbusl= [ Ybus1-l [Aibus] = [&US]
U IS]^ (1) For each line in the system,there are some active and
where reactive factors which are a function of the voltage, inject-
ed active and reactivepower, at sendingand receivingend
[ Y,,] system bus-admittance matrix with
order N x N, and the line resistance and reactance. These factors may
be named the line stability factors. The lines stability fac-
[zbusl = [ ybus1-’9 tors are estimated and may be defined as follows.
[ Afb,] bus current vector variation with order N x 1
and Al, = 0 forj # i, AI, = Isi, For line i (i = 1.2, ...,NL), where NLis the number
of system lines) connected between bus j and k, with
[ A&,,s] bus voltage vector variation with order N x 1,
N total number of system buses. R, and X; line resistance and reactance, respec-
The change in bus voltage (in complex form) at the tively,
two buses i andj is: Pi (Pr)?Qi (Qr) active and reactive power injected at
busj (k),respectively, and
ALL1 = Zi All, M L j = 51 All. (2) Uj and Uk voltage at busj and k, respectively.

320 ETEP Vol. 10, No. 5 , SeptembdOctober2000

One can get the active and reactive power at bus k as
function of active and reactive power at busj, voltage at F,, = 4 ( l4c)
busj and line parameters as:

The line which has the largest stability factor value

Qr (7) gives the proximity to voltage collapse. Therefore, to
improve the voltage stability and profile, a method is
Rearranging eq. (6) and eq. (7) into their second used to reduce the values of the lines stability factors by
order form with respect to Pi and Q;,respectively,D'
Dives: installing reactive power devices at the best locations as
determined before.

4 Optimization Procedure
x.Q; - Q; + Qr + X;f
+ 7 p'
= 0. (9) The candidate buses for the locations of compensa-
U,- U;
tors are identified as mentioned before. Maintaining an
Thus, for equal or unequal real roots of second order acceptable voltage profile with reactivecompensation at
equations o f f , (from eq. (8)) and Q; (from eq. (9)).the a minimum number of locations and at a minimum cost
following conditions are satisfied: is an optimization problem. The objective function will
be investigated. based on the sum of the voltage collapse
proximity indicators. The system variables are:
- dependent (state) variables including the reactive
power output of the generator QG and the voltage
U; Qr + X, UJ 2 0.
I - 4%-
magnitudes U of the buses other than the generator
- control variables, i. e. transformer tap settings, the
the power flow from node generator excitation settings UG,and the switchable
to nodej , one can get the necessary conditions for equal reactive-power compensator settings pS.
or unequal roots of P and Qr (if P and Qrare expressed
as function of PI,Q,, voltage at bus k and line parame- The constraints included are the upper and lower
ters) as follows: limits on the dependent and control variables.
The problem involves an objective function C to re-
duce the risk of a voltage collapse by minimizing the
(I2) LSF of all lines in the system. The linearized formof the
objective function is stated mathematically as follows:

Therefore it should be noted that voltage collapse is

occurred if these conditions are not satisfied. Using the where j and k are the sending end and receiving end of
left side of inequalities (lo)to ( 13),a set of factors at both line i. Separating the voltage 17,
at the generators and at
ends of each line, for all system lines, may be estimated the load bus ULof AC, eq. (15) becomes
and indicate the lines stability. These factors may be
Ac=[AGI [AuGl+[ALl [AULI, (16)
named the line stability factors. The line stability factors
(LSF) of line i may be defined as Flj(line stability fac- where AG and AL are one-row vectors with order 1 x NG
tor at sending end for active power), F2,(line stability and 1 x (N-NG), respectively, and their elements are the
factor at sending end for reactive power), F3;(line stabil- coefficients of 0; and u
k of eq. ( 15), and NG is the number
ity factor at receiving end for active power) and F,, (line of generators. Let the control variables be the generator
stability factor at receiving end for reactive power), voltage UGand the reactive power of sources QSinstalled
where: at selected buses in the system. Then, using the system
nodal reactive power equation [Q] = [ a Q / a U l [ A ~ l ,
one can get the variation of load voltage AULas result of
variation of generator voltage (IG and reactive power
source Qs.
The Q-equation at bus i is given by:

ETEP Vol. 10, No. 5 , September/October2000 32 I

Then, one can get total buses and set of buses at which the reactive sourc-
es are located, respectively. AUti in eq. (22) is ex-
pressed as function of AU, and AQs as given in eq. ( 17).
AQGiin eq. (21) is used as function of AUG and AUL
using the system nodal reactive power which can be
written as

and at the generation buses only, and using [AUL]from

eq. ( 17), it yields

where the elements (iJ) of SIand S2are given by


nGB set of generator buses, where SGG (with order NGx N G ) matrix and SGL(with
nLB set of load buses.
NG x N- NG)matrix are the partial form of the matrix SG
The elements of [AQ] are zero except the elements (with order NG x N). After identifying the candidate
correspond to buses at which the compensators are in- buses, the proposed model (eqs. (18) to (24) is then in-
stalled,then[AQ]canbe writtenas[AQs].Fromeq. (17a) corporated in the optimization problem in which the lin-
one can get [A&] as function of [AUG]and [AQsI as ear programming optimization technique is used to de-
termine the optimal voltage profile, which minimizes
the risk of voltage collapse and satisfies the system con-

=[SLGI[AuGl + [ s ~ l [ A Q s l , ( 17b)
5 Simulation Algorithm
where SL is the part of [ aQ/dU]-l corresponding to the and Solution Methodology
~ SE are the partial form of SL.
load buses, and S L and
Substituting AULin eq. (16) by AUL from eq. (17) we The computation procedure of the developed algo-
get rithm is programmed and described with the following
eight steps:
A c = [A,] [AUcl+ [AQ] [AQsl, (18)
where [A,]and[Aq] areafunctionofAG,ALandSL(SLG 1. Run load flow on the original network to calculate
the bus voltage and the generation reactive power
andSu)*[AYI=[AGI+[ALI [SLGIand [AQ]=[ALI [&I-
The objective function defined by eq. (1 8) subject to QG-
set of parametric constraints 2. Identify the candidate buses for location using the
Utiin- UGiI AUGiI Uzy - UGi,i = 1, ...,NG. ( 19)
ranked sensitivitiesQ,,and Q,,.
3. Set the initial maximum and minimum values of the
Q$" - Q,; IAQs, IQZ" - Qsi.i E Ns. (20)
voltage (generators and load) and dependent (QG)
and functional constraints and independent (Qs) reactive power. Evaluate the
sensitivity matrices and linearize the constraintsand
- QG; AuGi , I QG- - QGi.
( A ~ GAQS) objective function about the operation state.
i = 1, ..., NG, (21) 4. Calculate U,"""- U,,U,"'"-U, (generators or loads),
Upii"- ULi IAULi (AUG,AQ,)I UL- - U L , Q,"""-Q,and Q,mx-Ql (dependent or independent)
at aII proper values of i according to eqs. ( 19) to (22).
i=NG+l. ...,N, (22)
5 . Run linear programming for optimization of the lo-
where the actual minimum and maximum values of the cation (using the pre-specified candidate buses ob-
variables (voltage UGand ULand reactive power QGand tained in step 2. and size of compensation.
Qi) tobe Ui(Qi). UY'"(Q,!"'")and UY"(Q,!""). thequan-
tities NG, NL, N, NS are number of generating buses 6. Modify the network with the compensation and find
(coded 1,2, ..., NG),load buses (coded NG+1, ..., N), the operating point.

322 ETEP Vol. 10, No.5 , Srptember/October2OOO

$ From To P Q P1i.s Qlnir R~up Node P, Qinj U 6
bus bus (inMW) (in Mvar) (in MW) ( i n Mvar) (in P.u.) name (in M W ) (in Mvar) (in p.u.) (in rid)
~ ~

I 263.0 I82 76.7469 I .05OO O.oo00

I I 2 187.4642 33.5456 5.0972 12.4797 I .m 2 58.3000 37.3000 I .0038 -0.085 1
2 I 16 25.5540 42.20 13 4.5 I29 16.4586 I .m 3 -4L.2000 4o.oooo 0.9720 -0.23 I3
3 2 17 66.7286 28.7569 2.9522 7.2847 I .oooo 4 -l o . m 40.oooO 0.9253 -0.2355
4 16 17 86.2411 23.3447 1.1827 3.0293 1 .m 5 20.oooO 24.oooo 0.9 I47 -0.2838
5 2 3 72.6492 3.024 I 2.4799 8.3785 I .m 6 20.0000 50.0000 0.946 I -0.3852
6 2 18 81.2892 28.5848 4.3 I26 I 1.3636 I .m 7 - I I .6000 - 4 . m 0.8062 -0.4374
7 17 18 62.0920 4.7897 0.54 I5 1.5041 I .m 8 -22.4000 - 15.oOOO 0.8726 -0.4191
8 3 19 25.9693 34.5456 0.929 1 0.443 15 I .m 9 - 16.4000 -5.oooO 0.8100 -0.467 I
9 18 19 20.7378 -11.5806 0. I779 -0. I665 I .m 10 - 1 8 . m - I 1.6000 0.7984 -0.4505
10 18 4 16.3998 - 30.0 I 87 0. I666 0.2027 1 .m II -4.4000 - I .4000 0.7720 -0.49 I6
II 4 29 6.2330 9.7786 0.1 138 - 1.4207 I .m 12 - 3 5 . m -22.4000 0.77 15 -0.4648
12 18 29 30.8995 15.3428 0.2402 0.3 I80 I .m 13 -6.1000 -3.2000 0.7684 -0.4855
13 20 5 -2O.ooOO -2 1.5739 0.0000 2.428 I I .m 14 - 17.4000 - I3.40OO 0.7355 -0.4899
I4 20 7 63.5049 46.4 I35 O.oo00 9. I726 I .oooo 15 -4.8000 - 1.8000 0.6972 -0.5483
15 8 6 -200000 -45.4642 0.0000 4.5358 I .m 16 -4.8000 -2.4000 0.9444 -0.1594
16 8 21 16.8126 7.48 I4 0.5474 1.1380 I .m 17 - 15.2000 -3.2000 0.9235 -0. I933
17 8 9 37.3408 23.3373 I .7 I83 3.3849 I .oooo 18 O.oo00 o.ooO0 0.9 I36 -0.223 I
18 8 22 14.4894 13.5826 0.4895 1.0293 I .0000 19 -45.5000 -21.8000 0.9 I79 -0.2469
19 21 9 3.3551 3.1434 0.0800 0.0723 I .m 20 O.oo00 O.oo00 0.86 I4 -0.3366
20 22 10 6.9999 8.9534 0.1559 0.3639 1 .oooo 21 - I2.4OOo -3.2000 0.8279 -0.4660
21 9 23 12.3019 8.8549 0.3235 0.5605 I .m 22 -7.m -3.6000 0.8262 -0.4413
22 23 24 5.5784 4.3944 0.0536 0. I083 I.oooo 23 -6.4000 - I .so00 0.7756 -0.4982
23 24 I I -13.4751 -2.5 I39 0.1095 0.2191 I .m 24 -I 8 . m -6.8000 0.7637 -0.5057
24 7 II 18.5194 5.327 1 0.5338 1.1941 I .oooo 25 O.oo00 0.0000 0.7725 -0.464 I
25 7 10 11.2239 3.1875 0.0679 0. I770 1 .oooo 26 O.oo00 O.oo00 0.7349 -0.4853
26 7 12 33.1605 22.298 I 0.8550 I .8402 I .m 27 -7.m -4.6000 0.6829 -0.5 150
27 7 25 16.1868 10.4445 0.4151 0.8559 I .oooo 28 O.oo00 O.oo00 0.7603 -0.4652
28 12 25 -2.6945 -1.9421 0.0022 0.0044 1.m 29 0.oooO O.oo00 0.8979 -0.2423
29 9 13 11.2056 11.1686 0.38 I5 0.7707 I .m 30 -21.2OOO -3.8000 0.6608 -0.6148
30 25 14 13.0749 7.6422 0.4420 0.6880 I .oooo
31 13 14 4.4240 7.1979 0. I596 0.3264 l ~ mTab. 2. Nodal quantities (base case), system
32 26 27 7.3827 5.1717 0.3827 0.57 I7 lMoO heavily loaded
33 26 28 -7.8869 -4.7487 0.1715 0.3275 J .m
34 28 15 I 3.24 I 6 4.9886 0.7614 1.4386 I .m
35 28 30 15.2784 5.3624 I A524 2.7338 I .oooo
36 15 30 7.5802 I .7500 0.3063 0.5787 connected between buses 18 and 20, 18 and
37 18 20 43.5049 3 I .a75 I 0.0000 0.0355 1'0150
6.8720 0.9650
7, 17 and 8, and 28 and29. The state variables
38 18 7 27.1855 ' 14.8884 0.0000
39 17 8 7 I S428 3 I .7980 0.0000 17.86OY are the voltages at load buses 7-30 and the re-
40 29 28 36.5785 26.2240 0.0000 10.7968 0,9600 active power of generators at buses 1-6. The
41 14 26 -0.5027 0.4256 0.00 I5 0.0026 1.oo00 test system is heavily loaded to operate close
___ ~~~ ~

to the point of voltage collapse by increasing

Tab. 1. Branch flow (base case), system heavily loaded the system loads as given in [ 121. Tab. 1 and
Tab. 2 show the branch flow and nodal quan-
tities at the beginning (base case of our study)
7. Check if all constraints of thesystem are satisfied. If where P,Q, PI^,,, QL,,,. vaP, Pin,, U and 6 are line
Q q y

so. then comDensation is comolete. active power, line reactive power, line active loss, line
reactive loss, Tap setting of transformers, net injected
8. If the constraints are not satisfied then decrement and bus active power (generation power minus load power),
modify the control variables setting of the candidate net injected bus reactive power, bus voltage magnitude
buses and go back to step 4. and bus voltage angle, respectively. A snapshot of the
results heavy demand are shown below. Total system
generation (433.023 MW/328.738 Mvar), total system
6 Simulation Results load (400.9 MW/l90.7 Mvar), total power loss
(32.123 MWMvar), line and transformer series loss
The proposed work was tested on the IEEE-30-bus ( 139.753 Mvar) and capacitive (1.587 Mvar). For volt-
system. Improvement in stabile margin under progres- age constraints 0.95 IU,I i .1 at generators buses and
sive loading was investigated on the IEEE-30-bus test 0.9 IU,5 1.05at load buses, the voltages at 23 buses are
system for different allocations and amounts of reactive less than their lower limits as shown from Tab. 2. The
support with reactive generation capabilities taken into smallest value of the voltage magnitude is 0.6608 at bus
account. The line date of the test system is given in [ 181, 30 with largest angle 35.24" at bus 30. The candidate
and the loads and generation is given in [ 121. The follo- buses for the location of compensator are identified
wing control variables were considered: Voltages of using the calculated values of the voltage collapse prox-
generators at buses 1-6,reactive power of shunt cornpen- imity indicators (AQ,, and AQ,, calculated by eqs. (13)
sators at buses 7- 15, and tap setting of four transformers and (15) at both ends of each line as result of reactive

ETEP Vol. 10, No. 5, Septernber/October 2000 323

Bus code Line code Bus voltage IQ,JQj I Voltage (in p.u.1 Reactive power injection
. 25-30 0.6608 15.026 BUS Base Limits Final Base Limits Final
~- 29-28 0.7603 10.587 code ease Lower Upper value case Lower Upper value
15 28- 15 0.6972 8.940 I 1.05 0.95 1.1 1.0968 75.75 -25.00 175 -5.48
27 26-27 0.6829 7.968 2 1.0038 0.95 1.1 1.0813 37.30 -30.00 75 37.08
26 14-26 0.7349 5.719 3 0.9720 0.95 1.1 1.0700 40.00 -40.00 60 40.68
7 18-7 0.8062 5.335 4 0.9253 0.95 1.1 1.0395 40.00 -40.00 80 40.00
13 14-13 0.7684 2.4 I 5 0.9147 0.95 1.1 1.0718 24.00 -10.00 60 12.75
21 8-2 I 0.8279 2.27 50.00 -20.00 70 36.82
6 0.9461 0.95 1.1 1.0867
II 7-1 1 0.772 I 2.226
Tab. 4. Voltage and reactive power injection at generator buses

14 13-14 0.7355 I .577

20 18-20 0.86 14 I.494 Buscode Basecase Limits Proposed
29 4-29 0.8979 I.03 Lower Upper values
Tab. 3. Bus code and line sensitivities > 1 .O p.u. 7 -4.0 -4.0 I .O 1 .o
8 - 15.0 -15.0 -10.0 -10.0
9 -5.0 -5.0 0.0 0.0
10 - 11.6 -11.6 -6.0 -6.6
power source AQI. is added at bus k for all values of k. I1 -1.4 -1.4 3.5 3.6
The obtained results of line sensitivities which are great- 12 -22.4 -22.4 - 17.4 -17.4
er than I .Owith the bus location and bus voltage is given 13 -3.1 -3.2 I .8 I .8
in Tab. 3. From Tab. 3, bus 30 is the first selected to be
14 - 13.4 - 13.4 - 8.4 -8.4
15 -1.8 -1.8 3.2 3.2
the largest ranking factor, bus 28 is the second, bus 19 is
the third, etc. Tab. 5. Net reactive power injection at the buses 7-15
The optimal size of the compensators at the candi-
date buses is then solved by linear programming. The
sparse matrix and the optimal ordering techniques are 8 List of Main Symbols and Abbreviations
used in the program to improve the computing effi-
ciency. total number of generators
The step-size lengths, which are used with the vari- total number of system buses
ables during the iterative procedure, are adopted to avoid total number of system lines
the zigzagging [ 1 I ] and get faster convergence. For the number of buses at which the compensators
study system, the resultant system voltage profile is bet- are installed
ter than the base case, where all load buses voltage lim- bus voltage angle at bus,
its are not violated (0.9 I U i I 1.05,i. e. set of load buses). bus voltage magnitude at bus
The final values of the voltage and the injected reactive complex voltage and current at bus i
power (in Mvar) at the generators buses are shown in system bus-admittance matrix
Tab. 4. The propose net reactive power injection (in system bus-impedance matrix
Mvar) at the buses 7 to 15 are given in Tab. 5. The trans- bus voltage vector
formers taps limits are 0.9 I nTapI 1.1 and the used val- bus current vector
ues in the proposed work are the same values which are real and imaginary part of element Yli of bus-
used in [ 121 as 1.03, 1.1,0.99 and 1.08 for lines 37,38, admittance matrix
39, and 40,respectively. reactive power flow in the line connected
between bus i and busj from i t o j
resistance and reactance of line i
7 Conclusions active and reactive power injected at busj of
line i connected between bus j and k
In this paper, a simple and efficient algorithm has active and reactive power injected at bus k of
been developed to determine the candidate buses for in- line i connected between busj and k
stalling reactive power devices based on the sensitivity reactive power output of generator i
of the lines reactive power. The linear programming op- objective function
timization technique is used to solve the optimization reactive power of the compensator at bus i
problem of the proposed objective function based on the minimum value of the bus voltage at genera-
voltage collapse proximity indicators under the previous tor bus i
shown constraints of the state and the control variables. maximum value of the bus voltage at genera-
The proposed model uses fewer equations and is saving tor bus i
computer storage and time. A computer program imple- minimum value of the generation reactive
menting the present work was testedon the IEEE-30-bus power at generator bus i
system. The results show the efficiency and capability of maximum value of the generation reactive
the proposed algorithm to solve the problem. The results power at generator bus i
of the proposed algorithm are consistent with the results minimum value of the generation reactive
in [ 121 for the same system. power at generator bus i

324 ETEP Vol. 10, No.5, September/OctoberZOO0

0,";"" maximum value of the compensator at bus i Comes E.rposito, A. er. ul.: Sensitivity-based reactive
A variable or vector deviation power control for voltage profile improvement. IEEE
Trans. on Power Syst. PWRS- 8 (1993) no. 3,
LP linear programming pp. 937-943
Kellerincinn. W;Zein Ei-Din, H . M.; Grahnm. C. E.;
LSF line stability factor Mario. G. A.: Optimisation of fixed tap transformer set-
NLP non-linear programming tings in bulk electricity systems, IEEE Trans. on Power
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C-139 (1992) no. 3, pp. 253-262 E-mail:

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