You are on page 1of 18

Republic of the Philippines

Batangas State University


College of Engineering, Architecture and Fine Arts
Electrical Engineering Department

Experiment No. 2
AMMETER AND VOLTMETER

Submitted By:
EE-3101
Group No. _

Asi, Bryan P.
Castillo, Inriko G.
Ching, Lea Xandra B.
Espina, Lorenz Adrian A.
Ilagan, May Ann Rose B.
Matibag, Romerlyn R.
Medrano, Edison C.
Quirabu, Ren Bryan T.

Submitted To:
Engr. Justiniano B. Menes Jr.

August 20, 2015


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents 1

I. Abstract 2

II. Introduction 3

III. Theoretical Discussion or Background 3

IV. Experimental Procedure 4

V. Discussion and Analysis of Experimental Results 8

VI. Conclusion 9

VII. Answers to Problems 9

Acknowledgements 11

Appendices 12

References 16

Page 1
I. Abstract

The purpose of this experiment is to become familiar with voltmeter and ammeter, and
how to use it to make voltage and current measurements. Also, this experiment introduces the
use of NI Multisim for circuit simulation.

In the actual circuit connection, current or electric flow was measured by connecting a
wire from the power supply to the ammeter - a device used to measure current, - then from the
ammeter to the resistive load and from the resistive load back to the power supply. The power
supply was switched on and produced 24 V. The ammeter's pointer began to move as the
current flows in the circuit. The measured current varied with the resistive load, since current is
inversely proportional to resistance. Meanwhile, voltage or electrical pressure was measured
using a voltmeter connected in parallel with the resistive load. The measured voltage for all of
the resistors were equal to the supply source which is 24 V. The same amount of voltage was
the result of the computation using Ohm’s Law.

Also for the actual circuit connection, the experiment required a 150-ohm resistor. But
since the decade box did not contain the aforementioned resistive load, the only solution
remained is to connect the resistors in a way that would produce a total resistance of 150 ohms.
There were two 75-ohm resistive load available, and was connected in series. To make a series
connection, the power supply must be connected to the ammeter, then to the first resistor, then
to the second resistor and back to the power supply. The power supply was switched on and
produced 24 V then the ammeter's pointer began to move as the current flows in the circuit.
Because current is inversely proportional to resistance as mentioned before, the current drawn
was reduced since the connection contained high amount of resistance. Meanwhile, voltage
was measured through the use of voltmeter. The voltmeter was connected in parallel with the
series of resistors. The first wire was connected from the first resistor to the voltmeter, and
another wire from the voltmeter to the second resistor. The voltmeter read a value equivalent to
the source since it measured the voltage of all the resistors in the circuit.

NI Multisim Power Pro Edition version 14.0 was used for circuit simulation. The
simulated voltage and current was almost the same as all the measured voltage and current in
the actual connection.

The circuit consists of a 24 V DC source connected in series to a multimeter, in order for


the multimeter to act as an ammeter, then to a resistor of specified value required in the
experiment, and back to the supply source. To measure the voltage, another multimeter is
placed in the circuit. It is placed in parallel with the resistor in order for it to act as a voltmeter.
Also, a ground was connected to the circuit for simulation. The simulated current were almost
equal to the measured current in the actual connection. On the other hand, the simulated
voltage were equal to the measured voltage.

Ohm’s Law was used in determining the computed current and voltage. The computed
voltage were all equal to both the measured and simulated one. The computed current were
equal to the simulated one, and almost to the measured current.

Therefore, the percentage error calculated for all the measured, simulated, and
computed voltage were 0%. On the other hand, the measured current on the 50-ohm resistor,
compared to the computed current on the same resistor was calculated to have 4.1667%
marginal error. The rest of the resistor values had 0% error between their respective measured,
simulated and computed current.

Page 2
II. Introduction

The objectives of this experiment are: (1) to become familiar with the measuring devices
used in the laboratory; (2) to learn how to use ammeter and voltmeter; (3) to become familiar
with the parts and operation of ammeters and voltmeters used in the EE laboratory; and, (4) to
become familiar with the use of NI Multisim in circuit simulation.

Voltmeter is a device that measures the electro-motive force, also known as voltage. It
measures the voltage in a circuit.

An ammeter, on the other hand, measures the electric current in amperes. Voltmeters
and ammeters are connected differently. An ammeter and a voltmeter must not interchange
positions in a circuit because it will only bring a huge rush of current that can bring great
damage to a circuit breaker. An ammeter has a very low resistance, while voltmeters have very
high resistance. An ammeter has a coil with a large wire with only a few turns, while the
voltmeter has a coil wound with thousands of turns. That being said, ammeters are connected in
series, while voltmeters are connected in parallel. So, it really takes knowledge and skill in order
to combine or connect the two together.

A final aspect of this experiment is to understand how a piece of test equipment affects
the circuit it is connected to. Also, the use of multisim in circuit simulation is introduced in this
experiment.

III. Theoretical Discussion or Background

All voltmeters, ammeters, and ohmmeters make measurements by means of a two


terminal connection to a circuit or circuit element under test. All voltmeters, ammeters, and
ohmmeters have at least two jacks into which only two test probes are inserted. If there are
more than two jacks on the face of a particular meter, there is usually an indication of some sort,
next to each jack, to inform the user which jack to use to measure a particular quantity.

Many times a voltmeter, an ammeter, and an ohmmeter are combined into one package
called a multimeter. Multimeters come in two flavors: analog and digital. Analog meters have a
display that consists of a needle which points to a number scale. These meters have function
and range controls which allow the user to select what kind of meter (voltmeter, ammeter, or
ohmmeter) the multimeter will be and what range of values the meter will read. Digital
multimeters typically have LCD or LED display and in many cases are auto-ranging. That is, the
meter will automatically select the most appropriate range for making the measurement. In this
lab either an analog or a digital meter can be used with little difference in operation.

A voltmeter measures electrical potential between its terminals. Voltmeters are always
placed in parallel with the circuit or circuit element where the voltage measurement is desired.
Since the voltage across two or more parallel elements is the same, the voltage measured by
the meter will be the same as the element to which the meter is connected. When using a non-
auto-ranging meter, select the highest possible range and reduce the range as necessary until
the desired level of accuracy is reached. Always start with a range higher than the expected
value to prevent damage to the meter.

Page 3
An ammeter measures the current that flows between its terminals. An ammeter is
always placed in series with the circuit or circuit element where the current flow is of interest.
Since the current in each element of series is the same, the current flow through the meter will
be the same as the current flow to the element of interest. Never connect an ammeter in parallel
unless you intend to measure the short circuit current of a circuit or circuit element and you have
made sure that destructive current levels won’t be reached. When using a non-auto-ranging
meter, select the highest possible range and reduce the range as necessary until the desired
level of accuracy is reached. Always start with a range higher than the expected value to
prevent damage to the meter.

IV. Experimental Procedure

The table below shows the list of materials used in this experiment together with their
actual picture and respective function or specification.

TABLE 4.1 MATERIALS


Name Picture Specification

It is one that supplies voltage


of fixed polarity (either
DC Power Supply
positive or negative) to its
load.

A load which consumes


electrical energy in a
sinusoidal manner. This
Resistive Load
means that the current flow is
in time with and directly
proportional to the voltage.

A moving-coil instrument used


DC Ammeter
to measure current

Page 4
A moving-coil instrument used
DC Voltmeter
to measure voltage

Can be used to measure


Multimeter resistance, voltage and
current.

Used to connect the


apparatuses for the
Connecting wires
measurement of current and
voltage.

The materials used were DC power supply, resistive load, ammeter, voltmeter,
multimeter, and connecting wires.

Procedure

1. The measured data of each resistor load presented in Table 5.1 was measured using the
voltmeter and the ammeter. The figure below shows the circuit diagram of the actual
circuit connection.

Figure 1.1 Circuit Diagram

Page 5
2. The simulated data of each resistor load presented in Table 5.1 was measured using the
multimeters in the Multisim. The circuit is based on the Figure 2.1 below.

Figure 2.1 Multisim Simulated Circuit

3. The computed data of each resistor load was determined as shown on Table 5.1. Table
3.1 below shows some sample computations.

Resistor Values (Ω) Voltage (V) Current (A)


V 24
75 V =V 1= E=24 I = = =0.32
R 75
Table 3.1 Sample Computations in Obtaining the Computed Data

4. The computed values were compared to measured values then to the simulated values.
The percentage error calculated is shown in Table 5.2. Table 4.1 below shows some
sample computations.

Resisto
r Values Voltage Current
(Ω)
Coded−Measured Coded−Measured
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
Coded Coded

24−24 0.320−0.320
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.320
75
0 0
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.320

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

Table 4.1 Sample Computations in Obtaining the Percentage Error

Page 6
5. Figure 5.1 shows the components of an ammeter, while Figure 5.2 shows the
components of the voltmeter. The following statements describe how an ammeter and a
voltmeter works.

a. Ammeter

When a current passes through the coil, the magnetic field around it is produced.
The interaction between the magnetic field and the permanent magnet produced
resultant field and two forces are in opposite directions. The forces produce the
turning effect on the coil. The coil rotates until it stopped by the spring. The pointer
fixed to the coil deflects to show a reading on the scale.

b. Voltmeter

A moving coil galvanometer can be used as a voltmeter by inserting a resistor in


series with the instrument. In the D’Arsonval-Deprez design the coil has many turns
of fine wire, and is suspended by flat ribbon of wire which serves as one lead-in wire.
The connection to the lower end of the coil is provided by a light, helical spring that
provides the restoring torque. The electro-magnetic torque is greatest when the
magnetic field lines are perpendicular to the plain of the coil; this condition is met for
a wide range of coil positions by placing the cylindrical core of soft iron in the middle
of the magnetic gap, and giving the magnet pole faces a concave contour. Since the
electro-magnetic torque is proportional to the current in the coil and restoring torque
is proportional to the angle of twist of the suspension fiber, at equilibrium the current
through the coil is linearly proportional to its angular deflection.

Page 7
V. Discussion and Analysis of Experimental Results

The first column of the table below presents the values of resistors (Ω) used. The
second, third and fourth columns – correspond to measured data, simulated data, and
computed data respectively - were horizontally divided. The upper-half is for voltage (V) while
the lower-half is for current (A).

TABLE 5.1 OBTAINED RESULTS


Voltage (V)
Resistor Values (Ω)
Measured Data Simulated Data Computed Data
75 24 24 24
160 24 24 24
50 24 24 24
60 24 24 24
150 24 24 24
Current (A)
75 0.320 0.320 0.320
160 0.150 0.150 0.150
50 0.460 0.480 0.480
60 0.400 0.400 0.400
150 0.160 0.160 0.160

Table 5.1 contains the results obtained in the actual circuit connection, multisim circuit
simulation, and computation using Ohm’s Law. The measured, simulated, and computed voltage
for all the resistive loads were all equal to 24 V. On the other hand, the measured, simulated
and computed current for a specified value of a resistive load were all equal; except for the 50-
ohm resistive load.

The table below presents the resulting percentage error between measured and
computed voltage, measured and computed current, simulated and computed voltage, and
simulated and computed current.

TABLE 5.2 PERCENTAGE ERROR


Percentage Errors (%)
Resistor Values (Ω) Measured vs Computed Simulated vs Computed
Voltage Current Voltage Current
75 0 0 0 0
160 0 0 0 0
50 0 4.1667 0 0
60 0 0 0 0
150 0 0 0 0

Table 5.2 presents the percentage error obtained from comparing, first the computed
voltage and current to the measured voltage and current, then the computed voltage and
current to the simulated voltage and current. The percentage error calculated from comparing
the measured and computed current drawn by the 50-ohm resistive load was 4.1667%. The rest
obtained 0% percentage error.

Page 8
Table 5.3 below shows a sample calculation of the percentage error.

TABLE 5.3 SAMPLE COMPUTATION FOR PERCENTAGE ERROR


Resistor
Values Voltage Current
(Ω)
% error = % error =
Coded Value−Measured Value Coded Value−Measured Value
x 100 x 100
Coded Value Coded Value

24−24 0.320−0.320
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
75 24 0.320

0 0
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.320

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

% error = % error =
Coded V alue−Simulated Value Coded Value−Simulated Value
x 100 x 100
Coded Value Coded Value

24−24 0.150−0.150
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
160 24 0.150

0 0
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.150

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

The second row in Table 5.3 presents the percentage error between the coded and
measured value of both the voltage and current for the 75-ohm resistive load. Meanwhile, the
third row presents the percentage error between the coded and simulated value of both the
voltage and current for the 160-ohm resistive load.

VI. Conclusion

Five resistive loads were used in the experiment to measure the voltage and current
drawn in the actual circuit connection and multisim circuit simulation. In table 1, the measured,
simulated, and computed value of voltage and current drawn in each resistor were listed. In
table 2, the computed voltage and current were first compared to the measured voltage and
current then to the simulated voltage and current.

Page 9
After solving for the percentage error, all of the measured and computed voltage and
current for each resistive load were found to be 0% except for the 150-ohm resistive load. The
comparison between the measured and computed value of current was found to be 4.1667%.

VII. Answers to Problems

1. Most ammeter binding posts are made of heavy, bare metal whereas voltmeter terminals
are usually much lighter and well insulated. Explain why this is desirable.

Because metals are good conductors, ammeter must be made of heavy, bare
metals and be serially connected in a circuit for the current to pass through it without
affecting the normal current in the circuit. On the other hand, a voltmeter is light and well
insulated so that it will not affect the current in the circuit by allowing only a tiny fraction
of current to pass through it.

2. An ammeter and a voltmeter of suitable ranges are to be used to measure the current
and voltage of an electric lamp. If a mistake was made and the meters interchanged,
what will happen?

If a voltmeter is connected in series, then due to its very high resistance no


current will flow and heat will start to build up, possibly causing fire. On the other hand, if
an ammeter is connected in parallel, it would be damaged because only its low
resistance would limit the current.

3. Some types of fuses used to protect electric meters have resistances of several ohms. Is
this disagreeable (a) in an ammeter circuit and (b) in voltmeter circuits? Why?

A resistance of several ohms when testing current would make the meter very
inaccurate and it would become more inaccurate as the current increases. Because
several ohm will not appreciably affect a voltmeter reading – because most voltmeters
have a resistance exceeding 100 MOhm – it is not a problem.

4. An ammeter has a resistance of 0.009 ohm and reads up to 10 A. What resistance shunt
is needed to make a full scale deflection of the meter correspond to 100 A?

Rm I m
Rs =
Rs
(10 A)(0.009 Ω)
Rs =
100 A
Rs =0.9 mA

Therefore, the resistance shunt ( Rs ) needed is 0.9 mA.

5. A 50 mV meter has a resistance of 5 ohm. A multiplier has been inserted to produce a


voltmeter of range 3 V. How can the multiplier be modified so that the new meter will
have a range of 15 V?

To get the full scale current,

Page
10
−3
50 × 10 V
I= =0.01 A

To get the resistance of the multiplier that produced a voltmeter of range 3 V,
3V
R i= (
0.01 A )
−5 Ω=300 Ω−5 Ω=295 Ω
To get the resistance of the multiplier that will produce a voltmeter of range 15 V,
15 V
Rf = (
0.01 A )
−5 Ω=1500 Ω−5 Ω=1495 Ω
To get the resistance needed to modify the multiplier,
R=R f −R i=1495 Ω−295 Ω=1200 Ω

Therefore, to change the range of the voltmeter from 3 V to 15 V, add a 1200 Ω


or 1.2 kΩ resistor in the circuit with the 295 Ω.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Every work accomplished is a pleasure - a sense of satisfaction. However a number of


people always motivate, criticize and appreciate a work with their objective, ideas and opinions.
Hence, we would like to take this opportunity to thank all, who directly or indirectly helped us to
accomplish this experiment.

First, to Engr. Justinano B. Menes Jr. Thank you for giving us a good guideline for this
experiment . Without your good guideline it would be much harder for us to finish the
experiment.

We would also like to show our gratitude to our laboratory technician Mr. Roderick
Barroso for letting us use the materials without a doubt.

Also, allow us to use this opportunity to thank our classmates for the support throughout
this experiment, and our team members for being patient and giving a lot of effort to finish this
experiment.

The Authors

Page
11
APPENDICES

Appendix A

Multisim Circuit Simulation

Resistive
Circuit Design Voltage Current
Load

75 ohms

160 ohms

50 ohms

Page
12
60 ohms

150 ohms

Appendix B

Computations in
Computationgs Obtaining Computed Data

Resistor Values (Ω) Voltage (V) Current (A)


V =V 1= E=24 V 24
75 I = = =0.32
R 75
V =V 1= E=24 V 24
160 I= = =0.15
R 160
V =V 1= E=24 V 24
50 I = = =0.48
R 50
V =V 1= E=24 V 24
60 I = = =0.40
R 60
V =V 1 +V 2=E=24 V 24
150 I= = =0.16
R 150

Page
13
Appendix C

Measured vs Computed

Formula:
Coded Value−Measured Value
% error = x 100
Coded Value

Resistor Values (Ω) Voltage Current


24−24 0.320−0.320
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.320

0 0
75 % error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.320

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

24−24 0.150−0.150
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.150

0 0
160 % error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.150

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

50 24−24 0.480−0.460
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.480

Page
14
0 0.020
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.480

% error = 0 % % error = 4.1667 %

24−24 0.400−0.400
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.400

0 0
60 % error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.400

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

24−24 0.160−0.160
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.160

0 0
150 % error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.160

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

Appendix D

Simulated vs Computed

Formula:
Coded Value−Simulated Value
% error = x 100
Coded Value

Resistor Values (Ω) Voltage Current


24−24 0.320−0.320
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.320

0 0
75 % error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.320

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

160 24−24 0.150−0.150


% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.150

Page
15
0 0
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.150

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

24−24 0.480−0.480
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.480

0 0
50 % error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.480

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

24−24 0.400−0.400
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.400

0 0
60 % error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.400

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

24−24 0.160−0.160
% error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.160

0 0
150 % error = x 100 % error = x 100
24 0.160

% error = 0 % % error = 0 %

REFERENCES

(AUTHOR), Lab2.pdf , 17 Jan 2007 , https://home.eng.iastate.edu


https://ph.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20120710163201AABib6E
http://sound.westhost.com/articles/meters.htm#s3
http://physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatus/Electrical_Measurements/DArsonval_Galvanometer/
DArsonval_Galvanometer.html
http://www.globalspec.com/learnmore/labware_test_measurement/multimeters_electrical_test_
meters/analog_voltmeters

Page
16
Page
17