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Different types of leadership styles are discussed below:
1. Autocratic leadership
Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leaders have absolute
power over their workers or team. Staff and team members have little opportunity to make
suggestions, even if these would be in the team's or the organization's best interest.
Most people tend to resent being treated like this. Therefore, autocratic leadership often leads to
high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. However, for some routine and unskilled jobs, the
style can remain effective because the advantages of control may outweigh the disadvantages.
2. Bureaucratic leadership
Bureaucratic leaders work "by the book." They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their staff
follows procedures precisely. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety
risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights) or where
large sums of money are involved (such as handling cash).
3. Charismatic leadership
A charismatic leadership style can seem similar to transformational leadership, because these
leaders inspire lots of enthusiasm in their teams and are very energetic in driving others forward.
However, charismatic leaders can tend to believe more in themselves than in their teams, and this
creates a risk that a project, or even an entire organization, might collapse if the leader leaves. In
the eyes of the followers, success is directly connected to the presence of the charismatic leader.
As such, charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and it needs a long-term commitment
from the leader.
4. Democratic leadership or participative leadership
Although democratic leaders make the final decisions, they invite other members of the team to
contribute to the decision-making process. This not only increases job satisfaction by involving
team members, but it also helps to develop people's skills. Team members feel in control of their
own destiny, so they're motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward.
Because participation takes time, this approach can take longer, but often the end result is better.
The approach can be most suitable when working as a team is essential, and when quality is
more important than speed to market, or productivity.
5. Laissez-faire leadership
This French phrase means "leave it be," and it's used to describe leaders who leave their team
members to work on their own. It can be effective if the leader monitors what's being achieved
and communicates this back to the team regularly. Most often, laissez-faire leadership is
effective when individual team members are very experienced and skilled self-starters.
Unfortunately, this type of leadership can also occur when managers don't apply sufficient
6. People-oriented leadership or relations-oriented leadership
This is the opposite of task-oriented leadership. With people-oriented leadership, leaders are
totally focused on organizing, supporting, and developing the people in their teams. It's a
participative style, and it tends to encourage good teamwork and creative collaboration.
In practice, most leaders use both task-oriented and people-oriented styles of leadership.
7. Servant leadership
This term, created by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, describes a leader who is often not formally
recognized as such. When someone, at any level within an organization, leads simply by meeting
the needs of the team, he or she is described as a "servant leader."
In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership, because the whole team
tends to be involved in decision making.
Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest that it's an important way to move ahead in a
world where values are increasingly important, and where servant leaders achieve power on the
basis of their values and ideals. Others believe that in competitive leadership situations, people
who practice servant leadership can find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership
8. Task-Oriented leadership
Highly task-oriented leaders focus only on getting the job done, and they can be quite autocratic.
They actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize, and
monitor. However, because task-oriented leaders don't tend to think much about the well-being
of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, with
difficulties in motivating and retaining staff.
9. Transactional leadership
This style of leadership starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader totally
when they accept a job. The "transaction" is usually the organization paying the team members
in return for their effort and compliance. The leader has a right to "punish" team members if their
work doesn't meet the pre-determined standard.
Team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction under transactional leadership. The
leader could give team members some control of their income/reward by using incentives that
encourage even higher standards or greater productivity. Alternatively, a transactional leader
could practice "management by exception" – rather than rewarding better work, the leader could
take corrective action if the required standards are not met.
Transactional leadership is really a type of management, not a true leadership style, because the
focus is on short-term tasks. It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work;
however it can be effective in other situations.
10. Transformational leadership
As we discussed earlier, people with this leadership style are true leaders who inspire their teams
constantly with a shared vision of the future. While this leader's enthusiasm is often passed onto
the team, he or she can need to be supported by "detail people." That's why, in many
organizations, both transactional and transformational leadership are needed. The transactional
leaders (or managers) ensure that routine work is done reliably, while the transformational
leaders look after initiatives that add new value.

3.2 Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace
Employee Motivation in the Workplace: Different Types of Motivation Theories
Of the many different types of motivation theories, I would like to highlight three that are of
particular use:
David Merrill and Roger Reid’s work on the four personal styles
David McClelland’s theory of motivation involving three basic needs: achievement, power, and
Fredrick Herzberg’s work on money as a de-motivator at work
There are many more good motivation theories – Maslow, Myers-Briggs, etc. – but I’ve found
these three to be most useful in managing groups.
The Power of Intrinsic Motivation
The starting point for all three different types of motivation theories is that they are built on the
concept that intrinsic motivation is much stronger than extrinsic. This bedrock fundamental is
perhaps the most powerful concept to apply in your work; see my post on top employee
motivators for a more thorough review of incentive plans.
Briefly, it means that to get great results, you need people to be intrinsically interested in their
work. Your efforts to control, set expectations, and reward people are all methods of extrinsic
motivation, which helps explain why managers are often disappointed with employee results
when relying on those motivation tools.
So, to help you get better results, here are three methods of intrinsic motivation that all build on
that intrinsic bedrock.
Employee Motivation Theory 1: Personal Styles
In their theory on motivating different types of people, Merrill and Reid identify four personal

Style Major Drivers

Driver Action Oriented: Focus is on present time frame, Control,

direct action. Minimum concern for caution in Tell
relationships. Tends to reject inaction.

Expressive Intuition Oriented: Focus is on involving others, Emote,

future time frame. Minimum concern for routine. Tell
Tends to reject isolation.

Amiable Relationship Oriented: Focus is on relating, Emote,

supporting; present time frame. Minimum concern Ask
for affecting change. Tends to reject conflict.

Analytical Thinking Oriented: Focus is on cautious action, Control,

“getting it right”, historical time frame, cautious Ask
action. Minimum concern for relationships. Tends
to reject being wrong.

* Information adapted from their book, Personal Styles & Effective Performance.
Application: To help people feel connected intrinsically with their work, structure their work so
these personal style needs are met.

Style More Effective Less Effective

Driver • When you want to make a point, • When you want to make
ask, as in, “What do you think of a point, lecturing them, as
this idea?” in, “Here’s how it is."

• Get things done quickly that are • Spending time in

going to be effective, even if they reflection and
aren’t perfected. consideration, in an
attempt to perfect.

Expressive • Make work a party while you’re • Spend 3 hours in a room

getting stuff done; breathe life into sequentially creating a
work. step-by-step checklist.

• Make use of their good gut • Don’t trust them until

instincts. they can “prove it.”

Amiable • Include effectively when a group • Try to get results

tackles a project, and not just the through intimidation and
“amiable” coworker; they’ll feels application of stress.
others’ “pain” if their input is
excluded. • Divide and conquer; use
conflict – of ideas, of
• Act trustworthy, and trust them.
emotions – to try to get
best results

Analytical • Give them space to get grounded • Use conflict to try to get
– to get it “right” – before they best results.
proceed to action.
• Push, push, push,
• Assign complex problems where especially if towards an
you need absolute confidence in outcome that favors your
the details. self-interest.

• Ask them to “wing it”,

to bet the company on
their “hunch.”

Employee Motivation Theory 2: McClelland’s Theory of Motivation

Style More Effective Less Effective

Achievement Seek: To excel; may avoid both low- Work alone or

nAch and high-risks as a result, in order to with other high
pursue meaningful success. achievers

Power Seek: Either personal or institutional Direct others

nPow power. Either way they want to direct
others, but the institutional power is in
service to the institution’s success, so
those with that focus tend to make
better managers.

Affiliation Seek: Harmonious work relationships, Work in

nAff to accept, to be accepted, and to settings with
include others. They can be more significant
comfortable conforming to group personal
norms. interaction

Application: To help people connect intrinsically with their work, structure their work so their
major need is met. The “Power” need correlates to the “Driver” above; “Affiliation” to the
“Amiable” above.
What’s new here is the “Achievement” need. It can cut across all the Merrill and Reid personal
motivation styles. The key here is to surround high achievers with other high achievers. To be
their best, they need to know they’re on a team capable of pulling off a worthwhile, attainable
Employee Motivation Theory 3: Money as a De-Motivator
Frederick Herzberg was a clinical psychologist and pioneer of “job enrichment.” He proposed
the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, also known as the two factor theory of job satisfaction.
According to his theory, people are influenced by two sets of factors:

Motivator Factors Hygiene Factors

• Work itself • Pay and benefits

• Responsibility • Company policy and
• Promotion administration
• Growth • Relationships with co-workers
• Achievement • Physical environment
• Recognition • Supervision
• Status
• Job security
• Salary

Application: To create an environment where people motivate themselves, you must adequately
take care of the hygiene factors. If you don’t, demotivated employees will likely result. The key
here is that “adequate” is enough; you don’t need an outstanding physical environment because it
won’t increase employee motivation noticeably. In sum, the “hygiene factors” have a downside
if not done well, but not much of an upside potential impact on employees, even if they’re done
very well.
Then, allow the “motivator factors” to work for you – these are the factors that have the real
upside and can make a strong contribution to your results. And note, they are almost all methods
of intrinsic motivation.
The one “extrinsic” item on the list, recognition, can be made intrinsic if it’s in the form of
encouragement, rather than as a reward. For example, in Soul of a New Machine, Tracey Kidder
writes that the “reward” for successful hi tech engineers is…the chance to tackle the next cool
project! “Congratulations on the great results. I’m not at all surprised. Now let’s figure out how
you can make that kind of an impact again,” is more powerful than “Atta boy/girl” in whatever
form, whether bonus, plaque, employee of the month award, etc.
A Summary of Employee Motivation Theories
Employee motivation is simple.
You can’t motivate people.
You can provide an environment where people motivate themselves.
Apply what you know about people’s styles to strengthen their individual work “environment.”
And along the way, focus, focus, focus on intrinsic motivation factors.
Which means: Build strong work relationships and expand those relationships so that more is
These different types of motivation theories are simple in concept. What makes it hard is that all
of the above mean building a healthy, vibrant work environment, and that work is as vulnerable
as building any other effective relationship in your life

3.3 Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for Managers

Motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce
best results. It is the will to act. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards
organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need.
Motivation is getting somebody to do something because they want to do it. It was once assumed
that motivation had to be injected from outside, but it is now understood that everyone is
motivated by several differing forces.
Motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and
similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those
things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in
a desired manner.
To motivate others is the most important of management tasks. It comprises the abilities to
communicate, to set an example, to challenge, to encourage, obtaining feedback, to involve, to
delegate, to develop and train, to inform, to brief and to provide a just reward.

(1) Treat staff well:

Subordinates have to be treated with diligence. The manager has to stay friendly as well as
maintain a level of distance with his staff. It’s a tricky ground to tread. The staff looks up on the
manager as their leader. They expect maturity, rationality and understanding from their
superiors. Simple things like calling people by their first name, chatting about their families for a
while or even a general inquiry about their well-being, brings in a feeling of belongingness.
Small gestures of this type help in building up of a cordial relationship.
(2) Think like a winner:
A manager has to handle two situations, “The Winning” and “The loosing”. The crux is to think
like a winner even when all the odds seem against you. It is necessary to equip yourself with all
the tools of a winner. Always remember that winning and losing rotate in a cycle. If you have
been losing from a long time you are very near the winning edge.
(3) Recognize the differences:
All the employees in the organization vibrate to a different pace. A treatment that motivates one
may demonization the other. Understanding the difference in temperament in between the
individuals is important.
4) Set realistic goals:
Set moderate goals. Setting too high a task creates a feeling of non-achievement, right from the
beginning itself. The goals set should be such which seem feasible to the employees to be
achieved. A slightly higher target than expected provides a challenge.

4.1 Explain the nature of groups and group behavior within organizations
The term group can be defined as two or more persons interacting and working together for a
common purpose. When people work in groups rather than as individuals, the goals of the
organization can be easily achieved. However, working in a group is a complex task. Group
dynamics refers to the interactions between the members of a group. A work group of an
organization is the main foundation for the social identity of employees in that organization.
Hence, performance at work and relationships outside the organization are influenced by the
nature of groups in the organization. In this unit, we will discuss the nature and types of groups
and the stages in development of groups along with the structure, tasks, and processes of groups.
Nature of Groups
Different types of groups are formed to achieve specific results in organizations. The definition
of a group as given by Harold H. Kelley and J.W. Thibaut is “A collection of individuals. The
members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with
one another to promote its accomplishment.” Kurt Lewin popularized the term ‘group dynamics’
in the 1930s. There are three views on the nature of interaction between members of a group or
group dynamics. The first view is the normative view, which describes how to carry out
activities and organize a group. According to the second view, group dynamics consists of a set
of techniques which include brainstorming, role play, team building, sensitivity training, self-
managed teams, and transactional analysis. The third view explains group dynamics from the
viewpoint of the internal nature of the groups. The formation of groups, structure, processes, and
functioning are discussed in this view along with the effect of groups on individuals, other
groups, and the complete organization.
Dynamics of Group Formation
People form groups for various reasons. Different classical theories of groups try to explain why
people form groups. The theory of propinquity proposes geographical closeness as the reason.
The propinquity theory provides a very basic explanation that people living or working at places
located close to one another tend to form groups. But the theory doesn’t explain the complexity
of group formation. The balance theory says group formation results from the similarity of
attitudes and values between people. Individuals with common interests maintain their
relationship by a symmetrical balance between their attitudes and common interests. Another
theory of group formation is the exchange theory. It proposes reward-cost outcomes of
interaction as the reason. There may be several other economic, social, and security reasons for
the formation of groups. By becoming members of a group, individuals fulfill their need for
There are formal and informal groups in organizations. Various groups exist within the
organization and they are of varying degrees of formalization. Groups in organizations are of
various types based on the number of members they have and the interactions between them.
Formal Groups
A group formed by the organization to accomplish a specific task is termed as a formal group.
The organization sets up a formal group and allocates tasks and responsibilities to different
members with the intention of achieving organizational goals. Command groups and task groups
are examples of formal groups. A command group is relatively permanent in nature and finds
representation in the organization chart. Functional departments of organizations are considered
as command groups. Task groups, on the other hand, are formed for a specific task and are
temporary in nature. They are dissolved after the task is accomplished. After dissolution of the
task group, the members of the task group continue as members of their respective functional
departments or command groups with reduced duties.
Informal Groups
Unlike formal groups that are established by the organization, informal groups are formed by the
employees themselves. The reasons for the formation of informal groups could be the need for
companionship, common interests, growth, recreation, or support. There are two types of
informal groups – friendship groups and interest groups. Members of friendship groups have a
cordial relationship with each other, common interests and are similar in age, ethnic heritage,
views, etc. They like each other’s company and want to spend time together. Interest groups are
formed to organize an activity and are temporary in nature. Informal groups mainly satisfy the
social needs of members.
Stages of Group Development
Before the 1960s, it was believed that groups were formed in a specific sequence but it was later
realized that they do not follow a standard pattern of development. Established models of group
development are the five-stage model and the punctuated equilibrium model.
The Five-Stage Model
According to the five-stage model of group development, all groups pass through the forming,
storming, norming, performing, and adjourning stages. The duration of each stage varies from
group to group and some groups do not pass through all the stages. This model became popular
in the mid-1960s.
This is the initial stage of group formation where members try to identify acceptable behavior in
a group. The members try to mold their behavior so as be a part of the group.
In this stage, disagreements about leadership among members may give rise to other conflicts.
By the end of this stage, a relatively clear hierarchy of positions in the group emerges.
This stage of group development enhances a sense of camaraderie in members through the
development of close relationships. A common set of expectations for behavior in the group is
the outcome of this stage.
In this stage, members of the group exhibit committed performance to achieve goals defined in
the norming stage. This is the last stage for permanent work groups.
This is the last stage for temporary groups such as task groups or committees formed to
accomplish a certain task. After this stage, the groups cease to exist. While some of the members
may feel happy about the accomplishments, others may be depressed that they will lose friends
after the group disperses.
The effectiveness of groups is supposed to increase through the stages. But this does not always
happen and some groups may cease to exist without passing through all the stages while some
other may not follow the sequence of stages given in the five stage model. In fact, group
effectiveness depends on complex factors.

4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in

Following provides tools and consulting, training and facilitation services to help:
• Organizations install team-based structures, and
• Project teams, self-directed teams, executive teams and department teams be more effective.
Characteristics of Effective team work Approach
• Tailored to the organization – Each organization is different and requires an approach
customized to the culture and aligned with the business strategy and environment.
• Flexible –The off-the-shelf approach can utilize a variety of models and approaches and
integrate our approach with your existing training and organizational development efforts.
Materials are professionally produced with your logo, in your style, so that everyone in your
organization knows that this is your effort, not a training/consulting firm.
• Practical and Relevant – In working with team members, it is believed that it is best to “keep
it simple” and introduce concepts and tools that can be applied immediately to real-life
situations. Trying to dazzle members with sophisticated concepts and tools is counter-productive.
• Competency-Based – In training team leaders and team members, applied research that has
identified the key competencies that distinguish high performing teams from average performing
teams. If appropriate, a customized team competency model can be developed for your
• Customer-Focused –It is encouraged that teams to collect and utilize feedback from internal
and/or external customers, and manages customers’ expectations. Most teams have found
customer feedback meetings and service quality improvement tools, such as Moments of
Truth/Cycles of Service analysis, to be extremely valuable.
• Transfer of technology – Organizations that have had the most success with teams have done
most of the work themselves and have developed the internal capability to provide on- going
day-to-day support for each team. Being dependent any consulting firm in the long term is not a
good strategy. It is preferred to identify and/or develop internal consultants or change agents.

4.3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization.

New technology has been injected into the workplace at an exponentially increasing rate over the
last few decades. Many companies see new technology as the means to increase profit margins
and to remain competitive in a rapidly evolving marketplace. This paper will discuss some of
those new technologies and their impact on the workplace. Specifically, I would like to focus on
information technology, its implementation, its pitfalls, and its future.

In 1977, knowledge and information-based activities contributed to almost half of the gross
national product and employed 47% of the American workforce (Sussan, 2006). One could
postulate that those numbers have increased over the last 30 years. As information has become
an increasingly important feature in the business world, new technologies have become available
to facilitate its use and dissemination. This has led to an ever expanding and evolving field of
information technology (IT).
New developments in IT have led to an increasingly mobile workforce. We are no longer tied to
our desk in order to stay in the information loop. We can take our office with us wherever we go.
Cellular phones allow us to be reached almost anywhere. Blackberries and Ultra-mobile PCs
permit to access e-mail and other data products at a wide range of locations. A wide range of
new technologies have given businesses access to faster communication, increased efficiencies,
and the ability to work away from the office (Mamaghani, 2006).

New technology has opened a door of opportunities for companies and employees willing to
explore non-traditional work arrangements. Standley (2006) wrote, "91 percent of organizations
allow employees to work at home occasionally." As telecommuting becomes more popular,
employers are realizing the benefits, including "productivity gains, reduced absenteeism, reduced
employee turnover costs, reduced real estate costs, and reduced relocation costs to name a few"
(Mamaghani, 2006). For Employees, "telecommuting can offer more flexibility and a relief from
workplace policies such as dress code and formal office hours" (Sussan, 2006).
This technology also allows a new kind of team to emerge. Virtual teams can be formed,
bringing together the best people regardless of location and time (Gignac, 2005). E-mail,
teleconferencing, video conferencing, and new emerging technologies are enabling people
around the world to communicate and collaborate rapidly and efficiently. Virtual teams are
contributing to a synergy like never before seen.
With all the improvements in productivity and efficiency offered by new technologies, there are
areas of concern that must be considered thoroughly by any organization before implementing a
new technology. Security is a primary concern inherent in a mobile and accessible IT system.
Denying network access to unauthorized users is an ongoing battle in many firms. Physical
security of IT equipment is also an issue. Standley (2006) writes, "It was recently reported that
the average business laptop held about $1 million of commercial data."

Companies implementing new technology must also take into account the social impact.
According to Sussan (2006), "teamwork is a crucial element of workplace functioning." He goes
on to explain that studies have shown lower satisfaction levels for users of virtual meeting tools
in contrast with fact-to-face meetings. This effect may be able to be mitigated with a hybrid
virtual team, where members occasionally meet in a traditional physical location.
There are also some concerns to consider with the telecommuting arrangement. If team
cohesiveness is a primary concern with an organization, the lack of interaction between peers
could hinder this goal. Supervision of employees working off-site is also problematic. Evaluating
performance, distributing the workload, and motivating employees is more difficult when they
are not physically present. Finally, how will customer service be affected by a transition to a
mobile workforce? Customer acceptance is important (Mamaghani, 2006).
The growth of new technologies to be used in the workplace is showing no sign of slowing
down. Some examples of technology currently in development for commercial use are wearable
computing, city and region-wide WiFi, and nanotechnology (Standley, 2006). Microsoft and
IBM are working on collaboration technology that will facilitate virtual meetings where
participants will be able to teleconference on their computer screens, while creating or changing
documents and product designs using a "virtual whiteboard" (Mamaghani, 2006). These
technologies and many more, including all the unforeseen advances, will continue to contribute
to an increasingly mobile workforce.

The challenge lies in discovering how to implement new technology in the workplace as it
becomes available. Standley (2006) says that according to a Global Future Forum survey, 76
percent of respondents agreed that "organizations are unable to effectively manage and deploy
new technology due to rapid change and constant innovation." The ability to keep up with
technology changes and integrate them in to business will require a paradigm shift in the way we
view technology. Today's children are growing up in a high-technology era, and will be very
capable of realizing this new business model in regard to technology (Standley, 2006).

The only thing certain about the future of technology in the workplace is that it will continue to
change and evolve at an astounding rate. Despite any pitfalls, the implementation of this new
technology, especially IT, is necessary for a company to remain competitive in today's market
and in the future. As Standley (2006) has said, "If it is to benefit, business will need to
understand far more than the mechanics of new technologies. They will need to understand the
way that people - their employees and customers, will use and interact with them."


Standley, Alan. "Set Your Workers Free?" Baylor Business Review, Fall 2006, 25(1). Retrieved
April 5, 2007, from ProQuest database.
Sussan, Aysar P. "The Impact of E-Mail Utilization on Job satisfaction: The Case of Multi
Locations." The Business Review, Cambridge. Dec 2006, 6(1). Retrieved April 5, 2007, from
ProQuest database.

Mamaghani, Farrokh. "Impact of Information Technology on the Workforce of the Future: An

Analysis." International Journal of Management. Dec 2006, 23(4). Retrieved April 5, 2007, from
ProQuest database.

Gignac, Francine. Building Successful Virtual Teams. Boston: Artech House, Inc., 2005.
Retrieved April 5, 2007, from Net Library.