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 “feeling of well-being”

 Simply lack of discomfort- thermally

 Three categories that affect
a.) personal
b.) measurable environmental
c.) psychological
 Most animals come into this world
with built-in insulation, but
human beings come with a
delicate skin.
 building was to create shelter
from the climate and to enhance
thermal comfort
 first form of heating system used
was open fire
 concept of central heating dates
back to the times of the Romans,
 Romans were also the first to use
transparent windows made of
mica or glass to keep the wind and
rain out while letting the light in
 Ruins of south-facing houses
indicate that the value of solar
air-conditioning- desired
level by heating, cooling,
humidifying, dehumidifying,
cleaning, and deodorizing
purpose -provide complete
thermal comfort for its
we need to understand the
thermal aspects of the
human body in order to
design an effective air-
conditioning system
 high level of chemical activity in the
cells that maintain the human body
temperature at a temperature of
37.0°C (98.6°F) while performing the
necessary bodily functions
 kcal = 4.1868 kJ
 metabolic rate - energy consumption
rate for a body
 average man (30 years old, 70 kg, 1.73
m high, 1.8 m2 surface area),
metabolic rate is 84 W
 average man generates heat at a rate
of 108 W- 1250 W
 2000 W for athletes
 surface area of a nude body

 where m is the mass (kg) and h is the height (m)

 Clothing acts as an insulating
layer, and is particularly effective
at retarding radiation,
convection, and conduction.
 In a hot, humid environment, our
skin needs exposure to moving air
to encourage heat loss, yet needs
protection from the sun’s radiant
 The insulating value of clothing is
measured in CLO unit equivalent
to a typical American man’s
business suit in 1941.
 1 CLO = 0.88 ft2-h °F/BTU = 0.155
Can be controlled with various
a.) temperature
b.) air motion
c.) humidity
 comfort of the human body
depends primarily on three
environmental factors:
 the temperature
 23°C to 27°C
 relative humidity
 30 to 70 percent, 50 percent
 air motion
 9 m/min (30 ft/min) in winter
and 15 m/min (50 ft/min) in
 an environment at 10°C (50°F)
with 48 km/h winds feels as
cold as an environment at -7°C
(20°F) with 3 km/h winds
cold environment
 rate of heat loss from the body may exceed
the rate of metabolic heat generation
 Sleeping person will wake up when his or her
mean body temperature drops by 1.3°C
 hands and feet are most easily affected by
cold weather
 reduce the skin temperature and thus the
rate of heat loss
 Increase metabolic heat generation in the
body by shivering, unless the person does it
voluntarily by increasing his or her level of
activity or puts on additional clothing
 if deep body temperature starts falling,the
hands and feet are at greatest danger for
tissue damage
hot environments
 rate of heat loss from the body may drop below
the metabolic heat generation rate
 increases the blood flow
 Under extreme heat conditions, the heart rate
may reach 180 beats per minute in order to
maintain adequate blood supply to the brain
and the skin
 higher heart rates, the volumetric efficiency of
the heart drops because of the very short time
between the beats to fill the heart with blood
 A similar thing happens when a person working
very hard for a long time stops suddenly
 releasing water from sweat
glands and resorting to
evaporative cooling
 body can maintain its core
temperature at 37°C in this
evaporative cooling mode
 A person can tolerate a
temperature rise of 1.4°C
without major discomfort but
may collapse when the
temperature rise reaches 2.8°C
 Death can occur above 43°C
 naturally -infiltration
through cracks and leaks
 forcefully -mechanical
ventilation system
 Mechanical ventilation
systems are part of
commercial buildings
 rooms in large commercial
buildings have no windows
 each person be supplied
with at least 7.5 L/s (15
ft3/min) of fresh air
 The MRT of surrounding surfaces
influence human comfort.
 MRT is the uniform temperature
of an imaginary surrounding
enclosure in which radiant
transfer from the human body
would equal the radian heat
transfer in the actual
nonuniform enclosure (ASHRAE
 Greater effect on thermal comfort than surrounding
air temperature
 Influences 40% more than DBT
 1 ° MRT will require a 1.4 change in air temp
A 15 ft by 20 ft room has an wall at a surface
temperature of 80 F, a window surface
temperature of 86 F. The 2 wall surfaces are
at temperature of 70 F.
 Determine:
 MRT sensation of a person standing at the center
of the room
 required indoor air temperature for the
occupant to sense a comfortable thermal
sensation of 72F.
 MRT of a person standing 3 ft from the center of
the window
 required indoor air temperature for the
occupant to sense a comfortable thermal
sensation of 77F.
 Measure that the high
ambient air
temperature and high
humidity contributes to
body’s ability to cool
 Apparent temperature
 human-perceived
equivalent temperature
 32 C and 70% RH = 41 C
 Index of various
environmental factors
 measure of the heat
stress in direct
sunlight, which takes
into account:
humidity, wind speed,
sun angle and cloud
cover (solar radiation)
 These are designer’s tools, but they
are difficult to quantify for comfort:
 Color
 Texture
 Sound
 Light movement
 Aroma
The fountain suggest
coolness in the color
and texture of its
Vines and trees
provide shade and
their leaves sway in
the lightest breeze,
showing air motion.
Fire’s color is intensely
warm. Texture of
glowing coals
We seek a place near
the fire for the real
radiant warmth, but
also for the
psychological comfort
the fire offers.