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Uploaded by Mark M. Wilde

In the literature on the continuous-variable bosonic teleportation protocol due to [Braunstein and Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett., 80(4):869, 1998], it is often loosely stated that this protocol converges to a perfect teleportation of an input state in the limit of ideal squeezing and ideal detection, but the exact form of this convergence is typically not clarified. In this paper, I explicitly clarify that the convergence is in the strong sense, and not the uniform sense, and furthermore, that the convergence occurs for any input state to the protocol, including the infinite-energy Basel states defined and discussed here. I also prove, in contrast to the above result, that the teleportation simulations of pure-loss, thermal, pure-amplifier, amplifier, and additive-noise channels converge both strongly and uniformly to the original channels, in the limit of ideal squeezing and detection for the simulations. For these channels, I give explicit uniform bounds on the accuracy of their teleportation simulations. These convergence statements have important implications for mathematical proofs that make use of the teleportation simulation of bosonic Gaussian channels, some of which have to do with bounding their non-asymptotic secret-key-agreement capacities.
Based on https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.00145

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Mark M. Wilde

Department of Physics and Astronomy

Center for Computation and Technology

Louisiana State University

Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

May 4, 2018

Available as arXiv:1712.00145

OASIS Seminar, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Continuous-variable bosonic teleportation protocol

A’

B

AM PM

P∞ n

NS

√1 n=0 NS +1

|niA ⊗ |niB , and measurements are homodyne detection.

NS +1

Continuous-variable bosonic teleportation protocol

protocol is an additive-noise Gaussian channel:

ˆ

exp(−|α|2 /σ̄)

T σ̄ (ρ) = d 2 α D(α)ρD(−α),

πσ̄

where σ̄ > 0 is the variance parameter, related to squeezing strength and

measurement efficiency.

In the literature, it is often loosely stated that the teleportation simulation converges

to the ideal channel in the limit of ideal squeezing and detection, but what is the

precise sense in which this happens?

This is not just a mathematical question, but has important physical consequences.

It also has applications in quantum Shannon theory. We can explore this question

via the “CV teleportation game.”

CV teleportation game

Two players: the Distinguisher and the Teleporter. There is also a Referee to decide

who wins. All involved are honest.

Referee flips a fair coin and tells the Teleporter the outcome. If “heads,” the

Teleporter will apply the identity channel; if “tails,” the Teleporter will apply the CV

teleportation protocol.

At this point, either the Distinguisher reveals his strategy to the Teleporter, or vice

versa. The Referee knows both strategies.

The Distinguisher picks a pure state |ψiRA0 and sends A0 to the Teleporter. The

Teleporter takes action as described above. Both R and A are sent to the Referee.

The Referee applies the best measurement to decide what channel the Teleporter

applied. If there is a match between the coin flip outcome and the measurement

result, then the Distinguisher wins this round. If not, the Teleporter wins this round.

After many rounds, Referee collects the results. If the Distinguisher wins more than

3/4 of the rounds, then he is declared the winner. Otherwise, the Teleporter is

declared the winner.

Depiction of the CV teleportation game — “Heads”

Case: “Heads”

R

Distinguisher

Referee

Teleporter

Depiction of the CV teleportation game — “Tails”

Case: “Tails”

R

Distinguisher

Referee

A0

Teleporter B0

AM PM

Quick background

√

Trace norm of an operator A is equal to kAk1 ≡ Tr{ A† A}

Consider a single experiment to distinguish ρ from σ, when they are chosen with

equal probability. Then the success probability in distinguishing them is equal to

1 1

1 + kρ − σk1

2 2

better than random guessing

When kρ − σk1 = 2, the success probability is 1, meaning that the states are

orthogonal and thus perfectly distinguishable

This gives the trace distance its operational meaning in quantum information theory

important physical consequences

Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Un)

Suppose that the Distinguisher reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

ψRA0 σ̄>0

ˆ

exp(−|α|2 /σ̄)

hψ|RA (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(ψRA )|ψiRA = d 2 α |χψA (α)|2 ,

πσ̄

where χψA (α) = Tr{D(α)ψA } is Wigner char. function of reduced density op. ψA .

RHS → 1 as σ̄ → 0, implying

ψRA0 σ̄>0

On the conditions for strong convergence

The proof for strong convergence only requires that the input state be a state (i.e.,

normalizable)

As an explicit example, the state to be teleported could be the following Basel state:

r ∞ r

6 X 1

|βiRA = |niR |niA ,

π 2 n=1 n2

which has total photon number equal to ∞, but is normalizable. Thus, the CV

teleportation of this state is faithful in the limit of ideal squeezing and detection.

For n̂ = ∞

P

n=0 n|nihn| the photon-number operator, one can check that the total

photon number

Tr{(n̂R + n̂A )βRA } = ∞,

due to the presence of the divergent harmonic series after n̂A multiplies the reduced

density operator βA .

Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Un)

Suppose that the Teleporter reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

σ̄>0 ψ

RA0

By picking a two-mode squeezed vacuum state |Φ(NS )i as input, the output state is

1

hΦ(NS )|τ (NS , σ̄)|Φ(NS )i = .

σ̄ + 2σ̄NS + 1

converges to zero in the limit NS → ∞, and so

inf σ̄>0 supψRA0 ψRA0 − (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(ψRA0 ) 1 = 2 and Distinguisher always wins

Changing the game

Let us now change the game. Let G denote a single-mode thermal, amplifier, or

additive-noise channel (not the ideal channel).

teleportation simulation of G, which is given by G ◦ T σ̄ .

Depiction of the modified CV teleportation game — “Heads”

Case: “Heads”

R

Distinguisher

Referee

G

Teleporter

Depiction of the modified CV teleportation game — “Tails”

Case: “Tails”

R

Distinguisher

Referee

A0

Teleporter B0

AM PM G

Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Deux)

Suppose that the Distinguisher reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

ψRA0 σ̄>0

Combined with the prior result, this implies that

ψRA0 σ̄>0

Mark M. Wilde Convergence of teleportation simulation May 4, 2018 14 / 18

Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Deux)

Suppose that the Teleporter reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

σ̄>0 ψ

RA0

Due to the fact that there is the channel G (some noise), one can obtain a uniform

bound on the above distance, so that uniform convergence occurs:

σ̄>0 ψ

RA0

How to get the uniform bound

η ∈ [0, 1) and thermal environment photon number NB ≥ 0.

thermal channel of the same transmissivity but higher thermal environment photon

number:

Lη,NB ◦ T σ̄ = Lη,NB +ησ̄/(1−η) .

How to get the uniform bound (ctd.)

Set NB0 ≡ NB + ησ̄/(1 − η). Then from data processing, the distinguishability of the

channels is limited by the distinguishability of the environmental states:

(idR ⊗Lη,NB )(ρRA ) − (idR ⊗Lη,NB0 )(ρRA )

1

≤
(idR ⊗Bη )[ρRA ⊗ θ(NB )] − (idR ⊗Bη )[ρRA ⊗ θ(NB0 )]
1

=
θ(NB ) − θ(NB0 )
1

#−2 1/2

"s

s

ησ̄ ησ̄

≤ 1 − (NB + 1) NB + + 1 − NB NB +

1−η 1−η

then the uniform convergence holds (i.e., convergence in diamond norm)

lim sup (idR ⊗Lη,NB )(ρRA ) − (idR ⊗Lη,NB0 )(ρRA ) = 0

σ̄→0 ρ 1

RA

Conclusion

This is not just a mathematical effect, but has physical consequences in terms of the

CV teleportation game

These issues are also important to consider in mathematical proofs that make use of

teleportation simulation arguments

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