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Strong and uniform convergence in the teleportation simulation of

bosonic Gaussian channels

Mark M. Wilde

Hearne Institute for Theoretical Phyiscs


Department of Physics and Astronomy
Center for Computation and Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

May 4, 2018

Available as arXiv:1712.00145
OASIS Seminar, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Continuous-variable bosonic teleportation protocol

Recall the continuous-variable bosonic teleportation protocol:

A’

B
AM PM

The entangledrresource state is a two-mode squeezed vacuum


P∞  n
NS
√1 n=0 NS +1
|niA ⊗ |niB , and measurements are homodyne detection.
NS +1

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Continuous-variable bosonic teleportation protocol

Using imperfect resources, the channel implemented by the CV teleportation


protocol is an additive-noise Gaussian channel:
ˆ
exp(−|α|2 /σ̄)
T σ̄ (ρ) = d 2 α D(α)ρD(−α),
πσ̄
where σ̄ > 0 is the variance parameter, related to squeezing strength and
measurement efficiency.

In the literature, it is often loosely stated that the teleportation simulation converges
to the ideal channel in the limit of ideal squeezing and detection, but what is the
precise sense in which this happens?

This is not just a mathematical question, but has important physical consequences.
It also has applications in quantum Shannon theory. We can explore this question
via the “CV teleportation game.”

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CV teleportation game

Two players: the Distinguisher and the Teleporter. There is also a Referee to decide
who wins. All involved are honest.

Referee flips a fair coin and tells the Teleporter the outcome. If “heads,” the
Teleporter will apply the identity channel; if “tails,” the Teleporter will apply the CV
teleportation protocol.

At this point, either the Distinguisher reveals his strategy to the Teleporter, or vice
versa. The Referee knows both strategies.

The Distinguisher picks a pure state |ψiRA0 and sends A0 to the Teleporter. The
Teleporter takes action as described above. Both R and A are sent to the Referee.

The Referee applies the best measurement to decide what channel the Teleporter
applied. If there is a match between the coin flip outcome and the measurement
result, then the Distinguisher wins this round. If not, the Teleporter wins this round.

After many rounds, Referee collects the results. If the Distinguisher wins more than
3/4 of the rounds, then he is declared the winner. Otherwise, the Teleporter is
declared the winner.

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Depiction of the CV teleportation game — “Heads”

Case: “Heads”

R
Distinguisher

Referee

Teleporter

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Depiction of the CV teleportation game — “Tails”

Case: “Tails”

R
Distinguisher

Referee
A0

Teleporter B0
AM PM

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Quick background

Trace norm of an operator A is equal to kAk1 ≡ Tr{ A† A}

It is used as a measure of distinguishability of two states ρ and σ

Consider a single experiment to distinguish ρ from σ, when they are chosen with
equal probability. Then the success probability in distinguishing them is equal to
 
1 1
1 + kρ − σk1
2 2

So when kρ − σk1 = 0, the success probability is 1/2, meaning that we cannot do


better than random guessing

When kρ − σk1 = 2, the success probability is 1, meaning that the states are
orthogonal and thus perfectly distinguishable

This gives the trace distance its operational meaning in quantum information theory

The CV teleportation game introduces an order of optimizations, which has


important physical consequences

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Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Un)

Suppose that the Distinguisher reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

Hint: Winning probability in this case is related to

sup inf ψRA0 − (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(ψRA0 ) 1



ψRA0 σ̄>0

In turn related to topology of strong convergence

For an arbitrary input state |ψiRA , the fidelity reduces to


ˆ
exp(−|α|2 /σ̄)
hψ|RA (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(ψRA )|ψiRA = d 2 α |χψA (α)|2 ,
πσ̄
where χψA (α) = Tr{D(α)ψA } is Wigner char. function of reduced density op. ψA .
RHS → 1 as σ̄ → 0, implying

sup inf ψRA0 − (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(ψRA0 ) 1 = 0,



ψRA0 σ̄>0

and so Teleporter always wins.

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On the conditions for strong convergence

The proof for strong convergence only requires that the input state be a state (i.e.,
normalizable)

There is no need for it to have bounded photon number

As an explicit example, the state to be teleported could be the following Basel state:
r ∞ r
6 X 1
|βiRA = |niR |niA ,
π 2 n=1 n2

which has total photon number equal to ∞, but is normalizable. Thus, the CV
teleportation of this state is faithful in the limit of ideal squeezing and detection.

For n̂ = ∞
P
n=0 n|nihn| the photon-number operator, one can check that the total
photon number
Tr{(n̂R + n̂A )βRA } = ∞,
due to the presence of the divergent harmonic series after n̂A multiplies the reduced
density operator βA .

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Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Un)

Suppose that the Teleporter reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

Hint: Winning probability in this case is related to

inf sup ψRA0 − (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(ψRA0 ) 1



σ̄>0 ψ
RA0

In turn related to topology of uniform convergence

By picking a two-mode squeezed vacuum state |Φ(NS )i as input, the output state is

τ (NS , σ̄) = (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(Φ(NS ))

Then the Distinguisher can make the fidelity equal to


1
hΦ(NS )|τ (NS , σ̄)|Φ(NS )i = .
σ̄ + 2σ̄NS + 1

Thus, the fidelity


converges to zero in the limit NS → ∞, and so
inf σ̄>0 supψRA0 ψRA0 − (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(ψRA0 ) 1 = 2 and Distinguisher always wins

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Changing the game

Let us now change the game. Let G denote a single-mode thermal, amplifier, or
additive-noise channel (not the ideal channel).

If “heads,” the Teleporter applies G. If “tails,” the Teleporter applies the


teleportation simulation of G, which is given by G ◦ T σ̄ .

Who wins now?

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Depiction of the modified CV teleportation game — “Heads”

Case: “Heads”

R
Distinguisher

Referee

G
Teleporter

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Depiction of the modified CV teleportation game — “Tails”

Case: “Tails”

R
Distinguisher

Referee
A0

Teleporter B0
AM PM G

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Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Deux)

Suppose that the Distinguisher reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

Hint: Winning probability in this case is related to

sup inf (idR ⊗G)(ψRA0 ) − (idR ⊗[G ◦ T σ̄ ])(ψRA0 ) 1



ψRA0 σ̄>0

In turn related to topology of strong convergence

The data processing inequality for trace distance states that

kρ − σk1 ≥ kN (ρ) − N (σ)k1

for any two states ρ and σ and a quantum channel N


Combined with the prior result, this implies that

sup inf (idR ⊗G)(ψRA0 ) − (idR ⊗[G ◦ T σ̄ ])(ψRA0 ) 1 = 0



ψRA0 σ̄>0

so that the Teleporter wins.


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Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Deux)

Suppose that the Teleporter reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

Hint: Winning probability in this case is related to

inf sup (idR ⊗G)(ψRA0 ) − (idR ⊗[G ◦ T σ̄ ])(ψRA0 ) 1



σ̄>0 ψ
RA0

In turn related to topology of uniform convergence

Due to the fact that there is the channel G (some noise), one can obtain a uniform
bound on the above distance, so that uniform convergence occurs:

inf sup (idR ⊗G)(ψRA0 ) − (idR ⊗[G ◦ T σ̄ ])(ψRA0 ) 1 = 0



σ̄>0 ψ
RA0

and the Teleporter always wins.

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How to get the uniform bound

Concretely, suppose the channel is a thermal channel Lη,NB of transmissivity


η ∈ [0, 1) and thermal environment photon number NB ≥ 0.

Composing an additive-noise channel T σ̄ with a thermal channel Lη,NB gives a


thermal channel of the same transmissivity but higher thermal environment photon
number:
Lη,NB ◦ T σ̄ = Lη,NB +ησ̄/(1−η) .

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How to get the uniform bound (ctd.)

Set NB0 ≡ NB + ησ̄/(1 − η). Then from data processing, the distinguishability of the
channels is limited by the distinguishability of the environmental states:

(idR ⊗Lη,NB )(ρRA ) − (idR ⊗Lη,NB0 )(ρRA )

1
≤ (idR ⊗Bη )[ρRA ⊗ θ(NB )] − (idR ⊗Bη )[ρRA ⊗ θ(NB0 )] 1

= ρRA ⊗ θ(NB ) − ρRA ⊗ θ(NB0 ) 1


= θ(NB ) − θ(NB0 ) 1

#−2 1/2
 "s 
  s 
ησ̄ ησ̄
≤ 1 − (NB + 1) NB + + 1 − NB NB + 
1−η 1−η

Since the last expression depends only on channel parameters and → 0 as σ̄ → 0,


then the uniform convergence holds (i.e., convergence in diamond norm)

lim sup (idR ⊗Lη,NB )(ρRA ) − (idR ⊗Lη,NB0 )(ρRA ) = 0

σ̄→0 ρ 1
RA

Same argument applies to amplifier channels and additive-noise channels

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Conclusion

It is important to clarify convergence issues in CV teleportation

This is not just a mathematical effect, but has physical consequences in terms of the
CV teleportation game

These issues are also important to consider in mathematical proofs that make use of
teleportation simulation arguments

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