You are on page 1of 12

Fin

A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or


structure. Fins typically function asfoils that produce lift or thrust, or
provide the ability to steer or stabilize motion while traveling in
water, air, or other fluid media. Fins are also used to increase surface
areas for heat transfer purposes, or simply as ornamentation.[1][2]

Fins first evolved on fish as a means of locomotion. Fish fins are


used to generate thrust and control the subsequent motion. Fish, and
other aquatic animals such as cetaceans, actively propel and steer
themselves with pectoral and tail fins. As they swim, they use other
Fins typically function asfoils that provide lift or
fins, such as dorsal and anal fins, to achieve stability and refine their
thrust, or provide the ability to steer or stabilize
maneuvering.[3][4]
motion in water or air

Contents
Generating thrust
Controlling motion
Regulating temperature
Ornamentation and other uses
Evolution of fins
Robotic fins
See also
References
Further reading
External links

Generating thrust
Foil shaped fins generatethrust when moved, the lift of the fin sets water or air in motion and pushes the fin in the opposite direction.
Aquatic animals get significant thrust by moving fins back and forth in water. Often the tail fin is used, but some aquatic animals
generate thrust from pectoral fins.[3] Fins can also generate thrust if they are rotated in air or water. Turbines and propellers (and
sometimes fans and pumps) use a number of rotating fins, also called foils, wings, arms or blades. Propellers use the fins to translate
torquing force to lateral thrust, thus propelling an aircraft or ship.[5] Turbines work in reverse, using the lift of the blades to generate
.[6]
torque and power from moving gases or water
Moving fins can provide thrust

Fish get thrust Cetaceans get thrust moving Stingrays get thrust
moving vertical tail horizontal tail fins up and from large pectoral
fins from side to down fins
side

Ship propeller Airplane propeller Compressor fins (blades)

Cavitation can be a problem with high power applications, resulting in damage to propellers or
turbines, as well as noise and loss of power.[7] Cavitation occurs when negative pressure causes
bubbles (cavities) to form in a liquid, which then promptly and violently collapse. It can cause
significant damage and wear.[7] Cavitation damage can also occur to the tail fins of powerful
swimming marine animals, such as dolphins and tuna. Cavitation is more likely to occur near the
surface of the ocean, where the ambient water pressure is relatively low. Even if they have the
power to swim faster, dolphins may have to restrict their speed because collapsing cavitation Cavitation damage is
bubbles on their tail are too painful.[8] Cavitation also slows tuna, but for a different reason. evident on this propeller

Unlike dolphins, these fish do not feel the bubbles, because they have bony fins without nerve
endings. Nevertheless, they cannot swim faster because the cavitation bubbles create a vapor film
around their fins that limits their speed. Lesions have been found on tuna that are consistent with
cavitation damage.[8]

Scombrid fishes (tuna, mackerel and bonito) are particularly high-performance swimmers. Along
the margin at the rear of their bodies is a line of small rayless, non-retractable fins, known as
finlets. There has been much speculation about the function of these finlets. Research done in
2000 and 2001 by Nauen and Lauder indicated that "the finlets have a hydrodynamic effect on Drawing by Dr Tony Ayling
local flow during steady swimming" and that "the most posterior finlet is oriented to redirect flow
into the developing tail vortex, which may increase thrust produced by the tail of swimming Finlets may influence the
way a vortex develops
mackerel".[9][10][11]
around the tail fin.
Fish use multiple fins, so it is possible that a given fin can have a hydrodynamic interaction with
another fin. In particular, the fins immediately upstream of the caudal (tail) fin may be proximate
fins that can directly affect the flow dynamics at the caudal fin. In 2011, researchers using volumetric imaging techniques were able
to generate "the first instantaneous three-dimensional views of wake structures as they are produced by freely swimming fishes".
They found that "continuous tail beats resulted in the formation of a linked chain of vortex rings" and that "the dorsal and anal fin
[12]
wakes are rapidly entrained by the caudal fin wake, approximately within the timeframe of a subsequent tail beat".

Controlling motion
Once motion has been established, the motion itself can be controlled with the use of
other fins.[3][15][16] Boats control direction (yaw) with fin-like rudders, and roll with
stabilizer fins and keel fins.[15] Airplanes achieve similar results with small
[16]
specialised fins that change the shape of their wings and tail fins.

Fins are used by aquatic animals,


such as this killer whale, to generate
thrust and control the subsequent
motion [13][14]

Specialised fins are used to control motion

Fish, boats and airplanes need The dorsal fin of a white shark
control of three degrees ofrotational contain dermal fibers that work "like
freedom[17][18][19] riggings that stabilize a ship's mast",
and stiffen dynamically as the shark
swims faster to control roll and
yaw.[20]

A rudder corrects A fin keel limits roll Ship stabilising fins reduce roll
yaw and sideways drift

Ailerons control roll Elevators control pitch The rudder controls yaw

Stabilising fins are used as fletching on arrows and some darts,[21] and at the rear of some bombs, missiles, rockets, and self-
propelled torpedoes.[22][23] These are typically planar and shaped like small wings, although grid fins are sometimes used.[24] Static
fins have also been used for one satellite,GOCE.
Static tail fins are used as stabilizers

Fletching on an arrow Asymmetric stabilizing Conventional "planar"


fins impart spin to this fins on a RIM-7 Sea
Soviet artillery rocket Sparrow missile

Regulating temperature
Engineering fins are also used asheat transfer fins to regulate temperature inheat sinks or fin radiators.[25][26]

Fins can regulate temperature

Motorbikes use fins to cool Oil heaters Sailfish raise their dorsal fin to
the engine [27] convect cool down or to herd schooling
with fins fish[28][29]

Ornamentation and other uses


In biology, fins can have an adaptive significance as sexual ornaments. During courtship, the female cichlid, Pelvicachromis
taeniatus, displays a large and visually arresting purple pelvic fin. "The researchers found that males clearly preferred females with a
[30][31]
larger pelvic fin and that pelvic fins grew in a more disproportionate way than other fins on female fish."

Ornamentation

The huge theropod dinosaur


During courtship, the Car tail fins in the
Spinosaurus may have used
female cichlid, 1950s were largely
its sail or dorsal fin to
Pelvicachromis [32] decorative [34]
regulate its temperature,
taeniatus, displays her
or as a courtship
visually arresting
display.[33]:28
purple pelvic fin

Reshaping human feet with swim fins, rather like the tail fin of a fish, add thrust and efficiency to the kicks of a swimmer or
underwater diver[35][36] Surfboard fins provide surfers with means to maneuver and control their boards. Contemporary surfboards
often have a centre fin and twocambered side fins.[37]
The bodies of reef fishes are often shaped differently from open water fishes. Open water fishes are usually built for speed,
streamlined like torpedoes to minimise friction as they move through the water. Reef fish operate in the relatively confined spaces
and complex underwater landscapes of coral reefs. For this manoeuvrability is more important than straight line speed, so coral reef
fish have developed bodies which optimize their ability to dart and change direction. They outwit predators by dodging into fissures
in the reef or playing hide and seek around coral heads.[38] The pectoral and pelvic fins of many reef fish, such as butterflyfish,
damselfish and angelfish, have evolved so they can act as brakes and allow complex maneuvers.[39] Many reef fish, such as
butterflyfish, damselfish and angelfish, have evolved bodies which are deep and laterally compressed like a pancake, and will fit into
fissures in rocks. Their pelvic and pectoral fins are designed differently, so they act together with the flattened body to optimise
maneuverability.[38] Some fishes, such as puffer fish, filefish and trunkfish, rely on pectoral fins for swimming and hardly use tail
fins at all.[39]

Other uses

Swim fins add Surfboard fins In some Asian In recent years, car fins
thrust to the allow surfers to countries shark have evolved into highly
kicks of a maneuver their fins are a functional spoilers and
human boards culinary wings [41]
swimmer delicacy [40]

Many reef fish have Frog fish use their Flying fish use enlarged
pectoral and pelvic fins pectoral and pelvic fins pectoral fins to glide above
optimised for flattened to walk along the the surface of the water[43]
[42]
bodies [38] ocean bottom

Evolution of fins
There is an old theory, which has been often disregarded in science
textbooks, "that fins and (later) limbs evolved from the gills of an
extinct vertebrate". Gaps in the fossil record had not allowed a
definitive conclusion. In 2009, researchers from the University of
Chicago found evidence that the "genetic architecture of gills, fins
and limbs is the same", and that "the skeleton of any appendage off
the body of an animal is probably patterned by the developmental
Aquatic animals typically use fins forlocomotion
genetic program that we have traced back to formation of gills in
(1) pectoral fins (paired), (2) pelvic fins (paired), (3)
sharks".[45][46][47]
dorsal fin, (4) adipose fin, (5) anal fin, (6) caudal
(tail) fin
Fish are the ancestors of all mammals, reptiles, birds and
amphibians.[48] In particular, terrestrial tetrapods (four-legged
animals) evolved from fish and made their first forays onto land 400 million years
ago. They used paired pectoral and pelvic fins for locomotion. The pectoral fins
Aristotle recognised the distinction
between analogous and homologous
developed into forelegs (arms in the case of humans) and the pelvic fins developed structures, and made the following
into hind legs.[49] Much of the genetic machinery that builds a walking limb in a prophetic comparison: "Birds in a way
[50][51] resemble fishes. For birds have their
tetrapod is already present in the swimming fin of a fish.
wings in the upper part of their bodies
and fishes have two fins in the front
In 2011, researchers at Monash University
part of their bodies. Birds have feet on
in Australia used primitive but still living their underpart and most fishes have a
lungfish "to trace the evolution of pelvic second pair of fins in their under-part
fin muscles to find out how the load- and near their front fins."
bearing hind limbs of the tetrapods – Aristotle, De incessu animalium[44]
evolved."[52][53] Further research at the
University of Chicago found bottom-
walking lungfishes had already evolved
Comparison between A) the characteristics of the walking gaits of
swimming fin of a lobe-finned terrestrial tetrapods.[54][55]
fish and B) the walking leg of
a tetrapod. Bones considered In a classic example of convergent
to correspond with each other evolution, the pectoral limbs of pterosaurs,
In a parallel but independent
have the same color. birds and bats further evolved along evolution, the ancient reptile
independent paths into flying wings. Even Ichthyosaurus communisdeveloped
with flying wings there are many fins (or flippers) very similar to fish
similarities with walking legs, and core aspects of the genetic blueprint of the (or dolphins)
pectoral fin have been retained.[56][57]

About 200 million years ago the first mammals appeared. A group of these mammals started returning to the sea about 52 million
years ago, thus completing a circle. These are the cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises). Recent DNA analysis suggests that
cetaceans evolved from within the even-toed ungulates, and that they share a common ancestor with the hippopotamus.[58][59] About
23 million years ago another group of bearlike land mammals started returning to the sea. These were the seals.[60] What had become
walking limbs in cetaceans and seals evolved further, independently in a reverse form of convergent evolution, back to new forms of
swimming fins. The forelimbs became flippers and the hind limbs became a tail terminating in two fins, called a fluke in the case of
cetaceans.[61] Fish tails are usually vertical and move from side to side. Cetacean flukes are horizontal and move up and down,
[62][63]
because cetacean spines bend the same way as in other mammals.

Ichthyosaurs are ancient reptiles that resembled dolphins. They first appeared about 245 million years ago and disappeared about 90
million years ago.

"This sea-going reptile with terrestrial ancestors converged so strongly on fishes that it actually evolved a dorsal fin
and tail in just the right place and with just the right hydrological design. These structures are all the more remarkable
because they evolved from nothing — the ancestral terrestrial reptile had no hump on its back or blade on its tail to
serve as a precursor."[64]

The biologist Stephen Jay Gould said the ichthyosaur was his favorite example ofconvergent evolution.[65]

Robotic fins
The use of fins for the propulsion of aquatic animals can be remarkably effective. It has been calculated that some fish can achieve a
propulsive efficiency greater than 90%.[3] Fish can accelerate and maneuver much more effectively than boats or submarine, and
produce less water disturbance and noise. This has led to biomimetic studies of underwater robots which attempt to emulate the
locomotion of aquatic animals.[66] An example is the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics, to analyze and
mathematically model thunniform motion.[67] In 2005, the Sea Life London Aquarium displayed three robotic fish created by the
computer science department at the University of Essex. The fish were designed to be
autonomous, swimming around and avoiding obstacles like real fish. Their creator
claimed that he was trying to combine "the speed of tuna, acceleration of a pike, and
the navigating skills of an eel."[68][69][70]

The AquaPenguin, developed by Festo of Germany, copies the streamlined shape and
propulsion by front flippers of penguins.[71][72] Festo also developed AquaRay,[73]
AquaJelly[74] and AiraCuda,[75] respectively emulating the locomotion of manta rays,
jellyfish and barracuda. In the 1990s the CIA built a robotic
catfish called Charlie to test the
In 2004, Hugh Herr at MIT prototyped a biomechatronic robotic fish with a living feasibility of unmanned underwater
vehicles
actuator by surgically transplanting muscles from frog legs to the robot and then
.[76][77]
making the robot swim by pulsing the muscle fibers with electricity
External video
Robotic fish offer some research advantages, such as the ability to examine an
individual part of a fish design in isolation from the rest of the fish. However, this Charlie the catfish – CIA video
risks oversimplifying the biology so key aspects of the animal design are AquaPenguin – Festo, YouTube
overlooked. Robotic fish also allow researchers to vary a single parameter, such as AquaRay – Festo, YouTube
flexibility or a specific motion control. Researchers can directly measure forces,
AquaJelly – Festo, YouTube
which is not easy to do in live fish. "Robotic devices also facilitate three-
dimensional kinematic studies and correlated hydrodynamic analyses, as the location AiraCuda – Festo, YouTube
of the locomotor surface can be known accurately. And, individual components of a
natural motion (such as outstroke vs. instroke of a flapping appendage) can be programmed separately, which is certainly difficult to
achieve when working with a live animal."[78]

See also
Aquatic locomotion
Fin and flipper locomotion
Fish locomotion
Robot locomotion
RoboTuna
Sail (submarine)
Surfboard fin

References
1. Fin (http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/american_english/fin)Oxford dictionary. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
2. Fin (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fin) Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
3. Sfakiotakis, M; Lane, DM; Davies, JBC (1999)."Review of Fish Swimming Modes for Aquatic Locomotion"(https://w
eb.archive.org/web/20131224091124/http://www .mor-fin.com/Science-related-links_files/http___www
.ece.eps.hw.ac.
uk_Research_oceans_people_Michael_Sfakiotakis_IEEEJOE_99.pdf)(PDF). IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering.
24 (2): 237–252. doi:10.1109/48.757275 (https://doi.org/10.1109%2F48.757275). Archived from the original (http://w
ww.mor-fin.com/Science-related-links_files/http___www.ece.eps.hw.ac.uk_Research_oceans_people_Michael_Sfaki
otakis_IEEEJOE_99.pdf)(PDF) on 2013-12-24.
4. Helfman G, Collette BB, Facey DE and Bowen BW (2009)"Functional morphology of locomotion and feeding"(http://
limnology.wisc.edu/courses/zoo510/2009/helfman_ch8.pdf) Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20150602082907/
http://limnology.wisc.edu/courses/zoo510/2009/helfman_ch8.pdf) 2015-06-02 at the Wayback Machine. Chapter 8,
pp. 101–116. In:The Diversity of Fishes: Biology, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444311907.
5. Carlton, John (2007) Marine Propellers and Propulsion(https://books.google.com/books?id=QrLNCxzynU4C)Pages
1–28, Butterworth-Heinemann.ISBN 9780750681506.
6. Soares, Claire (2008) Gas Turbines: A Handbook of Air, Land, and Sea Applications(https://books.google.com/book
s?id=rTPZp1YCQBkC)Pages 1–23, Butterworth-Heinemann.ISBN 9780750679695.
7. Franc, Jean-Pierre and Michel, Jean-Marie (2004)Fundamentals of Cavitation(https://books.google.com/books?id=
QJOQYa_oo24C) Springer. ISBN 9781402022326.
8. Brahic, Catherine (2008-03-28)."Dolphins swim so fast it hurts"(https://www.newscientist.com/channel/life/dn13553-
dolphins-swim-so-fast-it-hurts.html). New Scientist. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
9. Nauen, JC; Lauder, GV (2001a). "Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualization of flow around the caudal peduncle
and finlets of the Chub mackerelScomber japonicus" (http://jeb.biologists.org/content/204/13/2251.long)
. Journal of
Experimental Biology. 204 (13): 2251–63.
10. Nauen, JC; Lauder, GV (2001b). "Three-dimensional analysis of finlet kinematics in the Chub mackerel(Scomber
japonicus)" (http://www.biolbull.org/content/200/1/9.full). The Biological Bulletin. 200 (1): 9–19. doi:10.2307/1543081
(https://doi.org/10.2307%2F1543081). PMID 11249216 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11249216).
11. Nauen, JC; Lauder, GV (2000). "Locomotion in scombrid fishes: morphology and kinematics of the finlets of the
Chub mackerel Scomber japonicus" (http://jeb.biologists.org/content/203/15/2247.full.pdf)(PDF). Journal of
Experimental Biology. 203 (15): 2247–59.
12. Flammang, BE; Lauder, GV; Troolin, DR; Strand, TE (2011). "Volumetric imaging of fish locomotion"(http://intl-rsbl.ro
yalsocietypublishing.org/content/7/5/695.full). Biology Letters. 7 (5): 695–698. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0282(https://do
i.org/10.1098%2Frsbl.2011.0282). PMC 3169073 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3169073) .
13. * Fish, FE (2002). "Balancing requirements for stability and maneuverability in cetaceans"(http://icb.oxfordjournals.or
g/content/42/1/85.full). Integrative and Comparative Biology. 42 (1): 85–93. doi:10.1093/icb/42.1.85 (https://doi.org/1
0.1093%2Ficb%2F42.1.85). PMID 21708697 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21708697).
14. * Fish, FE; Lauder, GV (2006). "Passive and active flow control by swimming fishes and mammals".Annual Review
of Fluid Mechanics. 38 (1): 193–224. doi:10.1146/annurev.fluid.38.050304.092201(https://doi.org/10.1146%2Fannur
ev.fluid.38.050304.092201).
15. Perez, Tristan (2005) Ship Motion Control: Course Keeping and Roll Stabilisation Using Rudder and Fins
(https://boo
ks.google.com/books?id=lxlO3d2srAIC)Springer. ISBN 9781852339593.
16. McClamroch, N Harris (2011)Steady Aircraft Flight and Performance(https://books.google.com/books?id=DKK7m8
o7_ZkC&pg=PA58) Page 2–3, Princeton University Press.ISBN 9780691147192.
17. Magnuson JJ (1978) "Locomotion by scombrid fishes: Hydromechanics, morphology and behavior" (https://books.go
ogle.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=wnjnyAafAzUC&oi=fnd&pg=P A239) in Fish Physiology, Volume 7: Locomotion, WS
Hoar and DJ Randall (Eds) Academic Press. Page 240–308.ISBN 9780123504074.
18. Ship's movements at sea(http://www.pomorci.com/Zanimljivosti/Ship's%20movements%20at%20sea.pdf)Archived
(https://web.archive.org/web/20111125015923/http://www
.pomorci.com/Zanimljivosti/Ship%27s%20movements%20
at%20sea.pdf) November 25, 2011, at theWayback Machine. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
19. Rana and Joag (2001)Classical Mechanics (https://books.google.com/books?id=1kxkdWGa9-cC&pg=P
A391) Page
391, Tata McGraw-Hill Education.ISBN 9780074603154.
20. Lingham; Soliar, T (2005). "Dorsal fin in the white shark,Carcharodon carcharias: A dynamic stabilizer for fast
swimming" (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.10207/abstract). Journal of Morphology. 263 (1): 1–11.
doi:10.1002/jmor.10207 (https://doi.org/10.1002%2Fjmor.10207). PMID 15536651 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub
med/15536651).
21. Vujic, Dragan (2007) Bow Hunting Whitetails(https://books.google.com/books?id=YsiPb2nmYdEC&pg=P
A17) Page
17, iUniverse. ISBN 9780595432073.
22. Hobbs, Marvin (2010) Basics of Missile Guidance and Space T
echniques (https://books.google.com/books?id=a0Txa
Tq2rQIC&pg=SA1-PA24) Page 24, Wildside Press LLC.ISBN 9781434421258.
23. Compon-Hall, Richard (2004)Submarines at War 1939–1945 (https://books.google.com/books?id=EEJ6Y
aMGkV4C
&pg=PA50) Page 50, Periscope Publishing.ISBN 9781904381228.
24. Khalid M, Sun Y and Xu H (1998)"Computation of Flows Past Grid Fin Missiles"(ftp://ftp.rta.nato.int/Pubfulltext/RTO/
MP/.../RTO-MP-005/$MP-005-12.pdf)AVT Symposium on Missile Aerodynamics, Sorrento, Italy.
25. Siegel R and Howell JR (2002)Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer (https://books.google.com/books?id=O389yQ0-fec
C&pg=PA1) Chapter 9: Radiation combined with conduction and convection at boundaries, pp.335–370.aylor
T &
Francis. ISBN 9781560328391.
26. Fin: Function in aircraft engines(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/207095/fin) Encyclopædia Britannica.
Retrieved 22 November 2012.
27. Clarke, Massimo (2010)Modern Motorcycle Technology (https://books.google.com/books?id=u7U524T
amcUC&pg=P
A62) Page 62, MotorBooks International.ISBN 9780760338193.
28. Aquatic Life of the World(https://books.google.com/books?id=va1ODFo_tdUC&pg=P
A332) pp. 332–333, Marshall
Cavendish Corporation, 2000.ISBN 9780761471707.
29. Dement J Species Spotlight: Atlantic Sailfish I(stiophorus albicans) (http://www.littoralsociety.org/userfiles/doccenter/
Species%20Spotlight%20Atlantic%20Sailfish.pdf)Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20101217230458/http://ww
w.littoralsociety.org/userfiles/doccenter/Species%20Spotlight%20Atlantic%20Sailfish.pdf) December 17, 2010, at the
Wayback Machine. littoralsociety.org. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
30. Female fish flaunt fins to attract a mate(https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101007210540.htm)
ScienceDaily. 8 October 2010.
31. Baldauf SA, TCM Bakker, F Herder, H Kullmann and T Thünken (2010)"Male mate choice scales female ornament
allometry in a cichlid fish"(http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/301/) BMC Evolutionary Biologr//,10 :301.
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-301(https://doi.org/10.1186%2F1471-2148-10-301)
32. Halstead, L.B. (1975). The Evolution and Ecology of the Dinosaurs. London: Eurobook Limited. pp. 1–116.ISBN 0-
85654-018-8.
33. Stromer, E. (1915). "Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltier-
Reste der Baharije-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 3. Das Original des Theropoden Spinosaurus aegyptiacusnov. gen.,
nov. spec" (http://www.megaupload.com/?d=3KCCC7LS). Abhandlungen der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der
Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-physikalische Klasse(in German). 28 (3): 1–32.
34. David, Dennis (2001) Fifties Fins (https://books.google.com/books?id=VOi0Omb6newC&pg=P
A6) MotorBooks
International. ISBN 9780760309612.
35. Zamparo P, Pendergast DR, Termin A, Minetti AE; Pendergast; Termin; Minetti (March 2006). "Economy and
efficiency of swimming at the surface with fins of different size and stiffness". Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 96 (4): 459–70.
doi:10.1007/s00421-005-0075-7(https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs00421-005-0075-7) . PMID 16341874 (https://www.ncb
i.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16341874).
36. Yamaguchi H, Shidara F, Naraki N, Mohri M; Shidara; Naraki; Mohri (September 1995)."Maximum sustained fin-kick
thrust in underwater swimming"(http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2219). Undersea Hyperb Med. 22 (3): 241–8.
PMID 7580765 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7580765). Retrieved 2008-08-25.
37. Brandner PA and Walker GJ (2004) Hydrodynamic Performance of a Surfboard Fin(http://eprints.utas.edu.au/6613/
1/AFMC_Brandnerand_Walker_2004_F1.pdf) 15th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Sydney .
38. William S. Alevizon (1993).Pisces Guide to Caribbean Reef Ecology(https://books.google.com/books?id=H9FcAAA
AMAAJ). Pisces Books. ASIN 1559920777 (https://www.amazon.com/dp/1559920777). ISBN 978-1-55992-077-3.
39. Ichthyology (http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/education/HowSwim/HowSwim.html) Florida Museum of Natural History.
Retrieved 22 November 2012.
40. Vannuccini S (1999). "Shark utilization, marketing and trade"(http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/X3690E/x3690e0p.ht
m). FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. Rome: FAO. 389.
41. Ridhwan CZ (2008) Aerodynamics of aftermarket rear spoiler(http://umpir.ump.edu.my/581/1/Ridhwan_Che_Zake.p
df) University Malaysia Pahang
42. Bertelsen E, Pietsch TW (1998).Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 138–139.ISBN 0-12-
547665-5.
43. Fish, FE (1990). "Wing design and scaling of flying fish with regard to flight performance"
(https://web.archive.org/we
b/20131020095503/http://darwin.wcupa.edu/~biology/fish/pubs/pdf/1990JZWingdesign.pdf) (PDF). Journal of
Zoology. 221 (3): 391–403. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1990.tb04009.x(https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1469-7998.1990.t
b04009.x). Archived from the original (http://darwin.wcupa.edu/~biology/fish/pubs/pdf/1990JZWingdesign.pdf) (PDF)
on 2013-10-20.
44. Moore, John A (1988)."Understanding nature—form and function"(http://www.sicb.org/dl/saawok/449.pdf)(PDF).
American Zoologist. 28 (2): 449–584 [485]. doi:10.1093/icb/28.2.449 (https://doi.org/10.1093%2Ficb%2F28.2.449)
.
45. Evolution Of Fins And Limbs Linked With That Of Gills(https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/0903232120
21.htm) ScienceDaily. 25 March 2009.
46. Gillis, JA; Dahn, RD; Shubin, NH (2009)."Shared developmental mechanisms pattern the vertebrate gill arch and
paired fin skeletons" (http://www.pnas.org/content/106/14/5720.full). Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences. 106 (14): 5720–5724. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810959106(https://doi.org/10.1073%2Fpnas.0810959106) .
PMC 2667079 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2667079) . PMID 19321424 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.ni
h.gov/pubmed/19321424).
47. Wings, legs, and fins: How do new organs arise in evolution?(http://www.uctv.tv/shows/Wings-Legs-and-Fins-How-D
o-New-Organs-Arise-in-Evolution-16421)Neil Shubin, University of Chicago.
48. "Primordial Fish Had Rudimentary Fingers"(https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080922090843.htm)
ScienceDaily, 23 September 2008.
49. Hall, Brian K (2007) Fins into Limbs: Evolution, Development, and T
ransformation (https://books.google.com/books?i
d=Z0YWn5F9sWkC) University of Chicago Press.ISBN 9780226313375.
50. Shubin, Neil (2009) Your inner fish: A journey into the 3.5 billion year history of the human body(https://books.googl
e.com/books?id=c008kdNwR1cC)Vintage Books. ISBN 9780307277459. UCTV interview (http://www.uctv.tv/search-
details.aspx?showID=16412)
51. Clack, Jennifer A (2012)"From fins to feet" (https://books.google.com/books?id=6Ztrhm8uLQ0C)Chapter 6, pages
187–260, in: Gaining Ground, Second Edition: The Origin and Evolution of etrapods,
T Indiana University Press.
ISBN 9780253356758.
52. Lungfish Provides Insight to Life On Land: 'Humans Are Just Modified Fish'
(https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2
011/10/111004180106.htm)ScienceDaily, 7 October 2011.
53. Cole NJ, Hall TE, Don EK, Berger S, Boisvert CA,et al. (2011) "Development and Evolution of the Muscles of the
Pelvic Fin" (http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001168)PLoS Biology, 9
(10): e1001168. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001168
54. A small step for lungfish, a big step for the evolution of walking"(https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111
212153117.htm) ScienceDaily, 13 December 2011.
55. King, HM; Shubin, NH; Coates, MI; Hale, ME (2011)."Behavioral evidence for the evolution of walking and bounding
before terrestriality in sarcopterygian fishes"(http://www.pnas.org/content/108/52/21146.full). Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences. 108 (52): 21146–21151. doi:10.1073/pnas.1118669109(https://doi.org/10.1073%2F
pnas.1118669109). PMC 3248479 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3248479) . PMID 22160688 (htt
ps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22160688).
56. Shubin, N; Tabin, C; Carroll, S (1997)."Fossils, genes and the evolution of animal limbs"(https://web.archive.org/we
b/20120916105318/http://genepath.med.harvard.edu/~tabin/Pdfs/Shubin.pdf) (PDF). Nature. 388 (6643): 639–648.
doi:10.1038/41710 (https://doi.org/10.1038%2F41710). PMID 9262397 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/92623
97). Archived from the original (http://genepath.med.harvard.edu/~tabin/Pdfs/Shubin.pdf)(PDF) on 2012-09-16.
57. Vertebrate flight: The three solutions(http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/flight/converge.html)University of
California. Updated 29 September 2005.
58. "Scientists find missing link between the dolphin, whale and its closest relative, the hippo"
(https://web.archive.org/w
eb/20070304214747/http://www.sciencenewsdaily.org/story-2806.html). Science News Daily. 2005-01-25. Archived
from the original (http://www.sciencenewsdaily.org/story-2806.html) on 2007-03-04. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
59. Gatesy, J. (1 May 1997). "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene
gamma-fibrinogen" (http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/14/5/537)
. Molecular Biology and Evolution.
14 (5): 537–543. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025790 (https://doi.org/10.1093%2Foxfordjournals.molbev .a02
5790). PMID 9159931 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9159931).
60. Flynn, John J.; et al. (2005). "Molecular Phylogeny of the Carnivora"(http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tandf/u
syb/2005/00000054/00000002/art00010). Systematic Biology. 54 (2): 317–337. doi:10.1080/10635150590923326(h
ttps://doi.org/10.1080%2F10635150590923326) . PMID 16012099 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16012099).
61. Felts WJL "Some functional and structural characteristics of cetacean flippers and flukes"
(https://books.google.com/
books?hl=en&lr=&id=KyxELyTDlsQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA255) Pages 255–275 in: Norris KS (ed.) Whales, Dolphins, and
Porpoises, University of California Press.
62. The evolution of whales(http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_03) University of California
Museum. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
63. Thewissen, JGM; Cooper, LN; George, JC; Bajpai, S (2009). "From Land to Water: the Origin of Whales, Dolphins,
and Porpoises" (http://www.evolbiol.ru/large_files/whales.pdf) (PDF). Evo Edu Outreach. 2 (2): 272–288.
doi:10.1007/s12052-009-0135-2(https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs12052-009-0135-2) .
64. Martill D.M. (1993). "Soupy Substrates: A Medium for the Exceptional Preservation of Ichthyosaurs of the Posidonia
Shale (Lower Jurassic) of Germany".Kaupia – Darmstädter Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte , 2 : 77–97.
65. Gould, Stephen Jay (1993"Bent Out of Shape" (https://books.google.com/books?id=_kOoVw0SIhUC)in Eight Little
Piggies: Reflections in Natural History. Norton, 179–94. ISBN 9780393311396.
66. Richard Mason. "What is the market for robot fish?"(https://web.archive.org/web/20090704021443/http://rjmason.co
m/ramblings/robotFishMarket.html). Archived from the original (http://rjmason.com/ramblings/robotFishMarket.html)
on 2009-07-04.
67. Witoon Juwarahawong."Fish Robot" (https://web.archive.org/web/20071104081550/http://fibo.kmutt.ac.th/project/en
g/current_research/fish.html). Institute of Field Robotics. Archived fromthe original (http://fibo.kmutt.ac.th/project/en
g/current_research/fish.html)on 2007-11-04. Retrieved 2007-10-25.
68. "Robotic fish powered by Gumstix PC and PIC"(http://cswww.essex.ac.uk/staff/hhu/HCR-
Group.html#Entertainment). Human Centred Robotics Group at Essex University . Retrieved 2007-10-25.
69. "Robotic fish make aquarium debut"(http://edition.cnn.com/2005/TECH/10/07/spark.fish)
. cnn.com. CNN. 10
October 2005. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
70. Walsh, Dominic (3 May 2008)."Merlin Entertainments tops up list of London attractions with aquarium buy" (http://w
ww.thetimes.co.uk/tto/business/industries/leisure/article2172983.ece). thetimes.co.uk. Times of London. Retrieved
12 June 2011.
71. For Festo, Nature Shows the Way (http://www.controlengeurope.com/article/24663/For-Festo--Nature-Shows-the-Wa
y.aspx) Control Engineering, 18 May 2009.
72. Bionic penguins fly through water... and air (http://www.gizmag.com/bionic-penguins-fly-through-water--and-air/1154
5/) Gizmag, 27 April 2009.
73. Festo AquaRay Robot (http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/science-fiction-news.asp?newsnum=2249)Technovelgy, 20
April 2009.
74. The AquaJelly Robotic Jellyfish from Festo(http://www.engineeringtv.com/video/The-AquaJelly-Robotic-Jellyfish)
Engineering TV, 12 July 2012.
75. Lightweight robots: Festo's flying circus(http://www.theengineer.co.uk/in-depth/analysis/lightweight-robots-festos-flyi
ng-circus/1009421.article)The Engineer, 18 July 2011.
76. Huge Herr, D. Robert G (October 2004)."A Swimming Robot Actuated by Living Muscle T issue" (https://www.ncbi.nl
m.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC544953). Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
. 1 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/1743-
0003-1-6 (https://doi.org/10.1186%2F1743-0003-1-6). PMC 544953 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC
544953) . PMID 15679914 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15679914).
77. How Biomechatronics Works (http://science.howstuffworks.com/biomechatronics4.htm) HowStuffWorks/ Retrieved
22 November 2012.
78. Lauder, G. V. (2011). "Swimming hydrodynamics: ten questions and the technical approaches needed to resolve
them" (http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~glauder/reprints_unzipped/Lauder.Exp.Fluids.2011.pdf) (PDF).
Experiments in fluids. 51 (1): 23–35. doi:10.1007/s00348-009-0765-8(https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs00348-009-0765-
8).

Further reading
Blake, Robert William (2004)."Fish functional design Hawkins, JD; Sepulveda, CA; Graham, JB; Dickson,
and swimming performance". Journal of Fish Biology. KA (2003). "Swimming performance studies on the
65 (5): 1193–1222. doi:10.1111/j.0022- eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis, a close relative
1112.2004.00568.x. of the tunas (family Scombridae) II. Kinematics" . The
Blake, Robert William (1983)Fish Locomotion CUP Journal of Experimental Biology. 206 (16): 2749–2758.
Archive. ISBN 9780521243032. doi:10.1242/jeb.00496.
Breder, CM (1926). "The locomotion of fishes". Lauder, GV; Drucker, EG (2004). "Morphology and
Zoologica. 4: 159–297. experimental hydrodynamics of fish fin control
surfaces" (PDF). Journal of Oceanic Engineering. 29
Fish, FE; Peacock, JE; Rohr, JJ (2002). "Stabilization
(3): 556–571. doi:10.1109/joe.2004.833219.
Mechanism in Swimming Odontocete Cetaceans by
Phased Movements" (PDF). Marine Mammal Science.
19 (3): 515–528. doi:10.1111/j.1748-
7692.2003.tb01318.x.
Lauder, GV; Madden, PGA (2007)."Fish locomotion: Tu X and Terzopoulos D (1994) "Artificial fishes:
kinematics and hydrodynamics of flexible foil-like fins" Physics, locomotion, perception, behavior"In:
(PDF). Experiments in Fluids. 43 (5): 641–653. Proceedings of the 21st annual conference on
doi:10.1007/s00348-007-0357-4. Archived from the Computer graphics and interactive techniques , pages
original (PDF) on 2012-12-24. 43–50. ISBN 0-89791-667-0.
Standen, EM (2009). "Muscle activity and doi:10.1145/192161.192170
hydrodynamic function of pelvic fins in trout Weihs, Daniel (2002). "Stability versus
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)"(PDF). The Journal of maneuverability in aquatic locomotion". Integrated and
Experimental Biology. 213 (5): 831–841. Computational Biology. 42 (1): 127–134.
doi:10.1242/jeb.033084. PMID 20154199. doi:10.1093/icb/42.1.127.
Tangorra JL, CEsposito CJ and Lauder GV (2009)
"Biorobotic fins for investigations of fish locomotion"In:
Intelligent Robots and Systems, pages: 2120–2125. E-
ISBN 978-1-4244-3804-4.

External links
Locomotion in Fish Earthlife. External video
Computational fluid dynamics tutorialMany examples and images, with
references to robotic fish. Robotic fish to monitor pollution
Fish Skin Research University of British Columbia. in harbours YouTube
A fin-tuned design The Economist, 19 November 2008. Robotic Fish YouTube
Robot Fish YouTube
Robotic Shark YouTube
Evolution of the Surfboard Fin –
YouTube

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fin&oldid=837967296


"

This page was last edited on 24 April 2018, at 03:03.

Text is available under theCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply. By using this
site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia
Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Related Interests