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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE BASIC HYDRAULICS


COURSE CODE ECW321
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0

CATEGORY TRADITIONAL
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 0
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

TITLE MEASUREMENT OF PUMP EFFICIENCY, HEAD AND DISCHARGE

1.1 Introduction
The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities (assigned as Level 0)
will not be able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. The traditional method
is fully prescriptive where the three elements namely problem, ways & means
and answers are provided/fully given to the students. However, it is still
necessary to be implemented as part of the whole laboratory course activity
specially to first and second year students
In this laboratory activity students will be exposed to the apparatus and
appropriate methods to carry out demonstration of pump performance.
Pump is the device used to move liquids or slurries. Pump can be combined in
series or parallel in order to reach their purpose of installation. If a single pump
PREAMBLE does not provide enough flowrate for a given application, connecting two pumps
in parallel can rectify the problem. On the other hand, if a single pump does not
provide enough head for a given application, two pumps connected in series
can be remedy. Pumps are used in almost all aspects of industry and
engineering from feeds to reactors and distillation columns in chemical
engineering to pumping storm sewer in civil and environmental engineering.
They are an integral part of engineering and an understanding of how they work
is important.

1.2 Objective
To determine the head / flow rate characteristics and pump efficiency under
single, series and parallel pump operation

©FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG MARCH 2018


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

1.3 Learning Outcomes


At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:
1. Conduct the experiments for measurement of pump efficiency, head and
discharge.
2. Analyse data and discuss pump performance under single, series and
parallel pump operation
3. Work in a group to produce laboratory report.

1.4 Theoretical Background


(a) Single centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump is one of the most widely used pumps for transferring liquids.
Centrifugal pump operates as follow: As the prime mover rotates the driveshaft,
the impeller fluid is drawn in axially through the centre opening of the housing.
The fluid then makes a 90o turn and flows radially outward. As energy is added
to the fluid by rotating blades (centrifugal action and actual blade force), the
pressure and velocity increase until the fluid reaches the outer tip of the
impeller. The fluid then enters the volute-shaped housing whose increased flow
area causes the velocity to decrease. This action results in a decrease in kinetic
energy and an accompanying increase in pressure.
(b) Series pump operation
Pump can be combined in series to obtain an increase in head at the same flow
rate as the single pump.

Figure 4.1 Series Pump Curve Characteristics

As shown in Figure 4.1, when two pumps having similar head-flowrate


characteristics are operated in series in combined pump head-flowrate curve is
obtained by adding the head of single pump curve at the same flowrate.

©FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG MARCH 2018


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

(c) Parallel pump operation


Pumps can be combined in parallel to obtain in increase in flowrate at the same
head as the single pump.

Figure 4.2 Parallel Pump Curve Characteristics

As shown in Figure 4.2, when two pumps having similar head-flowrate


characteristics are operated in parallel the combined pump head-flowrate curve
is obtained by adding the flowrates of the single pumps at the same head.

Formula for calculation of variables (in accordance with series and parallel
pump test rig model:FM07A-1)

Power (fluid), 𝑃𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 = 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑔𝐻𝑄 (4.1)

(𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑖𝑛 𝐿𝑃𝑀)
Volumetric flow rate, 𝑄(m3 /s) =
6000
(4.2)

𝑃
Pump head, 𝐻(𝑚) = (4.3)
𝜌𝑔
𝑃𝑂𝑊𝐸𝑅𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑
Overall efficiency, Πoverall = 𝑥100% (4.4)
𝑃𝑂𝑊𝐸𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙

2. Problem Statement
Each group is required to determine the maximum flow rate, pump head and
PROBLEM
STATEMENT pump efficiency under single, series and parallel pump operation.

3.1 Apparatus
WAYS & Pump apparatus as shown in Figure 4.3 will be used to determine head / flow
MEANS
rate characteristics and pump efficiency and Figure 4.4 shows process diagram

©FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG MARCH 2018


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

for series and parallel pump operation.

Figure 4.3 Pump Apparatus

Figure 4.4 Process Diagram for Series / Parallel Pump

3.2 Procedures
1. Connect the equipment’s sensor cable to the console.
2. Connect usb converter from the console to the usb port of the PC
3. Switch ON the Console Panel electrical power source by switching ON
power on the power switch
4. Start up the PC
5. Double click on the “Series and Parallel Pump Trainer (Student) to start
up the software.
6. Choose the experiment either “Series Connection” or “Parallel
Connection” by clicking the panel

Table 4.1 Valve Position

©FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG MARCH 2018


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Pump Operation Running Pump Fully Open Fully Close


Valve Valve
Single Pump 1 V1, V2 V3, V4, V5
Series Both Pump V1, V4, V5 V2, V3
Parallel Both Pump V1, V2, V3, V4 V5

6. Turn on the pump and slowly open V5 until maximum flow rate is
achieved. Follow the experiment procedures to determine the desired flow
rate.
7. Use the pump speed selector switch to monitor the pump speed.

3.3 Data Acquisition

Data required for this experiment are at least 5 different flowrate and pump
head for each 3 different cases (single, series and parallel). Refer Table 4.2 –
4.4 for data acquisition purpose.

4. Result, Analysis and Conclusion


Each group is required to submit a technical report of the laboratory result
highlighting the apparatus used, the procedures undertaken for the test, data
RESULTS acquisition process, graphical analysis, discussion on the pump performance for
all THREE (3) pump operations and the relevancy of the set out output to
address the given problem. The report must be submitted within 7 days after the
completion of the test

Table 4.2 Single Pump Operation with Variable Flow Rate

Pump Power Overall


Flow rate,
P1 (kPa) Head, H Output, Pout Efficiency, η
Q (LPM)
(m) (watt) (%)

©FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG MARCH 2018


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG LABORATORY MANUAL

10

20

30

40

50

Table 4.3 Series Pump Operation with Variable Flow Rate

Power Overall
Pump
Flow rate, Output, Efficiency,
PT1 (kPa) PT2 (kPa) Head, H
Q (LPM) Pout η
(m)
(watt) (%)
10 54.7 51.6

20 51.6 47.4

30 48.5 44.0

40 46.1 41.0

50 43.6 38.4

Table 4.4 Parallel Pump Operation with Variable Flow Rate

Power Overall
Pump
Flow rate, Output, Efficiency,
PT1 (kPa) PT2 (kPa) Head, H
Q (LPM) Pout η
(m)
(watt) (%)
20 53.8 52.0

40 51.3 48.3

60 48.4 46.7

80 46.8 43.6

100 46.7 42.8

©FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS PASIR GUDANG MARCH 2018