You are on page 1of 89

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

First of all Our deep gratitude goes to the almighty GOD for everything he did to us in all the way
we path through, then after our adviser Mr. yibeltal and mechanical engineering department staff
members for their continues and progressive support, advice and guides us to do better work and
give us a reference materials and initiate us for our work and project. In addition, we would like
to thank also other companies, which participate in this block production sector and their
employees for their respect, familiarity, their advice and support. In addition, we would like to
thank our classmates and friends for sharing their ideas and materials with us. Finally, we would
like to thank our families for understanding and helping us with all our needs.

i
Abstract
A concrete block is primarily used as building material in a construction of walls. It is sometimes
called a concrete masonry unit. A concrete block is one of several precast concrete production used
in construction.
In this project we design and manufacture the hollow concrete making machine. This machine can
improve efficiency and increase the existing hollow concrete block making machine. The machine
also can produce six hollow concrete blocks with in a single operation.
The design and manufacturing of a six hollow block making machine was carried out as an
improvement on manual production of single hollow block locally with a lot of ergonomic
problems resulting frontal loading and straining. Material mix is fed in to the machine, compressed
and cranked up to remove the hollow block from the mold. The machine is capable of producing
six hallow blocks per one operation. The output of the machine in terms of production capacity
indicated that the machine has through put of blocks compare to hand mold blocks.
The methods we used to design our machine are first we collect data about the machine, next we
design all the necessary component of the machine, then using engineering software CATIA for
the part and assembly drawing, after knowing all the component and there dimensions we start
manufacture the component after that assemble the parts.

ii
Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ...................................................................................................................................... i
Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... ii
List of tables .................................................................................................................................................. v
List of figures ................................................................................................................................................ vi
CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................................... 1
1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Hollow Block Specification .................................................................................................... 1
1.1.2 Production of Hollow Block Process ..................................................................................... 2
1.2 Introduction of The block product ................................................................................................ 2
1.3 Background ................................................................................................................................... 3
1.3.1 Market and demand aspect .................................................................................................. 5
1.4 Problem statement ....................................................................................................................... 8
1.5 Objective of project ...................................................................................................................... 9
1.5.1 General objective .................................................................................................................. 9
1.5.2 Specific objective .................................................................................................................. 9
1.6 Methodology............................................................................................................................... 10
1.7 Expected results and Scope ........................................................................................................ 14
1.7.1 Scope of project .................................................................................................................. 15
CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................................ 17
2 LITRATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................................. 17
2.1. History of block making machine ..................................................................................................... 17
2.2. Types of block machines .................................................................................................................. 21
CHAPTER THREE .......................................................................................................................................... 24
3 DESIGN ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................ 24
3.1 Conceptual design ....................................................................................................................... 24
3.2 Component and material selection ............................................................................................ 29
3.3 Design of upper table .................................................................................................................. 29
3.4 Design of Pressing Stripper ......................................................................................................... 31
3.5 Design of mold box ..................................................................................................................... 35
3.6 Design of handle lever ................................................................................................................ 39
3.7 Design base plate ........................................................................................................................ 40
3.8 Electric Motor selection .............................................................................................................. 42

iii
3.9 Design of support ........................................................................................................................ 44
3.10 Design of v-belt ........................................................................................................................... 46
3.11 Design of spring........................................................................................................................... 52
3.12 Selection of bearing .................................................................................................................... 57
3.13 Design of welding joint ............................................................................................................... 64
3.14 Design of shaft ............................................................................................................................ 65
3.15 Design of bolt .............................................................................................................................. 68
3.16 Key Selection ............................................................................................................................... 69
CHAPTER FOUR ........................................................................................................................................... 71
4 Manufacturing process ....................................................................................................................... 71
CHAPTER FIVE ............................................................................................................................................. 74
5 Cost analysis ........................................................................................................................................ 74
5.1.1 Material cost ....................................................................................................................... 74
5.1.2 Machining cost .................................................................................................................... 76
5.1.3 Labor cost ............................................................................................................................ 77
CHAPTER SIX................................................................................................................................................ 78
6 Result and discussion .......................................................................................................................... 78
CHAPTER SEVEN .......................................................................................................................................... 81
7 Conclusion and recommendation ....................................................................................................... 81
7.1 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 81
7.2 Recommendation........................................................................................................................ 81
8 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................ 82
9 Appendix ............................................................................................................................................. 83

iv
List of tables
Table 2. 1 types of hollow block making machines...................................................................... 22

Table 3. 1 solution variant for block making machine ................................................................. 26


Table 3. 2 conduction matrix ........................................................................................................ 26
Table 3. 3 evaluation scheme for design alternative ..................................................................... 27
Table 3. 4 selection criteria for bock making machine ................................................................. 27
Table 3. 5 dimension of standard v-belt according to IS: 2494-1974 ........................................... 48
Table 3. 6 standard width and depth of v-belt .............................................................................. 49
Table 3. 7 values of allowable shear stress, modules of elasticity and modules of rigidity for
various spring materials ................................................................................................................ 54
Table 3. 8 Rating life and Weibull parameter ............................................................................... 62
Table 3. 9 Stresses for welded joints ............................................................................................ 64
Table 3. 10 Stress concentration factors. ...................................................................................... 65

Table 5. 1 cost of components on basis of mass ........................................................................... 74


Table 5. 2 cost for standard part.................................................................................................... 75
Table 5. 3 material cost ................................................................................................................. 75
Table 5. 4 cost of screws and nuts ................................................................................................ 76
Table 5. 5 machining cost ............................................................................................................. 76
Table 5. 6 labor cost ...................................................................................................................... 77
Table 5. 7 result and discussion of components ........................................................................... 78

v
List of figures
Figure 2. 1 Single block making machine .................................................................................... 18
Figure 2. 2 Solid and semi- automatic block making machine ..................................................... 18
Figure 2. 3 Automation block making machine............................................................................ 19
Figure 2. 4 Mold vibrating machine ............................................................................................. 19
Figure 2. 5 Modern plant .............................................................................................................. 20
Figure 2. 6 Besser block making machine .................................................................................... 20
Figure 2. 7 Stationary machines.................................................................................................... 21
Figure 2. 8 Egg-laying" mobile machines .................................................................................... 22

Figure 3. 1 Functional structure for block making machine ......................................................... 25

Figure 4. 1 observation view ......................................................................................................... 71


Figure 4. 2 cutting process ............................................................................................................ 72
Figure 4. 3 welding process .......................................................................................................... 72
Figure 4. 4 assembling process ..................................................................................................... 73
Figure 4. 5 final assembly ............................................................................................................. 73

vi
CHAPTER ONE
1 INTRODUCTION
No construction is possible without blocks. Since many centuries block making has been practiced
by human beings. Presently, blocks are easily made by using machines using new technologies.
Generally two types of blocks are manufactured by using machines that are concrete block
machines and clay block machines. Different types of automatic machines use different techniques
to make blocks. The raw materials used by the machines for making hollow blocks are fly ash,
sand lime, iron oxide, lime sludge, quarry wastes etc.
The focus of this project is on the production of concrete blocks, specifically hollow blocks which
offer a speedier, cost effective, environmentally sound alternative to conventional walling
materials. It is based on the principle of densification of a lean concrete mix to make a regular
shape, uniform, high performance masonry unit. Concrete Block Technology can be easily adapted
to suit special needs of users by modifying some design parameters such as mix proportion, water
to cement ratio and type of production system. It is an effective means of utilizing wastes generated
by stone crushers, quarrying and stone processing units. The technology has high potential in areas
where raw materials are easily available. The new technique in producing this interlock block can
generate a highly profitable business for micro and small scale building material producers and
construction companies. The market for this type of block in Malaysia is not yet growing at a rapid
rate, even though there are demands in construction industries due to low production rate which
reflect the cost of block itself.
1.1.1 Hollow Block Specification
The hollow blocks are different from other normal blocks as it requires no mortar or cement for
masonry work. This blocks interlocked with each other by means of positives and negative frogs
on the top and bottom of the blocks which disallow the horizontal movement of blocks. There are
various application of this blocks namely; load bearing wall, lintels, sills, wall corners etc. The
specifications and the characteristics of this block depend on the machine used to manufacture it.
The most common size of block are 100×200×400mm, 150×200×400mm, and 200×200×400mm.
The basic raw material is cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. Very little water is used.
This is possible only with mechanized compaction and vibration and gives the block high quality
in spite of the lean mix, which uses very little cement. Weight of this block is about 4-5 kg.

1
1.1.2 Production of Hollow Block Process
Current process of producing the hollow block is produced using a semi-mechanized stationary
type machine. The other production systems are manual molds that require hand tamping, a mobile
semi-mechanized egg-laying machine and fully mechanized system that combines compression
and manual concrete filling in mold. The machine also compacts and consolidates the mix so that
the blocks are uniform in size and attain desired physical properties. The blocks are cured for a
minimum period of 14 days, before they are ready to use. On an average 600-800 blocks can be in
8 hours by 1 skilled and 6-8 semi-skilled workers. In this project, a high quality machines in which
optimize from the current machine design is going to propose according to the feedback and the
need from the hollow block maker.
1.2 Introduction of The block product
Concrete blocks are a basic commodity of the building industry. If you are looking for a great
business with a solid foundation this may be the one for you. Concrete products are used
everywhere for building. There is a constant strong demand. They are always in style unlike here
today gone tomorrow products. They are used to build large buildings. There is a market for cement
blocks around the world and particularly in North America. If you are looking for a good business,
which you can start from home at low cost, making concrete blocks and other concrete products is
a great opportunity. Starting with a part time business, using handmade molds, you can get going
with as little as a few hundred dollars for supplies and materials. You can operate out of your
garage then as business grows and you need more room you can expand to rented premises. The
secret is to keep your costs as low as possible to start with. Too many businesses fail in the first
year because they spend too much money unnecessarily on tents and equipment. Start with the
necessities and add more as you grow in profitability.
Concrete products of all kinds are obviously heavy and bulky. To transport them for long distances
is costly. As a local manufacturer you can supply these products t customers in your area for a lot
less than a distant manufacturer can. Your overhead cost. no rent, no staff wages mean low
production cost, again these allows you to price very competitively and still make an excellent
profit.
The only things needed to start up are sheet metal and plywood to make the molds. You can obtain
plans with instructions on how to do this. To manufacture concrete blocks you will need port land
cement, gravel, sand and water. Your local building supply store or lumberyard can supply these
items. With handmade molds one person can make 100 cement blocks in a days’ work. You simply

2
fill the molds with the appropriate concrete mix then turn the blocks out to dry. This is pretty
simple. Then as your business expands you will want to acquire a concrete block making machine
which can turn out many more blocks per day than you can with hand molds.
You can buy concrete block making machines from various sources. They are very expensive and
do a very good job. If you can afford it go ahead and buy one. It will greatly increase your
productivity will pay for itself. You can do it for much less however. You can build your own
machine used auto parts and a few available and it is not a difficult project. If you have welding
skills you can do these part of the work yourself, otherwise a local welding shop can do it for you
at fairly low cost.
Making your own machine is not really difficult if you have some mechanical skills. Your home
built machine will make 800 cement blocks per day. A smaller, very simple hand operated machine
can make 200 blocks per day and is quite easy to build. Operating these machines efficiently is a
two person job. One worker runs the machine and the other takes the blocks from it and stacks
them on racks to dry. Obviously you will also need sufficient space to stack hundreds of blocks.
1.3 Background
The production of compacted block making machine established in 1988 in South Africa with joint
free India expertise .the CBMM building system replaces conventional blocks and mortar through
the use of compacted blocks, which are hollow and can be dry stacked. The other components of
the conventional building system remain unchanged. These blocks can be made on construction
site or at block yard using hollow block making machines. Today the CBMM building system and
the machines are used in over 50 countries worldwide. This block-block can be made with lo al
soil and cement or fly ash (brunt coal ash) and cement.
These eco-friendly blocks are made with combinations of soil-cement, sand –cement which are
durable, but cost effective because they are made using local soil and require low cement content
(about 5%) and fly ash.
Cement concrete hollow blocks have an important place in modern building industry. They are
cost effective and better alternative to burnt clay blocks by virtue of their good durability, fire
resistance, the normal insulation, small dead load and high speed of construction. Concrete hollow
blocks being usually larger in size than the normal clay building blocks and less mortar is required,
faster of construction is achieved. Also building construction with cement concrete hollow blocks
provides facility for concealing electrical conduit, water and sewer pipes wherever so desired and
requires less plastering.

3
Market and Demand aspects
Cement concrete hollow blocks are modern construction materials and as such are used in all the
constructions viz. residential, commercial and industrial building constructions. Construction
industry is a growing a sector. The demand for this product is always high in all cities and other
urban centers due to construction of residential apartments, commercial buildings and industrial
buildings. Growing public awareness of the advantages of the product coupled with increase in the
government and financial institutions support for housing which is a basic human necessity would
ensure a healthy growth in the demand.
Types of concrete block
There are different ways of classifying a hollow concrete blocks some of this are:-
1) According to production
 Hollow concrete block
 Solid concrete block
2) According to its size
 100mm
 150mm
 200mm
Advantage or benefits of concrete block
 Uniform shape and size
 High compressive strength
 Fire resistant
 Economical
 Negligible maintenance cost
 Speed in construction
 Due to negligible thickness it will save cement.
 Energy Efficient
 Sound Resistant
 Strong
 Durable
 Will not Warp, Twist or Rot

4
1.3.1 Market and demand aspect
Table 1 1 Differences between hollow blocks and blocks

Hollow blocks Blocks


The size and shape of hollow blocks are There is a variation in size and shape i.e. one
uniform and there is no variation. We can side of the wall is in line. Plastering on both
avoid plastering to have even look. sides is essential. Excessive plaster is done on
one side to have even look
Less number of hollow blocks are required for More number of blocks are used. i.e.(1100 for
the given area e.g. (130 blocks for 100sq.ft 100sq.ft wall)
walls).
Work is speedy in about 30% more Work is slower so it needs expensive labor cost
Less number of joints are found. More number of joints
If it is room temperature is less due to cavity in Inside a room temperature is high
blocks.
The structure is purely concrete The structure is purely mud
7% extra floor space available without The structure is purely mud
compromising on strength of wall.
Fixing of fencing angle is easy. Wall has to be cut for fixing angle of fencing.

Input materials for a block or block cement


Aggregate
Aggregate is the stone, sand and ash you want to vibrate and compact down and bind together with
the cement. A good aggregate is an aggregate that is free from chemicals, clay and organic
material. A good aggregate will bond well with the cement paste and not react with it. As a rule of
thumb the denser you’re finished block or block the stronger the block or block will be. You must
choose your aggregates according to your needs. To achieve a dense block with an aggregate that
can be vibrated and compacted down easily you need to have an aggregate with evenly graded
particles ranging from fine dust up to larger stone of around 9mm.Blending different aggregates
often produces the best results.

5
Cement
Cement is your most costly material and by doing trials with different aggregates you will be able
to minimize on cement content and so decrease your costs. Cement should always be stored in dry
place, off the floor and should be use within three months of the date of manufacture. Never use
cement that has lumps in it and only use cement from a well-known brand that has an SABS mark
of approval on it.
Water
Only clean clear potable water should be used in the manufacture of the blocks and blocks. Any
organic material in water will prevent the cement from setting. Chemicals and impurities could
also affect the strength of the end product. Never use salty or break water. It is advisable to get
your water tested for impurities.
1. Cement
2. Sand
3. Water
4. Fly ash
5. Grit (Gravel)
Manufacturing process of blocks
The process of manufacture of cement concrete hollow blocks involves the following 5 stages;
1. Proportioning
2. Mixing
3. Compacting
4. Curing
5. Drying
(1) Proportioning:
The determination of suitable amounts of raw materials needed to produce concrete of desired
quality under given conditions of mixing, placing and curing is known as proportioning.

(2) Mixing
The objective of thorough mixing of aggregates, cement and water is to ensure that the cement-
water paste completely covers the surface of the aggregates. All the raw materials including water

6
are collected in a concrete mixer, which is rotated for about 1 ½ minutes. The prepared mix is
discharged from the mixer and consumed within 30 minutes.
(3) Compacting
The purpose of compacting is to fill all air pockets with concrete as a whole without movement of
free water through the concrete. Excessive compaction would result in formation of water pockets
or layers with higher water content and poor quality of the product. Semi-automatic vibrating table
type machines are widely used for making cement concrete hollow blocks. The machine consists
of an automatic vibrating unit, a lever operated up and down metallic mold box and a stripper head
contained in a frame work.
(4) Curing
Hollow blocks removed from the mold are protected until they are sufficiently hardened to permit
handling without damage. This may take about 24 hours in a shelter away from sun and winds.
The greatest strength benefits occur during the first three days and valuable effects are secured up
to 10 or 14 days. The longer the curing time permitted the better the product.
(5) Drying
Concrete shrinks slightly with loss of moisture. It is therefore essential that after curing is over,
the blocks should be allowed to dry out gradually in shade so that the initial drying shrinkage of
the blocks is completed before they are used in the construction work. Hollow blocks are stacked
with their cavities horizontal to facilitate thorough passage of air.
Block Making process
Batch mixing
For high quality blocks and blocks a pan mixer should be used. For low quality blocks and blocks
hand mixing on the ground can be used. Always run a series of trials with different mix
proportions. By evaluating your results you can adapt your mix to be more cost effective. Start you
trial mixes with 1 part cement to 6 parts aggregate. This translates to one bag of cement to 3 level
wheelbarrows of aggregate. Test your block or block strengths at 28 days.
Mixing process
Pan mixer
Place half of your aggregate into the pan mixer then add the cement followed by the remaining
aggregate. Allow the cement and aggregate to mix dry until a consistent even color is produced.
Then start adding in water until the correct moisture content is reached. By hand spread you’re
aggregate out over a concrete surface. Then add your cement by spreading it over your aggregate

7
evenly. Shovel your aggregate up into a pile. Spread the pile out again and build it up into a second
pile. Spread the second pile out again and add water by sprinkling it evenly over the spread out
aggregate. Mix water into aggregate and then pile the mixture up for a third time. This method
usually adequately mixes your batch. Hand mixing is labor intensive and time consuming. It also
tends to be more wasteful.
Water content
The moisture content within you mix is crucial. It is important for the following reasons:-
• The correct water content allows for good dense compaction by lubricating the aggregate. Too
much water will lubricate the aggregate to such an extent that the block/block will fall apart or sag
when removed from the mold.
• With the correct water content the block/block will release easily from the mold. No suction
between the mold and block will be created.
• A very slight water rippling effect can be seen on the sides of the green blocks/blocks when the
correct moisture content is reached. Do not allow your mixed batch to stand for more than half an
hour. This will prevent strength loss in your cement and the lubricating water will not dry off. Your
mix and aggregate may need to be adjusted to get a quality looking block.
1.4 Problem statement
Today in our country the problems of homeless have been increasing gradually and it appear to be
continue the main reason for the cause is higher cost of construction raw materials, poverty, low
income and lack of new technology.
Nowadays providing house to our community at an affordable price is a major task being carried
out by our government and real state organizations. Hollow blocks and burnt blocks are a colossal
input for the construction of those low cost houses, but the currently in use hollow block and
burned block construction materials in our country are expensive and take long time to
manufacture and construct, which makes the selling price of those hoses expensive and take long
time to manufacture and construct, which makes unaffordable for the medium income society. In
addition to this those construction materials has the following drawbacks:
 High moisture penetration
 Low the Berra efficiency
 Difficulties for electric & plumbing jobs insects
 Cost inefficiency bad finishes
 It is difficult to produce on site

8
 Higher cost & time consuming
 Water absorption
 Higher unit weight
 Low control over quality
Problem Identification
Current machine design unable to increase productivity, this is mainly due to;
i. Time wasting by doing the cement charging, loading and leveling, (Time required 50
seconds).
ii. Manually obtaining the lower mold plate as operator needs the device to turn the block
(Time required 45 seconds).
iii. The load applied several time on the hollow block (Time required: 15 seconds)
iv. Operator need to manually pick-up the block one by one after compaction process before
start the new process cycle (Time required: 20 seconds).
v. The mold lower plates are manually inserted one by one (Time required 45 seconds).
1.5 Objective of project
1.5.1 General objective
The main objective of this project is to design and manufacturing of concrete block making
machine.
1.5.2 Specific objective
 To design components of the machine
 To draw components of the machine and assembly drawing
 To increase the efficiency of the machine
 To reduce production time.
 To make it portable.
 To make the mold interchangeable.

9
1.6 Methodology
This chapter consists of methods for completing product development activities. The applied
methods, which are well-structured, provide a step-by-step approach to complete the task of
this project. Based on these methodologies, there are three advantages expected. Firstly, the
decision processes is completely made, reducing the possibility of moving forward with
unsupported decisions. Secondly, by acting as “check list” of the key steps in a development
activity and ensure that the important issues are not forgotten. Third, these structured methods are
largely self-documenting; in the process of executing the method, the record of the decision-
making process can be used for future reference.
I. Concept Development Phase
Development process demands the coordination among functions of the integrative
development methods, which is called as the front-end process. The front end process generally
contains many interrelated activities such as;
II. Identifying customer needs
The goal of this activity is to understand customer’s needs (user’s need) and effectively
communicate them for the optimization job of current machine used. The output of this step is a
set of carefully constructed customer need statement, organized in a hierarchical list, with
importance weightings for many or all of the needs. The data are obtained mainly by
interviewing the user of hollow block making machine and also from the observation of the
current machine design. The identification of the current machine design weaknesses is really
helpful in providing the target specification.
III. Establishing target specifications
Specifications provide a precise description of what a product has to do. Is the translation of the
customer needs into technical terms .Targets for the specifications are set early in the process
and represent the guide for generating the idea of machine modification. Later these
specifications are refined to be consistent with the product concept. The output of this stage
is a list of target specifications.
IV. Concept generation
The goal of concept generation is to thoroughly explore the space of the product concepts that may
address the customer needs. Concept generation includes a mix of external search, creative
problem solving, and systematic exploration of the various solution fragments. The result of

10
this activity is three generative concepts, each typically represented by a sketch and brief
descriptive text.
V. Concept selection
Concept selection is the activity in which the generated concepts are analyzed and sequentially
eliminated to identify the most promising concept(s). The process is using the weight age value
and a given marks. The highest score can be considered as a chosen concept. Several iterations
may initiate additional concept generation and refinement, after evaluating three generated
concepts in previous.
VI. Setting final specification
The target specifications set earlier in the process are revisited after a concept has been selected
and tested. At this point, the specific values of the metrics reflecting the constraints inherent
in the product concept, limitations identified through technical modeling, and trade-offs
between cost and performance.

11
12
VII. Concept development
This subtopic shows the preliminary result obtained for completing product development
activities.
a. High production rate
The machine must be able to increase the productivity of the block output. The main
reason is it can supply the highly demand of hollow block in the construction industries. This need
is very important so that it is highly rated (5) as it is the factor of the need of optimization the
current machine design.
b. Minimum one and maximum six blocks per cycle
The machine must have minimum one mold cavities as it can produce six hollow blocks in one
time. This is one of the factors that can increase productivity. More mold cavities can rapidly
increase the production rate.
c. One man operation
The machine operation must be handled by a single worker only (one man operation).
d. Simple operation process
A simple on/off button only and no complicated process in producing the hollow blocks operates
machine.
e. Infallible operation
The compression process compact the true value of pressure once. No need for compress repetition.
f. Easy accessed for maintenance
Machine can be easily maintained and easily accessed for maintenance area.
g. Safe to handle
Standard operation procedure is one of the factors that make the machine handling is safe.
h. Low cost machine
The cost to build this machine must be reasonable and within the capability of SME
entrepreneurs so that the return of investment time can be shortened.
i. Marketable machine
Machine appearance and performance must be competitive and at affordable price so that it benefit
the SME entrepreneur. The most useful metrics are those that reflect as directly as possible the
degree to which the product satisfies the customer needs. The relationship between needs and
metrics is central to the entire concept of specifications.

13
The working assumptions is that a translation from customer needs to a set of precise, measurable
specifications is possible and that meeting specifications will therefore lead to satisfaction
of the associated customer needs.
1.7 Expected results and Scope
From the above concepts, we conclude that customer’s needs are
 High production rate,
 Minimum 6 blocks per cycle,
 One-man operation,
 Simple operation,
 Comes with cement charging system
 Uniform pressure distribution,
 Can be easily maintainable.
 Safe to handle,
 Low cost machine,
 Marketable machine
And also the high aesthetic value, faster, efficient, structurally durable, eco-friendly, and low cost
block will be identified for the production of low cost house in the country. The analysis of this
project is limited to the manufacturing of compacted block making machine for producing blocks
with dimensions (10×20×40 ,15×20×40 and 20×20×40) by applying 4.5Mpa of compressing
pressure between the compressing mold of the machine at low cost.
N:B the compressive strength of both hollow blocks and hollow clay burned blocks range from
2Mpa up to 7Mpa it is acceptable in the Ethiopian standards for load bearing walls
.(ESC.D4.026),(ESC D3 301).
With system pressure of compacting 9-10Mpa, cement content of 5-8% clay silt content of
10&50% a typical block can be made with a compression strength ranging from 4-7Mpa this
compression strength for load bearing walls in the Ethiopian standard will be acceptable.
With over all dimension of the machine (120*150*147cm) and
 Motor driven two hydraulic units with 7.5Mpa.
 Capacity 1500 blocks/12 hours
 Power 2 hp
 Net weight 300 kg
The main task to be done on the design of hollow block making machine

14
Is to design machine that can produce
 Three block wit
L=400mm, W=200mm, t=20mm
 Four block with
L=400mm, W=150mm, t=20mm
3. Six block with
L=400mm, W=100mm, t=200mm
1.7.1 Scope of project
The scope of project is clearly define the specific field of the research and ensure that the entire
content of this thesis is confined the scope. This project is start with the literature review on product
specification in order to satisfy the project objectives. After obtaining the product specification,
this project is done base on the scope Project will focus on hollow block making machine
Designing the inter-locking block making machine that fulfill the project objective.
The project goes until detail design of hollow block making machine. The major output of this
project is to produce the detail drawing for the machine design. Fabrication of machine is included
in this project.
The scope of work can be described in terms of flowchart as per the following.

15
16
CHAPTER TWO
2 LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1. History of block making machine
Masonry construction is one of the oldest forms of construction used by man. Structures of stone,
mud brick and clay brick, some built thousands of years ago, remain to bear witness to the
durability of masonry. Not until the nineteenth century, with the development of hydraulic
cements, did concrete masonry begin to evolve. It began in the United States, where large heavy
solid blocks were made of a molded mixture of quicklime and moist sand cured by steam.
The next developments were seen in England, where solid blocks were made using powdered lime,
fine aggregates and boiling water to give rapid set. Some of these blocks were used in London, in
houses in Pall Mall and in the Royal College of Surgeons’ building.
Solid blocks, however, proved unpopular and impractical because of their weight. About 1866, the
development of techniques of molding hollow blocks began. During the following ten years, a
number of patents on hollow blocks were granted in England and the United States. These did not
cover manufacturing methods, as blocks were usually molded in wooden molds.
By about 1900, a number of ‘machines’ for making blocks began to appear in the United States.
These were nothing more than molds with removable sides, cores and bases, in some cases with
arrangements for turning the freshly molded block to permit its removal. Mold filling and concrete
tamping were by hand. In the early molds, the face of the block was formed on the removable mold
bottom, which could, if desired, be provided with a patterned or rock-face finish. The cores were
supported horizontally. To remove the block, the mold sides had to be demounted, core extracted
and the block taken away on the mold base to be cured. For the next block, a fresh mold base,
referred to as a pallet, was inserted and the process repeated.
Later ‘machines’, about 1904, had vertical cores, fold-down molds sides, and a pallet with cut-outs
so it would fit over the cores. The pallet was placed on the bottom of the mold and was used to lift
the freshly molded block out of the mold after hand tamping.
Although the early blocks were much the same height and thickness as the largest sizes now made,
they were up to twice as long and therefore correspondingly heavier and difficult to handle. The
early ‘machines’ could make only about two hundred blocks per ten-hour day with three men.

17
Figure 2. 1 Single block making machine
Between 1914 and 1924, power tamping replaced hand tamping, improving density, strength and
uniformity. One manufacturer developed and sold a semi-automatic machine capable of making
1800 blocks per day with the same number of men as had made only 200 blocks on the older
machines. During this period, the dimensions of units were standardized gradually, leading to the
full modular coordination we have today. Illustrates a block making machine of this era.

Figure 2. 2 Solid and semi- automatic block making machine


Perhaps the greatest single advance in block making machinery was made in 1924 with the
introduction of the first successful ‘stripper’ machine using plain pallets that did not have to be
profiled around the cores. In this machine, the block was extruded downwards through the mold,
exactly the same as in modern machines. Apart from feeding empty pallets and removal of the
freshly made blocks, the machine was fully mechanized and automatic in operation. It used power
tamping and could produce 3000 blocks per day. Today’s fully automatic block making machines
are descended from the 1924 machine.

18
During the following fifteen years, productivity and automation developed. A 1929 machine is
illustrated in.

Figure 2. 3 Automation block making machine


In 1939, tamping was superseded by mold vibration while the “green” concrete in the mold was
under pressure. This greatly improved face texture and sharpness of arises and gave higher block
strength. These machines could make 5000 blocks per day.

Figure 2. 4 Mold vibrating machine


Since 1939, there have been progressive improvements in productivity and product quality,
resulting initially from the introduction of automatic controls to regulate block height and density
and later from the automation of ancillary equipment such as raw materials handling, weight
batching and mixing.

19
This is achieved by the introduction of rack transfer systems to move racks to the curing chambers,
and by other equipment which will withdraw cured blocks from the curing chambers and package
them ready for dispatch. Figure 2.5 shows a modern plant incorporating a transfer system.

Figure 2. 5 Modern plant


From air curing with occasional water sprays used early in this century, curing techniques have
also been developed and refined. Low- and high-pressure steam curing systems and burner curing
systems are used now. In some cases, these are supplemented by the introduction of carbon dioxide
into the curing chambers after curing is completed, to reduce block shrinkage.

Typical modern block making machines are shown in Figures.

Figure 2. 6 Besser block making machine

20
The dedicated paving machines are particularly suited to producing units with complex plan
shapes (such as dentate interlocking pavers) and thicknesses in the range of 60 to 80 mm. The
paving machines were generally used to augment the older hollow-block machines, which
concentrated on the production of hollow blocks and rectangular pavers.
2.2. Types of block machines
There are different type of block machines are available in their size, shape, mechanism and also
in there feature that they have. But we can classify generally into two block machine depending
on the method of molding the blocks they are;
1. Stationary machines that mold blocks, one or more at a time, on pallets.
2. “Egg-layer” mobile machines that mold blocks on a concrete slab.

1. Stationary machines: - these type of machines are fixed in one place to produce the
blocks they may use for medium to large scale of production. it with the block mold (into
which a wooden pallet is inserted) at about table height; the mix is usually compacted by
the tamper lid-plate, which is brought down with a few sharp blows; after compacting, it is
ejected by means of a lever arm, which pushes the base plate upwards, so that the fresh
block can be taken away on the pallet for drying.

Figure 2. 7 Stationary machines

2. Egg-laying" mobile machines: - These are machines designed for medium-scale


production, either on-site or in a factory. The name was given to these machines, because
they leave the blocks to dry where they are produced on a flat production surface and move
a short distance away to produce the next batch of blocks, and so on.

21
Figure 2. 8 Egg-laying" mobile machines
 Some of the Advantages and disadvantages of stationary and egg-layer block making
machines are as follows:-

Table 2. 1 types of hollow block making machines

Type of machine Factors


 A relatively small space is needed for production.
 Block machine can be under cover.
 Pallets are necessary. For most systems, enough pallets for a day’s
Stationary production are needed.
 Pallets are therefore an expensive item initially. They also involve ongoing
expense as damaged (or stolen) pallets have to be replaced.

 A fairly large slab is needed for production of blocks. The slab is expensive
Egg-layer and increases the size of the site necessary for a block yard.
 Pallets are not necessary.
 Fairly easy to operate with a little training.
 Suitability for use on-site or in a factory.

Advantages and disadvantages of stationary and egg-layer block making machines


For both types of machines we can also classify generally into three based on their modes of
operation they are;
 Manually operated block making machine
 Semi-automatic block making machine and

22
 Fully automated block making machine
Manually operated block making machines are:- a machine which is operated manually by
human effort; especially there frontal loading and back straining, compressed and cranked up to
remove the blocks from the mold and etc.
Semi-automatic block making machines are: - machine which are semi-automated the
manually operated machines by adding some features to increase the production rate from the
manual machine.
Fully automated block making machine are: - it work out of human interference by adding
all mechanisms from cement, water and aggregate mixing to the final product of the block are done
automatically.

23
CHAPTER THREE
3 DESIGN ANALYSIS
3.1 Conceptual design
The following are the discrete activities that we consider under conceptual design. Designing can
be approached as a problem to be solved. A problem-solving methodology that is useful in design
consists of the following steps.
 Definition of the problem
 Gathering of information
 Generation of alternative solutions
 Evaluation of alternatives and decision making
 Communication of the results
This problem-solving method can be used at any point in the design process, whether at the
conception of a product or the design of a component
Problem definition
The current (existing) block making machines are need some modification in parts. Here are some
of them
 It is easier method to peak up the concrete block
 The motor power to drive the existing load and resistance
 The power transition system must be suitable to vibrate the mold
 The tamper must produce load in order to produce compactness
Concept generation
Creativity methods and creative problem-solving techniques. Fundamental skills of engineering
designers.
If follows that some methods for concept generation in the product development process by
combine engineering science and creative thinking techniques.
A common strategy for solving any complex task or describing any complex system is to
decompose it into smaller units that are easier to manage.
Decomposing must resulting units that meaningfully represent the original entity
For the purpose of describing and solving design problems, it is useful to apply the term function
to the intended input/output relationship of a system whose purpose is to perform a task.

24
Functional decomposition and synthesis
 More importantly, because it does not initially impose a design, it allows more leeway for
creativity and generates a wide variety of solutions.
 This feature of the functional decomposition method is called solution-neutrality. The
meaningful and compatible combination of sub functions into an overall function produces
a so-called function structure, which may be varied to satisfy the overall function.
The functional structure of concrete block making machine
Power turn on and blocks

Insert the wet cement to the mold

motor tamper

v-belt mold
shaft

Figure 3. 1 Functional structure for block making machine

25
Table 3. 1 solution variant for block making machine

No. Function Machine A Machine B


Solution
1 Input power Electricity Electricity
2 Vibration produced by Motor Vaibrator
3 Mold size 400X200X100 400X200X200
4 Tamper Flexible Flexible
5 Power transmission by V-belt Hydraulic cylinder
6 Production rate 6 block at a time 4 block at a time
7 movability of machine Movable Fixed
8 Mold changeability Changeable Fixed

Evaluation methods
Decision making is the process of identifying alternatives and the outcomes from each alternative
and subjecting this information to a rational process of making a decision. Evaluation is a type of
decision making in which alternatives are first compared before making the decision as to which
is best Evaluation involves comparison, followed by decision making.
Where: - A - easy to operate
B- Less weight
C- easy to assemble
D- More compact
E- Low maintenance cost
Table 3. 2 conduction matrix

Design A B C D E Row total Weighting


criteria factor (%)
A - 1 1 1 1 4 0.4
B 0 - 0 1 1 2 0.2
C 0 1 - 0 0 1 0.1
D 0 0 1 - 0 1 0.1
E 0 0 1 1 - 2 0.2
Sum 10 1

26
Table 3. 3 evaluation scheme for design alternative

9-point scale Description 5-point scale description


1 Weak solution 1 weak
2 Poor solution
3 Tolerable solution 2 Satisfactory
4 Satisfactory solution
5 Good solution with a 3 Good
few drawbacks
6 Good solution 4 Very good
7 Very solution
8 Excellent 5 Excellent
9 Ideal solution

Table 3. 4 selection criteria for bock making machine

1 2 3

A B A B

A B

Selection criteria Weighti R W.S R W.S R W.S R W.S


ng factor R W.S R W.S

Easy to operate o.4 4 1.6 3 1.2 5 2.0 2 0.8 4 1.6 3 1.2

Less weight 0.2 5 1.0 4 0.8 4 0.8 3 0.6 3 0.6 3 0.6

Easy to assemble 0.1 5 0.5 4 0.4 4 0.4 2 0.2 4 0.4 3 0.3

More compact 0.1 5 0.5 4 0.4 4 0.4 2 0.2 4 0.4 2 0.2

27
Low 4 0.8 2 0.4 4 0.8 2 0.4 4 0.8 3 0.6
manufacturing 0.2
cost
4.4 3.2 4.4 2.2 3.8 2.9

4 5 6

A B A B

A B

Selection criteria Weighti A W.S B W.S R W.S R W.S


ng factor R W.S R W.S

Easy to operate o.4 4 1.6 3 1.2 4 1.6 2 0.8 4 1.6 2 0.8

Less weight 0.2 3 0.6 3 0.6 4 0.8 2 0.4 4 0.8 2 0.4

Easy to assemble 0.1 4 0.4 3 0.3 4 0.4 3 0.3 4 0.4 3 0.3

More compact 0.1 4 0.4 2 0.2 5 0.5 4 0.4 5 0.5 4 0.4

Low 0.2 4 0.8 3 0.6 5 1.0 4 0.8 5 1.0 4 0.8


manufacturing
cost
3.8 2.9 4.3 2.7 3.4 2.7

28
From the alternative solutions the red color show high fulfillment of the need.
3.2 Component and material selection
Most machine and tools are constructed from metallic and non-metallic materials. The metals are
divided into two groups ‘ferrous metals: are those which have the iron as their main constituent
such as cast iron, wrought iron and steel. Non-ferrous metals: are those which have a metal other
than iron as their main constituent such as copper, aluminum, brass, tin, zinc etc.
The selection of a proper material, for engineering purposes, is one of the most difficult problems
for the designer. The best material is one which serves the desired objective at the minimum cost.
The following factors are considered while selecting the material:
 Availability of the materials.
 Suitability of the materials for the working conditions in service.
 The cost of the materials.
3.3 Design of upper table
The material for upper plate is mild steel with the following properties
δult = 120mpa
kg⁄
ρ = 7850 m3
The force produce by one healthy man that can lift a load of 250N

Now we can calculate the moment of inertia of the section


1 1
I= ∗ b ∗ t3 = ∗ 1124 ∗ t 3 = 93.66t 3
12 12
Consider now the simply supported beam shown in Figure below carrying a uniformly distributed
load of w = 250 N/m across the complete span.

29
Here again it is necessary to evaluate the reactions, but in this case the problem is simplified by
the symmetry of the beam. Each reaction will therefore take half the applied load,
25∗1.124
i.e RA = RB = = 14.5N
2

The maximum bending moment for distribution load is occurred at shear force is zero which is at
X=562m
M=W*L
M=28.1KN*0.562m
M=15.8N-m
We know that the bending stress (𝛿𝑏 ) is
MY δUlt
δb = δb =
I f.s

The factor of safety for steady load is given by


F.s (5-6) but for this project take F.s=5
120MPa
𝛿𝑏 = = 24MPa
5
t
MY 15.8Nm∗
δb = = 24MPa = 0.06767t32
I
2
t = 3.2 t = 1.8mm
But it is very small supporting the column and weld with column then there for good support and
welding process it is better to take t=4mm.
The volume of the table is

30
V=l*b*t = 0.004*0.812*0.316
V=0.001m3
From the volume we can find the mass
m=V*ρ =0.001*7850=7.85Kg
The load which is produced by the plate is calculated as
Wp = mplate ∗ g =8*10=80N
Stress analysis
According to maximum principal stress theory
σ1 1 24 1
σult = + [√σ1 2 +4τ2 ] = + [√242 + 4 ∗ 02 ]
2 2 2 2
σult = 12 + 12 = 24MPa
Since the material ultimate stress is greater than the calculated ultimate stress (120MPa>24MPa)
then the design is safe.
According to maximum shear stress theory
1 1
τmax = 2 [√√σ1 2 + 4τ2 ] = 2 [√242 +4 ∗ 02 ]

24
τmax = = 12MPa
2
According to maximum shear stress theory the maximum shear must not exceed the yield stress of
the material
τmax < τmaterial = 12MPa < 165MPa
Therefore the design is safe.
3.4 Design of Pressing Stripper
Vertical Component used for pressing the sand Aggregate Mixture and also for stripping the
blocks.
Considering the pressing stripper as column with fixed to fixed ends.
The material is mild steel which is the following properties.
δ = 315MPa
E=200GPa
The diameter of the concrete block is

31
For the purpose of good compactness of the block the column (tamper height) must be greater than
the mold height. Considering the height of the column is 2 times than the height of the mold. LP =
2hc = 2 ∗ 200 = 400mm.

It is known that the width of the column and the thickness of the block are almost the same but the
width of the column needs negative tolerance (allowance) in order to in order to fit each another.
But if the thickness of the block and width of the mold have the same then it is difficult to fit each
another because they can produce very high friction on the mold and column or even they are not
fit with each another .Therefor, It is better to take the allowance of 0.01mm in one side .There the
width of the column is 2.98mm.

32
The load applied on the column is
Wman + Wplate = Wc
250N+78N=328N
F
δc = A
MN
δ = 315 m2 =
MN 328n
315 m2 = [(29.8∗29.8−a2 )]∗24

29.8*29.8-a2 = 0.0433m2
−a2 = −887.9967
a=29.79
But the value of t is calculated
t=29.98-29.79=0.11 which is very small and in order to reduce crushing and buckling the thickness
of the stripper should be taken but standard take t=2mm

33
bh3 2.98∗4003
IXX = = =1
12 12

IXX = 15893333mm4
hb3 400∗2.983
IYY = =
12 12

= 882.12mm3
From validity limit for Euler formula
L Cπ2 ∈
=√
K δY

For the material mild steel


MN
Compressive yield stress ( m2 ) = 315

A for fixed to fixed end


1
a = 30000

Modules of elasticity (E)


200MPa
L
= 158.3
K

Since we have the value of slenderness ratio is 158.3 which is greater than 80 then the column
field with buckling load, the buckling load for fixed to fixed end is calculated by,
4π2 ∈I
Pc = L
4π2 ∗200∗103 ∗0.00001589333∗1012
Pc = 0.4

34
Pc = 3764.66 ∗ 106 MN
 Since the buckling load is greater than the load produced by the tamper therefore the design
is safe.
3.5 Design of mold box
This shear plate is a part of the main components of the machine, which are basically used as a
mold to get the exact shape of the compacted block. And also, the maximum bending moment is
created at the center. The standard dimension for the block is 400x200x100mm.

The material for the mold is mild steel and having the following properties
δult = 120mpa
kg⁄
ρ = 7850 m3
E = 200 GPa

35
For face a moment of inertia for rectangular cross section
1
I= 12 ∗ b ∗ t 3
1
I = 12 ∗ 0.1 ∗ t 3

I = 0.0083t 3
It is possible to calculate the bending stress of the material
δmax = The maximum allowable stress for the mold
δmax
δall = , where Fs= factor of safety is taken 2
Fs
120MPa
δall = =60MPa
2

The maximum bending moment for distribute load is produced at the center of the section or at a
point of shear force equal to zero.
MC 60 ∗ 0.05 t
δ= = 60 = ∗
I 0.0083t 3 2
60MPa *0.0083t 2 *2=60*0.05
t 2 =1.25mm2
t=1.11mm
Since the shear plate are the most important part of the machine we can decided the thickness of
material to be 4mm.
t=4mm
The mold is having the same thickness
t=4mm
Now we can calculate the value of each side of the mold plates

V=2(b*t*h)
V=2(200*430*4)
V=0.000688m3

36
The volume for this section is
V=2(b*t*h)
V=2(200*100*4)
V=0.00016m3
Now the third section of the mold is

𝐯 = 𝟐(b ∗ t ∗ h)
v = 2(40 ∗ 140 ∗ 4)
v = 0.0000896m3
And the fourth section of the mold is

v = 4(b ∗ t ∗ h)
v = 4(200 ∗ 140 ∗ 4)
v = 0.000896m3

37
And the fifth section of the mold is

v = 4(b ∗ t ∗ h)
v = 4(200 ∗ 40 ∗ 4)
v = 0.000256m3
Since we have the values of the volume individual section we can determine the total value of the
volume of the mold.
V = 0.0021792m3
Now we can calculate the mass of the mold
m= v∗ρ
0.0021792 ∗ 7850 = 17.1kg
Since we have the values of the mass of the mold and block (14kg) therefore can calculate the total
load of the mold. 17-14= 3kg is the mass of one mold for six mold the total value of the mold is
3*6=18kg.
w = mg = 18 ∗ 9.81 = 176.56N
And the load due to the block has a standard mass of 14kg since having this mass it is possible to
calculate the load of the block.
w1 = m ∗ g = 14 ∗ 9.81 = 137.34N
But we have six blocks then the total load of the block is
w = 137.34 ∗ 6 = 824.04N
The total load which is produced by the mold and block is
wT = ws + wc = 176.56N + 824.04N = 841.64N

38
3.6 Design of handle lever
A handle is made up of mild steel it is used to apply load on the mold.it is attached to the mold
with the help of pivot.

The material properties of mild steel are

σult = 120mpa

f. s = 3

Take the length of the handle 1000mm this parameter is taken depending from

 The machine size


 To make it comfortable for the operator
 For reducing the deformation
 For minimization of the cost of the material

The diameter of the handle is 50mm because of the Suitability for handling.

∑ Fy = 0

Fb − Fa = 0
Fb − 250N = 0 = Fb = 250N

∑ Mb = 0

39
M b = Fa ∗ X = 250N ∗ 0.2m = 50Nm
To determine the diameter of the handle from the equation of;
MY D 50 π(D4 − d4 )
σb = , where Y = = = 25mm and I =
I 2 2 64
σult 120
σb = = = 40mpa
f. s 3
50 ∗ 25 ∗ 64
40 = , d = 48mm
π(504 − d4 )

3.7 Design base plate


Material for the base plate is mild steel with the following properties
σult = 120mpa
kg
ρ = 7850
m3
For easily handled the concrete the size of the base plate should be larger than the mold. The
overall dimension of the mold is know which is l =804mm, h=200mm and w=312mm from these
dimensions the base plate can find. For minimizing the cost of the material and suitability to handle
Assuming the length, height and the thickness of the plate equal to the mold but the width is larger
than the mold 320mm.

Since having the dimensions of the base plate we can calculate the load produced by the base plate
w = mg but m = v ∗ ρ
From the above figure
v = t ∗ b ∗ l = 0.004 ∗ 0.808 ∗ 0.320 = 0.00103414m3
m = v ∗ ρ = 0.0010414 ∗ 7850 = 8.12kg
w = mg = 8.12 ∗ 9.81 = 79.65N

40
F = 1249.6N/m *0.82m
=1024.672N

1024.672N
Fa = Fb = = 512.336N
2
Ma = Fb ∗ X = 512.336 ∗ 0.82 = 420.12Nm
MY bh3
σ= where I = = 0.0143m4
I 12
420.12 ∗ 0.002
𝜎= = 117mpa
0.0143

Shear force and bending moment diagram

41
Stress analysis
According to maximum principal theory
σ1 1
σmax = + √(σ1 )2 + 4τ2
2 2
117 1
σmax = + √(117)2 + (4 ∗ 02 ) = 117mpa
2 2
Since the material σult is greater than the calculated value so the design is safe.

3.8 Electric Motor selection


To select the motor first we should have to calculate the stiffness of the spring. Since we have the
value of total load which is forced on the spring we can calculate the power. For our project we
have six springs which have the same in length number of coil and the same in everything these
spring have connected in parallel and the stiffness of parallel connection it is the sum of individual
stiffness in spring.
F=KX where k=stiffness
X=elongation and compression
F=force
X
K=
n
42
For the project the elongation and compression of the spring is determined by the designer for this
project the spring must not elongate 5mm because more than this it may damage all the components
of the machine and below this it is not sufficient to compact the wet cement due to this reason
X=0.5
X
K=h
Gd4
But X = 8D3 where G= modules of rigidity

d= diameter of the spring wire


D= mean diameter
In the design of spring we have these values
Since we have the value of the total load of the machine we can determine the vibration force. In
order to vibrate the machine the vibration force must be greater than the total load of the machine
there for considering the load of the vibration is 3000N.
From reduction of speed the speed of the large pulley is 700rpm
The speed is calculated
700
= 11.6666 ≈ 12 vaibration per second
60
X= 10mm
12=1
1=? X =1/12sec
P=FV
V=4X
s 4∗X
V=t= Where s=elongation
t

t= time
4X 4∗10
V = 1⁄ = 1⁄ V= velocity
12 12

V= 40*12= 480mm⁄s
P= FV
m
P= 3000N*0.48 s

P=1.44kw
From standard the motor can be selected with a power of 2hp motor.
The torque applied by the motor
The torque applied by the motor can be calculated by using the power equations.

43
P=T*w, where
p=the power of the motor
T= torque of the motor
W=angular velocity

W= (2*𝜋*2800)/ (60)
w =293rad/sec
T=p/w
=1.44kw/293
T=49.2KN-mm
Diameter of motor shaft
Types of shaft: - the following two types of shafts are important from the subject point of view
1. Transmission shafts. These shafts transmit power between the source and the machines
absorbing power. The counter shaft, line shaft, overhead shaft and all factory are transmission
 The shaft is made of mild steel
 Material (steel with Allowable shear stress of=19.3Mpa)
 We know that that torque transmitted by the shaft(T)
T= (π/16) (τall ) (d3 )
d3 = [(49.2kN-mm) (16)]/ [(π) (19.3N/mm2)]
3
d = √12983
d=23.5mm
Taking standard shaft of d=25mm

3.9 Design of support


The support of the machine is determine on the bases of column and the material for column is
Mild steel 1090 having the following properties
Yield stress =240mpa
Ultimate stress =841mpa
Modules of elasticity (E) =200Mpa
Compressive yield stress 𝛿c = 315Mpa
Considering the support as a column of fixed –fixed end for good support of the components of
the machine the column length is considering as 1.5 times the length of the tamper.
L = 1.5LT = 1.5 ∗ 40 = 600mm
44
The total load which is supported by the column is 2414N and this load is distributed equally
through those of the 4 column supports.
Assuming the column having a square cross section

P
𝛿𝑦 = A Where p=load, A=area, 𝛿y = yield stress
P 2414
A= = = 10cm2
𝛿Y 248
b2 = 10 , b = 3.2cm
From standard take the width is 4cm

45
40∗6003
IXX = = 0.00072m4
12
40∗6003
IXX = = 3.2 ∗ 10−6 m4
12

For the design of the column take the


Greater moment of inertia therefor take
IXX = 0.00072m4
From validity limit from Euler formula we

L C ∗ 𝜋2 ∗ E
=√
K 𝛿Y

Where L=length of the column in m


K=least radius of gyration of the cross section
C=end fixity coefficient
L 4∗π2 ∗200∗109
=√ = 158.3
K 315∗106

4 ∗ 𝜋 2 ∗ E ∗ I 4 ∗ 𝜋 2 ∗ 200 ∗ 109 ∗ 7.2 ∗ 10−4


PC = = = 9.475MN
L 0.6
Since the value of the load produce by the machine is less than the buckling load therefore the
design is safe.

3.10 Design of v-belt


The belts or ropes are used to transmit power from one shaft to another by means of pulleys which
rotate at the same speed or at different speeds. The amount of power transmitted depends upon the
following factors:
• The velocity of the belt.
• The tension under which the belt is placed on the pulleys.
• The arc of contact between the belt and the smaller pulley.

46
• The conditions under which the belt is used.
It may be noted that:
1. The shafts should be properly in line to insure uniform tension across the belt section.
2. The pulleys should not be too close together, in order that the arc of contact on the smaller
pulley may be as large as possible.
3. The pulleys should not be so far apart as to cause the belt to weigh heavily on the shafts,
thus increasing the friction load on the bearings.
4. A long belt tends to swing from side to side, causing the belt to run out of the pulleys,
which in turn develops crooked spots in the belt.
5. The tight side of the belt should be at the bottom, so that whatever sag is present on the
loose side will increase the arc of contact at the pulleys.
6. In order to obtain good results with flat belts, the maximum distance between the shafts
should not exceed 10 meters and the minimum should not be less than 3.5 times the diameter of
the larger pulley.
Following are the various important factors upon which the selection of a belt drive depends:
a. Speed of the driving and driven shafts, e. Speed reduction ratio
b. Power to be transmitted, f. Centre distance between the shafts,
c. Positive drive requirements g. Shafts layout
d. Space available, and h. Service conditions.
Types of belt
Though there are many types of belts used these days, yet the following are important from the
subject point of view:
1. Flat belt: The flat belt is mostly used in the factories and workshops, where a moderate amount
of power is to be transmitted, from one pulley to another when the two pulleys are not more than
8 meters apart.
2. V belt: The v belt is mostly used in the factories and workshops, where a great amount of power
is to be transmitted, from one pulley to another, when the two pulleys are very near to each other.
3. Circular belt or rope: The circular belt or rope is mostly used in the factories and workshops,
where a great amount time power is to be transmitted, from one pulley to another, when the two
pulleys are more than 8 meters a part.

47
Selection of belt for animal ration shredder machine are V belt, because it is mostly used in the
agricultural machineries, where a great amount of power is to be transmitted, from one pulley to
another, when the two pulleys are very near to each other
Table 3. 5 dimension of standard v-belt according to IS: 2494-1974

Type of Power Minimum pitch Top width (b) Thickness Weight per meter
belt ranges in diameter of mm (t) mm length in newton
kw pulley (D) mm
A 0.7-3.5 75 13 8 1.06
B 2-15 125 17 11 1.89
C 7.5-75 200 22 14 3.43
D 20-150 355 32 19 5.96
E 30-350 500 38 23 -

Types of belt drives


The belt drives are usually classified into the following three groups.
1. Light drives: These are transmit small powers at belt speeds up to about 10 m/s as in agricultural
machines and machine tools.
2. Medium drives: These are transmit medium powers at belt speeds over 10m/s but up to 22m/s,
as in machine tools.
3. Heavy drives: These are transmit large powers at belt speeds up to 22m/s as in compressors
and generators.
Type of v-belt and pulley
According to Indian standards (IS: 2494 – 1974), the v belts are made in five types i.e. A, B, C, D
and E. The dimensions for standard for v belts. The pulleys for v belts are aluminum to reduce
weight. Table 4.2: Agricultural application V-belt dimensions and geometry (source: ASAE
Standard S211.3)

48
Table 3. 6 standard width and depth of v-belt

Type Belt cross Nominal belt Nominal belt Sheave Effective


section width (mm) depth (mm) grove angle OD minus
in degree PD for std–
grove sheave
(mm)
Conventional v- HA 13 8 30-38 6.5
belts HB 16.7 10.3 30-38 8.89
HC 22.2 13.5 30-38 10.16
HD 31.8 19.0 30-38 15.24
HE 38.1 23.0 30-38 20.32
From the above standard table v belt type selection for hollow block making machine are the
following specifications.
 Belt type: conventional v belt
 Belt cross section: HA
 Nominal belt width: 13mm
 Nominal belt depth: 8mm
 Shave grove angle: 340
Belt drive from motor to shaft
This belt drive is a cross belt drive with the following data’s:

Figure 1 Open belt arrangement

Since we have the power of the motor we can determine the motor speed and diameter of the motor
shaft pulley from standard table for section A V-belt which is 2800rpm and 75mm respectively.
A ratio is a proportional factor between two similar objects of different sizes. In a belt drive
system, a ratio is used to determine the speed relation between two v-belt pulleys. The speed ratio
would be stable if slippage did not occur; however as belt slip is inevitable, the ratio varies and is
therefore only theoretical. If the speed ratio is < 1 (ex. 1:4), we refer to a speed up system; if the

49
ratio is > 1 (ex. 4:1), it’s a speed reduction system. In both cases, the ratio is obtained using the
dimensions of the input drive (driver) pulley and the output (driven) pulley. In the following ratio,
RS is the speed ratio.
N1 D2 2800 D2
= , = , D2 = 320mm
N2 D1 700 75
Where D2 is the larger diameter of the pulley
D1 Is the smaller diameter of the pulley
π∗d∗n π∗3∗2800
V= = = 2199 ft⁄mm = 782005m⁄s
12 12
The pitch length of the belt
Lp = L + Lc = 38 + 1.8 =39.8 in = 1010.92mm
The center - to - center distance C is

π π 2
C=0.25{[Lp − 2 (d + D)] + √[L − 2 (D + d)] − 2(D − d)2 }

π π 2
C= 0.25 {[39.8 − 2 (12 − 3)] + √[39.8 − 2 (12 + 3)] − 2(12 − 3)}

C= 35in= 889mm
2sin−1 (12 − 3)
∅=π−
2 ∗ 35
∅ = 2.28rad
Exp [0.5123∅]
Exp [0.5123*2.28] =3.57
ft
From shingly Interpolating in table 17-12 for V= 2565.6min gives Htab = 4.55hp. The wrap angle
180
in degree is 2.28* = 1310 from table 17-13 K1 = 0.99 from table 17-14 K 2 = 0.85, thus from
π

eq. (17-17)
Ha = K1 K 2 Htab
Ha = 0.99 ∗ 0.85 ∗ 4.55 = 3.828825hp Where: Ha =allowable power per belt
K1 =angle of wrap correction factor
K 2 =belt length correction factor
Htab =tabular power
From eq. (17-19) Hd = Hnom K s nd where: Hd =design power
Hd = 4 ∗ 1.3 ∗ 1 = 5.2hp Hnom=nominal power

50
K s =service factor
Hd
From eq. (17-20) Nb ≥ nd =design factor
Ha
5.2
Nb ≥ 3.828825 = 1.305 ≈ 1 Where: Nb =number of belt

From table (17-16) k c = 0.965. Thus from eq. (17-21) where: Fc =centrifugal tension
V 2
FC = K c (1000) Kc=

2565.6 2
Fc = 0.965 ( ) = 6.35Ibf = 2.88Kg
1000
From eq. (17-22) where: ∆F=power that transmitted per belt
H
63025 d 63025∗
5.2
Nb 2
∆F = d = 3.5 F1 =largest tension
n∗( ) 2800( )
2 2

∆F = 33.4Ibf = 15.15Kg F2 =least tension


Then from eq. (17-8) Fi =initial tension
∆F∗exp(f∅)
F1 = Fc + nfs =factor of saftey
exp(f∅)−1

33.4 ∗ 3.57
F1 = 6.35 + = 52.76Ibf = 23.93Kg
3.57 − 1
From eq. (17-24)
F2 = F1 − ∆F = 52.76 − 33.4
F2 = 19.36Ibf = 8.78Kg
From eq. (17-25)
F1 + F2
Fi = − Fc
2
52.76 + 19.36
Fi = − 6.35 = 29.7Ibf = 13.47Kg
2
From eq. (17-26)

Ha Nb
nfs =
Hnom K s
2.987 ∗ 2
nfs = = 1.15
4 ∗ 1.3
Life from table 17-16 K b = 576
K b 576
Fb1 = = = 164.6Ibf = 74.66Kg
d 3.5

51
K b 576
Fb2 = = = 144Ibf = 65.3Kg
D 4
Since having Fb1 and Fb2 we can determine the value of the tensions on tighten (T1 ) and the slack
(T2 ).
T1 = F1 + Fb1 = 52.76 + 164.4 = 217.16Ibf = 98.5Kg
T2 = F2 + Fb2 = 19.36 + 144 = 163.36Ibf = 74.1Kg
Then from table 17-17 take K= 1193 and b= 10.926
From eq. (17-27)
−1
K −b K −b
Np = [(T ) + (T ) ] NP =number of pass
1 2

−1
1193 −10.926 1193 −10.926
NP = [( ) +( ) ]
217.16 163.36
Np = 1 ∗ 109 pass
From eq. (17-28) lifetime t in hours is given by
Np Lp
t>
720V
109 ∗ 31.5
t>
720 ∗ 2565.6
t > 17050.5hr

3.11 Design of spring


Helical springs: The helical springs are made up of a wire coiled in the form of a helix and is
primarily intended for compressive or tensile loads. The cross-section of the wire from which the
spring is made may be circular, square or rectangular.
Conical and volute springs: The conical and volute springs are used in special applications where
a telescoping spring or a spring with a spring rate that increases with the load is desired and lead
angles.
Torsion springs: These springs may be of helical or spiral. The helical type may be used only in
applications where the load tends to wind up the spring and are used in various electrical
mechanisms.
Laminated or leaf springs: The laminated or leaf spring (also known as flat spring or carriage
spring) consists of a number of flat plates (known as leaves) of varying lengths held together by
means of clamps and bolts.

52
Disc or Belleville springs: These springs consist of a number of conical discs held together against
slipping by a central bolt or tube. These springs are used in applications where high spring rates
and compact spring units are required.
Special purpose springs: These springs are air or liquid springs, rubber springs, ring springs etc.
The fluids (air or liquid) can behave as a compression spring. These springs are used for special
types of application only.
It largely depends upon the service for which they are used i.e. severe service, average service or
light service.
Severe service means rapid continuous loading where the ratio of minimum to maximum load (or
stress) is one-half or less, as in automotive valve springs.
Average service includes the same stress range as in severe service but with only intermittent
operation, as in engine governor springs and automobile suspension springs.
Light service includes springs subjected to loads that are static or very infrequently varied, as in
safety valve springs.
I. For the project due to the following reasons we select helical spring.
(a) These are easy to manufacture.
(b) These are available in wide range.
(c) These are reliable.
(d) These have constant spring rate.
(e) Their performance can be predicted more accurately.
(f) Their characteristics can be varied by changing dimensions
II. Material for Helical Springs
The material of the spring should have
High fatigue strength,
High ductility,
High resilience and it should be creep resistant.
The springs are mostly made from oil-tempered carbon steel wires containing 0.60 to 0.70 per cent
carbon and 0.60 to 1.0 per cent manganese. Music wire is used for small springs. Non-ferrous
materials like phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, monel metal, brass etc., may be used in special
cases to increase fatigue resistance, temperature resistance and corrosion resistance.
The table values of allowable shear stress, modulus of rigidity and modulus of elasticity for various
materials used for springs.

53
The helical springs are either cold formed or hot formed depending upon the size of the wire. Wires
of small sizes (less than 10 mm diameter) are usually wound cold whereas larger size wires are
wound hot. The strength of the wires varies with size, smaller size wires have greater strength and
less ductility, due to the greater degree of cold working.
Table 3. 7 values of allowable shear stress, modules of elasticity and modules of rigidity for
various spring materials

Material Allowable shear stress (τ) Modules of Modules of


Mpa rigidity(G) elasticity( E)
Sever Average Light kN/𝒎𝟐 kN/𝒎𝒎𝟐
Service Service service
Carbon steel
Up to 2.125 mm 420 525 651 80 210
diameter
2.125 to 4.625 385 483 595 80 210
mm
4.625 to 8.00 336 420 525 80 210
mm
8.00 to 13.25 294 364 455 80 210
mm
13.25 to 24.25 252 315 392 80 210
mm
24.25 to 38.00 224 250 350 80 210
mm
Stainless steel 280 330 437.5 70 196
Values of allowable shear stress modules of elasticity and modules of rigidity for various spring
material
From the above table the material selected is carbon steel having average service because it has
intermittent operation. And also
From standard table for average service take
Allowable shear stress (τ) =483 MPa
Modules of elasticity (E) =210 KN/𝑚𝑚2
Modules of rigidity (G) =80 KN/𝑚2

54
The spring index (C) =5
Load (W) = 3000N which is the total load of the machine applied on the spring.
III. Mean diameter of the spring
4C−1 0.615
K= 4C−4 + where K= Wahl’s stress factor
C
(4∗5)−1 0.615
K= (4∗5)−4+ 5

K=1.31
The maximum shear stress of the material is
8∗WC
τ= ,
π∗d2
8∗W∗C
d2 = ,
τ∗π
8∗3000∗5
d2 =
483∗π
d2 = 7.9mm2
d = √7.9mm2
d = 2.8 mm
From standard table take
d=3mm
Mean diameter of the spring

D = C*d

D = 5*3

D = 15mm

Outer diameter of the spring is


Do = D + do
Do =15+3
Do =18mm
From standard table take
Do =20mm
IV. Number of turns of the coil it is know the compression of the spring coil is
8∗W∗C3 ∗n
δ=
G∗d

55
Assuming the deflection δ=10mm
8∗3000∗53 ∗n
10= 80∗103 ∗3

n=12
V. Free length of the spring is
Solid length (ls ) = n*d
ls =12*3
ls =36mm
From the standard we know that δ (maximum deflection) =10mm so to find free length
lf = (n*d) + δ+ (n-1)
lf = (12*3) + 10 + (12-1)
lf = 57mm
VI. Pitch of the coil
l −l
P= f n s +d
57−36
P= +3
12

P=4.75 mm
VII. Stress analysis
Check for direct shear stress
load
τ=
cross sectional area of the wire
5∗300
τ=
π∗52
τ = 20mpa
8∗W∗D 4∗W
τmax = +
π∗d3 π∗d3
8∗300∗25 4∗300
= +
π∗53 π∗52
= 176.866 Mpa
If τall > τmax then the condition is safe
483 > 176.866

56
3.12 Selection of bearing
A bearing is a machine element which supports another moving machine element. It permits a
relative motion between the contact surfaces of the members while carrying the load. Due to the
relative motion between the surfaces a certain amount of power is wasted in overcoming frictional
resistance and if the rubbing surfaces are indirect contact there will be rapid wear. In order to
reduce frictional resistance and wear resistance in some cases to cases carry away the heat
generated a layer of fluid may be provided.
Depend upon the nature of contact
(I) Sliding contact bearing
The sliding takes place along the surfaces of contact between the moving element and fixed
element
(ii) Rolling contact bearing
The steel balls or rollers are interposed between the moving and fixed element. The balls offer
rolling friction at the two points for each ball or roller.
Journal Bearing
A sliding contact bearing that supports a load in a radial direction is known as journal bearing. It
consists of two main parts, a shaft and a hollow cylinder. The portion of the shaft inside the hollow
cylinder also known as bearing is called as journal. In most applications the journal rotates while
the bearing is stationary. However there are some applications where the journal is stationary and
the bearing rotates and even somewhere both the journal and bearing rotates. This journal bearing
may be classified as full journal bearing and partial journal bearing depending upon whether the
journal is fully or partially covered by bearing.
Terms used in hydrodynamic journal bearing
1. Diameter clearance: It the different between the diameter of journal and the bearing.
c= D-d
2. Radial clearance: it is the different between the radial of the bearing and the journal.
c1=R-r=D-d/2
3. Diametric clearance ratio: It is the ratio of the diametric clearance to the diameter of the
journal.
c/d= (D-d)/d

4. Eccentricity: It is the radial distance between the center of the bearing and the displaced center
of the bearing under load.

57
5. Minimum oil film thickness: It is the minimum distance between the bearing and the journal
under complete lubrication condition. It is denoted by ho and occurs at the line of centers.
Coefficient of friction for journal bearing
To determine the coefficient of friction for well lubricated full journal bearings, the following
empirical relation established by McKee based on the experimental data
33 ZN d
μ= ∗ ( ) ∗ ( )+K
108 P c
µ- Coefficient of friction
Z- Absolute viscosity of oil
N- Speed of journal in r.p.m
p- Bearing pressure on the projected bearing area
d- Diameter of journal
L-length of bearing
c- Diameter clearance
k- Factor to correct for end leakage.
Critical pressure of the journal bearing
The pressure at which the oil film breaks down so the metal to metal contact begins, is known as
critical pressure or the minimum operating pressure of the bearing. It may be obtained by the
following relation.
ZN d 2 1
p= 6
( ) ∗( )
4.75 ∗ 10 2 d+1
The sommerfeld number is also a dimensionless parameter used extensively in the design of
journal bearings.
ZN d 2
sommerfeid number = ∗( )
P c
Heat generated in a journal bearing
The heat generated in a bearing due to the fluid friction and friction of the parts having relative
motion.
Qg =WVµ
After the thermal equilibrium is reached heat will be dissipated at the outer surface of the bearing
at the same rate at which it is generated in the oil film. The amount of heat will depend upon the
temperature difference size and mass of the radiating surface and on the amount of air flowing

58
around the bearing. However for the convenience in bearing design the actual heat dissipating area
may be expressed in terms of the projected area of the journal. Heat dissipated by the bearing
Q𝑑 = CA(t b − t a )
C- Heat dissipation coefficient
A- Projected area of the bearing
t b -temperature of the bearing surface
t a - Temperature of the surrounding air
Design procedure for journal bearing
1. Determine the length of bearing.
2. Calculate the bearing pressure.
3. Select the type of oil used.
4. Determine the amount of heat generated.
5. Determine the amount of heat rejected.
Rolling contact bearing
The advent of automobiles and many high speed machineries make very much use another type
of bearings known as rolling contact bearings. The friction produced in these bearing is very low.
These bearings also called as antifriction bearings. They differ from sliding contact bearings in
their structure and usage.
Components of rolling contact bearing
The rolling bearing consists of four main components
(1) The inner ring,
(2) Outer ring,
(3) The balls or rollers,
(4) The retainers or separators.
The inner ring is forced to fitted with machine shaft and outer ring is fitted with machine housing.
The shaft rotates because of relative rotations of balls or rollers. The retainers is used to prevent
the balls or rollers from ejecting out during operation.
Selection of bearing for steady loading
The size of bearing required is judged by the magnitude and nature of applied load, life and
reliability. The bearing load is composed of weights involved forces derived from power
transmitted and additional force based on method of operation.

59
1
L K
c = (L ) ∗ P
10

C- Basic dynamic load rating


L- Life of bearing in million revolutions
L10- life of bearing for 90% survival at 1 million revolutions
P- Equivalent load
k- Exponent (3 for ball bearing, 10/3 for roller bearings)
P = (XFr + YF𝑎 ) ∗ 𝑆
Fr - Radial load
Fa - Axial load
X- Radial load factor
Y- Axial load factor
S- Service factor
Selection of bearing for variable loading
The rolling contact bearing are frequently operate under variable load and speed conditions. This
is due to many causes like power fluctuation in electrical machineries or requirement of different
cutting forces for different kinds of machining tools, or running with loading and unloading
condition as in automobiles. Such as variable loaded bearings are designed by considering all these
different loaded conditions of work cycle and not solely upon most sever operating conditions.
The work cycle may be divided into a number of portions in each of which operation condition
may be taken as constant.
For variable speed
P31 ∗n1 +P32 ∗n2 +P33 ∗n3 +. . .+P3n ∗nn
Pm = [ ∑n
]

For variable time


𝑝 p3 ∗t +P3 ∗t ∗P3 ∗t +. . .+P3
n ∗tn
𝑚=[ 1 1 2 2 ∑3 3 ]
t

P1- constant load during n1 revolution (or) during the period of time t1
P2- constant load during n2 revolution (or) during the period of time t2

∑ n = n1 + n2 + n3 + ⋯ + nn

∑ t = t1 + t 2 + t 3 + ⋯ + t n

60
Bearings are manufactured to take pure radial load thrust load, or a combination of the two kind
of loads. The single –raw deep-groove bearing will take radial load. Thus we going a glimpse of
the load life function at 0.90 reliability. Using a regression equation of the form
FL1/a =constant
The result of many tests for various kinds of bearing result in a (constant parameter)
a=3 for ball bearing
a=10/3 for roller bearing (cylindrical and tapered rolled)
The catalog load rating (C10 ) display as C10 .To do not it as the 10th percentile ratio life for a
particular bearing in the catalog.
1/a
F1 *L10 = F*L1/a Where L10 =rating lifer
Further we can write
1 1
C10 (LR nR 60)a = FD (CD nD 60)a where C10 = catalog rating
LR = rating life in hr
nR = rating speed
FD = desired radial load in KN
ND = desired speed r/min
CD = desired life hr
Solving for
LD nD 60 1
C10 = FD ( )a
LR nR 60
1
C10 = FD (XD )a where XD = dimension less rating size
The rating life desired life and desired speed can be rated as follow
60 LD nD 60 LD nD
A XD = L =
R nR 60 106

Let the block machine functions 8hr per day and equivalent radial load that the same damage as
the combined radial thus the bearing life of machines for 8hr service that are fully utilized is from
20 to 30 k from table 11-4 (shingly mechanical engineering design 6th edition ) take the minimum
value i.e. LD = 20000hr
We will use the experience two manufactures as table below

61
Table 3. 8 Rating life and Weibull parameter

Manufacturer Rating life revolution Weibull parameters rating


life’s
X0 Θ B
1 90[106 ] 0 4.48 1.5
2 1[106 ] 0.02 4.459 1.483

Mostly we use manufacturer 2, then dimension less rating life is determined as following
60 LD nD
XD = Where LD =desired life 20000
1∗106
nD = motor speed 2300 rpm
XD = dimestion less rating life
60∗20000∗2800
XD =
1∗106
XD = 3360
Then the catalog is given by
1
a
XD
C10 = af FD [ 1]
X0 + (θ − X0 )(1 − RD) b

By determining the type of application the load factor can be taken table 11-5 assume machinery
moderate impact af = 2 ball bearing are more capable of resulting both radial and trust load than
radial bearing, so it is better choice to select ball bearings.
1
a
XD
C10 = af FD [ 1 ]
X0 +(θ−X0 )(1−RD )b

af = application factor 2
FD = desired radial load 2.5 KN
XD = 3360
R= 0.99
a=3
X0 = 0.02
θ= 4.459
B=1.483

62
1
3
3360
C10 = 2 ∗ 2.5 [ 1 ]
0.02+(4.459−0.02)(1−0.99)1.483

C10 = 124.258 KN
The bearing that does not have thrust load that parameter can be taken 02 series from table 11-2
and 11-3
Since the bore diameter of the bearing must fit to the outer diameter of the shaft the bore diameter
of bearing must be 25 mm.
Using 02 series 25mm from single raw deep groove from table 11-2
C0 = 6.95
From the shaft force amount we have
Fn *(thrust load) =Fa = 9.31KN
Fa 6.95
= = 0.56
C0 9.31

From table 11-1 for


Fa
= 0.56 e= 0.44
C0

The equivalent radial load that does the same damage as the combined radial and thrust load Fa is
given by
Fe = Xi VFr +Yi Fa V= for a rotating of inner
V= 1.2 for a rotating of outer
Fr = radial load
Fa = axial load
Take V=1
Fa 2.5
= = 0.26
VFa 9.51
Fa
< e = 0.26<0.44
VFr

Then the above equation becomes


Fe = X1 VFr +Y1 Fe
From table 11-1 for
X1 =1 e= 0.44 Y=0
Fe = (1)(1)(9.51)
Fe = 9.51kN

63
60LR nR
Then L10 =
60nD

106 124.258 3
L10 = ∗( )
60 ∗ 2800 9.51
L10 = 13,277.68 hr
From table 11-2 for 25mm (diameter of shaft)
Bore diameter = 25mm
Outer diameter = 52mm
Width = 15mm
Fillet radius = 1mm

3.13 Design of welding joint


Assumption
1. The load is distributed uniform along the entire length of the weld
2. Stress is spread uniform over its effective section.
3. Static condition.
Types of welded joints.
But joint - two parts in approximately in the same plane.
Corner joint: - two parts located approximately at right angle each other.
Lap joint: - between over lapping parts in parallel plates.
T- joint: - joints at approximately right angle in the form of “T”.
Edge joint: - between the edge of two or more parallel parts.
Lap joints
1) Single transverse,
2) Double transverse and
3) Parallel.
Table 3. 9 Stresses for welded joints

Type of weld Bare electrode Coated electrode


Steady load Fatigue load Steady load Fatigue load
Mpa Mpa Mpa Mpa
Fillet weld all types 80 21 98 35
Butt weld
Tension 90 35 110 55

64
Compression 100 35 125 55
Shear 55 35 70 35
Table 3. 10 Stress concentration factors.

Types of joints Stress concentration factor


Reinforcement butt joint 1,2
Toe of transverse filled weld 1,5
End of parallel filled weld 2,7
t-butt joint with sharp corner 2,0

3.14 Design of shaft


The shaft are usually cylindrical but may be square or cross shaped in section. They are solid in
cross-section but sometimes hollow shaft are also used.
The material used for shafts should have the following properties.
 It should have high strength
 It should have good machinability
 It should have low notch sensitive factor
 It should have good heat treatment properties
 It should have high wear resistant properties.
The material used for ordinary shaft is carbon steel grades
40C8, 45C8, 50C4 and 50C12
Shafts are generally manufactured by hot rolling and finished to size by cold drawing or turning
and grinding.
Stresses in shaft
The following stresses are introduced in the shaft
 Shear stresses due to the transmission of torque (i.e. due to torsional load).
 Bending stress (tensile or compressive) due to the force acting upon machine element.
 Stresses due to combined torsional and bending load
The shaft may be designed on the basis of
 Strength , and
 Rigidity and stiffness

65
In designing of shafts on the basis of strength, the following cases may be considered
 Shaft subjected to twisting moment or torque only
 Shaft subjected to bending moment only
 Shaft subjected to combined twisting and bending moment ,and
 Shaft subjected to axial loads in addition to combined torsional and bending load.
The following things are considering for our shaft
o Material = carbon steel 45C8
o Ultimate tensile strength =650Mpa
o Yield strength=350Mpa
o The shaft is subjected to bending moment and twisting moment
o The project considering on cylindrical with solid cross section
o Assuming factor of safety 2
o Maximum allowable shear stress
δyt 350
τmax = = = 87.5Mp
2∗f.s 2∗2
Since having the dimension of the mold table is 1124mm in length and then the shaft length must
be less than the length of the mold table for minimization of deflection (bending) and minimization
of the cost of the material just take short length of the shaft which is
L=500mm

We know that the torque transmitted by the shaft


T= (T1 − T2 )*R = (944 - 727)*0.045
T = 10N-m=10 ∗ 103 N − mm
Neglect the weight of shaft total vertical load acting on the pulley.
W = T1 + T2 =944 + 727
W = 1671N

66
Bending moment
M=W*L
M = 1671N * 500mm
M = 835.5598 * 103 N-mm
We know that the equivalent twisting moment (𝑇𝑒 )
Te = √(T 2 − M 2 ) = √((835500)2 + (1000)2 )
Te = 8355598 * 103 N-mm
We also know the equivalent twisting moment (Te )
π
Te = * τ*d3
16
8355598423 ∗103 ∗16
= d3
π ∗ 87.5

d = 35mm

Bending moment and shear force diagram

Stress analysis for shaft


We know the cross sectional area of the shaft is
π π
A = ∗ d2 = ∗ 362 = 1017.88mm2
4 4
Therefore tensile stress due to axial pulling

67
P 1671
δo = = = 1.6MPa
A 1017.88
Section modules for the shaft
π π
Z= ∗ d3 = ∗ 363 = 4580.44mm3
32 32
Bending stress
M 835.5598 ∗ 103
δb = = = 182.419MPa
Z 4580.44
The resultant tensile stress is
δ1 = δo + δb = 182.419 + 1.6 = 184MPa
We now the torque transmitted
16 ∗ T 16 ∗ 10 ∗ 103
τ= = = 1.1MPa
π ∗ d3 π ∗ 363
According to maximum principal stress theory
σ1 1 184 1
σult = + [√σ1 2 + 4τ2 ] = + [√1842 + 4 ∗ 1.12 ]
2 2 2 2
σult = 92 + 92 = 184MPa
Since the material stress is greater than the calculated stress (650MPa>184MPa) therefore the
design is safe.
According to maximum share stress theory
1 1
τmax = [√σ1 2 + 4τ2 ] = [√1842 +4 ∗ 1.12 ]
2 2
184.01315
τmax = = 92MPa
2
Since the yield stress of the material is greater than the calculated yield stress (350MPa>92MPa)
Then the design is safe.
3.15 Design of bolt
Assumption
1. The shear load are carried by friction
2. The attached members are rigid and not defected with load
Material selection
 The material we chose for bolt have wear resistant and good machine ability
 The material is ASTM A47,A338 with
Ultimate tensile strength 345Mpa and

68
Yield stress of 224Mpa
δult 224
δall = = = 112Mpa
2 2
δall 112
τall = = = 56Mpa
2 2
Since we have the values of δall and τall we can calculate the value of bolt diameter from
π
δb = ∗ τ ∗ d3
32
π
112Mpa = ∗ 56Mpa ∗ d3
32
3 112 ∗ 32
d = √( ) = 8mm
π ∗ 56

From standard table of bolt and nut the diameter of the bolt is
d = 10mm
3.16 Key Selection
A key is a piece of mild steel inserted between the shaft and hub or boss of the pulley to connect
these together in order to prevent relative motion between them. It is always inserted parallel to
the axis of the shaft. The key may fail due to shearing or crushing. Since the crushing stress for
the key material is twice the shearing stress, therefore a square key may be used.
For mild steel the crushing stress is 122Mpa
For square key where w and t are width and thickness of the key respectively.
Key for motor shaft
The motor shaft diameter is 20mm
d 20
w=t= = = 5mm
4 4
Torque transmitted by the motor shaft=12730Nmm
t d 5 20
T = l ∗ ∗ σc ∗ = 12730N − mm = l ∗ ∗ 122 ∗ =
2 2 2 2
12730mm = l ∗ 3050
l = 4.173mm say l = 10mm
Key for shaft
The diameter of the shaft is 35.6mm
d 35
w=t= = = 9mm
2 4

69
The torque transmitted by the shaft is =27.2837KN-mm
t d 9 36
T=l∗ ∗ σc ∗ = 27283.7N − mm = l ∗ ∗ 122 ∗
2 2 2 2
27283.7N − mm = l ∗ 988
l = 2.76mm say 10mm

70
CHAPTER FOUR
4 Manufacturing process
Manufacturing is the means by which the technical and industrial capability of a nation is
harnessed to transform innovative designs into well-made products that meet customer needs. This
activity occurs through the action of an integrated network that links many different participants
with the goals of developing, making, and selling useful things. Manufacturing is the conversion
of raw materials into desired end products. The word derives from two Latin roots meaning hand
and make. Manufacturing, in the broad sense, begins during the design phase when judgments are
made concerning part geometry, tolerances, material choices, and so on. Manufacturing operations
start with manufacturing planning activities and with the acquisition of required resources, such as
process equipment and raw materials. The manufacturing function extends throughout a number
of activities of design and production to the distribution of the end product and, as necessary, life
cycle support. Modern manufacturing operations can be viewed as having six principal
components: materials being processed, process equipment (machines), manufacturing methods,
equipment calibration and maintenance, skilled workers and technicians, and enabling resources.
In our manufacturing process to manufacturing the hallow concrete block making machine there
is a process.
1st Observe the material when we use suitable for manufacturing the machine.

Figure 4. 1 observation view


2nd Select the raw material to consider our design and standard.
3rd When we approved the material is safe or it’s best for manufacturing process.
For example; for welding, grinding
4th Collect the chosen material then we start the work.

71
5th To start the work
Firstly we should be measure by meter and cutting by cutting tool or cutter disk appropriate
the design dimension.
When we cutting part; cutting sheet metal- for prepared the mold, table.
Cutting the RHS for prepared the leg of table.
Cutting round bar prepared shaft and sliding part.

Figure 4. 2 cutting process


6th After the cutting part we go to bending and drilling part used bending machine and drill bit.
7th Then we assembled the cutting part by welding process.

Figure 4. 3 welding process


When we the welding process, we use the electrode-
the standard is ∅2.5 ∗ 300𝑚𝑚(𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑑) net =2.5kg

72
Figure 4. 4 assembling process
8th Grinding -the standard size of grinding disk is 180*6.2*22.23mm type 27.
9th checking the all part safe or unsafe.
10th finally panting

Figure 4. 5 final assembly

73
CHAPTER FIVE
5 Cost analysis
In order to calculate the cost of manufacturing this machine, the list of parts or
component must be clearly identify.
5.1.1 Material cost
From the design of the components of this machine the mass of the components are as below
For material mild steel the standard cost of 1000kg is 1000ameican dollar.
a) mass of upper table
kg
Material for this table is mild steel (ρ = 7850 m3 )

m = ρ ∗ v = 7850 ∗ 0.001 = 7.85kg


b) thickness of the pressing stripper
Material for stripper is mild steel
From the standard thickness of pressing stripper t=2mm
c) mass of the mold
kg
Material for stripper is mild steel (ρ=7850 m3 )

m = ρ ∗ g = 18kg
d) mass of the mold table
kg
Material for stripper is mild steel ( ρ = 7850 m3 )

m = v ∗ ρ = 0.0010314kg = 8.12kg
e) Thickness of support
Material for support is mild steel
The thickness of support is (t) =3mm
Table 5. 1 cost of components on basis of mass

No. Parts Quantity Unit price(birr) Total price

1 Mold having a mass(m) = 18kg 1 396 396


350X850X4(mm)

2 Upper plate having a mass(m) = 7.85kg 1 172.70 170.70


312X812X4

74
3 Mold table having a mass(m) = 8.12kg 1 178.64 178.64
320X820X4

TOTAL 745.35

Cost of standard parts

Table 5. 2 cost for standard part

No. Parts Quantity Unit Total


price(birr) price(birr)
1 Bearing 2 300 600
2 Motor 1 5000 5000
3 Belt 1 375 375
4 Spring 6 20 120
5 Cutter disk 8 40 320

6 Grinding disk 3 50 150


7 electrode(∅2.5mm ∗ 300mm) 2 140 280
TOTAL 6845

Costs of material with their diameter and thickness

Table 5. 3 material cost

No. Part Quantity Price(birr) Total


price(birr)
1 Steele plate
530 X 780 X 4 1 1881.00 1881.00
120 X 750 X 20 1 585.00 585.00
610 X 1267 X 20 1 1174 1174.00
2 Solid Round bar (mm)
∅35X500 1 28 28
3 round bar(mm)
∅35 ∗ 800 1 30 30

75
Square bar(mm)
4 40X40X3000 for t=3mm 1 600 600
30X30X6345 for t = 2mm 1 400 400
29.99X29.99X3500 for t = 2mm 1 300 300
5 Steel block

TOTAL 6082

Costs for screws and nuts

Table 5. 4 cost of screws and nuts

No. Parts Quantity Price(birr) Total price(birr)


1 M12 Nut 12 2.70 32.4
2 M16 Nut 18 3.20 57.6
3 M20 Nut 15 3.20 48
4 M4 x 15 16 0.30 4.8
5 M10 x 40 20 1.40 28
TOTAL 171

5.1.2 Machining cost


Machining cost is a cost that expenses for production process of products.
From asking the local factories the cost of machining is calculated as below
Table 5. 5 machining cost

No Parts Hour Price/Hour Total price(birr)

1 Drilling 2 30.00 60
2 Milling 3 100.00 300
3 Turning 4 100.00 400.00

76
4 Welding 60 60.00 3600.00
5 Assembling 25 50.00 1250
TOTAL 5560

5.1.3 Labor cost


Is the wages of paid to workers during an accounting period on daily, weekly and monthly it simply
means a cost expenses for workers.
Table 5. 6 labor cost

No. Number of worker Number of workers Cost paid for worker(birr)


1 Labor 2 500
2 Designer 1 5000
3 Assistant 1 1000
TOTAL 6500

Estimation of the total cost of the machine is


5560 - Manufacturing cost
+ 6082 - Material cost
+ 354.7-cost of screw and nut
+ 6845-cost of standard parts
+ 745.35 - cost of plates determined from their mass
+ 6500- labor cost
Total cost = 26087 BIRR. Therefore, roughly, total machine cost including the mechanical
system is BIRR 14446.7. However, this value may change relatively as a time goes by.

77
CHAPTER SIX
6 Result and discussion
Table 5. 7 result and discussion of components

No. Parts Results Discussion


1 Upper plate Thickness = 4mm According to both principal and shear
stress theory the design of this plate is
Mass(m) = 7.85Kg
safe.

Weight (W) = 80N

Length(l) = 812mm

Width (w) = 312mm


2 Pressing stripper Thickness (t)=2mm From the design of stripper it
considered as fixed –fixed column and
6
𝑃𝑐 = 3764.66 ∗ 10 MN
most long column are failed due to
buckling load this load is greater than
Height (h) = 400mm
the load produced by the stripper then
Width(w) = 29.8mm the design is safe.
3 Mold Thickness(t) = 4mm This is the most important component
of the machine and
Weight(w) = 18Kg

Length(l) = 812mm

Height(h) = 200mm

Width(w) = 312mm
4 Motor Power (P) = 2hp For vibrating the overall components
of the machine 2hp is suitable
Motor shaft having a ∅ =
25mm

78
5 Support Height(h) = 600mm Support considered as a fixed-fixed
long column and the design is safe
Width(w)= 40mm
because of the buckling load is greater
than the load produced by the support
Thickness(t) = 4mm
and all dimensions of the support is
safe from stress analysis.

6 Pulley For N = 2800r.p.m Dimensions of pulley are safe from


calculation of pulley.
Diameter(∅) = 75mm

Diameter(∅) = 320mm
7 v-belt Nominal belt width(w) = From the design of v – belt all the
13mm dimensions, procedure and results are
done accordingly. From stress
Nominal belt depth(d) = 8mm
analysis and lifetime of the belt the
design is safe.
Sheave groove angle = 34°

Tighten tension(T1 ) = 98.5Kg

Slack tension(T2 ) = 74.1Kg

Lifetime in hours(t) >


17050.5hr
8 Spring Mean diameter (D)= 15mm According to shear stress analysis all
dimensions of the spring are safe.
Outer diameter(DO ) = 20mm

Number of turn(n) = 12

Pitch of the coil (p) = 4.75mm

79
9 Bearing Bore diameter(∅) = 25mm All dimensions of bearing are safe
from stress analysis of bearing.
Outer diameter(∅) = 52mm

Width (w) = 15mm

Filet radius =1mm


10 Shaft Diameter(∅) =35mm According to maximum shear stress
Length(l) = 500mm theory and maximum normal stress
theory the design of the shaft is safe

11 Bolt Diameter(∅) = 10mm According to maximum shear stress


theory the design is safe.
12 Key Key for motor shaft having The key may be fail due to shearing or
a width of (w) = 5mm and crushing but. According to maximum
having a length(l) 10mm shear stress theory key of our design
key of shaft having a width of safe.
(w) 9mm and having a length
of (l) 10mm

After all we are able to have the following results


 High production rate
The machine must be able to increase the productivity of the block output. the reason is it can
supply the high demand of hollow block in the construction industry.
 Low cost of machine
The cost of manufacturing of the machine must be reasonable.
 Simple operation
A simple on/off button only and no complicated process in producing the hollow block
operates machine.
 Ease maintenance
The machine can be easily maintained and easily accessed for maintenance area.

80
CHAPTER SEVEN
7 Conclusion and recommendation
7.1 Conclusion
A concrete block making machine can produce 6 blocks per press/cycle it is manufactured properly
according to our design. This machine has a capable of producing 60 blocks per hour and 770 per
day. This block making machine is easy to manufacture, less in weight compared to other block
making machine currently available, less in cost and easily maintainable so its advantage is more
to our country investors. The design and manufacturing of this machine in our country has also an
advantage of reducing foreign currency and increase products. This project helped us in widening
our knowledge of designing machine and machine elements.
7.2 Recommendation
We recommend that the movable parts of this machine like the lifting arm be oiled properly before
usage for easy movement since they carry heavy load. That the machine must be properly installed,
balanced before usage to withstand the vibration involved. The pulley, lifting arm and the
motor should be inspected before usage. The machine must be properly cleaned after the normal
daily work to be free from sand and cement which can attack the parts and destroy them or the
sand also causing friction in the machine.
The machine can modified such that it can have bigger mold and a means of feeding and
compaction of the mix in the lift, preferable automatically .this should be made simple and not
expensive
We strictly recommended the faculty to provided required materials for the manufacturing of the
machine. And also we recommended the faculty to provide some training on the usage of different
software programs which is useful for the project

81
8 REFERENCES
[1] H.C. Sumpf, Block Machine, United States Patent Office, Application December 16, 1946,
Serial No. 716,564, Cl. 25-41.
[2] Judson A. Hereford, Block making apparatus, United States patent, Application January
1991, Serial No. 636,726, Cl. B29C 43/00.
[3] Nicholas Lyons and C.K George, Inverter for block mold, United States Patent,
Application February 1989, Serial No. 313,067, Cl. B28B 5/02.
[4] Vernon C. Duff, Machine for manufacturing hollow concrete blocks, Application July
1928, Serial No. 293,882. Teaching material on machine design. Lecture notes of machine
elements and machine design courses by jose’M. Dominguez estupinan, Mech.eng. and ato
Mekonen Gebreslasie.
[5] Mechanical Engineering Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, Eighth Edition Text:
by Budynas−Nisbett.R.S. KhuBirri, J.K. Gupta, a text book of machine design, 2002, 13th
edition.
[6] Bralla james g.”Handbook of product design for manufacturing: a practical guide to low
cost production, ”mc garw hill 1986 USA
[7] Fraenkel pl”water lifiting devices for irrigation and draninage,”fao, rome 1986
[ 8] Helsel jay d, cecil jensen”engineering drawing and design,” 5th edition glencoe/mc graw
hill USA, 1996
[9] Kreith frank “the crc handbook of mechanical engineering, 1st edition crc press USA 1998
[10] KhuBirri r s, gupta j k:”a text book of machine design,”13th edition, eurasia publishing
house (pvt) ltd, ran nagar, new delhi, 2002.
[11] Mischke charless r, joseph e shigley “standrad handbook of machine designe”, 2nd
edition, mc graw hill USA, 1996 [12] Nelik lev “centrifugal pump and rotary pump:
fundamentals with application,”1st edition, USA 1999.

82
9 Appendix

83