by
S. K. VERMA
A Thesis
Master of Engineering
McMaster University
April 1970
MASTER OF ENGINEERING (1970) McMASTER UNIVERSITY
(Mechanical Engineering) Hamilton, Ontario.
Stein Hall Ltd. was chosen for the above study because
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
frequently sought.
is gratefully acknowledged.
Al585.
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER Page
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 LITERATURE SURVEY 3
5 ·DISCUSSION OF ERRORS 32
6 CONCLUSIONS. 37
7 RECOMMENDATIONS 38
REFERENCES 39
ILLUSTRATIONS 44
APPENDICES
CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE GAUGE 72
I
II MOISTURE CONTEN'r IN MRL402 73
III DERIVATION OF EQUATION 4.2 74
iv
NOMENCLATURE
·c 2
shear stress at any point across lbf/ft
the cross section
u axial velocity at any point Ftjsec
across the cross section
y radial distance from the wall Ft
lbm Ft
gravitational constant
2
lbf sec
friction factor defined by
equation 4.2
density 3
p lb /;Et
2
\) kinematic. viscosity ft ;sec
v
constant relaxation time of a sec
solution
s Y._ R0.75 1/sec
D
s' y_ Rx ljsec
D
t dimensionless time ratio
2
eu*

v
characteristic wave number 1/ft
v
development length ft
vi
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
liquids.
1
2
LITERATURE SURVEY
is experimental.
between shear stress and shear rate for a great many fluids
3
4
form
2.1
1n
~ = Ain log[NRe(f) __
2_] + Cn 2.2
expression
2.3
n
where k' ·= k[ 3 n+l] and A. and C are experimental constants
4n 1n n
as in the case of Prandtl's equation for Newtonian fluids.
fitted the power law very well. They also observed that
these fluids have poor overall mixing and thicker non tur
suggested that the fluid was not purely viscous but possessed
duction is observed.
6
increasing again.
diameter pipes.
than others.
The onset point was defined as the condition where the drag
defined as
2.4
is given below.
more blunt.
Since the shear rate is maximum at the tube wall and zero
9
2.6 Viscoelasticity
f  f
pv
F =
agreement with the theory. The fluid used had high concen
could be measured.
experiment of Elata and Tirosh (7), Ernst (8) and Wells (30).
1 v'2 Du*
= (4 + ~) log NRel:f 0.394  a log v cr 2.5
n 12 12
The mixing length was assumed to be constant. From the
relation
u yu*
u*
= A log 
v + B 2.6
B = BN + a log 2.7
polymer solutions.
turbulent field S.
NDeb = se 2.8
f . f
pv
F = 2.10
t = 2.13
V = 2 Jl uxdx (x = *) 2.15
The function B(t), which depends upon t and hence the relaxation
tween B{t) and t showed that there is a single curve for all
dilute solutions.
s = ff 2.17
pv
Thus
f3 = f3 (ST) 2.18
turbulence.
the onset of roughness was the same for Newtonian and drag
2.5 and 2.7 given by Meyer were used for drag reducing
additive.
CHAPTER 3
volume flow through the tube. The tube was fixed vertically
ment.
19
20
TABLE 3.1
DESCRIPTION OF TUBES
of the tube.
 CH 2  CH 
I
NH  C = 0.
2
MRL402 is in a fine granular form and is hyqroscopic.
Therefore care was taken that the sample was not unduly ex
was used to cover the inside of the can. Every time a new
The residue left in the crucible was washed with water into
the bulk of the solution. The mixture was then stirred with
23
a) Exposure to sunlight
b) Shear forces
c) Temperature
d) Time •
of time.
stored for 27, 48 and 120 hours before tests were made. It
repeatability.
3.5 Procedure
a) Tube diameter
b) Concentration of solutions.
1000 to 25,000 •
CHAPTER 4
following equations:
VD
R  \) 4.1
'[ 2
f = 0
= [~p(l+k) pV ] Dg (Appendix III) 4.2
1 v2
p 2g ;pLV2
2
curves for pure water for all tubes show good agreement
ft  ~6 (laminar) 4.3
.0794
and f = Ro.is (turbulent) 4.4
26
27
shear stress for the onset of drag reduction for drag re
ducing fluids in general. This was true only when the drag
s'T 4.5
Therefore
~ = S(s'T) 4.6
·The value of x (Equation 4.5) was take~ as 0.5 by
in equation 4.5.
l3 was plot ted against &R2 • 0 (Fig. 10} , &R2 · 2 5 (Fig. 11)
2
and ~ R · 50 (Fig. 12) for concentrations 20, 50, 100 and 200
D
wppm. It would be difficult to choose an exact value of x
the data for different tubes lies on the same curve. The
diameter correlation.
ratio 13 = 0.50.
0.50 = 13(s' . T) = 13 (K l)
0 5
0.50 = S(s' . T) = 13(K )
0 5 2
0.50 = f3 ( s I ·0 • 5 T) = f3 (K3)
0.50 = S(s' . T) = [3 (K 4)
0 5
s•
where K =
0 .~T is a constant for all concentrations. Then
f3 = (3'(~·) 4.8
s0.50
trations. 1/~ 2 0
R · at S = 0.5 or 1/s~.S was plotted against
concentration on a log log scale (fig. 16). A straight line
20, 50, 100 and 200 wppm. 'The equation to the straight line
can be written as
1 B2
~ =B C 4.9
so.s 1
where C is the concentration and B and B are constants.
1 2
B and B were found from fig. 16 as
1 2
11
Bl = 5.8 X l0
B
2
= 0.44
for drag reduction generally lie in the range from 20 to 200 wppm
DISCUSSION OF ERRORS
32
33
of the tube.
low pressures.
reduction data.
Tube Diameter
depends upon
The microscope used to measure the length of the tubes could mea
TABLE 5.1
tube.
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS
tube diameter.
reservoir.
37
CHAPTER 7
RECOMMANDATIONS
REFERENCES
p. 564.
pp. 478482.
p. 189.
6. Elata, C., J. Lehrer and A. Kahanovitz: "Turbulent
pp. 16.
40
(1964) •
June 1969.
p. 181.
22. Shen, ChiHung: "An Experimental Study of the Effects of
May 1967.
42
(1964).
1965.
43
Montreal, Que.
35. Von Karman: "Turbulence and Skin Friction",
.,....
S
(U
0.
X
UJ
.,....
u...
45
9
Polymer ~1RL 402 Symbol Temp.( F) 0
8
Concentration 100 wppm. 0 81
7 Tube Diameter .0628" 0 90
6 0 95
1
fxlo
3
~+f111+·Jr' 11'
6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30
Rxlo 3
I
Po l yme r MRL4 02. Sy mbol Ti me ( hou r s)
8 Conc e ntr a tio n 20 0 wppm .
0 27
Tub e Dia me ter .0628"
7 0 48
0 120
6
L+~~~~~~TI ~~~++
7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30
Rxl 0 3
Fig . 4 Ef f e ct of Ti me on Po l ymer Solu t io n.
. 48
POLYMER MRL402
1~
12
Eqn. 4. 4
10
~
3
7
(")
0
rl
X
4l
s
3
SYMBOL 0 v 0 + l> <l X
10
3
7 0
C") B
0
.1
X
4l
3
SY!'1B Ol_ 0 0 + X
CONC. .1 l.G lO
Fig. 6
50
3
SYMBOL 0 0 + <I . X
CONC • . z 10
                 · 
POL Y MEf~ ~1 RL · 40 2
lG
7 t:> 20
<l 50
(V) X 100
0
rl
41
X
5  $ 200
:'
1 ,     L.,_______ j __ _ _ "'  
4 ~0 s~o 7 ~5 10
Rxl o · 3
10 15 30
Rx lO  3
s4 rI ~ ~
I
~5 I~   
A I D IJ .
~c~+
o "r ~
I
p ~~)
~~
~o~_D~~
X 100 wppm
I I
~4 ~
.s {_ . ! ll rA..________t. ++
11 ll ~
I X I 50 wppm
o5~  I :
.! L I I
(J I I D
I
I
ts.
I I
ll 2o wppm
,. 6 4
101~ 2 3 4 b 10 15 20 Ul
w
. y_ R2.0 X 1011
D
G4 r
 ~
a S~ 200 wppm
.s~~
I X
I  : o~
~ 4r
t~+
p ~B f
r. 5 100 wppm
g4
, I
+++ .
11 .J,... .
L
II
f1 ·
S I' /1 [:. ~
I 50 wppm
o5r~x~x
X X 1 I
Q 4 ,_
I
I .
I I .
• 54 I •• 78 I 1. 08 1. 56
~ 11010 1 "5 2
y_ R2.25 X 10:12
D
200 wppm
T~+~+~
,6
. ~ . ~00 wppm
I .
I
+
I
I I
I I
I I
I I 50 wppm
~·x
~~~
'I I I + +
o4 · I I
I "l'I
I
11 11 +
+
I
I II I
I I 11
1.
!::. !::. 11
: . 66 19.3
: 1 1. 43 20 wppm
,s 1o0 1o5 2 3 4 s 10 15 20
·~ R2.50 x  10 13
(.J1
(.J1
)2B
~~
I
.3
.2 SYMBOl_ v 11 0 ~
I
CONCII 20 50 . 100 200
I
i
_j
o4 .5 .& ,.'/ 118 ·1 2 3 4 5 ~ 7 3 10 15 20
2.0 2.0J
(V/D)R /(W/D)R · S=O.S
Fig. 13
.s POLYMER MRL402
.7
.~ ~~~IT
~ ~~~?.~ ~Iii!~ ~zv~v~
~
'D V
.+
.5 f i¥".. "'. v .. o  •., .. v . vj,.& v ..
v v
~s "'
t:i3
.2 SYMBOL
" 11 0 """
.G · .7 .3 1 2 3 4 5 ~ 7 3 10 15 20 30 40
(V/D)R2 • 2 ~/[(V/D)R 2 • 2 1 B=O.S
Fig. 14
::aS POLYMER MRL402
:7
~~B
•5
~"*" ·~ll
1\o.~ ~~~
~~~~~~c
v . •'.
£] 1ll 'I v
5J 'I ... 'I
li+ C A 'I A v
.3
.2 SYMBOL v ll £] .,..
16
' ........
8
u
ij
.._..
lT
10
Q)
CJ)
N
. aL
p::
...
Q
"
>
.._..
"
rl
2 0
Fig. 16 RELATION BET\,JEEN (V/D)R • AND CONCENTRATION
60
24
22
20

• r
VI
0.
18
.........
<lJ
s....
16
:::1
VI
VI
<lJ
s....
14
0..
s....
..,
<lJ
<lJ
12
E
0
c
~
10
::£:
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Polymer MRL402
Tube Dia me ter .0~~4"
l
Conc e ntration lOwppm.
Symbol
24 Run 1 •
Run 2.
20
16
12
fxl o""' 3
8
L~4+ r4++
l 1.5 2 2.5 3 .1.5 4 4.5
Rxlo 3
Po 1y me r r;1RL  4 0 2
Tube Di ameter .0264"
Conc e nt rat ion 20wp pm.
14
Sym bol
12
~ Sol ut ion 1.
10 () Sol ut i on 2.
1 2. 3 4 5
Rx l0 3
Fi g . 19 Re pea t a bi l i ty of Po l yme r So l ut i on s.
0 0 0
10 ~
0 SYMBOL DIR
.0 xxx T~
3~
X \Ill 'V ...,. .... X .02S4
0 X
8 ~X X
'V ~ 'V .0372
'V ~ tf'~
0 .0410
7~ 'V
v + ~ll .OB2S
+
.0733
M
Gf v +
0
rl
X 5
41
POLYMER MRL402
. 3,. CONCENTRRTION = 0
[ I I I
3 4 5 10 15 20 25
R X lo 3 0'\
l,..J
~:~0372
'V
3 fx
X
~ 0 II 0 410
'iJ
J
~~ !J. .OB23
'iJ
M
0
ri
X
4l 4
3 4 5 10 15 20 25
R X 103 ..,.
0'1
~
!J. aOS23
B \j
("') 5
0
,...;
X
4l
4
POLYMER MRL402
3
CONCENTRRTION = 2
3 4 5 10 15 20 25
R X 103
~ I__ X
C"0
0
.j 5
v 
'\J
X
4l
I
4
POLYMER MRL402
3
CONCENTR~TION = 5
3 4 5 10 15 20 25
R X 103 en
0\
'il m0372
s: i10410
0
7~ ll ;aOB28
.0733
B~ :x +
"'X~ 'Y
~
~51 X
"x
"'X
4
3 4 5 10 15 20 25
0"1
R X 103 ...)
s[
7 ,
v
0
u0372
u0410
ll gOB28
sl I
""~
·x~ + a07S'3
x,x
5
""'X"x,
Mo
r1
4l
3
'+.......__
::p_+.........._
~t
~'
3 4 5 10 15 20 25 0"\
00
R X 103
POLYMER MRL402
10 ~ CONCENTRRTION = 50 SYMBOL DIR
X s02S 4
v 1)0372
8 ~
0 ro~0410
7~ 11 .0~2 3
XQ
b~ X~ + a0733
x,
I "'
M
0
5
ri
X
4i
3 "+~
+~·~
+~ .
+........__+
3 4 5 10 15 20 25 0\
\0
R X 103
'x'
8 .
0 liiDB28
7f 11 .0733 i
x,
B
I
I
("<)
0
.1 ~
v
X
4l
3 4 5 10 15 20 25 ~
1'
R X 103
APPENDIX I
OBSERVATIONS
1 2 3.4 1. 67
2 4  7.45 3.75
3 6 11.55 5.67
4 8 7.66
5 10 19.75 9.73
6 12 24.0 11.79
7 14 28.1 13.80
8 16 32.2 15.82
9 18 36.45 17.91
10 20 40.55 19.92
APPENDIX II
recorded below.
= 4.51
APPENDIX III
(Fig. III)
2
pl
v2
1 +. H = p2
v2
2
kV
2 2fV~L

p
+ 2g 1
p + 2g + H2 + 2g + Dg
(33) III.l
f is th e friction factor
To
defined as l 2
2pV2
 ·  ·  · 
· 2
Fig. III
75
flow knowing the size of the tube and the time of flow.
Let v2 = v
arid
. v2 2fV 2 L
lip = (1 + k) ~ +
2g Dg
or
2
f = [lip  (1 + k) ~] Dg III.2
2g 2pLV 2
· as 0.78 (34)
equation
APPENDIX IV
is
~ = 0.693 Rl/ 4
Tube De velopment
Tube Diameter Length t
No.
D(inches) (inches)
1 • 0264 C.20
2 . 0372 0.28
3 . 0410 0.31
4 • 0628 0.47
5 . 0779 0.59
APPENDI X V
TABLE V