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CHAPTER -1
INTRODUCTION
Motorcycles are popular mode of transport. All motorcycles are petrol driven whose costs

have been increasing steadily. The motorcycles come with a simple fuel delivery

mechanism which is nothing but a simple tap with main or reserve option. This system is

susceptible to pilferage and anyone can remove petrol from the fuel tank without much

trouble. Each petrol tank has a capacity of at least 10 Liters. A mechanism has been

developed to prevent this fuel theft in this project. The mechanism uses power supply

from the vehicle and so for the fuel to come out of the fuel tank, vehicle must be in ON

condition. Fuel cock determines the flow of fuel from the fuel tank to the Engine . Fuel

cocks are a very important part in a vehicle via the carburetor MPFI. A solenoid valve is

used to protect fuel from the thief’s by making a parameter that avoids the stolen of fuel

from the vehicles. A fuel cock avoids the flooding of the carburetor of a vehicle. It also

gives a sense of how much fuel is present in the tank courtesy the Reserve option.

Though the exact amount of fuel cannot be accurately determined due to which a fuel

gauge has become a regular feature in almost all the bike now-a-days. It consists of a dial

which is driven by a sensor inside the tank. Over a period of time, this gauge fails due to

a variety of reasons, including the failure of the sensor inside the tank. It gives us a

control to flow of the fuel from the tank to the engine. When a vehicle stationary, there is

no point in having the engine running. If the engine is not running, there is no point in

fuel flowing from the tank to the engine. A knob is provided in the fuel cock which can

be turned to OFF state so that the fuel does not flow to the engine. When the level of the

fuel has dropped beyond a certain level wherein it becomes important to fill up the tank,

the engine stalls. This is because While in ON state, No more fuel can pass into the
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engine. There is fuel existing in the tank, but as no fuel flows into the engine, the vehicle

tends to stall. The knob of the fuel cock has to be turned to the Reserve state so that the

remaining fuel can now pass. In spite of using fuel cocks it is not a safe way for storing

fuel in fuel tanks. Ideally, a person should have the tank filled up so that there may not be

a dry fuel tank condition. A person needs to physically bring his hand below the fuel tank

to change over the position of the knob. This may become a dangerous proposition when

the vehicle is running and a switch over from ON to RESERVE has to be made while the

vehicle is in running condition. These Fuel cocks cannot be operational in cars because of

the remoteness of the fuel tank. Also, these process can operate not only where there is

gravity flow of petrol. Another aspect is the ease with which fuel can be pilfered out. One

just has to bring a bottle, remove the pipe from the carburetor, turn the knob to desired

state and remove as much petrol as he desires. Fuel being a costly commodity surely

needs protection. If fuel can be robbed so easily, these fuel system will need more

security. A lot of companies have introduced a set of key operated fuel cocks where the

knob is operable by means of a key which shall have to be positioned as the knob is

positioned. More the number of keys more are the chances of a person forgetting. Since

the fuel cock key has to be separate from the vehicle key because the fuel line is away

from the front panel instrument cluster, it becomes a second is set of keys which a person

shall need to carry and take care of it. So for providing more protection for the fuel

supply system a design is implemented using a solenoid valve which provides the great

protection to the fuel of the automobiles. This version of fuel prevention technique can be

more commonly used in vehicles like Yamaha, Honda , Bajaj etc. exists which does have

a kind of automation. The fuel cock Employed does have an advantage here as fuel
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pilferage is very difficult in these vehicles as the seat also acts as a locking mechanism.

Moreover, there is no fuel line visible fuel line coming out of the vehicle. This fuel can

be protectected using the design of fuel theft prevention.

FIGURE: BY INTERNET
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CHAPTER-2
SOLENOID VALVE

 Solenoid valves are used wherever fluid flow has to be controlled automatically.
They are used to an increasing degree in ever more varied types of plants and
equipment. The wide variety of different designs which are available enables the
user to choose a valve specifically to suit virtually any application.

Figure:Solenoid valve
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2.1 WORKING OF SOLENOID VALVE

The input side to the solenoid stands for the petrol tank in our project.
Diaphragm/Plunger: This is a either a rubber or a metallic stopper used to regulate
the flow of the liquid. Pressure Chamber: This is the area where the fluid is filled
irrespective of the plunger being open or closed. Pressure Relief: This area get
flow when the plunger is moved due to the action of the electromagnetic solenoid
valve. Solenoid: This is a coil of wire, through which when current is passed
actuated the plunger and moves it from its normal position. The fluid flows
through this part when the flow is allowed by the solenoid.

2.2 CONSTRUCTION

 Solenoid valves are control units which, when electrically energized or de-
energized, either cut off or permit fluid flow. The actuator is an electromagnet.
When the valve is energized, a magnetic field builds up which pulls a plunger or
pivoted armature against the action of a spring. When de-energized, the plunger or
pivoted armature is returned to its original position by the action of the spring.
2.3 VALVE OPERATION

 Depending on the mode of actuation, a distinction is made between direct-acting


valves, internally piloted valves, andexternally piloted valves. A further
distinguishing feature is the number of port connections or the number of flow
paths (“ways”).

2.4 DIRECT-ACTING VALVES

 In a direct-acting solenoid valve, the seat seal is attached to the solenoid core. In
the de energized condition, a seat orifice is closed, which opens when the valve is
energized.

2.5 DIRECT-ACTING 2-WAY VALVES

Two-way valves are shut-off valves having one inlet port and one outlet port. In the de-
energizedcondition, the core spring, assisted by the pressure of the fluid, holds the valve
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seal on the valve seat, shutting off the flow. When energized, the core and seal are pulled
into the solenoid coil and the valve opens. The electromagnetic force is greater than the
combined spring force and the static and dynamic pressure forces of the medium.

2.6 DIRECT-ACTING 3-WAY VALVES

Three-way valves have three port connections and two valve seats. One valve seal always
remains open and the other closed in the de-energized mode. When the coil is energized,
the mode reverses. The 3-way valve shown in is designed with a plunger-type core.
Various valve operations can be performed according to how the fluid medium is
connected to the working ports in The fluid pressure builds up under the valve seat.
Withthe coil de-energized, a conical spring holds the lower core seal tightly against the
valve seat and shuts off the fluid flow. Port A is vented through outlet R. When the coil is
energized, the core is pulled in and the valve seat at Port R is sealed off by the spring-
loaded upper core seal. The fluid now flows from P to A.Unlike versions with plunger-
type cores in pivoted-armature valves, all port connections are in the valve body. An
isolating diaphragm ensures that the process fluid does not come into contact with the
coil chamber. Pivoted-armature valves can be used for any 3-way valve operation. The
basic design principle is shown in Pivoted-armature valves are provided with manual
override as a standard feature.

2.7 INTERNALLY PILOTED SOLENOID VALVES

With direct-acting valves, static pressure forces increase with increasing orifice diameter,
whichmeans that the magnetic force required to overcome the pressure force becomes
correspondingly larger. Internally piloted solenoid valves are therefore employed for
switching higher pressures in conjunction with larger orifice sizes, so in this case, the
differential fluid pressure performs the main work of opening and closing the valve.
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2.8 CAPACITORS
Capacitors comprise the largest variety of electronic components. There are many types

of capacitors, great variations in their performance, many methods of packaging and

marking. and dozens of major manufacturers not to mention new types constantly being

introduced with specific applications and performances As result, capacitors open cause

lots of problems for homebrewers. Hopefully this article will take some of the mystery

out of the myriad of capacitors available, plus present some of the classic "do’s and

don’ts"
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2.9 PRINCIPAL CAPACITOR TYPES

There are many capacitor types, which usually refers to the material used for the
electrodes, dielectric, and the packaging or sealing method. Here are some of the major
capacitor types used by QRPers:

2.10 DISK CEREMONY CAPACITOR

Disk Ceramics consist of two metallic plates separated by a ceramic dielectric whose area
and spacing determines the capacitance. These caps are low cost and suitable for many
applications Their maindisadvantage is high capacitance changes with temperature (high
temperature coefficient), except for the "NP0" varieties that are temperature stable. These
caps are the most commonly used for general purpose circuits, but the non- NP0 types
should be avoided in frequency determining circuits
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2.11 MONOLITHIC CEREMIC CAPACITOR

Alternating layers of electrodes and ceramic dielectric allow higher capacitances in


physically smaller packages. Their characteristics are very similar to disk ceramics. They
are encapsulated in epoxy to withstand insertion, soldering and solvent cleaning by the
automatic PCB assembly machines. Introduced for mass production, they are inexpensive
and available from surplus dealers

2.12 DIFFERENT TYPES OF DIODE:


A summary of the different types of diodes used in electronics with links to further
in-depth pages on individual diode types with circuit design details.
There are many different types of diodes that are available for use in electronics design.

Different semiconductor diode types can be used to perform different functions as a


result of the properties of these different diode types.Semiconductor diodes can be used
for many applications. The basic application is obviously to rectify waveforms. This can
be used within power supplies or within radio detectors. Signal diodes can also be used
for many other functions within circuits where the "one way" effect of a diode may be
required.
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2.13 LEADED SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES

Diodes are not just used as rectifiers, as various other types of diode can be used in many
other applications. Some other different types of diodes include: light emitting diodes,
photo-diodes, laser diodes and more as detailed in the list below.Many of the different
types of diodes mentioned below have further pages providing in-depth information
about them including their structures, method of operation, how they may be used in
circuits, and precautions and tips for using them in electronics design.

SMT Diodes on a PCB

2.14 TYPES OF DIODES

It is sometimes useful to summarise the different types of diode that are available.
Some of the categories may overlap, but the various definitions may help to
narrow the field down and provide an overview of the different diode types that
are available.

 Backward diode: This type of diode is sometimes also called the back
diode.Although not widely used, it is a form of PN junction diode that is very
similar to the tunnel diode in its operation. It finds a few specialist applications
where its particular properties can be used. 
 BARITT diode: This form of diode gains its name from the words
BarrierInjection Transit Time diode. It is used in microwave applications and
bears many similarities to the more widely used IMPATT diode. 
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 Gunn Diode: Although not a diode in the form of a PN junction, this type ofdiode
is a semiconductor device that has two terminals. It is generally used for
generating microwave signals. 

 Laser diode: This type of diode is not the same as the ordinary light
emittingdiode because it produces coherent light. Laser diodes are widely used in
many applications from DVD and CD drives to laser light pointers for
presentations. Although laser diodes are much cheaper than other forms of laser
generator, they are considerably more expensive than LEDs. They also have a
limited life. 

 Light emitting diodes: The light emitting diode or LED is one of the
mostpopular types of diode. When forward biased with current flowing through
the junction, light is produced. The diodes use component semiconductors, and
can produce a variety of colours, although the original colour was red. There are
also very many new LED developments that are changing the way displays can be
used and manufactured. High output LEDs and OLEDs are two examples
 Photodiode: The photo-diode is used for detecting light. It is found that
whenlight strikes a PN junction it can create electrons and holes. Typically photo-
diodes are operated under reverse bias conditions where even small amounts of
current flow resulting from the light can be easily detected. Photo-diodes can also
be used to generate electricity. For some applications, PIN diodes work very well
as photodetectors. 
 PIN diode: This type of diode is typified by its construction. It has the standardP
type and N-type areas, but between them there is an area of Intrinsic
semiconductor which has no doping. The area of the intrinsic semiconductor has
the effect of increasing the area of the depletion region which can be useful for
switching applications as well as for use in photodiodes, etc. 

PN Junction: The standard PN junction may be thought of as the normal


orstandard type of diode in for use in radio frequency, or other low current
applications which may be termed as signal diodes. Other types may be intended
for high current and high voltage applications and are normally termed rectifier
diodes use today. These diodes can come as small signal types
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 Schottky diodes: This type of diode has a lower forward voltage drop
thanordinary silicon PN junction diodes. At low currents the drop may be
somewhere between 0.15 and 0.4 volts as opposed to 0.6 volts for a silicon diode.
To achieve this performance they are constructed in a different way to normal
diodes having a metal to semiconductor contact. They are widely used as
clamping diodes, in RF applications, and also for rectifier applications. 

 Step recovery diode: A form of microwave diode used for generating andshaping
pulses at very high frequencies. These diodes rely on a very fast turn off
characteristic of the diode for their operation. 
 Tunnel diode: Although not widely used today, the tunnel diode was used
formicrowave applications where its performance exceeded that of other devices
of the day. 

 Varactor diode or varicap diode: This type of diode is used in many


radiofrequency (RF) applications. The diode has a reverse bias placed upon it and
this varies the width of the depletion layer according to the voltage placed across
the diode. In this configuration the varactor or varicap diode acts like a capacitor
with the depletion region being the insulating dielectric and the capacitor plates
formed by the extent of the conduction regions. The capacitance can be varied by
changing the bias on the diode as this will vary the width of the depletion region
which will accordingly change the capacitance. 

Zener diode: The Zener diode is a very useful type of diode as it provides
astable reference voltage. As a result it is used in vast quantities. It is run under
reverse bias conditions and it is found breaks down. If the current is limited
through a resistor, it enables a stable voltage to be produced. This type of diode is
therefore widely used to provide a reference voltage in power supplies. Two types
of reverse breakdown are apparent in these diodes: Zener breakdown and Impact
Ionisation. However the name Zener diode is used for the reference diodes
regardless of the form of breakdown that is employed.

Semiconductor diodes are widely used throughout all areas of the electronics
industry from electronics design through to production and repair. The
semiconductor diode is very versatile, and there are very many variants and
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different types of diode that enable all the variety of different applications to be
met.

The different diode types of types of diodes include those for small signal
applications, high current and voltage as well as different types of diodes for light
emission and detection as well as types for low forward voltage drops, and types to
give variable capacitance. In addition to this there are a number of diode types that
are used for microwave applications.

2.15 REED SWITCH


Operation

ALL GEMS switches work on a combined reed swtich/permanent magnet


basis.

Reed Switch

A basic magnetic reed switch consists of a pair of low resistanceferromagnet


slender flattened reeds. hermetically sealed into a glass tube with a controlled
atmosphere in cantilever fashion so that the ends align and overlap - but with a
small air gap. Since the reeds are ferromagnetic. the extreme ends will assume
opposite magnetic polarity when brought into the influence of a magnetic held.
When the magnetic flux density is suffinent, the attraction forces of the opposing
magnetic poles overcome the reed stiffness causing them to flex

toward each other and make


contact. This operation can be
repeated millions of times at
extremely high speeds.
Operating the magnetic reed
switch Magnetic reed switches
are actuated by the presence of
a magnetic field with sufficient
flux. This can be accomplished
by either bringing a permanent
magnet close to the switch or
by them energizing an
electromagnetic coil .
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 Reliability- the rhodium contacts are hermetically sealed in a glass tube and are
therefore. dust. Corrosion. oxidation and tamper proof.
 Service life in excess of I million operations al maximum rating can to achieved
providing the contact rating and contact protection is observed

 Vibration and shock resistance all these switches have good shock and vibration
resistance. Please ask for further details.
Temperature range - the normal operating temperature range is 20 °C to .250 °C.
Higher temperatures may change the molecular structure of the contacts and
thereby influence the switching function. Higher temperature reed switches are
available as an option. e Switching time - although not as fast as electronic
switches, they are considerably faster than conventional switches. which makes
them ideally suited to applications 'Awe high switching .

2.16 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)
White LEDs can be placed in abusive environments.

White LEDs do not use gas to produce light and therefore have no delicate parts
to break.

White LEDs can be AC or DC powered, or powered directly off a solar panel.

White LEDs do not produce RF to interfere with radio equipment.

White LEDs last about 100,000 hours of continuous use (11 years. )

White LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) produce almot no heat, nearly all of the
energy used is converted to light.

White LEDs can be made completely waterproof f or many marine applications.

White LEDs ar e polarity protected, so it is hard to make an installation mistake


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DIAGRAM OF LED
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2.17 OBJECTIVE OF ELECTROMAGNETISM


 Explain the principles of the magnetic field

 Explain the principles of electromagnetism


 Describe the principle of operation for several types of electromagnetic devices


 Discuss the principle of electromagnetic induction


 Describe some applications of electromagnetic induction

2.18 THE MAGNETIC FIELD

 A permanent magnet has a magnetic field surrounding it


 A magnetic field is envisioned to consist of flux lines that radiate from the

northpole to the south pole and back to the north pole through the magnetic

material
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2.19 ALTERING A MAGNETIC FIELD

When nonmagnetic materials such as paper, glass, wood or plastic are placed in
magnetic field, the lines of force are unaltered

2.20 ATTRACTION AND REPULSION

 Unlike magnetic poles have an attractive force between them


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2.21 TWO LIKE POLES REPEL EACH OTHER

2.22 ALTERING A MAGNETIC FIELD

 When nonmagnetic materials such as paper, glass, wood or plastic are placed in a
magnetic field, the lines of force are unaltered
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2.23 APPLICATION (MAGNETIC SWITCH)

Operation of a magnetic switch


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2.24 ELECTROMAGNETISM

 Electromagnetism is the production of a magnetic field by current in a conductor

2.25 PUMPS AND MOTORS


The focus of this Project is to identify best practices in energy efficiency for the chemical
industry. While there are some standard approaches that are almost universally beneficial
in pumping systems, it is vital to emphasize from the outset that rules of thumb provided
in this document should not be used solely to determine the implementation of best
practices; rather they should help identify best practices that have potential energy
savings. Resources shall be provided with these rules of thumb to offer more in-depth
information and suggestions on proceeding with the implementation of a best practice.

2.26 EXPLANATION OF USE

Pumping systems are the single largest type of industrial end-user of motor-driven
electricity in the United States, accounting for 25% of industrial motor energy usage.
Also, pumping systems account for nearly 20% of the world’s demand for electric
energy. While pumps typically operate to serve various chemical process support
equipments such as chillers, cooling towers, material transfer, etc., pumping is considered
an individual process separate from the processes of the aforementioned equipment.
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A pump is a device used to raise, compress, or transfer fluids. The motors that power
most pumps can be the focus of many best practices. It is common to model the operation
of pumps via pump and system curves. Pump curves offer the horsepower, head, and
flow rate figures for a specific pump at a constant rpm. System curves describe the
capacity and head required by a pump system. An example of both of these curves may
be seen in Figure.

Pump operation may be modeled by a system of affinity laws that show a relationship
between rpm, flow rate, and power. Understanding these basic relationships, shown
below, is very important in considering the performance of a pumping system.
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2.27 PUMP TYPES

Various types of pumps are used in the chemical industry, including centrifugal,
reciprocating, and helical rotor pumps.

 Centrifugal pumps operate by applying a centrifugal force to fluids, many times


with the assistance of impellers. These pumps are typically used in moderate to
high flow applications with low-pressure head, and are very common in chemical
process industries. There are three types of centrifugal pumps—radial, mixed, and
axial flow pumps. In the radial pumps, pressure is developed completely through
a centrifugal force, while in axial pumps pressure is developed by lift generated
by the impeller. Mixed flow pumps develop flow through a centrifugal force and
the impeller.
 Reciprocating pumps compress liquid in small chambers via pistons or
diaphragms. These pumps are typically used in low-flow and high-head
applications. Piston pumps may have single or multiple stages and are generally
not suitable for transferring toxic or explosive material. Diaphragm pumps are
more commonly used for toxic or explosive materials.

 Helical rotor pumps use a rotor within a helical cavity to develop pressure. These
pumps are useful for submersible and waste applications.

2.28 ON/OFF CONTROLS

 Systems in which neither the flow rate nor head need to be regulated (under
normal, steady-state conditions) are prime candidates for on/off control. This is a
general rule of thumb and does not apply to all systems.

 An excellent example of this type of system is the municipal water system, where
filtered and treated water is pumped from the clear well of a chemical plant to
elevated storage tanks. Although customer demands vary with the time of day and
weather conditions, the system storage in most municipal operations provides a
sufficient buffer to meet these demand fluctuations. The elevated tanks, of course,
also provide a relative constant source of pressure.
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Some municipalities do use adjustable speed drives to both regulate flow and
minimize the effect of start and stop transients, and some even employ them to
minimize demand charges (However, for many applications, a properly selected
pump and motor will provide the lowest capital and operating cost for systems
with constant requirements and/or large storage capacity.

2.29 RELAYS
Relays are a special type of switch which is turned on and off by an

electromagnet. Below is a diagram of a simple relay. When a current flows

through the coil an electro-magnetic field is set up. The field attracts an iron

armature, whose other end pushes the contacts together, completing the circuit.

When the current is switched off, the contacts open again, switching the circuit

off.
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2.30 RELAY SWITCH

A useful property of relays is that the circuit powering the coil is completely separate

from the circuit switched on by the relay. For this reason relays are often used where a

safe low-voltage circuit is being used to control a high-voltage circuit. The symbol for

arelay makes the separation of the two circuits clear by separating the coil symbol

from the switch symbol:

2.31 RELAY SYMBOL

The relays used in schools generally a have voltage between 6V and 15V. When using

a diode with a relay, be sure that it is connected across the poles (terminals) of the

relay to prevent damage to the transistor from back EMF generated when the relay coil

switches off.
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2.32 RESISTOR COLOUR CODING

To distinguish left from right there is a gap between the C and bands. band
A is first significant figure of component value (left side) band B is the
second significant figure band C is the decimal multiplierband D if present,
indicates tolerance of value in percent (no band means 20%)For example, a
resistor with bands of yellow, violet, red, and gold will have first digit 4
(yellow in table below), second digit 7 (violet), followed by 2 (red) zeros:
4,700 ohms. Gold signifies that the tolerance is ±5%, so the real resistance
could lie anywhere between 4,465 and 4,935 ohms.Resistors manufactured
for military use may also include a fifth band which indicates component
failure rate (reliability); refer to MIL-HDBK-199 for further details.Tight
tolerance resistors may have three bands for significant figures rather than
two, or an additional band indicating temperature coefficient, in units of
ppm/K.

DIAGRAM OF RESISTOR COLOR CODING


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Figure : Resistor coding

Table : Color codes


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Resistors use preferred numbers for their specific values, which are determined by their
tolerance. These values repeat for every decade of magnitude: 6.8, 68, 680, and so forth. In the
E24 series the values are related by the 24th root of 10, while E12 series are related by the 12th
root of 10, and E6 series by the 6th root of 10. The tolerance of device values isarranged so that
every value corresponds to a preferred number, within the required tolerance.Zero ohm resistors
are made as lengths of wire wrapped in a resistor-shaped body which can be substituted for
another resistor value in automatic insertion equipment. They are marked with a single black
band.The 'body-end-dot' or 'body-tip-spot' system was used for radial-lead (and other cylindrical)
composition resistors sometimes still found in very old equipment; the first band was given by
the body color, the second band by the color of the end of the resistor, and the multiplier by a dot
or band around the middle of the resistor. The other end of the resistor was colored gold or silver
to give the tolerance, otherwise it was 20%.Extra bands on ceramic capacitors will identify the
voltage rating class and temperature coefficient characteristics. A broad black band was applied
to some tubular paper capacitors to indicate the end that had the outer electrode; this allowed this
end to be connected to chassis ground to provide some shielding against hum and noise
pickup.Polyester film and "gum drop" tantalum electrolytic capacitors are also color coded to
give the value, working voltage and tolerance.
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2.33 BATTERY

The lead-acid battery (SLA battery) have been on the market for more than 30 years. The
SLA battery is a rechargeable battery which requires no watering. Adopting lead-tin-
calcium alloy as the grid alloy, it has outstanding characteristics against severe use
conditions such as overcharge, overdischarge, vibration, shock and also for various
storage conditions. Our accumulation of technologies has enabled us to respond to market
requirements promptly by developing batteries such as trickle/cycle long life type and
improving charging capabilities to allow for quick charging in 1 to 2 hours. The SLA
battery covers a broad range of applications including, electric tools, UPS, and three and
four wheel electric wheel chairs for the elderly.

BATTERY TYPES AND MODEL NUMBERS


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2.34 GENERAL INFORMATION ON SEALED LEAD-ACID BATTERIES

POSITIVE PLATES

 Positive plates are plate electrodes of which a grid frame of lead-tin-calcium alloy

holds porous lead dioxide as the active material.

NEGATIVE PLATES

 Negative plates are plate electrodes of which a grid frame of lead-tin-calcium

alloy holds spongy lead as the active material.

ELECTROLYTE

 Diluted sulfuric acid is used as the medium for conducting ions in the

electrochemical reaction in the battery.

2.35 SEPERATORS

 Separators, which retain electrolyte and prevent shorting between positive and

negative plates, adopt a non-woven fabric of fine glass fibers which is chemically

stable in the diluted sulfuric acid electrolyte. Being highly porous, separators

retain electrolyte for the reaction of active materials in the plates.

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ELECTRODE TERMINALS

 Positive and negative electrode terminals may be faston tab type, bolt fastening

type, threaded post type, or lead wire type, depending on the type of the battery.

Sealing of the terminal is achieved by a structure which secures long adhesive-

embedded paths and by the adoption of strong epoxy adhesives. For specific

dimensions and shapes of terminals.


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2.36 BATTERY CASE MATERIALS

 Materials of the body and cover of the battery case are ABS resins, unless
otherwise specified.

CONSTRUCTION OF BATTERY
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CHAPTER-3

PROBLEM STATEMENT

 Due to increase in robbing of Fuel such as petrol, now a days it is essential to

provide a prevention system for our vehicles.

 As the dial which is provided in the bike’s front panel does not show accurate

reading and after sometime this dial which is operated with help of gauge fails

due to variety of reasons which includes the failure of the sensor inside the tank.

 It’s difficult to change the fuel control knob from normal to reserve mode while

the 2 wheeler is in running condition.


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3.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT


 The Main Objective of Project is the Automation of the Fuel Control knob by

Integrating Solenoids Valve. The Working of the solenoids is connected directly

to the vehicle ignition.



 The secondary aim is to provide a Toggle switch with LED on the Handle bar

assembly of a motorcycle for easy change between the main and the reserve

Condition of Vehicle.
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3.2 METHODOLOGY

The “fuel theft prevention system” is based on two solenoid valves; in parallel; connected

to the fuel tank by a differential levelled piping system. The piping system is connected

to T section. Further it is connected to pipe and it is connected to a flow sensor. The

Vehicle ignition is connected to the battery of 12V and from there it is connected to

Toggle Switch. The power to the Solenoid valve is given through a “Toggle Switch”

which ‘Toggle’s between Main Line and Reserve Line. The condition of the engine is

directly proportional to the operation of the valve. When the Vehicle ignition is in ON

state, the Main Solenoid Valve will be ON. And when the fuel is below a main line fuel

will not flow through the main line. Thus using Toggle switch we will make the reserve

solenoid valve ON. In OFF state, neither of the valve’s will be ON. The toggle switch

ensures that only one of the two valves operates at any given time.
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3.3 WORKING PRINCIPLE


After the valve has been fit to the vehicle, all wiring done, one has to just start the vehicle

to enable the opening of the valve. there is no need of any intervention like pushing a

switch etc. of the user of the vehicle to operate the valve. the user’s only intervention is

required when pushing now the toggle switch may be pushed to the reserve position,

where the reserve valve will open, supplying the engine with fuel available in the reserve

of the tank.. the fall in the level would mean that the vehicle would stall as the engine

goes dry. when the plunger/ball gets displaced, the sealing between the inlet/outlet is

disrupted and fuel flows through the valve to the outlet and ultimately to the engine

through carburetor or mpfi. when the solenoid valve gets energized, the plunger/ball is

attracted to the core-pin and is displaced from the position of rest of the plunger which is

a nc (normally closed) position. toggle switch whenever the fuel level has dropped below

the main level. whenever the fuel level has dropped below the main level there will be

indication on the led switch.

3.4 WORKING PROCEDURE:

Fill the petrol tank with four litres of petrol till the main fuel line is completely immersed.

Turn the ignition “On” and turn the toggle switch towards the main fuel line solenoid.

This should be followed by petrol flowing only through Main transparent pipe till the

flow stops; this indicates that the level of petrol has fallen below the main line.Now the

reserve line solenoid should be switched on, by petrol flowing through reserve

transparent pipe. When the ignition is turned off there should be no flow.
36

3.5 Technical Specifications:


Title of the Project : Design For Fuel Theft Prevention InAutomobiles.

Domain : Mechanical – Automotive.

Use : Automotive.

Power Supply : 12VDC


37

CHAPTER-4
ADVANTAGES:
 Fuel theft control Efficient

 Fit and forget system


 Completely Remove Petrol Lock Concept


 User Friendly Automatic


 No Need to Worry about Fuel Level

4.1 DISADVANTAGES
 Leakage problem occur sometimes

 Interruption in power supply lead to failure of the system


 Chocking of pipe due to contaminants of fuel

4.2 FUTURE SCOPE


 Reduction ofsizeof thesolenoid valveto integrateinto the machinedblockis themost
importantaspect ofthe designmodifications.
 Various levels oftestingshould bedonebefore integratingit into the machineblock
tocheckfor robustness andrigidityofmanufacture.

 In Future we can manufacture a tank which has inbuilt solenoid valve.

 In future we can use an alarm for indicating fuel low indication.
38

CONCLUSION

 By providing Fuel theft prevention system we have done prevention of fuel theft
which is one of essential and costly thing in our two wheelers

 As the dial which is provided in the bike’s front panel does not show accurate
reading and after sometime this dial which is operated with help of gauge fails

due to variety of reasons which includes the failure of the sensor inside the tank.

Hence we have designed Digital indicating panel that will show us accurate

reading of fuel in the tank.



 We also aimed our project to ease the use of the system which successfully
toggles the main and the reserve line. With this the chances of the rider to meet

and accident is reduced marginally.



 This system can be reduced in size to about half the current size if it moves to the
research stage. This can be achieved by procuring solenoids which are smaller in

size.
39

Starting key

Image of actual model


40

Different view of actual model


41

Solenoid valve
42

Battery 12V
43

Image by Internet
44

REFERENCE

 www.google.com

 wikipedia

 www.ijser.com

 www.britanica.com