A research paper on train Control systems using IEEE 802.11 based WLANS

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A research paper on train Control systems using IEEE 802.11 based WLANS

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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2763173, IEEE Access

Communication-based Train Control Systems using

WLAN

Qisheng Dong, Kazunori Hayashi, Member, IEEE, and Megumi Kaneko, Member, IEEE

Abstract—With the advent of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) and interests are being focused upon CBTC systems both from

Vehicular-to-Everything (V2X) communication systems, next- academia and industries, especially with the growing needs

generation train control systems known as Communication-Based for increasing urban rail transportation capacities in various

Train Control (CBTC) systems are also gathering increased

interests both from academia and industry. Unlike the traditional countries [3][4].

train control systems based on track circuits, CBTC systems In particular, given the wide availability of commercial-off-

are expected to provide greater transportation capacity while the-shelf Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) equipments

ensuring safety by exploiting wireless communications between and open IEEE802.11 standards [5] which can support mobil-

trains and wayside Access Points (APs). However, due to the ity [6], WLAN technology is widely considered for supporting

nature of wireless channels, packet transmission delays between

APs and trains can greatly affect the train control performance. CBTC systems [7][8]. Hence, several WLAN-based CBTC

Most previous works have adopted an Adaptive Modulation and systems are deployed around the world, such as Singapore

Coding (AMC) method that minimizes the average delay to North-East Line from Alstom [3] and Shanghai Metro Line

improve the control performance taking care of transmission 8 from Alcatel [4]. However, due to various factors such

errors due to channel fading. However, Medium Access Control as path loss, channel fading and Doppler effects inherent to

(MAC) layer contention due to multiple competing trains, which

can entail significant degradations of the delay and control the mobile environment, the resulting packet delivery latency

performance, has not been considered. Therefore, we propose between wayside APs and trains may cause unnecessary train

an optimized link layer AMC method for CBTC systems using braking due to communication blackout [9]. This braking will

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) that encompasses the deteriorate the train control performance including the ride

impacts of fading channels as well as of MAC layer contention. comfort and energy costs. Furthermore, due to the limited

With much reduced required information, the proposed scheme

enables to select the transmission mode that minimizes this coverage of each AP, the vehicle on track needs to switch

average delay in each control period. The simulation results show from one AP to another to ensure the communication quality.

that the proposed method greatly outperforms the conventional This handover procedure between APs can also result in long

schemes over a wide range of parameters and settings. transmission latencies.

Keywords—Communication-Based Train Control (CBTC), Thus, many schemes have been proposed to improve the

WLAN, MAC protocol, Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC), performance of CBTC systems. Authors of [10] put emphasis

MIMO transmission. on decreasing the energy cost, but the effect of communication

blackout has not been considered. The approaches in [11][12]

I. I NTRODUCTION considered cooperative relaying and coordinated multi-point

transmission and reception-enabled CBTC systems to enhance

Much research efforts are being devoted worldwide towards the train control performance. Besides, in [13], an Adaptive

building the future 5th generation mobile network (5G) sys- Modulation and Coding (AMC) scheme for Multiple Input

tem. One of the major paradigm shifts will be introduced by Multiple Output (MIMO)-assisted CBTC systems using Car-

the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications for mission rier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)

critical control applications. In this context, there is an ever random access protocol at the Medium Access Control (MAC)

growing interest in the next-generation train control systems layer was proposed. The purpose of this method is to achieve

known as Communication-Based Train Control (CBTC) sys- better control performance by minimizing the average delay

tems [1]. Unlike the traditional train control systems based on between the train and wayside APs, where this average delay

track circuits, CBTC systems enable to detect and control train calculation is also adopted in [9][14][15]. Based on this

trajectories and speeds by exploiting wireless communications average delay analysis, new schemes were proposed to reduce

between wayside Access Points (APs) and the trains in motion, the latency caused by handover, for MIMO-based WLAN in

thereby providing great operational flexibility and transporta- [13][16] or by exploiting network virtualization in [15]. Then,

tion capacity while ensuring safety [2]. Therefore, tremendous a cross-layer approach for optimal handover decisions was

Q. Dong is with the Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, proposed in [9], while [14] considered both packet delays and

Kyoto 606-8501, Japan (e-mail: dong@sys.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp). losses for optimizing the train control performance.

K. Hayashi is with the Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City However, the link adaptation methods used in [9][13][14]

University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan (e-mail: kazunori@eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp).

M. Kaneko is with the National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo 101-8430, [15] require the knowledge of the instantaneous channel qual-

Japan (e-mail: megkaneko@nii.ac.jp). ities between trains and APs for each control period. Since

2169-3536 (c) 2017 IEEE. Translations and content mining are permitted for academic research only. Personal use is also permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See

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overhead, their methods use the instantaneous Signal-to-Noise Backbone

ATS Network ZC

Ratio (SNR) values derived by the Finite-State Markov Chan-

nel (FSMC) model according to real field tests [29] [30], which AP1 AP2 AP3

still requires the state transition probabilities of instantaneous

SNRs for all possible train operation environments. Moreover, Heading

caused by errors due to channel fading, although it is also Station 1 Train 1 Train 2 Train 3 Station 2

caused by MAC contention when multiple terminals share the Onboard system

ATO

same wireless channel, e.g., when multiple trains share one AP

ATP

as it often occurs in real CBTC environments. For instance,

two successive trains in the same direction may connect to the

same AP when they happen to be in the coverage area of the Fig. 1. Communication-based train control (CBTC) system

same AP. Similarly, two trains from opposite travel directions

may also share the same AP. Thus, contention in MAC layer

may have a great impact on the packet delivery latency and provide a thorough evaluation of proposed and benchmark

consequently, on the overall control performance. Therefore, methods under a wide range of system settings and also

both errors at physical layer due to channel fading, and at in terms of the actual control performance. The simulation

MAC layer due to contention should be jointly considered as results show that the proposed methods can greatly outperform

they may deeply affect the communication delays and train the conventional AMC schemes in terms of communication-

control performance. control outage performance and of train control performance.

Consequently, the purpose of this work is to enable a The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section

better train control performance by proposing a new link II introduces the CBTC system architecture and model. The

adaptation method tailored to CBTC systems. In particular, conventional AMC methods are described in Section III. Our

we propose a novel AMC design for CBTC systems with proposed scheme and average delay analysis are presented in

CSMA/CA protocol which jointly considers the impacts of Section IV. The numerical results are discussed in Section V.

fading channels and of MAC layer contention. We analytically Finally, conclusions and directions for future work are given

derive the average delay in function of the train control period, in Section VI.

including the effects of the number of competing terminals

and of transmission errors due to wireless channel fading. II. S YSTEM M ODEL

Then, we provide the average delay expressions for CBTC In this section, we introduce the system model considered

systems under two important MIMO transmission modes, in this paper, which mainly follows that of [9].

namely diversity coding and multi-stream coding. Note that,

unlike previous works as in [9][13][14][15], the proposed

analysis is performed under the realistic assumption for CBTC A. CBTC System Architecture

systems that only the average SNR level (i.e, the received Fig. 1 shows a CBTC system and its five subsystems: Au-

SNR averaged over the channel fading statistics) of each train tomatic Train Supervision (ATS), Automatic Train Operation

are known at the train controller, without requiring a fine- (ATO), train-ground communication, Zone Controller (ZC)

tuned FSMC model for each specific environment. Then, by and Automatic Train Protection (ATP). The task of ATS is to

using the knowledge of the number of competing terminals set the train travel time between two neighboring stations and

and distances between the AP and trains, our method selects a to generate the timetable for each train. The ATO subsystem

proper transmission mode which minimizes the average delay on the train produces the optimal train guidance trajectory

in each control period to improve the control performance. [9], which is a distance versus velocity profile representing

Compared to our previous work [17][18], this work improves the optimal velocity for each train position. Moreover, ATO

the train control performance by deriving the optimal Linear can control the train velocity under this trajectory according

Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller. Moreover, in addition to train travel time and other factors such as energy cost. In

to the AMC design for the basic CSMA/CA protocol of the the train-ground communication subsystem, each train needs

Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) in [17], we also to transmit its own location, direction, velocity and identity

provide an AMC design for the Request to Send/Clear to to the wayside AP. Then, the AP transfers these information

Send (RTS/CTS) mechanism, the enhanced random access to both ZC and ATS subsystems so that ZC can send the

protocol in DCF [5]. Indeed, in real CBTC environments, Movement Authority (MA). The MA of a train refers to the

the hidden nodes problem often occurs, when the distances distance between the tail of this train and the first obstacle in

between trains under the same AP become large. Therefore, front of it, such as its preceding train. For example, from the

the RTC/CTS procedure could be beneficial to ensure high perspective of train 1 in Fig. 1, the MA is the distance between

quality train control performance. Furthermore, as opposed the tail of train 1 and the tail of train 2. Under these MA

to [17], we include the effects of time-selective fading in constraints, the ATO subsystem will control the train velocity

addition to Rayleigh fading, given the high speeds inherent as much as possible under the guidance trajectory. Finally, the

to CBTC environments. Furthermore, compared to [18], we ATP subsystem is responsible for calculating the braking curve

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according to the updated MA, which guarantees the train’s B̂, Sk and αTk+1 in the equation above are given by

safety. ( 1 2)

B̂ = 2T ,

T

B. State Space Model and Performance Metrics Sk = Ψ + AT [Sk+1 − Sk+1 B(Q + BT Sk+1 B)−1 BT

Sk+1 ]A,

Next, we overview the train state space model which follows

that of [9]. From the theory of dynamic physics, the equations αTk = αTk+1 A − 2ũTk B̂T Sk+1 A + 2ũTk B̂T Sk+1 B̂

of motion of the train can be expressed as (Q + B̂T Sk+1 B̂)−1 B̂T Sk+1 A − αTk+1 B̂

(B̂T Sk+1 B̂ + Q)−1 B̂T Sk+1 A. (6)

1 uk 2 1 wk 2

qk+1 = qk + vk T + T − T ,

2M 2M From (4), we observe that the calculation of optimal LQG

uk wk

vk+1 = vk + T− T, (1) control signal acceleration ûk depends on the desired control

M M acceleration ũk which is used to determine the desired train

where M is the train mass, qk is the train position, vk the state x̃k+1 [9].

train velocity, wk the global resistance at time k, respectively. In every control period T , each train sends its own location,

T denotes the control period and uk the train control signal direction, velocity and identity to the ZC via a wayside AP

from the train controller. to calculate the MA, and the MA is sent to the following

Then, arranging (1), the train state space equation can be train via the AP. If the communication delay of sending the

written as MA is larger than T , the MA cannot be updated under this

control period and packets will be discarded. Consequently,

xk+1 = Axk + Buk + Cwk , (2) we assume that the control signal acceleration ûk will be

replaced by an adjustable brake deceleration a(≤ 0) which

where xk = (qk , vk )T denotes the train state, and is usually set to the service brake deceleration as in [9] due

to a communication interruption of T , for ensuring safety. We

( ) ( 1 2) ( 1 2) define such an event as a communication-control outage.

1 T 2M T − 2M T

A= ,B = ,C = .

0 1 M

1

T −M1

T

C. MAC layer random access protocol

The train dynamics model in (1) has been widely used for

optimal train control problems. In particular, it is shown in [19] As in [9][13][14][15], CSMA/CA random access protocol

that the optimal train control problem with distributed mass [5] is considered. In CSMA/CA, a terminal with a packet to

on a track and with a continuously varying gradient can be transmit senses the channel before transmission. If the channel

replaced by an equivalent problem of a point-mass train, and is idle for a period of time equal to a Distributed Interframe

that any continuous control strategy may be approximated by Space (DIFS), the terminal generates a random backoff interval

a discrete control strategy [19] [12] . before transmission to avoid the packet collision with other

terminals. Otherwise, if the channel is busy, the terminal needs

The linear quadratic cost is taken as the control performance

to wait until the channel becomes idle for a DIFS.

measure as in [9],

The exponential backoff scheme is adopted in CSMA/CA.

[ n ] At each packet transmission, the backoff time is uniformly

1 ∑

Jn = E T 2

(ek Ψek + Qûk ) , (3) chosen in the range [0, CW − 1], where CW is the contention

n window, and determined by the number of failed transmissions

k=0

as follows. CW is set to Wi at the i-th retransmission time.

where ek = xk − x̃k is the tracking error, x̃k is the desired After each failed transmission, CW is doubled until it reaches

′

train state obtained from the train guidance trajectory, Ψ = the maximum contention window 2m W0 , where m′ is the

′

diag(ψ1 , ψ2 ) is a diagonal positive semi-definite matrix, ûk = retransmission number, giving 2m W0 = 1024. The backoff

uk

M is the acceleration by control signal and Q is a positive time counter is decremented when the channel is sensed

scalar. idle for more than a DIFS duration and frozen when other

After some mathematical derivations [20], the optimal Lin- transmissions are detected on the channel. The terminal starts

ear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control signal acceleration ûk to transmit when the backoff time counter reaches zero. An

used to minimize (3) is derived as example is illustrated in Fig. 2. Three terminals A, B and C

share a channel. After a DIFS period, terminals A, B and

ûk = K[ek − A−1 B̂ũk + (B̂T Sk+1 A)−1 αTk+1 B̂], (4) C randomly generate a backoff counter equal to 2, 4 and

3, respectively. The backoff counter of terminal A reaches

where ũk ∈ R is the control acceleration in the desired train zero first and terminal A starts to transmit its packet. At the

state obtained from the train guidance trajectory and K ∈ same time, terminals B and C sense the channel busy due to

R1×2 is the controller gain [20], the transmission by A, hence stopping their own transmission

process. After successful packet reception from terminal A,

K = −(B̂T Sk+1 B̂ + Q)−1 B̂T Sk+1 A. (5) the receiver waits for a period of time called Short Interframe

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Receiver ACK coding and multi-stream coding are considered. In the diversity

coding, we assume Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) for

busy

Terminal A Data frame MIMO detection. Hence, defining zi as the instantaneous

received SNR of the packet transmitted from terminal i after

busy

Terminal B

busy optimal MIMO combining at the receiver, zi follows the

gamma distribution as the sum of independent and identically

busy

Terminal C Data frame distributed (i.i.d) exponential random variables as in (9). As a

result, the p.d.f. of zi conditioned on average SNR γ̄i is given

by

Fig. 2. CSMA/CA random access protocol

e−zi /γ̄i

f (zi |γ̄i ) = ziK−1 , (10)

Γ(K)γ̄iK

Space (SIFS) and then sends an Acknowledgment (ACK)

packet to terminal A to notify the successful packet reception. where K is the diversity gain representing the SNR en-

Next, we also consider the RTS/CTS protocol of DCF, the hancement from the combined signals. We denote the set

optional mechanism used by CSMA/CA to reduce frame col- of the instantaneous received SNRs after MIMO diversity

lisions due to the hidden nodes. Unlike the basic mechanism, coding for all terminals by z = [z1 , · · · , zN ], where N is

in RTS/CTS, the terminal sends an RTS packet first instead of the number of terminals. For the MIMO multi-stream coding,

a data packet. After receiving a CTS packet from the receiver, we consider Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection. We assume

the terminal is allowed to send its packet. The receiver sends that different packets are transmitted from different antennas

an ACK after successful packet reception. If the sender does t, and define zi,t for terminal i as

not receive a CTS or ACK frame, it starts the retransmission

process. ∑

V

zi,t = γi,t,l , (11)

l=1

D. MIMO Channel Models where V is the number of antennas at the AP. We stack these

In this paper, we consider only one AP since we focus on received SNRs into a vector zi = [zi,1 , · · · , zi,U ], where U

designing a new AMC scheme that improves the overall train is the number of antennas at each terminal. zi represents

control performance by taking into account both transmission the effective SNRs after MIMO multi-stream detection for

errors due to channel fading and MAC contention. Each all packets (antennas) from terminal i. Finally, we denote by

terminal and AP can be either transmitter or receiver. We z̃ = [z1 , · · · , zN ] the vector of SNRs after MIMO multi-

describe the case where terminal i is the transmitter and the stream coding at all terminals.

AP is the receiver.

We define γi,k,j as the instantaneous received SNR for the III. R EFERENCE S CHEMES

channel between the transmit antenna k of terminal i and

receive antenna j of the AP, which is given by In this section, we introduce two conventional AMC

schemes for link adaptation, which will serve as references

η × P L(di , α) × |hi,k,j |2 for performance comparison.

γi,k,j = , (7)

σn2

where P L(di , α) is the path loss between terminal i and the A. First benchmark link adaptation: AMC scheme in [21]

AP, α is the path loss exponent, di the distance between

terminal i and the AP, η is the transmit power and σn2 is the The AMC scheme in [21] is a conventional Modulation

Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) power. The normal- and Coding Scheme (MCS) selection in common WLANs

ized channel coefficient from transmit antenna k of terminal i where the MCS with the highest rate guaranteeing a Frame

to receive antenna j of the AP is given by hi,k,j ∼ CN (0, 1). Error Rate (FER) lower than 0.01 is selected. In IEEE802.11n

Next, we define γ̄i as the average receive SNR of terminal i, with a data frame of 400 bytes used in CBTC systems, the

which is the function of only the path loss P L(di , α) between detailed information of the different MCS levels are shown in

terminal i and the AP, and given by Table I. In Table I, diversity coding is used for MCS0-MCS7

while multi-stream coding is adopted for MCS8-MCS15. Table

η × P L(di , α) II shows the selected MCS levels and their corresponding

γ̄i = . (8)

σn2 average SNR switching thresholds. According to this table,

For Rayleigh fading channels, the instantaneous SNR γi,k,j not all MCS levels will be effective.

follows the exponential distribution with mean γ̄i . So the prob-

ability density function (p.d.f.) of the instantaneous received B. Second benchmark link adaptation: AMC scheme in [9]

SNR conditioned on average SNR γ̄i can be written as

The AMC scheme proposed in [9] focuses on minimizing

1 − γi,k,j the average communication delay experienced by CBTC sys-

f (γi,k,j |γ̄i ) = e γ̄i . (9)

γ¯i tems.

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M ODULATION AND CODING SCHEMES IN IEEE802.11 N [22] PARAMETER D EFINITION

MCS index Spatial streams Modulation type Coding rate Notation Definition

0 1 BPSK 1/2 σ duration of an empty slot time

1 1 QPSK 1/2 TDIFS Distributed Interframe Space

2 1 QPSK 3/4 TSIFS Short Interframe Space

3 1 16QAM 1/2 Tdata duration of data frame transmission

4 1 16QAM 3/4 Tack duration of ACK frame transmission

5 1 64QAM 2/3 TRTS duration of RTS frame transmission

6 1 64QAM 3/4 TCTS duration of CTS frame transmission

7 1 64QAM 5/6 Tacktimeout duration of ACK frame timeout

8 2 BPSK 1/2 TCTStimeout duration of CTS frame timeout

9 2 QPSK 1/2 Fdata data frame length in bits

10 2 QPSK 3/4 Fack ACK frame length in bits

11 2 16QAM 1/2 FRTS RTS frame length in bits

12 2 16QAM 3/4 FCTS CTS frame length in bits

13 2 64QAM 2/3 R data transmission rate

14 2 64QAM 3/4

15 2 64QAM 5/6

TABLE II the instantaneous SNRs predicted by FSMC model in every

AMC THRESHOLDS IN REFERENCE [21]

control period.

MCS SNR However, the accuracy of predicted instantaneous SNR

MCS0 6.5dB values from FSMC is not guaranteed due to the high variability

MCS1 9dB of the railway environment, while conducting field tests in

MCS2 11.3dB

MCS3 14.9dB all possible environments is unrealistic. Therefore, in our

MCS4 17.4dB proposed link adaptation design, we will only assume the

MCS11 21.7dB knowledge of average SNR levels between trains and APs, and

MCS5 22.2dB

MCS6 23.3dB jointly consider the effects of errors due to channel fading and

MCS12 24.2dB of MAC layer contention due to multiple competing vehicles.

MCS13 28.9dB

MCS14 30dB

MCS15 31.1dB IV. P ROPOSED ADAPTIVE MODULATION AND CODING

SCHEME FOR CBTC SYSTEMS

In this section, we propose an AMC scheme under the

The packet delay Tmac (s) at the s-th retransmission is givenassumption that only average SNR levels of each train and

as number of competing terminals are available. Unlike in previ-

ous works, we analyze the average delay with respect to both

Tmac (0) = TDIFS + σ(W0 − 1)/2 + Tdata + TSIFS + Tack ,

the wireless channel fading effects and the MAC layer con-

Tmac (s) = Tmac (s − 1) + TDIFS + σ(Ws − 1)/2 + Tdata tention. However, finding an AMC scheme minimizing directly

+TSIFS + Tack , (12) the communication-control outage probability is intractable.

Instead, similarly to the methodology in previous works [9]

where s ∈ [1, m], m is the maximum retransmission time and [13][14][15], we focus on finding an AMC scheme minimizing

all parameter definitions are given in Table III. The average the average delay with the reasonable assumption that such

delivery delay between an AP and a train at time k, denoted a strategy should improve the communication-control outage

Dk can be calculated by probability performance. In addition, for sake of tractability,

Dk = (1 − pe,k )Tmac (0) + pe,k (1 − pe,k )Tmac (1) + · · · the analysis is performed assuming saturated packet traffic, i.e.,

+pe,k (1 − pe,k )Tmac (m − 1) + pm

m−1 the worst-case scenario. This design choice is well-suited to

e,k Tmac (m),

CBTC given its inherent safety issues. The simulation results

(13) in Section V, conducted under realistic unsaturated traffic

where pe,k is the instantaneous FER at time k. conditions, will confirm that our proposed method enables

Then, the optimization problem considered in [9] can be to decrease the communication-control outage probability, as

expressed as well as the overall control performance.

min Dk . (14)

Rk ;pe,k A. Average delay analysis

To obtain the instantaneous FER used in (13), the method First, we analyze the average delay with respect to MAC

of [9] adopts the FSMC model according to real field tests to contention according to [23]-[26]. We define b(t) and s(t) as

predict instantaneous SNR levels. Note that the data transmis- the stochastic processes representing the backoff counter and

sion rate Rk is determined by the MCS, giving Tdata = FR data

k

the backoff stage (0, · · · , m) at time t, respectively. Then,

in (12), while the FER pe,k is influenced by the selection the bidimensional process model {s(t), b(t)} with the discrete

of the MCS and channel states. Thus, the MCS level which time Markov chain [25] in Fig. 3 can be used assuming as in

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……

••,•

…… Finally, the throughput defined as the amount of data bits

$•,• ••,•

"# "# "# successfully transmitted per time slot for terminal i with MCS

− ••,• − ••,• − ••,•

"#

rate Ri can be obtained similarly to [25] by

"# "#

− ••,•

#, # #, …… #, "# − ps,i Fdata

…… Si = , (18)

••,• ••,• ••,• Ui

" " "

− ••,•

,# , …… ," −

where

…… Ui = pn σ + pc max(Tc ) + ps,i Ts,i + pe,i Te,i

••,• ••,• ••,•

"( "( "( ∑N

……

……

……

j=0,j̸=i

……

••,• ••,• ••,•

"%

and Tc = [Tc,1 , · · · , Tc,N ] is the vector of average collision

"% "%

− ••,• slot times of all the competing terminals. pn is the probability

%, # %, …… , "% −

••,• that there is no transmission in the considered time slot, pc

s, # Transmit state &, ' CCA state is the collision probability and pg,i is the FER of terminal i

Success CCA Fail given that it transmits, given as follows

∏

N

pn = (1 − pt,i ),

i=1

[25][26] that the probability of failed transmission of terminal ∑

N ∏

N

independent from the number of retransmissions, and that the i=0 l=1,l̸=i

traffic condition is saturated. The abbreviation “CCA” in Fig. ∏

N

3 refers to Clear Channel Assessment, which represents the pg,i = pt,i pe,i (1 − pt,l ). (19)

detection of other transmissions. l=1,l̸=i

Then, the probability pt,i that the terminal i begins to From (19), we see that the probabilities pn , pc and pg,i

transmit in a time slot is calculated as [26] are functions of the instantaneous SNR levels after optimal

2(1−pf,i )(1−2pf,i ) m ≤ m′

m+1

MIMO detection. Moreover, Tc,i , Ts,i and Te,i are the average

pt,i = 2(1−pm+1Z)(1−2p

1 (15) collision slot time, average successful transmission slot time

f,i f,i )

m > m′ , and average failed transmission slot time of terminal i only due

Z2

where to channel fading, respectively. For CSMA/CA basic mode,

Tc,i , Te,i and Ts,i are given by [23]

Z1 = (1 − pm+1

f,i )(1 − 2pf,i ) + W0 (1 − pf,i )

Tc,i = Tdata,i + Tacktimeout,i ,

[1 − (2pf,i )m+1 ],

′ ′ ′ Te,i = Tdata,i + Tacktimeout,i ,

Z2 = Z1 + W0 2m pm

f,i

+1

(1 − 2pf,i )(1 − pf,i

m−m

).

Ts,i = Tdata,i + TSIFS + Tack,i + TDIFS , (20)

From (15), the probability of failed transmissions due to packet

collision or channel fading pf,i is given as [25] where Tdata,i = FR data

i

for MCS rate Ri . For RTS/CTS mode,

∏N Tc,i , Te,i and Ts,i become [23]

pf,i = 1 − (1 − pe,i ) l=1,l̸=i (1 − pt,l ), (16)

Tc,i = TRTS,i + TCTStimeout,i ,

where pe,i represents the probability of failed transmission of

terminal i due to channel fading only. Te,i = TRTS,i + TSIFS + TCTS,i + TSIFS + Tdata,i

In (15) and (16), pe,i is a function of the instantaneous +Tacktimeout,i ,

SNR levels after MIMO detection of all competing terminals, Ts,i = TRTS,i + TSIFS + TCTS,i + TSIFS + Tdata,i + TSIFS

namely z for diversity coding or z̃ for multi-stream coding,

+Tack,i + TDIFS . (21)

defined in Section II-D. Moreover, the pair of values pf,i and

pt,i can be numerically obtained by solving the non-linear According to [24], the average delay Hi , which represents

equations (15) and (16) for given pe,i . However, the instan- the time interval from the beginning of the packet transmission

taneous SNRs are assumed to be unknown in our proposed by the terminal i to the end of successful reception by the

methods. Therefore, by treating pe,i , pf,i and pt,i as functions receiver, is given by

of z or z̃, we derive the expectation of the average delay with Fdata

respect to channel fading using the p.d.f. of z or z̃. Hi = , (22)

Si

Then, we obtain the probability ps,i that terminal i success-

fully transmits its packet as where Fdata is the data payload size in bits. Since the average

delay Hi in (22) is the time interval from the beginning of

∏

N

ps,i = pt,i (1 − pe,i ) (1 − pt,l ). (17) the packet transmission by terminal i to the end of successful

l=1,l̸=i

reception by the receiver, the situation where the packet is

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dropped due to reaching the maximum retransmission time transmit antennas is corrupted at the receiver, all packets will

has not been considered. However, in CBTC systems, the be lost. Therefore, the FER pe,i can be calculated by

packet will be discarded if the packet delay is larger than the

pe,i (zi ) = 1 − (1 − pe,i,1 (zi,1 )) · · · (1 − pe,i,U (zi,U )),

control period T or if the packet retransmission time reaches

its maximum. Thus, we set the packet delay to Tmax (> T ) for (29)

the evaluation of the average delay if the packet is discarded. where pe,i,j is the FER of the packet transmitted from transmit

We define such average delay Li as the average delay with antenna j of terminal i. Then, the throughput of terminal i

respect to MAC contention of terminal i, which can be written given z̃ is written as

as {

(1 − pr,i )Hi + pr,i Tmax Hi < T ps,i (z̃)Fdata

Li = (23) Si (z̃) = . (30)

Tmax Hi ≥ T , Pn (z̃)σ + Pc,i (z̃)Tc + ps,i (z̃)Ts + Pe,i (z̃)Te

Similarly, the average delay Hi is given by

where pr,i = pm+1

f,i represents the probability that the retrans-

Fdata

mission time of terminal i’s packet reaches its maximum. Hi (z̃) = . (31)

Si (z̃)

1) Average delay for diversity coding: as defined in Section

II-D, z is the vector of instantaneous received SNRs for all Then, the average delay with respect to MAC contention

terminals after MRC. Then, the throughput of terminal i given conditioned on z̃ is given by

z is written as {

(1 − pr,i )Hi (z̃) + pr,i Tmax Hi < T

ps,i (z)Fdata Li (z̃) = (32)

Si (z) = . (24) Tmax Hi ≥ T .

pn (z)σ + pc,i (z)Tc + ps,i (z)Ts + pe,i (z)Te

Therefore, the delay Gi becomes

Besides, the average delay Hi is written as ∫ +∞ ∫ +∞

Fdata Gi = ··· Li (z̃)p(z1 |γ̄1 ) · · · p(zN |γ̄N )

Hi (z) = . (25) 0 0

Si (z) dz1 · · · dzN . (33)

Moreover, the average delay with respect to MAC contention Similarly to diversity coding, we use the average SNR of

conditioned on z is given by terminal i instead of the instantaneous SNRs except for the

{ signal from the transmit antenna of interest of terminal i.

(1 − pr,i )Hi (z) + pr,i Tmax Hi < T

Li (z) = (26) From (29), we see that all packets will be lost if any of the

Tmax Hi ≥ T . packets among all streams has an error. Therefore, to consider

the impact from the packet with minimum SNR, we define a

Then, we calculate the average delay with respect to both

random variable żi as

MAC contention and channel fading of terminal i for diversity

coding. żi = min(zi,1 , · · · , zi,U ). (34)

The FER pe,i is only determined by zi for diversity coding.

If the average SNRs of all terminals are given, the average Then, we utilize the distribution of żi instead of zi for

delay Gi with respect to both MAC contention and channel tractability, giving Li (z̃) = Li (żi , γ̄i ) and p(zi |γ̄i ) = p(żi |γ̄i ).

fading for diversity coding can be obtained by The distribution of żi is given by

∫ +∞ ∫ +∞ p(żi |γ̄i ) = U [1 − F (zi,k |γ̄i )]U −1 f (zi,k |γ̄i ), (35)

Gi = ··· Li (z)p(z1 |γ̄1 ) · · · p(zN |γ̄N )

0 0 where F (zi,k |γ̄i ) is the cumulative distribution function (c.d.f.)

dz1 · · · dzN . of the instantaneous received SNR zi,k conditioned on average

(27)

SNR γ̄i . Then, Gi is determined only by the distribution of the

Since the exact evaluation of (27) requires prohibitive com- instantaneous SNR żi conditioned on average SNR γ̄i instead

putational complexity, we utilize the average SNR of terminal of all instantaneous SNRs. Marginalizing over zj , j ̸= i and

i in place of the instantaneous SNRs of other terminals, i.e., zk,i , k ̸= j, the approximated average delay G̃i with multi-

the equal instantaneous SNR approximation for all terminals， stream coding can be written as

giving Li (z) = Li (zi , γ̄i ). This can reduce not only the com- ∫ +∞

putational complexity, but also the overhead of the information G̃i = Li (żi , γ̄i )p(żi |γ̄i )dżi . (36)

exchange among trains. Then, marginalizing over zj , j ̸= i, 0

the approximated average delay Ĝi for diversity coding can

be written as B. Proposed average-delay minimizing AMC scheme

∫ +∞ As explained above, the control performance can be en-

Ĝi = Li (zi , γ̄i )p(zi |γ̄i )dzi . (28) hanced through minimizing the average delay with respect to

0

both MAC contention and channel fading. In the proposed

2) Average delay for multi-stream coding: as defined in method, the MCS level k and transmission mode that optimize

Section II-D, z̃ is the vector of instantaneous received SNRs the analytical delay expressions for terminal i are selected.

for all terminals after ML. If one of the packets from the Each MCS k corresponds to a given data rate Ri,k and

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Heading

MCS0 station 2

station 1

MCS1

MCS2

10-1 MCS3 Train 3 Train 4

5m

MCS4

MCS5 159.16m 159.16m

MCS6

Average Delay (s)

MCS7

MCS8

station 1 5m station 2

-2 MCS9

10

MCS10

MCS11 Train 2 Train 1

MCS12 318.32m

Heading

MCS13

MCS14

MCS15

Fig. 5. Simulation setup of CBTC system

10-3

0 10 20 30 40 50

SNR(dB) TABLE IV

S IMULATION PARAMETERS [9][23]

Fig. 4. Average delay for the proposed AMC scheme when N = 5 and

Tmax =0.4s in CSMA/CA basic mode Definition Value

Transmission power 31mW

Noise power -100dBm

Antenna gain 10dBi

corresponding FER pe,i,k performance. For each transmission Bandwidth 20MHz

mode, we first determine the MCS levels k̂ and k̃ that minimize Data packet 400bytes

The number of antennas at all terminals 2

average delays Ĝi,k and G̃i,k , respectively, given terminal i’s The number of antennas at the AP 2

average SNR and the number of competing terminals, Service brake deceleration 1.2m/s2

Carrier sense level of antenna -98dBm

k̂ = arg min Ĝi,k , for diversity coding Control period 0.4s

Ri,k ;pe,i,k Average resistance per unit mass 0.02m/s2

SIFS 10µs

k̃ = arg min G̃i,k , for multi-stream coding. (37) DIFS 50µs

Ri,k ;pe,i,k

Slot time 20µs

ACK 14bytes

Finally, the MCS k ∗ and corresponding transmission mode RTS 20bytes

achieving the minimum average delay between the two above CTS 14bytes

are chosen, Path loss exponent 3

Maximum delay threshold 0.4s

k ∗ = arg min(Ĝi,k̂ , G̃i,k̃ ). (38) Ψ diag(100,100)

(k̂;k̃) Q 2.8

adapted to minimize this average delay only given this train’s

the train control performance. The following path loss model

average SNR and the number of competing trains in each

[27] is used,

control period. For example, Fig. 4 shows the average delay

with respect to both MAC contention and channel fading for P Li (di , α)[dBm] = Zt + Y [dB] − 10αlog10 di + Zr , (39)

different MCS levels for 2 transmit antennas and 2 receive

antennas in IEEE802.11n protocol for CSMA/CA basic mode where Zt is the transmit antenna gain, Zr the receive antenna

when the number of competing terminals is five, maximum gain and Y is a constant that depends on the transmission

retransmission time m = 6 and Tmax =0.4s. It is clearly frequency. We consider both CSMA/CA basic mode and

shown that the average delay performance highly depends on RTS/CTS mode introduced in Section II at the MAC layer.

the MCS selection. Table IV shows the simulation parameters, which are based

on the parameters used in CBTC systems with WLAN [9].

The distance between two stations is set to 318.32m (typically,

V. N UMERICAL RESULTS the wayside APs are deployed along the railway line with an

In this section, we evaluate the performance of the proposed average distance of 400 meters [28]). The maximum delay

method and compare it to benchmark schemes. MATLAB threshold Tmax is set to 0.4s.

environment is used to simulate the train operation in CBTC In the simulation, we consider the scenario in which there

systems. We first describe the simulation setup and then are always 4 trains sharing one AP during train 2’s operation

discuss the numerical results. and take the perspective from train 2 to focus on the delay

of MA for train 2. Train 1 and train 2 start from station 1

successively with a uniformly distributed random time interval

A. Simulation setup which is larger than 8s which is a minimum time to prevent

As shown in Fig. 5, we consider one AP which can be two successive trains from collision, and less than the train

accessed by 4 trains in two different tracks. We consider this travel time. The time interval between train 3 and train 4 is

worst case scenario since the focus of this work is to evaluate also determined randomly in the same manner as that of train

the impact of error due to channel fading and collisions on 1 and train 2. The initial locations of train 1, train 3 and train

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4 are distributed randomly over the rail line. Note that if one 0

10

of the other trains arrives at destination, then another train will Ref.[21] with RTS/CTS m=4

start at the starting station to make sure that there are always Ref.[9] with RTS/CTS m=4

Prop. with RTS/CTS m=4

4 trains between station 1 and station 2. Two situations are

Ref.[21] with CSMA/CA m=4

considered for the train-ground communication part: Ref.[9] with CSMA/CA m=4

• Quasi static channel: The average and instantaneous 10-1 Prop. with CSMA/CA m=4

Outage probability

received SNRs are constant during each control period

T.

• Time-selective fading channel: The average SNR is con-

stant during each control period while the instantaneous 10-2

SNR varies due to the Doppler shift caused by the moving

train for time-varying Rayleigh fading [29].

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05

1) Communication-control outage probability performance: Time(s)

Fig. 6. Communication-control outage probability in CSMA/CA basic and

communication-control outage probability performance RTS/CTS modes, Rayleigh fading, m = 4

at train 2, for the proposed method, the reference AMC

scheme [21] in Section III-A, and the reference AMC scheme

[9] in Section III-B, assuming quasi static Rayleigh fading the proposed method, the SNR thresholds for MCS switching

channels with maximum retransmission times m = 4, 6 and decrease along with the number of competing terminals.

10, respectively. We see in all Figs. 6-8, that compared to The proposed method also has much higher thresholds than

the proposed scheme, the reference ones are subject to a reference schemes as it reflects the impact of Rayleigh fading

large outage probability degradation. This is because only over all the involved channels.

the proposed method considers the joint impacts of fading 3) MAC layer protocols: the communication-control outage

induced errors and MAC layer contention, including packet performance under the basic mode for each scheme is worse

collisions and channel busy times. Besides, both reference than under the RTS/CTS mode. This is because only the

schemes have similar performances since their MCS switching RTS/CTS mechanism considers the packet collision due to

SNR thresholds are close, according to Table V. hidden terminals. Besides, compared to the proposed scheme

b) Time-selective fading channel: Next, Figs. 9-11 show whose performance is much improved by RTS/CTS mode,

the communication-control outage probability performance at each reference scheme shows only a very slight gain. The

train 2 assuming time-selective fading channels with maximum reason is that the MCS switching SNR thresholds of both basic

retransmission times m = 4, 6 and 10, respectively. We and RTS/CTS modes in the reference AMC scheme [21] are

observe that, compared to the quasi-static Rayleigh fading the same, since their SNR thresholds only depend on average

case, all the schemes achieve a better outage performance. This FERs. In addition, since the reference AMC scheme [9] has

is due to the time diversity effect obtained by the variations not considered MAC layer contention, its MCS switching SNR

of instantaneous SNRs at each retransmission, within each thresholds for basic and RTS/CTS modes are very similar.

control period. The proposed scheme largely outperforms all 4) Impact of maximum retransmission times: With m = 6,

reference schemes in this case as well. In addition, the gain all schemes achieve better outage probability performance than

of reference [21] over reference [9] is increased in the case of with m = 4, but a similar performance with m = 10. From

time-selective channels, because the average delay calculated this, we see that further increasing the maximum retransmis-

in (13) is no longer accurate under the fair assumption that sion time does not necessarily benefit the communication-

only average SNRs and the number of trains are known. In control outage probability performance. Instead, this may

particular, according to Table V, the MCS switching SNR degrade the outage performance due to longer contention

thresholds for MCS1 in [9] is much smaller than that in [21], delays.

leading to poorer performance of the scheme in [9]. 5) The control performance analysis : Tables VI and VII

2) Comparison of the MCS switching SNR thresholds: In show the linear quadratic cost of each scheme in CSMA/CA

the CSMA/CA basic mode, the SNR thresholds of switching basic mode and RTS/CTS mode with quasi-static and time-

MCSs for all three methods with m = 6 are illustrated in selective fading channels, respectively. We observe that the

Table V. Since the probability of packet collision increases proposed method in both Rayleigh fading and time-selective

along with the number of competing terminals, in the proposed fading cases achieves the best performance in terms of the

scheme, a higher MCS level will be chosen to reduce the linear quadratic cost over reference schemes. This also proves

average delay. When the number of competing terminals is that minimizing the communication-control outage probability

small, the average delay with respect to both MAC contention can effectively improve the train control performance. More-

and channel fading is largely influenced by the channel state, over, comparing the impacts of the number of retransmission

hence a lower MCS level will be selected. As a result, in times, the MAC layer mode, and channel fading, we observe

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10

TABLE V

AMC THRESHOLD COMPARISON FOR PROPOSED AND CONVENTIONAL SCHEMES IN CSMA/CA BASIC MODE m=6

MCS Ref. [21] Ref. [9] Prop. N =1 Prop. N =2 Prop. N =3 Prop. N =4 Prop. N =5

MCS1 9dB 6.9dB 13.5dB 12.9dB 12.4dB 12.1dB 11.9dB

MCS2 11.3dB 10.7dB 17.4dB 16.8dB 16.4dB 16.1dB 15.8dB

MCS3 14.9dB 15.4dB 21.2dB 20.6dB 20.2dB 19.9dB 19.7dB

MCS4 17.4dB 17.6dB 24.3dB 23.6dB 23.1dB 22.8dB 22.6dB

MCS11 21.7dB non non non non non non

MCS5 22.2dB 23.5dB 29.5dB 28.8dB 28.4dB 28.1dB 27.8dB

MCS6 23.3dB 25.3dB 31.6dB 30.9dB 30.5dB 30.2dB 29.9dB

MCS7 non non 33.2dB 32.5dB 32.1dB 31.8dB 31.5dB

MCS12 24.2dB 26.4dB 41.4dB 39.9dB 39dB 38.3dB 37.8dB

MCS13 28.9dB 32.2dB 44.9dB 43.5dB 42.6dB 41.9dB 41.4dB

MCS14 30dB 33.9dB 47.2dB 45.7dB 44.8dB 44.1dB 43.6dB

MCS15 31.1dB 35.3dB 49.1dB 47.6dB 46.6dB 46dB 45.5dB

0

10 100

Ref.[21] with RTS/CTS m=6 Ref.[21] with RTS/CTS m=10

Ref.[9] with RTS/CTS m=6

Ref.[9] with RTS/CTS m=10

Prop. with RTS/CTS m=6

Prop. with RTS/CTS m=10

Ref.[21] with CSMA/CA m=6

Ref.[9] with CSMA/CA m=6 Ref.[21] with CSMA/CA m=10

Prop. with CSMA/CA m=6 Ref.[9] with CSMA/CA m=10

-1 -1

10 10

Outage probability

Outage probability

-2

10 10-2

-3 -3

10 10

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05

Time(s)

Time(s)

Fig. 7. Communication-control outage probability in CSMA/CA basic and Fig. 8. Communication-control outage probability in CSMA/CA basic and

RTS/CTS modes, Rayleigh fading, m = 6 RTS/CTS modes, Rayleigh fading, m = 10

the same tendencies for outage probability and linear quadratic and linear quadratic cost performance. In the future work, we

cost. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the proposed will address the time scheduling problem at the AP, to achieve

method of average delay minimization is a valid and efficient further performance enhancements.

approach for decreasing communication-control outage prob-

ability and hence achieving a better control performance. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported in part by the Grants-in-Aid for

VI. C ONCLUSION Scientific Research no. 15K06064, 15H02252, 26820143 and

The wireless communication quality between train and 17K06453 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports,

wayside AP highly impacts the train control performance in Science, and Technology of Japan.

CBTC systems. In this work, in order to improve the train

control performance, we have proposed an optimized link layer

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TABLE VI

L INEAR QUADRATIC COST OF EACH SCHEME IN CSMA/CA AND RTS/CTS MODE WITH R AYLEIGH FADING CHANNEL

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Time(s) Time(s)

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[13] L. Zhu, F. R. Yu, B. Ning and T. Tang, “Handoff performance improve- [22] Y. Lin and V. W. S. Wong, “Frame aggregation and optimal frame size

ments in MIMO-enabled communication-based train control systems”, adaptation for IEEE 802.11n WLANs”, IEEE Glob. Telecommun. Conf.

IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 582-593, June 2012. (IEEE GLOBECOM), pp. 1–6, Nov.-Dec. 2006.

[14] W. Sun, F. R. Yu, T. Tang and B. Ning, “Energy-efficient [23] F. Daneshgaran, M. Laddomada, F. Mesiti, M. Mondin and M. Zanolo,

communication-based train control systems with packet delay and loss”, “Saturation throughput analysis of IEEE 802.11 in the presence of non

IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 452–468, Feb. 2016. ideal transmission channel and capture effects”, IEEE Trans. Commun.,

[15] L. Zhu, F. R. Yu, H. Wang, T. Tang and B. Ning, “Handoff performance vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1178–1188, Aug. 2008.

http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2763173, IEEE Access

12

100

uate School of Engineering, Osaka City University.

Ref.[21] with RTS/CTS m=10

He received the B.E., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in

Ref.[9] with RTS/CTS m=10

communication engineering from Osaka University,

Prop. with RTS/CTS m=10

Osaka, Japan, in 1997, 1999 and 2002, respectively.

Ref.[21] with CSMA/CA m=10

He was an Assistant Professor from 2002 to 2007,

Ref.[9] with CSMA/CA m=10

-1 and an Associate Professor from 2007 to 2017 at

10 Prop. with CSMA/CA m=10

Outage probability

His research interests include statistical signal pro-

cessing for communication systems. He received the

ICF Research Award from the KDDI Foundation in

2008, the IEEE Globecom 2009 Best Paper Award, the IEICE Communica-

tions Society Best Paper Award in 2010, the WPMC’11 Best Paper Award,

10-2

the Telecommunications Advancement Foundation Award in 2012, and the

IEICE Communications Society Best Tutorial Paper Award in 2013. He is a

member of IEICE, APSIPA, and ISCIE.

10-3

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05

Time(s)

RTS/CTS modes, time-selective fading, m = 10

mance analysis”, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 765–767, Aug.

2005.

[25] K. Kang, “Performance anomaly of the IEEE 802.11 DCF in different

frame error rate conditions”, J. Info. Process. Syst., vol. 8, no. 4, pp.

739–748, 2012.

[26] Q. Ni, T. Li, T. Turletti and Y. Xiao, “Saturation throughput analysis

of error-prone 802.11 wireless networks”, Wiley J. of Wirel. Commun.

Mob. Comput., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 945–956, Dec. 2005.

[27] U. Paul, R. Crepaldi, J. Lee, S.-J. Lee and R. Etkin, “Characterizing Megumi Kaneko received her B.S. and MSc. de-

WiFi link performance in open outdoor networks” IEEE Conf. Sensor, grees in communication engineering in 2003 and

Mesh, AdHoc Commun. Netw. (IEEE SECON), pp. 251–259, June 2011. 2004 from Institut National des Télécommunications

[28] H. Wang, F. R. Yu, L. Zhu, T. Tang and B. Ning, “A Cognitive control (INT，Télécom SudParis), France, jointly with a

approach to communication-based train control systems”, IEEE Trans. MSc. from Aalborg University, Denmark, where she

Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1676–1689, Jan. 2015. received her Ph.D. degree in 2007. In May 2017,

[29] S. Lin, L. Kong, L. He, K. Guan, B. Ai, Z. Zhong and C. Briso- she obtained her HDR degree (French Doctoral

RodRodrı́guez, “Finite-state markov modeling for high-speed railway Habilitation for Directing Researches at Professor

fading channels”, IEEE Ant. Wirel. Propag. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 954-957, position) from Paris-Sud University, France. From

Jan. 2015. January to July 2007, she was a visiting researcher

[30] H. Wang, F. R. Yu, L. Zhu, T. Tang and B. Ning, “Finite-state Markov in Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, and a JSPS post-

modeling for wireless channels in tunnel communication-based train doctoral fellow from April 2008 to August 2010. From September 2010 to

control systems”, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 15, no.3, pp. March 2016, she was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Systems

1083-1090, June 2014. Science, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University. She is currently

[31] X. Wang, S. Mao and M.X. Gong, “A survey of LTE Wi-Fi coexistence an Associate Professor at the National Institute of Informatics as well as the

in unlicensed bands”, GetMobile: Mobile Computing and Communica- Graduate School of Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Tokyo, Japan. Her research

tions, vol. 20, no.3, pp. 17-23, July 2016. interests include wireless communications, radio resource and interference

management, wireless sensing and cross-layer network protocols. She received

the 2009 Ericsson Young Scientist Award, the IEEE Globecom 2009 Best

Paper Award, the 2011 Funai Young Researcher’s Award, the WPMC 2011

Best Paper Award, the 2012 Telecom System Technology Award and the 2016

Inamori Foundation Research Grant.

lege of Urban Railway Transportation at Shanghai

University of Engineering Science, Shanghai, China,

in 2014. He is now a Master student in the Grad-

uate School of Informatics, Kyoto University. His

research interests include wireless communication

systems.

2169-3536 (c) 2017 IEEE. Translations and content mining are permitted for academic research only. Personal use is also permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See

http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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