THE USE OF ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE SERVICES (SAPS) By DONALD PITSO MOHLALA

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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree BACCALAREUS –TECHNOLOGIEAE In the FACULTY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (DEPARTMENT OF: BUSINESS INFORMATICS)

At the TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Study leader: (MEV, ML VAN DER LINDE)

Date of submission 26 October 2006

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………....iv Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………….v List of figures……………………………………………………………………………vi Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………………...vii CHAPTER 1: ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY 1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………….1 1.2 Problem Statement………………………………………………………………….2 1.3 Literature Review…………………………………………………………………….3 1.4 Importance/ Benefits of the study…………………………………………………...5 1.5 Research Methodology………………………………………………………………6 1.6 Data Gathering……………………………………………………………………….7 1.7 Chapter Outline……………………………………………………………………….8 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………….10 2.2 Document Management……………………………………………………………10 2.3 Information Management…………………………………………………………..12 2.4 Knowledge Management…………………………………………………………...13 2.4.1 Internet…………………………………………………………………………. ….18 2.4.1.1 Reasons for using internet……………………………………………………...19 2.4.1.2 Intranet…………………………………………………………………………..20 2.4.1.3 Kinds of intranet…………………………………………………………………20 2.4.2 Virtual Community………………………………………………………………...22 2.4.2.1 Characteristics of Virtual Communities………………………………………...22 2.4.2.2 Benefits of Virtual Communities……………………………………………….25 2.4.3 Communities of Practices………………………………………………………..27

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2.4.3.1 Ten Factors in Building a Community………………………………………….30 2.4.3.2 The value of Communities of Practices………………………………………..31 2.5 Networks…………………………………………………………………………….32 2.5.1 Peer-to-Peer Computing…………………………………………………………33 2.5.1.1 Characteristics of P2P………………………………………………………….34 2.5.1.2 P2P Models…………………………………………………………………….34 2.5.1.3 Pure P2P………………………………………………………………………..35 2.5.1.4 P2P with Discovery Server……………………………………………………..35 2.5.1.5 P2P with Discover and lookup Server…………………………………………36 2.5.1.6 P2P with lookup Server and Content Server………………………………….36 2.5.1.7 P2P File Sharing………………………………………………………………..37 2.5.1.8 P2P Communication…………………………………………………………....37 2.6 Benefits of P2P to Virtual Investigators …………………………………………...38 2.7 Client-Server Computing…………………………………………………………...38 2.7.1 Characteristics of Client-Server…………………………………………………..40 2.7.2 Advantages of Client-Server……………………………………………………..40 2.8 Summary……………………………………………………………………………41 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………43 3.2 Research methodology..…………………………………………………………...43 3.3 Case Study as research method………………………………………………….45 3.4 Advantages of Case Study………………………………………………………...45 3.5 Disadvantages of Case Study……………………………………………………..46 3.6 Data Collection Methods…………………………………………………………...47 3.6.1 Literature…………………………………………………………………………..47 3.6.2 Questionnaire……………………………………………………………………..47 3.6.3 Interview…………………………………………………………………………...48 3.7 Participants……………………………………………………………………….….48 3.7.1 The Researcher…………………………………………………………………...48 3.7.2 The Organization…………………………………………………………………49

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2 Responding to research questions……………………………………………….58 5.3 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………61 5..3..3 Research Questions………………………………………………………………51 4..4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….4 Problems identified within SAPS…………………………………………………56 4..51 4.2.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 3..52 4.1 What technologies do they currently use?..1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………58 5.8 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….59 5.1 The usage of information technology and Knowledge management……….7.2.63 Appendixes Appendix A: Questionnaire Appendix B: Article iii .1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………..62 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………….5 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………57 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.2.58 5..1 South African Police Services (SAPS)………………………………………… 49 3.D..49 CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS 4.2 How can the use of knowledge technologies help in case investigations?.…………………………………….51 4.….2 Analyses and interpretation of data……………………………………………..

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P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The research paper is examines the current SAPS systems and ultimately define information and knowledge technologies such as intranet/internet. Literature study was conducted document management. It was found that there is a need within SAPS to implement these information and knowledge technologies in helping them with their investigation. Finally it was concluded the SAPS as an organization should convert into ‘learning organization’. The current system was analyzed and questioned. peer-to-peer and clientserver computing that can be of help in sharing and transferring knowledge within this organization . information management technologies from various articles.D. literature and observation in collecting data. questionnaires. Intranets are enablers of knowledge sharing. The research used qualitative case study and has used individual based interviews. virtual communities. The investigation began with an enquiry into the area of document management and regarding identified the problems that above and mentioned knowledge technologies can resolve within SAPS. communities of practice. v .

positive critisism. Without your input this work was not going to be possible. Thanking Him for the support system of the loving and courageous people he supplied particularly the following: My study leader Mev. To all my families. her opennes and believe that i will complete this assignment . vi .D. for fulfilling his promises. Ml Van Der Linde for her motivation. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the most highly Father (God). Dr Coetzee who introduced me to my study topic or fileld and Mr Pretorius for encouragement and constant contact regarding due dates.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I can do everything through him (Christ) who strengthens me. encourangement. friends and love for reminding me of my potential. All the participants in this study especially members of Daveyton & Germiston Police Stations for sharing their honesty views and experinces. From the bottom of my heart. guidance. I thank you. he never slept nor slumbered thanking him for enabling me to complete this paper.

.…..…...40 vii .......D.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Conceptual framework: knowledge management processes...39 Figure 8 Client-Server processing………………………………………………..28 Figure 4 Local Area Network scheme……………………………………..…….......……32 Figure 5 Client-Server and P2P models…………………………………………33 Figure 6 Computer systems models…………………………………………....35 Figure 7 Client-server Definition…………………………………………….......15 Figure 2 Concepts & framework for knowledge management.......16 Figure 3 Stages of Development…………………………………………....

P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 ABBREVIATIONS BBN .D.Bolt. Beranek & Newman CAS – Crime Administration System COP’S – Communities Of Practice CMC .Peer SAPS – South African Police Services SIO – Senior Investigating Officer TCP/IP – Transfer Control Protocol / Internet Protocol UCLA .Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency EIES .Computer Mediated Communication DARPA .University California Santa Barbara WAN – Wide Area Network viii .University Of California At Los Angeles UCSB .Electronic Information Exchange System FTP – File Transfer Protocol IM – Information Management GUI – Graphic User Interface LAN – Local Area Network P2P – Peer-To.

as most of them have retired or resigned without transferring knowledge to the new force according to Van Wyk (2006:02). therefore much is expected from it. These investigations are normally divided into two major areas of activity (1) the preliminary investigation carried out by officers in uniform called detectives. According to Van Wyk (2006:2).D. companies or governments. networking and internet technologies has become the vital part of our daily lives. protecting and securing the inhabitants of South Africa and their property and uphold law enforcement in all nine provinces. There is concern. in terms how it combat its crime.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 CHAPTER 1 ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY 1. it will affect the effective workings of the judicial process. In South Africa a Senior Investigation Officer (SIO) plays a pivotal role with all serious crime investigations. Minister of Safety and Security Charles Nqakula want to lure back retired police officer to help fight crime. combating and investigating. The consequences of such deficit could be severe. maintaining public order. (2) The follow-up investigation carried out by trained investigators. South Africa is the richest country in the continent Africa economically. however that there is a shortage of investigators with appropriate qualities to perform this role effectively. and it can also waste resources.1 INTRODUCTION The use of knowledge. The South African Police Services (SAPS) under the supervision of Safety and Security is responsible for preventing. undermine integrity and reduce public confidence in the police services. 1 . whether as individuals. Investigation is the police activity concerned with (1) the apprehension of criminals by gathering the evidence leading to their arrest and (2) the collection and presentation of evidence and testimony for the purpose of obtaining conviction. according to Mitchell (1998:15). from this we can assume that there was never enough time for knowledge transfer process between the retired and our current police force.

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These investigators are dispersed geographically thus leading to investigators in these nine provinces difficulty in sharing relevant information and knowledge. Currently, disparate systems, databases and data models are in use in these nine provinces of South Africa this is according Barnard et al (2004). This creates a situation where the existing data is underutilized and / or the utility value of the data is diminished. The non-standard data models used by the sites also hinder sharing of data among the sites. ‘’We can be sure that South Africa’s murder rate are far higher than those of the industrial world” Altbeker (2005:2), hence there is a need for SAPS investigators to make use of knowledge technologies. The administration of cases is done manually (paperwork); hence lots dockets get lost, leading to delay in investigations in some cases, cases are thrown out of court because of lack of sufficient evidence. The use of internet/intranet and knowledge technologies like centralized systems, virtual communities and communities of practice will offer the solution to these difficulties through Collaboration, Learning, Innovation and Sense-Making. What this mean is information will be stored on the centralized database system which supports GUI and can be accessed everywhere in the world via the use of internet/intranet and other related technologies.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT

The purpose of this research is to find out whether SAPS investigators are using knowledge technologies such as internet, centralized database, elearning, virtual communities, community of practice and how. According to Barnard et al (2004) SAPS current system has the following loopholes: • investigation case docket management is poor,

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there is no interoperability within police investigators in these nine provinces, Departmental incapacity investigators are computer illiterate, LAN/WAN networks are not up-to standard, Currently, disparate systems, databases and data models are in use in these nine provinces in South Africa. This creates a situation where the existing data is underutilized and / or the utility value of the data is diminished. The non-standard data models used by the provinces also hinder sharing of data among the investigators.

At the end of the research we should be able to answer the following questions: • • What technologies do they currently use? How can the use of knowledge technologies help in case investigations?

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LITERATURE REVIEW

According to the research done by Barnard et al (2004), the current networks for SAPS (investigators) are not functioning accordingly referring to LANs/WANs. This leads to hindrance of knowledge or information sharing or knowledge transfer amongst the investigators who are dealing with similar cases. Virtual Communities do not exist. As defined by Kardaras (2003) he described virtual community as a group of people who communicate with each other via electronic media such as internet, they share common interest, and their geographical location, physical location, physical interaction or ethnic origin does not impose any constraints for the formation of community. Barnard et al (2004) stated that with the current system document management is done manually; hence there is a need for management of document to be done electronically. Due to manual management of case dockets, this leads to disappearance of valuable information within the dockets e.g. According to One in Nine (2006:1-4) website (www.oneinnine.org.za), on the 2nd October 2006, a year will 3

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have passed since Busisiwe was raped. She has yet to give evidence in court. On the 12th of June 2006 the matter was struck out of Tembisa Magistrate court’s roll due to certain key evidence being missing from the docket. This was never going to happen if centralized systems and electronic document management where in use. According to this organization sexual violence is endemic to South Africa. • • • Police reported an increase of 4% in rape statistics in 2005 Less than one in nine cases of rape are reported, Only 7% of the case are successfully prosecuted.

These reports leave much to be desired with our current SAPS force and their systems. According to Wingate and Wingate (2004:552). ‘’Document management refer to procedures or systems designed to exert intelligent control over creation, management and distribution of documents. Electronic document management systems may include the following features : controlled document authoring; electronic storage of document or data either scanned in or created electronically; controlled distribution of documents to, retrieved by multiple users; review and approval of documents; publishing of approved documents; archiving of documents for completed projects’’. To reduce the physical and temporal distance between police investigators of these dispersed provinces, there is a need for virtual organizations as defined by Coll, et al (2004) “is technologically centered, involves electronic telecommunication links to exchange information or knowledge and removes many of the limitations inherent in hierarchical organizations”, it hold new possibilities for virtual society, enables individuals, groups, communities, organizations and societies, among other, to exchange information, conduct business, participate in newsgroup discussions and publish information electronically. To unravel the mystery of our past, we need to look to the future. Hofstede (2001) argue that the development of personal relationships between employees is an important factor in enhancing effective working relationships in employee-

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Improved information integrity. consequently. 5 . • • • • Minimization of the loss of case dockets.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 mediated teams. a positive working relationship should lead to positive and effective knowledge transfer between team members. Through the use of knowledge technologies. the communities are going to enjoy their lives and their confidence in police service will be restored.D. The question we are asking ourselves is why would our minister wants the retired force back? The answer is simple there was no enough knowledge transfer and sharing amongst the investigators. 1. Komito (2001:116) indicates that a person’s relationship with another person influences his or her communication content and.4 IMPORTANCE / BENEFITS OF THE STUDY/VALUE The core importance and benefit of this study is to develop an understanding of knowledge technologies and promote the use of knowledge technologies such as virtual teams. These are some of the fact that communities and our police force will realize. Electronic transfer of case document to the centralized database portal and other relevant departments. communities of practice and internet/intranet in our SAPS structures. However. by using electronic case dockets to reduce paper work. it may be deduced that it would also influence communication’s knowledge sharing function. according to Pauleen and Yoong (2001:191). communication among employees. according to survey conducted by City Press. According to Van Wyk (2006:2) Safety and Security Minister Charles Nqakula’s plan to lure back mainly white retired policemen and judicial officers seems doomed to fail. Simply stated. little has been written on how on-line relationships among employees influence business values and. subsequently. Better police service and simpler work for police officers in solving cases.

5 Easy sharing or transferring of knowledge amongst the investigators RESEARCH METHODOLOGY According to Leedy and Ormrod (2002: 2) research is defines as a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. predicting. narrative analysis. qualitative methods of analysis( e.g. That’s according to Leedy and Ormord ( 2001: 94) For the purpose of this research. its primary goal is describing and understanding rather than explaining. the qualitative research has been chosen. experimental and controlling phenomena.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • The need for postponement or reminders of cases for further investigations will be eliminated Improved management information on status of case being investigated. experimental or positivist approach is used to answer questions about relationships among measured variables with the purpose of explaining. grounded theory approach) that’s according to Babbie and Mouton ( 2001 : 270) Quantitative research also called traditional. it uses qualitative methods of gaining access to research subjects ( e. theoretical selection of cases). 6 . post positivist approach is the approach to which research takes as its departure point the insider perspective. the use of personal document to construct life stories). constructivist.g. Research can either be qualitative research or quantitative research as highlighted below: Qualitative research also called interpretative. questionnaires that’s according to Babbie and Mouton (2001:270). • 1. because it allows the researcher to research on the subject more deeply using data collection methods like interviews. qualitative method of data collection (participation observation. semistructured interviewing.D.

Case Study can either be single or multiple / collective design. 1. program(s).P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Case Study research design is the method to be used for this research paper. build theory. Reason behind choosing this research design is this method is not aimed at describing only. While multiple/collective often for cases that are different in key ways to make comparisons. but also to improve the state of the situation. questionnaires etc. observation.g. There are many ways to collect data. or propose generalizations. audiovisual materials. questionnaires and research literature review Interview – this is data collection method that involves an interaction between an interviewer and a respondent in which the interviewer has a general plan of inquiry but not specific set of questions that must be asked in particular words and in particular order (Babbie and Mouton. past records. documents (e. or event(s) on which investigation is focused. According to Leedy and Ormord (2001:135) with this method the researcher can collect extensive data on the individual (s). such as surveys. documents analysis. For the purpose of this research paper interview. Case Study is the chosen methodology. it is up to the researcher to choose the best approach or combination thereof to answer the research questions. interviews. newspaper articles). Single cases are to promote understanding or inform practice or represent unique or exceptional case. researcher reviewed questions noting what data will be collected to answer those questions. These data often include observation. because it is suitable for holistic and in depth investigation. The choice of data collection method will depend on research type and methodology chosen.D. 7 . 2001: 288). In the problem statement section. interviews.6 DATA GATHERING The data gathering research phase is where the researcher compile information needed to answer research questions that have been identified in the problem statement section.

Virtual Communities. recording and collection of information. Questionnaires are made up of items. research articles. CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS Based on interview and questionnaires formulated.1 INTRODUCTION Exploration of Methodologies used to gather information from relevant sources interviews. publications and internet (Babbie and Mouton.g. 2001: 289). 8 . and users supply answer.1 INTRODUCTION Aims at exploring the use of internet and knowledge technologies such as Communities of Practice. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3. object or phenomenon (Denscombe. Observation – this is a technique that involves systematically selecting. or reaction to it (Denscombe. observation feedback and questionnaires samples would be part of the methodology used. we will be able to present the findings from data collected. The answers will help us in making our recommendations in the next chapter.7 CHAPTER OUTLINE CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE STUDY 2.is a body of written works of language or written work by researchers period or culture.D. Information and Document Management available to make knowledge transfer and sharing amongst the investigator much easier and networks (Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer). 2003: 31) Literature .P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Questionnaire – it is a method of elicitation. The benefits of using these technologies and how they interrelate. 2003: 31) 1. watching and recording behavior and characteristics of a living being. it must be an analysis of experience and a synthesis of the finding in a unity e.

1 RECOMENDATIONS In conclusion we will give summary overview and recommend the suitable technologies and have overview of future research.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 CHAPTER 5 5.D. 9 .

1 INTRODUCTION In the previous chapter we were introduced to the research problem. electronic storage of document or data either scanned in or created electronically. efficient document According management is crucial to the success of every business. Communities of Practices. We will also look at different services that are provided by internet to support the virtual communities’ functionalities. Documents are the natural activities of any organization e. it is of outmost important that these kind of documents be kept in a safe place for audit purpose. paper-based filling system in our courts and charge offices. Virtual Communities and Internet the networks including Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) the focus will be on Peer-to-Peer Networking and Client-Server Networking.D.g. When managing documents it vital that one understand issues of information and knowledge management within an organization. management and distribution of documents. Document Management. document received from suppliers such as invoice for credit purchase. Electronic document management systems may include the following features : controlled document authoring. 2. ’Document management refer to procedures or systems designed to exert intelligent control over creation. Information Management. In this chapter we will describe.g. controlled distribution of documents to. the methodology and the objectives of the study.2 DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT to AbuSafiya and Mazumdar (2004).P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Knowledge Management. Every organization in the world be it private or public it produces documents or internal or external use e. retrieved by multiple 10 . the significance of the study.

a year will have passed since www.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 users. Barnard et al (2004) stated that with the SAPS current system.za). archiving of documents for completed projects’’.oneinnine. this leads to disappearance of dockets e.D. publishing of approved documents. On the 12 th of June 2006 the matter was struck out of Tembisa Magistrate court’s roll due to certain key evidence being missing from the docket. Busisiwe was raped. See the picture below : According to One in Nine website (2006:1-4) (www.za According to this organization sexual violence is endemic to South Africa.oneinnine.org. Due to manual management of case dockets. • • • Police reported an increase of 4% in rape statistics in 2005 Less than one in nine cases of rape are reported. review and approval of documents.g. Only 7% of the cases are successfully prosecuted. hence there is a need for management of document to be done electronically. this is according to Wingate and Wingate(2004:552). 11 . These reports leave much to be desired with our current SAPS force and their systems. document management is done manually. This was never going to happen if centralized electronic document management systems where in use.org. She has yet to give evidence in court. on the 2nd October 2006.

control information for an organization. concepts of information. Presented as a cycle. information acquisition. Modern information management uses information technology. internally and external. There is a need for conscious information management for determining what information is of value and how to manage it effectively. business and management principles to plan. information organization and storage. it involves a few different subject fields such as information system. computer science/informatics and management. 12 . system engineering. It uses technology and techniques to effectively manage internal and external information resources throughout the information life cycle. information science. It builds on the knowledge of these fields and addresses the problem of information as an essential resource. Information Management is key for sustaining knowledge creation and application in organizations and should lead to the ‘intelligent organization’.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 2. from wide range of sources for the support of business functions is the task of information management. Choo’s model of Information Management entails 5 basic steps: identification of information needs. Each step requires the planning.3 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT The amount of information obtained on daily basis within an organization is uncountable and for organizations the volume is becoming unbearable and superfluous. information distribution and information use. especially in SAPS.D. According to Choo. Choo (2004)’s definition of information management is. manage. Choo proposed a process model of IM. management information systems. Choo (2004) said the idea underlying information management is that just as an organization purposefully and systematically manages information similar assets. The overseeing of the computer-based and paper-based integration.

it is often integrated with a range of business and academic disciplines including human resource management. information technology. This model focuses on the important issue of how knowledge may be created through organizational sharing and is useful for identifying and evaluating certain key activities in the management of knowledge. Knowledge management is a multi-disciplined approach to accomplishing organizational objectives by making knowledge accessible to the people in the organization through the structuring of people.4 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Business and academic communities believe that an organization can sustain its long-term competitive advantage by leveraging knowledge. document management. externalization. communications. change management. organizational learning. combination. and internalization. 13 . strategic planning.D. Its intention is to manage knowledge practically and effectively to reach strategic and operational objectives. According to Standard Australia (2003:5) knowledge management involves variety of disciplines. Each process involves converting one form of knowledge (tacit or explicit) to another form of knowledge (tacit or explicit). business management.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 the organization. the coordination and the control of a number of activities supported by information technology. It encompasses both the management of information (explicit knowledge) and management of individuals with specific abilities (people with tacit knowledge) that’s according to Polines and Fairer-Wessels (1998). information management. technology and knowledge content. philosophy and sociology. 2. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) described four knowledge conversion processes: socialization.

Thirdly they added a separate process of knowledge sharing. Technologies are useful at this stage because they can facilitate the creation of new knowledge through the synthesis of data and information captured from diverse sources. representing. Acquisition involves bringing knowledge into an organization from external sources. and creation of knowledge. often described as a community of practice (CoP’s). it must be stored and shared. The creation of new knowledge can accomplished by information analysis to create new knowledge. According Oluic-Vukovic (2001).D.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Oluic-Vukovic (2001) outlines 5 steps in the knowledge processing chain: gathering. Geographically dispersed organizations like SAPS will find this knowledge gathering process especially helpful as one part of the organization may not be aware of the knowledge existing in its other parts. After knowledge has been gathered. Knowledge sharing is then crucial when new employees arrive and others quit. they replaced knowledge dissemination from Oluic-Vukovic (2001). and disseminating. because they believe that refining is not a major enough process in the knowledge flow. their "gathering" step has been separated into three different processes. Knowledge sharing involves the transfer of knowledge from one (or more) person to another one (or more). acquisition. refining. to be useful it must be shared by a community. but merely one aspect of the knowledge creation step and knowledge representation generally falls within the scope of the storage and organization process. Secondly. According to Bouthillier and Shearer (2002) knowledge can be acquired at the individual level. Firstly. organizing. Bouthillier and Shearer (2002). They believe knowledge sharing seem to be terminology commonly used in the knowledge management field. Discovery involves locating internal knowledge within the organization. support Oluic-Vukovic (2001) though they altered some of his steps. 14 . each of which is distinct from the other: discovery. they left out refining and representing processes.

15 . The question we are asking ourselves is why would our minister wants the retired force back? The answer is simple there was no enough knowledge transfer and sharing amongst the investigators. Figure 1 Conceptual framework: knowledge management processes (Bouthillier and Shearer: 2002) According to Lin et al (2006) their model compliments Bouthillier and Shearer(2002) model . storage and update phases. Their model consist of five phases namely acquisition.D.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 According to Van Wyk (2006:2) Safety and Security Minister Charles Nqakula’s plan to lure back mainly white retired policemen and judicial officers seems doomed to fail. according to survey conducted by City Press. extraction.

D. Knowledge management improves 16 . Document management contributes to business efficiency and effectiveness through organizing business information properly to promote faster and more effective retrieval of information and documents.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Figure 2 Concepts & framework for knowledge management (Lin et al: 2006) Based on the above definitions of document management. Information management contributes to business to business efficiency and effectiveness by cost-effectively managing and using information resources and technologies. The following similarities can be identified: • They all contribute to business efficiency and effectiveness. information management and knowledge management.

The activities for information and knowledge management can be expected to correlate.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 business efficiency and effectiveness through sharing of the best practice and successful innovation • They all consider processing of information in some ways. Here again the prime focus of information management is to cost-effectively technologies. The absence of proper information management programmes and procedures will ensure the failure of knowledge management. Knowledge management is an added dimension. • They all require skilled. Document management involves the integration of new and existing information technologies to enable the potential users to achieve business objectives. Information management centers on recording and processing information. Knowledgeable workers must have strong critical thinking skills. knowledgeable workers are required. information and knowledge. they must have a well developed ability to evaluate the validity and reliability of information obtained from unfamiliar sources. Information technologies are just tools to enable people to manage their tasks more effectively. manage Knowledge and use information resources and management involves information technologies and knowledge-based or information systems to enable people to capture. Ponelis and Fairer-Wessels (1998) indicated that is seen as a subdivision of knowledge management. To manage documents. knowledgeable workers. They see knowledge creation as a process of adding value information. information and knowledge effectively and properly. in particular. Knowledge management encompasses both the management of information(explicit knowledge) and management of individuals with specific abilities (tacit knowledge) • They all use information technologies as enabler. Document management provides a means to integrate information holding media and information systems to help potential users effectively retrieve the information. People are in charge of managing document.D. share and distribute their knowledge. 17 .

Knowledge Management. In 1984 on January 1. In 1968 DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) contracted with BBN (Bolt.” What is internet? Brief history of internet. Invented in the 1840s. Used extensively by the U.S. 2. University California Santa Barbara (UCSB). Their goal was to build a network that would allow scientist from different locations to communicate sharing information and collaborate on military and scientific projects. Stanford. it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants. information technology (IT) and information management are intricately linked. 1861 – 1865. organization and access to information and data in computer applications. Beranek and Newman) to create Arpanet. According to her information management involves the categorization. information and knowledge) within an organization. Each of the computers served as network which connects host nodes.1 INTERNET Sir Isaac Newton once said “If I have been able to see farther than others.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 intensifying the need for the integration and management of all three (document. In 1974 TCP specification was introduced by Vint Cerf. Signals sent over wires that were established over vast distances. the Internet with its 1000 hosts converts en masse to using TCP/IP for its messaging and in 2002: over 200 million hosts. by 2010 it is estimated that over 80% of the whole universe will be on internet 18 .D. In 1970 it had First five nodes: University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). Government during the American Civil War. and BBN. University of Utah. Their second goal was to make network this network to be built to function even if part of the network were destroyed or disabled. databases and archives.4. According to Stoddart (2001). while technology provides the tools to facilitate information flow and knowledge sharing.

III (1996) it is a vast collection of computer networks which form and act as a single huge network for transport of data and messages across distances which can be anywhere from the same office to anywhere in the world.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 According to William F. According Cothrel (2000:21) The internet makes it possible to bring together people with common interest and ideas in a virtual community without ever having ever having to meet face-to-face.4. joining many government. According to William F. hypertext documents. Slater. Distributed: it is impossible to store all of the information available on the web in one location – the information is spread over thousands of computers that are hooked up to the web and. Slater. Dynamic: the information presented on the web is always changing.D. because it is constantly being updated and new information is being added. III (1996) internet is: A network of networks. 2.1. • • • Global: information is available from computers located in virtually every country of the world. bulletin boards. 19 . file archives. databases and other computational resources as Griffin (1999) says internet is an information system composed of a massive network of computers around the world. Interactive: the user of the Net can search for more information in countless ways. • • Cross platform: the information available is not dependent upon the type of computer used. university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail.1 REASON FOR USING INTERNET Griffin (1999) outlined the following as reasons for using the internet. • A hypertext information system: information is not presented in a linear fashion. instead you can move from topic to topic at random with this method of cross-referencing.

According to Gundry and Mete (1996) Intranets aid knowledge sharing.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Through the use of internet investigating officers all over the world from different police agencies can form virtual communities. Reisman (1997). for use within an enterprise. the concept of an ‘intranet’ took off when organizations realized they could take this easy-to-use open and wellsupported vehicle and apply it.4.1. According to Brown (1998). organize. they can help to capture.2 INTRANET According to Reisman (1997).1. he said it is the matter of looking from the outside in to further determine what content and functionality will benefit users most. he defines intranet as ‘nothing more than your existing corporate local-wide are network using internet infrastructure ‘ – any site. software and applications within a private network.3 KIND OF INTRANETS It is always important for any organization to know what it expects to accomplish with the intranet before embarking on the installation or setup. According to Barnes (2001). sharing and transferring knowledge on how to speedy their investigations 2.4. how this information will further help the organization’s operational efficiency. to figure out how to get the ‘quick hits’ in terms of usability and ROI.D. • Communication tool 20 . there fore based on internet technology that is placed on private servers within the organization. defined an intranet as a private application of the same Internetworking technology. store and transmit source material from which an individual may acquire knowledge. 2. to their internal groupware needs. essentially as is.

it become easier to achieve. a family. • Collaboration facilitator This type of intranet is a very dynamic tool that can be not only to educate and inform employees. to extent. a group. says the idea of intranet is a technology that permits the organization to define itself as an entity. involvement of employees. 2. The intention behind this type should be interaction and. He says that if there is a collective will that need to be communicated to all employees. where everyone knows their role and everyone works on improvement and health of the organization. if the purpose of the intranet is to communicate and update (provide the latest) information to the company employees. personnel administration. for e. says an intranet useful for sharing knowledge will certainly fall into this category as ‘those intranet which are static and non-collaborative do not stimulate knowledge sharing.g. transactional content can be added to the intranet. Based on the above mentioned definitions.4. Barr (1998). but increase corporate communication and establish and maintain a corporate culture the organization wants to nurture.2 VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES Let’s first define community before focusing on virtual communities 21 . Stoddart (2001).D. • Application enabler If the purpose of the intranet is to enable two way communication. The intention of this type is one way communication. we can say that this a suitable tool for virtual communities. such as logging help desk request or enrolling for benefits.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 According to Barnes (2001).

P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Tillman (2000) defined it as combination of place. the more value is added to the community. and foster relationships. According to Romm et al (1997) he defined virtual communities as a group of people communicate with each other via electronic media.4. 2. share common interests. and people. content. and their geographical location.D. and the interactions and relationships between them. some of or all of the following activities: exchange information and ideas. offer support to one another. they share common interest. According to Balasubramanian and Mahajan (2000). According to Kardaras (2003) he described virtual community as a group of people who communicate with each other via electronic media such as internet. • User based – virtual communities provide an environment for users to connect and communicate with each other. entertain each other. the origins of the virtual or on-line community can traced to the Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES) implemented in 1976. The EIES focused on computerized conferencing that would allow users to exercise a collective intelligence capability according to Kitchin (1998). The more users the community has. 22 . physical interaction or ethnic origin does not impose any constraints for the formation of community. trade goods and services.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES According to Uzokwelu and Gunnardottir (2001) there are seven criteria that characterize virtual communities: they are • All kinds of people and all kind of interests – the concept virtual community refers to an on-line environment where all kinds of people come together to do. seek different kinds of help.2. physical location.

Integrated – virtual communities make it possible for the integration of content with communication. it was also one of the reasons why many people were attracted to internet according to Schneider (2000:49). • Interactive – this might be the best aspect of virtual communities.D. According to Agre (1998:82). which means that messages received in the electronic mailbox can be read at the later (more convenient) time. Not only was e-mail one of the first internet applications. There is one central address to which a member of the community sends messages for group. Organized – virtual communities’ organizers and organizing bodies who facilitate the growth and maintenance of the community. It is possible for community members to communicate one to one. one to many and many to many. an e-mail list can be seen as a tool that connects people of the community via e-mail messages. one of the best benefits of e-mail groups is that members can send messages in asynchronous mode to other people or programs. According to Padula (2001). A person who receives mail has the choice to respond either to the sender or to the whole list of members within the community. Efficient – virtual communities help organizations save time and money when they are used to build better and watertight business processes and company-customer relationships. the life of every community includes some form of activity within a particular institutional logic. Community-building tools or activities may include the following according Boettcher (1999) also called internet services to support virtual communities: • E-mail – the e-mail can be seen as one of the simplest and widely used computer mediated communication (CMC).P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • • • • Specific – the distinctive interests of the members of virtual community determine the scope and specific objectives of that community. 23 . Within the community. This includes the activity within a particular kinds of media are used.

but it can also be used for one-on-one meetings and other workoriented applications. The on-line message board communication can be seen as asynchronous (the message board participants do not have to be on-line at the same time). A message is attached to the message to which is replying. • Mailing lists – is a facility where e-mail messages are sent to various users that are subscribing to the particular mailing list. whether or not it appears in chronological order. the user can follow certain at his or her convenience.D. With a threaded system. • FTP – File Transfer Protocol is an internet standard that allows person to exchange files with other computers on the internet. According to Padula (2001) he described as a permanent electronic conference in which people with particular interest participate. Mostly mailing lists are run by professional people in their particular fields and mailing lists subscribers being people with interest for particular field 24 . Chat can be performed in one of two situations. According to Boettcher (1999). • Chat – chat can be defined as communication by community members who are on-line at same time. namely threaded and linear. Chat can be seen as a many to many communication tool (there are number of people in a chat room conversing at the same time). • Message boards – the on-line version of a message board is much like a message board in an office environment. typing messages to each other. message are arranged into threads or topics. there are two ways to organize messages in a message board system. Rather than cluttering a mailbox with messages with messages from mailing lists. The result is more like a real conversation. Linear message boards are sometimes called conferencing. namely public rooms (open to anyone) and private chat rooms (where only those of the community can enter). The messages are kept files that can be read using newsreader program.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • Newsgroups – newsgroup are to mailing lists what bulletin boards are to newsletters. FTP uses an FTP server that allows the download and upload of files using FTP.

different floors. or in different departments. it is an invaluable tool for building community. or forum topics to be discussed should be listed. Instead of organizing expensive face-to-face conferences. He defined calendar as simple as list of events and their dates and times. • Barriers to communication are broken down – according to Kimball and Rheingold (2000). This reduces printing. guest authors.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • E-forms – through the web many forms can be filled. or even complex. they say quite people who might never have something to contribute in a face-to-face meeting. • Cost barriers are broken down . the online calendar is an oftenoverlooked community builder. as they allow members to find out what’s happening.D.2. people should be talking to one another because of their interest intersect often do not communicate because they are in different parts of the world. 2. According to Barnard et al (2004) our police force are using dispersed which are not working properly.according to Kimball and Rheingold (2000) virtual communities bring people together in a cost-effective manner. transmitted and processed at the same time with user receiving instance response. an organization can achieve many of the same goals by linking participants electronically to each other and to a wealth of online resources.2 BENEFITS OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES • There are no geographical barriers – according to Kimball and Rheingold (2000) virtual communities connect people and build relationships across boundaries of geography or discipline by creating an online social space for people who are geographically dispersed. workshops and courses.4. This is where events like chat room schedule. as well as events outside the website. postage and other related costs in forms submission process. given time to compose their thoughts with 25 . • Calendar – according to Kyrnin (2003).

D. can influence discussion they might not have joined before. virtual communities can promote knowledge sharing. learning and innovation in the following ways: o Virtual communities provide an ongoing context for knowledge exchange that can be for more effective than memoranda. organizations can attract and retain the best employees by providing access to social capital that is only available within the organization. o Virtual communities can promote innovation. so that they will move from knowledge-sharing to collective knowing. o Participation in virtual community discussion can help improve the way individuals think collectively. because virtual community can help reduce social friction and encourage social cohesion. if a group have enough in common and if the topic directly relates to their work. o Virtual communities allow organizations to turn training into continuous process. 26 . o Through participation in virtual communities. • Knowledge sharing and learning – according to Smith (2000).P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 nobody watching them while they do it. and one that is not divorced from normal business processes. virtual communities have the ability to focus knowledge sharing and learning. organization can multiply its intellectual capital by he power of social capital. o Through virtual communities. a level of trust is created which results in greater depth and value of individual exchange. According to Kimball and Rheingold (2000). When groups get turned on by what they can do online. they go beyond problemsolving and start inventing together. o Discussion in the virtual community can lead to the creation of community of memory for group deliberation and brainstorming that stimulate the capture of ideas and facilities finding information when it is needed.

How it functions – mutual engagement that bind members together into a social entity.3 COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE Community of Practice (CoP’s) is a special type of community normally associated with work. 27 . artifacts. particularly during periods of between live events. Communities of Practice are groups of people who share ideas and insight. styles. According to Morland (2003) CoP’s are informal networks of people engaged in a particular profession.D. or job function that actively seek to work more effectively and to understand their work more fully. What capability it has produced – the shared repertoire of communal resources (routines.) that members have developed over time. occupation. sensibilities.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • enhance the impact of face-to-face events – according to Smith(2000) virtual communities complement and enhance the impact of face-toface events and provide the backbone of more focused communities of practice. help each other solve problems and develop a common practice or approach to the field as defined by McDermott (2000: 1). vocabulary. etc.4. online discussion and interactive websites are capable of keeping participants connected and engaged on an ongoing basis. Wenger (1998) defined communities of practice by three dimensions: • • • What it is about – its joint enterprise as understood and continually renegotiated by its members. CoP’s as widely called Communities of practice also move through various stages of development characterized by different levels of interaction among the members and different kinds of activities. 2.

Obviously. Within an organization.D. According to Wenger (1998) Communities of practice differ from other kinds of groups found in organizations in the way they define their enterprise. outside constraints or directives can influence this understanding. they can do the job without having to remember everything themselves. By participating in such a communal memory. as members develop among themselves their own understanding of what their practice is about. As a result. 28 . So investigators within an office form communities of practice to deal with the crime scenes they need to investigate. Communities of practice arise as people address recurring sets of problems together.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Figure 3 Stages of Development (Wenger: 1998) Communities of practice develop around things that matter to people. it is the community–not the mandate–that produces the practice. but even then. their practices reflect the members' own understanding of what is important. and set their boundaries: • A community of practice is different from a business or functional unit in that it defines itself in the doing. members develop practices that are their own response to these external influences. Even when a community's actions conform to an external mandate. communities of practice are fundamentally self-organizing systems. exist over time. In this sense.

It takes a while to come into being and may live long after a project is completed or an official team has disbanded. This permeable periphery creates many opportunities for learning.D. People can participate in different ways and to different degrees. According to McDermott (2000). It does not appear the minute a project is started and does not disappear with the end of a task. as outsiders and newcomers learn the practice in concrete terms. A community of practice exists because it produces a shared practice as members engage in a collective process of learning. • A community of practice is different from a team in that the shared learning and interest of its members are what keep it together.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 This living process results in a much richer definition than a mere institutional charter. As a consequence. the boundaries of a community of practice are more flexible than those of an organizational unit. The membership involves whoever participates in and contributes to the practice. not by an institutional schedule. there are ten factors that will contribute to success of CoP’s. and thus shapes the identities of its members. It has an identity as a community. and core members gain new insights from contacts with lessengaged participants. It is defined by knowledge rather than by task. it is not just a set of relationships. and exists because participation has value to its members. A community of practice's life cycle is determined by the value it provides to its members. 29 . • A community of practice is different from a network in the sense that it is "about" something.

• Make sure that people have time and encouragement to participate. Find a well-respected community member to coordinate the community. the need for recognition and reward system should be met.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 2.4. the our minister of Safety and Security plans to lore back those retired investigators. Our case there is the need for the more experienced investigator to be listened to. The need for experience leaders as attested by Van Vyk (2006:2).3. Experience investigator should be compensated investigators. for sharing their knowledge with inexperienced Community challenge: • Get key thought leaders involved. Technical challenge: • Making it easy to contribute and access the community’s knowledge and practices. therefore there is a need for improvement in these facilities to make contribution easy. • • • Build personal relationships among community members. SAPS networks were not up-to standard. Management challenge: • • Focus on topics important to business and community members. Create forums for thinking together as well as system for sharing information. This is attested by Bryson (2000:2) organization should use motivation and reward systems that encourage sharing of knowledge and learning. Develop an active passionate group. Research by Barnard et al (2004).1 TEN FACTORS IN BUILDING A COMMUNITY. • Build on the core values of the organization. as well as participation and contribution to the development of new ideas and innovation. As per Bryson (2002:2). 30 .D.

they can do so in a manner that responds to local circumstances and thus is useful to practitioners.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Personal challenges: • Creating a real dialogue about cutting edge issues. work together on problems. tips. and diffusion of knowledge in an organization: • They are nodes for the exchange and interpretation of information. As a consequence.D. Members of these groups discuss novel ideas. they know what is relevant to communicate and how to present information in useful ways. a community of practice that spreads throughout an organization is an ideal channel for moving information. members distribute responsibility for keeping up with or pushing new developments. They are not as temporary as teams. Because members have a shared understanding. This collaborative inquiry makes membership valuable. When a community commits to being on the forefront of a field. • They provide homes for identities. or feedback. they are ideal for initiating newcomers into a practice. accumulation. they are organized around what 31 .2 THE VALUE OF COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE According to Wenger (1998) they fulfill a number of functions with respect to the creation.3. • They can steward competencies to keep the organization at the cutting edge. and unlike business units. • They can retain knowledge in "living" ways. because people invest their professional identities in being part of a dynamic. For this reason.4. 2. across organizational boundaries. unlike a database or a manual. forward-looking community. Even when they reutilize certain tasks and processes. Communities of practice preserve the tacit aspects of knowledge that formal systems cannot capture. such as best practices. and keep up with developments inside and outside a firm.

the current networks for SAPS (investigators) are not functioning accordingly referring to LANs and WANs.wikipedia. 2. in a sea of information. Turner and Van Rensburg (2004).en. or group of buildings. and what we stay away from. office. what we participate in. Having a sense of identity is a crucial aspect of learning in organizations.D. If companies want to benefit from people's creativity. In this section we are going to describe Peer-to-Peer (P2P). but for the ever expanding use of on-line applications (Virtual Teams) the option available is Peer-to-Peer (P2P).org/wiki/lan) 32 . The characteristics of LANs in contrast to WANs (wide area networks) are: their much higher data rates. Local Area Network also known as LAN is a computer network covering a local area. they must support communities as a way to help them develop their identities. and that they do not require leased telecommunication lines that’s according to Wikipedia website. Identity is important because. it helps us sort out what we pay attention to. like a home.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 matters to their members. According to the research done by Barnard. smaller geographic range. Figure 4 local area network scheme (www. This in return will be of more help because with an on-line applications file sharing is of most important. Firstly let’s us describe LANs and WANs are.5 NETWORK Client-server technologies became the base platform for internet’s new applications.

computers can also communicate directly and manage computing tasks without using 33 . built by Internet service providers. Participants act as a client and server figure 5 will distinguish P2P and Client-Server network.D. metropolitan area networks (MANs) or local area networks (LANs) that are usually limited to a room. The largest and most wellknown example of a WAN is the Internet. Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private. so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations. Figure 5 Client-Server and P2P models (Miller: 2001) With P2P computers share data and resources. building or campus. Others. for each participating computer or node in a P2P system is called a “peer” meaning that the participants interact as equal that’s according to Kubiatowicsz (2003:33). Contrast with personal area networks (PANs). 2. such as spare computing cycles and storage capacity through internet or private network.1 P2P COMPUTING Miller (2001:19) defined P2P as the topology and architecture of the computer in a system in which each computer has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. provide connections from an organization's LAN to the Internet. P2P is a complete contrast to the traditional client-server network architecture.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Whereas WANs is defined as network is a computer network covering a broad geographical area.5. WANs are used to connect local area networks (LANs) together.

D.1. lookup and content servers 34 . The primary content of the network is provided by peers. The network gives control and autonomy to the peer.5. 2. Peers can function as both client and server.2 P2P MODELS All computer storages can be classified as distributed or centralized systems. 2.1.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 servers. The categories are as follows: • • • • Pure P2P P2P with a simple discovery server P2P with discovery and lookup servers P2P with discovery. According to Milojicic et al (2002). distributed systems can then be subdivided into the client–server model and the P2P model as shown in figure 6.5. The network accommodates peers who are not always connected and who may not have permanent internet protocol (IP) addresses. P2P attributes will definitely come handy to Virtual Communities and Communities of Practice.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF P2P IDENTIFIED BY MILLER (2001:19) • • • • • The network facilitates real-time transmission of data or messages between the peers.

a dynamic search for other peers is done and a connection is established.5. the pure P2P model allows users or clients to set up and determine their own unique networking environment.5. The entire communication process occurs without any assistance from servers.D. In essence. This architecture is different from the traditional networking model. It should.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Figure 6 computer systems models (Miller:2001) 2. 2.3 PURE P2P According to Milojicic et al (2002). After installing the P2P application on the computer. be noted that the server only provides the names of peers who are connected. the pure P2P model consists of and is entirely dependent on personal computers. 35 . The primary role of the server is to provide the names of already connected peers to the new peer. however. consisting of personal computers and servers. a server provides and functions as a basic administrator.1.4 P2P WITH DISCOVERY SERVER Within this environment. A new peer notifies the server of his or her existence by logging in and then receives a list of names.1. as the name suggests.

the features of the pure P2P and P2P with a simple discovery server are enhanced with another feature of a server.1. namely looking at the resources available within the P2P network. Another is higher costs and the possibility of single point failure. P2P WITH DISCOVERY LOOKUP AND CONTENT 36 . According to Miller (2001:30). as the volume of requests increases. A possible disadvantage of this architecture is slower processing of requests by the server.5 P2P WITH DISCOVERY AND LOOKUP SERVER Within this model. where all content resources are located on the server. Furthermore the individual peers are not allowed to connect to each other directly. 2.1. For resource sharing. The process of searching for resources on the P2P with a simple discovery server is relatively time consuming. the server initiates the communication process between two peers. This is in contrast to the traditional client–server architecture. all the facets of requesting and requiring information and resources reside with the server.6 SERVER In typical client–server architecture. as the server is responsible for handling all processes. This architecture is an enhancement in comparison to the P2P with a basic discovery server.5. there are two most important types of P2P applications. 2. a peer must approach each peer within a specified environment until the resource is found.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 The establishment of a connection and communication remain the responsibility of the peers. In essence. In turn.5.D. If a peer requires a specific resource. he or she communicates with the server. the server processes the request and displays the information. for it reduces the amount of time wasted by visiting each individual peer to obtain shared resource information.

37 . Since the Internet is nothing more than a giant global network. for example a text document may include embedded graphics that’s according Moore and Hebeler (2002:37). The commonly shared file types on P2P Internet file-sharing systems include the following: Audio and/or video Files.7 P2P FILES SHARING A file can contain any type of information. for example MP3 and Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) files. one can copy files from one to the other. 2. Files may also contain multiple formats. According to Miller (2001) the most shortfall of P2P is that file-sharing networks operate outside the Internet domain name server (DNS) addressing system.8 P2P COMMUNICATION According to Miller (2001:30) there are more than two million instant messaging (IM) is by far the largest current P2P application – even if most IM users do not realize that they are engaging in P2P computing.1. Images.5. The process whereby two computers share and copy files over the Internet is what P2P file sharing is all about according to Miller (2001:97). a case study or a journal. This enables each peer on the network to connect regardless of which Internet service provider (ISP) is used and.5. Software. in some cases. they can share knowledge via P2P technology. ensures anonymity for the individual personal computer (PC). such as a research report. The traditional definition of file sharing in a typical shared distributed client–server file system is where two or more different users access the same file at the same time. Documents.D. With P2P if two computers are connected to a network.1.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 2. there is no reason why any two computers connected to the Internet cannot share files. The latter can come as benefit to our investigators as for they don’t have internet.

It will also enhance the potential for innovation and development by investigators. There will be knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer. SAPS investigators will learn from each other investigators . as dockets will be the responsibility of a group. leading to less postponement of cases.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 2. the client-server computing relate to two or more threads of execution using a consumer/producer relationship. a client request service of the server and a server that provide service. this will minimize the corruption. they can do it through virtual communication.6 BENEFITS OF P2P TO VIRTUAL INVESTIGATORS This system will enhance communication. The cost of traveling will be minimized. Therefore this will speed-up the case investigation. There will be various inputs from different people who are aiming for one goal. This technology should be seen as an enabler of knowledge transfer and sharing. According to Lewandowski(1998). According to Lewandowski(1998). innovation and competitiveness. Through the use of these technologies there will be less dockets disappearance. Client serves as a consumer in a client/server system. The investigators will have a broader understand of contents as it does not come from one source.7 CLIENT-SERVER COMPUTING Database technology is a key technology in most of computer systems today and its applications range from single-user personal database to large database systems. Client-server computing consist of two logical components. 38 . The server plays the role of the producer. 2.D. without ever being physically present. client-server computing refers computing model where two or more computers interact in such a way that one provides service to the other. collaboration.

and dispatch response to client requests. server process (program) fulfils the client request by performing task requested.D. 39 . the user sees and interact with. The services might be to run an application. client is a process of (program) that sends a message to a server process (program) requesting the server perform task (service). database serving. The client based process is the front-end of the application that. validate data entered by the user. execute database retrieval. application serving and communication serving Figure 7 client-server Definition (Lewandowski: 1998) According to Lewandowski (1998). Client programs usually manage user-interface portion for application. He mentioned that today networks have computers for file serving. Server process acts as a software engine that manages the shared resources such database. dispatch request to the server programs and sometimes execute business logic. Server programs generally receives request from client programs. query a database or printing a document. According to Lewandowski (1998). printers and communication links.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 filing data or service request made by clients. and manage data integrity. The server is the resource that handles client’s request.

OF CLIENT-SERVER According to Lewandowski (1998) Client/server is an open system. 2.1 • • CHARACTERISTICS OF CLIENT-SERVER COMPUTING Combination of a client or front-end portion that interact with the user and a server or back-end portion that interacts with shared resource. The advantages of this environment include: • Interoperability .7. memory.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Figure 8 Client-Server processing (Lewandowski:1998) 2. disk speed and capacities. The front-end task and back-end task have fundamentally different requirement for computing resources such as processor speed.D.key components (client/network/server) work together.2 ADVANTAGES/BENEFITS COMPUTING. 40 .7. • The hardware platform and operating systems of client and server are not usually the same.

P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • Scalability . Information Management and Knowledge Management. etc.data may be accessed from WANs and multiple client applications. Victim will receive printed docket with particulars of investigator who handles his/her case together with his/statement.) may be incorporated into the system. Performance . This system will help our investigators for the purpose of storing and retrieving information.entity.performance may be optimized by hardware and process. multi-media.data security is centralized on the server. Investigation officer is the one to request the server to save the opened the docket into the database. where they store cases. Making easier to trace maladministration within our police force. without major impact on the other elements.D. pen computing. Security . • • • • • Affordability .any of the key elements may be replaced when the need to either grow or reduce processing for that element dictates. broad band networks. distributed database. • Adaptability .8 In this SUMMARY chapter we discussed interrelationship between Document Management.e. Accessibility . domain and referential integrity are maintained on the database server. If dockets are missing there is data integrity within this environment.new technology (i. The police who is responsible for opening a case will use his employee number as his primary key for the purpose of audit trail. lost of dockets will be minimized. client-server environment will benefit the victims from the society. Currently they are using mainframe as their central system. We also discussed various Knowledge technologies that will play crucial role in 41 .cost effectiveness is insured by using less expensive MIPs available on each platform.. which does not support objects (GUI). In our case. 2. Data Integrity .

virtual communities.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 the lives of investigators this included: internet. In the next chapter we will look at different methodologies available to help us in reach our research objectives. Communities of Practice. Networking using Peer-to-Peer Computing and Client-Server Computing making it easier to transfer and share knowledge.D. 42 .

a case study methodology will be used in order to obtain relevant data.D. they define research as an organized examination which aims to offer solutions to problems. For this research paper. According to Leedy and Ormrod (2002: 2) research is defines as a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. Research is a procedure used to find out more knowledge about an incident by looking carefully at its characteristics and activities.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The use of research methods provides an individual with the knowledge and skills needed to solve problems. For the purpose of this research. because it allows the researcher to research on the subject more deeply using data collection methods like interviews. questionnaires and literature that’s according to Babbie and Mouton (2001:270).P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The previous chapter was more focused on literature study. This chapter discusses the research methodology that will be adapted in this study and the tools which will be utilized for data collection. According to Cooper and Schindler (2003:5). the qualitative research has been chosen. The emphasis of this research paper is to gather sufficient information and do an extensive analysis on the manner in which SAPS is using information technologies and knowledge management within itself. focus was on knowledge technologies how they can benefit the investigators. 43 . 3. Its intention is to provide answers to identified problems.

• Qualitative approaches and the theories guiding them have also made us aware of different voices and the need to consider whose voice will be represented.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 According to Putney and Green (1999). A semi-structured questionnaire was selected by the researcher and the participators. knowledge needed by members of a group (especially outsiders) to participate in socially and academically appropriate ways. how this life is consequential for those who are members. and of exploring the historical nature of life within a social group or local setting. and for exploring how equity of access to academic knowledge and societal resources are locally constructed in and through the actions of people in local settings. The semi-structured questionnaire was selected because the participators had stated that they did not have the time to be interviewed in person. A case study is applicable to this research paper because the sample is small and is only limited to two companies. The methodology that will be applied in the research paper is a case study. the following are the key points of qualitative research: • Qualitative approaches have provided ways of transcribing and analyzing the discursive construction of everyday events. and for what purposes qualitative research has provided ways for understanding the local and situated nature of everyday life. how. • Qualitative research has also provided insights into the emic. particularly when such actors are members of different groups. • Qualitative research provide(s) information about why and how miscommunication among actors occurs. or insider. 44 . as well as those seeking membership. in what ways.D. of examining the consequential nature of learning within and across events.

The case study methodology is relevant to this research paper. In a way it makes it possible for the researcher to grapple relationships and social processes that cannot be treated in this manner with other approaches. These tools are mainly: surveying. 3.4 ADVANTAGES OF CASE STUDY Denscombe (2001:39) identifies the following advantages applying a case study in a research paper: • It has the ability to focus on one or a few instances allowing the researcher to deal with the subtleties and intricacies of complex situations. 45 . A case study research excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous researches. interviewing.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 3. Data gathering is normally qualitative. A key strength of a case study methodology is its ability to be able to use multiple sources and techniques in the data gathering process. It will enable the researcher to gain an in-depth view of how the two selected South African companies are working with knowledge management and knowledge transfer in practice. There are different tools to use in the process of data gathering. but it may also be quantitative. The case study methodology has many advantages. documentation review.3 CASE STUDY AS A RESEARCH METHOD Cooper and Schindler (2003:150) contend that case studies places more emphasis on a full contextual analysis of fewer events or conditions and their interrelations.D. because the information about the companies that will participate in this research paper will be systematically gathered and used to answer the semi-structured interview questions. observation and questionnaires.

D. Research can flounder if permission is withdrawn. Unwarranted though it may be. there is a possibility that the present of research can lead to observer effect. the case study methodology will be appropriate and relevant. case studies are often perceived as producing soft data. Theory building and theory testing research can both use the case study approach to good effects. The case study research must be particularly careful to ally suspicious and to demonstrate the extent to which his case is similar to or contrasts with or other of its type. It can fit well with the need of small-scale research through a concentrated effort on one research site. • • Negotiating access to case study setting can be a demanding part of a research process.5 DISADVANTAGE OF A CASE STUDY The disadvantages of a case study are as follows as per Denscombe (2001:39): • The credibility of generalizations made from case study findings is questionable. Because case study tends to involve protracted involvement over period of time. The case study method engages a wide range of audiences in data gathering and findings. The approach is accused of lacking the degree of vigour expected of social research.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • • • They allow the people to use a variety of research methods for capturing the complex reality under scrutiny. This poses difficulties in terms of deciding what sources of data to incorporate in case study and which to exclude. • It is hard for case study researcher to achieve their aim of investigations situations as natural as they occur without any effect of their presence. 46 . • Its boundaries can be difficult to define in an absolute and clear-cut fashion. 3. For the purpose of this research paper.

6. The collection and studying of these articles will be used to acquire a clear understanding and knowledge as to how organizations handle knowledge transfer and knowledge management.1 LITERATURE The researcher will use previous articles that look at knowledge management and ways of handling knowledge transfer in an organization. The aim is to get their ideas.D. The questionnaire will try to gather relevant data on how the selected organization namely SAPS are working with knowledge management and how knowledge is been transferred within the organization.2 QUESTIONNAIRE A questionnaire will be used for the collection of data that applies to how organization SAPS Knowledge transfer and knowledge management. The collected data will be compared with the data collected from the literature. advantages and problems on how knowledge transfer and knowledge management has been conducted. The questionnaire will be given to SAPS to see if they are value knowledge management.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 3. views.6 DATA COLLECTION METHODS The methods which will be utilized for data collection are: literature and questionnaires. 47 . Information will be collected from the following sources: • • • Publications Articles Internet 3. The data collection methods are explained: 3.6.

The following will be the participants of this research paper: 3. According to Demscombe (2001). Acting as an interviewer to interview the selected participant investigating officers.D. This is where the research is going to face-to-face or telephonic interactions with the SAPS.7 PARTICIPANTS The participants were selected on the basis that they returned the questionnaires sent to them.1 THE RESEARCHER • • • Acting as a selector to select people to be interviewed. 48 . instead of responding to set of predetermined questions. these interviews are semi-structured open-ended. allowing the informant to speak. 2001: 288).7.6. Acting an observant to observe the people in charge performing their task at this case looking the investigating officer recording the case in CAS (Criminal Administration System) to the retrieving of case from centralized system mainframe. qualitative interview is essentially a conversation in which n interviewer establishes a general direction for the conversation and peruses certain topics raised by the respondent.3 INTERVIEW This is data collection method that involves an interaction between an interviewer and a respondent in which the interviewer has a general plan of inquiry but not specific set of questions that must be asked in particular words and in particular order ( Babbie and Mouton. Ideally the respondent does most of the talking.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 3. 3.

7.2. and participation in efforts to address the causes of crime. and Uphold and enforce the law. and is committed to the creation of safe and secure environment for all citizens of our country. • • • • • • 3.1 SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE SERVICE (SAPS) BACKGROUND SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE SERVICES (SAPS) The South African Police Service is the principal Law Enforcement Agency in South Africa.8 CONCLUSION A case study is a very useful research method when it comes to the downsizing investigation. protect and secure the inhabitants of the Republic and their property. combat and investigate crime.D. maintain public order.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 3. It gives the researcher the chance to focus on what is 49 . The main mission of South African Police Service is to: • • • prevent. prevent anything that may threaten the safety or security of any community investigate any crimes that threaten the safety or security of any community ensure criminals are brought to justice.2 ORAGANIZATION The following organization will be the participant in this research paper: • SAPS South African Police Service: o Branch: Daveyton o Branch: Germiston 3.7. Create a safe and secure environment for all people in South Africa.

P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 necessary and important in order to acquire detailed and clear facts about a trend. The next chapter analyzes the results of the semi-structured interview and questionnaire and makes a summary. The organization that will be participating in this research is all involved in investigations. But. because of its limitations. case studies has many criticism and this forces the researchers to be more cautious when making their judgements.D. 50 .

P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4. A semi-structured interview questionnaire was sent to all the participants. The questionnaire was used as a measurement tool to evaluate whether SAPS uses its intranet/internet as a possible knowledge sharing tool. interpretation is described as a way of testing the results obtained with relevant literature. knowledgesharing cultures and intranet functionalities 51 . It will be followed by the responses from all the participants. All the data collected was analyzed and interpreted to determine how the selected organization SAPS work with knowledge management and knowledge transfer. The analyses and interpretation of the research data will be divided into sections namely: information technology usage and knowledge management.2 ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Cooper and Schindler (2003:87) describe data analysis as a process of dismantling data into a manageable size. patterns and summaries. knowledge management. Investigators provided this research paper with answers.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS In the following section the questions will be posed. While. 4. The questionnaire brought together the concept of information technology.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to present and analyze the research data obtained through the use of the semi-structured interviews.D. 4. Not all the SAPS departments which were handed questionnaires to complete did returned.

4. Mobile telephones.1 USAGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Which information and communication tools do you currently use? • Response: They are using Fixed line telephone.D. The questions were focused was on knowledge sharing and transfer enabler intranet. Which methods do you use to access the internet or send e-mails? • Response: those have access are using fixed telephone network and mobile telephone network.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 The questions are based on the usage of Information Technology and other knowledge management and knowledge transfer activities within SAPS. fax machine and computers.3. Do you use a completely paper based system or do you also make use of computer software for internal administration and program management? • Response: they use both paper based and computer software called CAS (Crime Administration System) 52 . Since approximately which year is your organization making use of internet or e-mail? • Response: we are not given access to an internet/intranet. Where do you usually access your e-mails or the internet? • Response: at their homes they don’t have access to internet at work.

letters. mobile telephone. Which software do you use for administrative and managerial tasks? • Response: CAS Within your organization which methods do you use for communicating? • Response: they are using face-to face. memos.D. • Response : they are using CAS (Crime Administration System) . paper based documents (e. not necessary sharing but retrieving cases by their case numbers after all they are not using internet/intranet. using their CAS system How often do you share your experience of knowing where to find with other members of staff via the intranet/internet? • Response: they don’t have internet access. radio handsets such as Walky Talky. Please provide us with some more detail. this is where all cases get stored. they are using their CAS system to access cases from mainframe. fixed line telephone.g. How frequently do you use intranet/internet for work related task? 53 . How easy is it for your organization to access information relevant for your work? • Response: they believe there is good access to information. fax machine.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 You indicated that to some extent you use computer software for administrative and managerial tasks. posters).

What improvements could be made to the internet/intranet to make knowledge sharing easier for information? • After explain what virtual communities are they realised that internet/intranet will help them in sharing and transferring of knowledge. via face-to-face the most experienced investigator is consulted. What improvements could be made to the intranet/internet to make knowledge sharing easier for investigations? • Response: more members should be trained in using CAS system effectively before moving to intranet/internet. How do you share your experience of knowing whom to ask for help with other member of staff via intranet/internet? • Response : they do this via face-to-face interactions not through the intranet and they ask the most experience investigators for help.D. How often do you share your experience of knowing how to resolve a problem with other staff members via internet/intranet? • Response: Not through the internet.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • Response: Again they are using their computers which have CAS system within to view and retrieve cases assigned to them. 54 . internet/intranet not utilised.

D. maybe if we were using it. How often do you use communities of practice? • Response: they consult experience investigators if there is any need. often. To what extent does using the intranet/internet help improve productivity? • Response: It does not. Did you receive the right level of training to participate effectively in knowledge-sharing initiatives on the intranet/internet? 55 .P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 How easily do you locate information on the intranet/internet to your work? • Response: easily. they locate their information on the mainframe not on intranet/internet. Do you ever published on the intranet/internet? • Response: No What type of information do you publish? • Response: Nothing Please briefly state why you are not publishing on the intranet/internet? • Response: we were never trained on how to use intranet/internet at work.

we were trained on how to use CAS system not internet/intranet. Virtual communities do not exist.4 PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED WITHIN SAPS • • • • • Investigators do not have access to the internet/intranet.D. they use of CAS system because it has 56 . Do new investigators attend an induction session on how to use the intranet? • Response: Yes on how to use CAS system not intranet/internet. Key learnings are not captured after completion. is then we can comment. Do you have any other comments you would like to make about sharing knowledge over the intranet/internet? • Response: If they we can get trained on how to use these technologies. Any barriers you might have recognized to knowledge sharing on the internet/intranet? • Response: No To what extent does sharing your knowledge via intranet/internet strengthen the relationship between staff? • Response: moderately. 4.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • Response: yes. Poor sharing of knowledge. templates for cases. Intranet is not part of their daily routine tasks.

A blank questionnaire is attached in appendix A for future use and answered questionnaire is available from research on request.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 • • • • Leadership team does not encourage employees to share knowledge through internet. Staff do not know how to use system effectively CAS 4. the research paper will present the summaries.5 CONCLUSION In this chapter. conclusions and recommendations. The questions were combined into information technology usage and knowledge management (knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer). Interviewees were concern that the government was not prepared to invest in training them on the use of IT and knowledge technologies.D. The methods that were used in the collection of data were also mentioned. The questions looked at the activities affecting IT usage and knowledge management within SAPS. Some of the investigators do not have computers in their offices. Employees do not receive incentives or rewards for participating in knowledge sharing. In the next chapter. 57 . the definition of analyses and interpretation were given. The fact that investigators do not have internet/intranet show that the management do not see intranet as knowledge sharing or transfer enabler. Insufficient resources committed to knowledge management initiatives.

The information on the CAS system contains details of responsible investigator.za). This is attested by an article from One in Nine website dated 09/10/2006 (www. The research was conducted with the view of identifying problems with the current systems in place and to make the SAPS aware of available technologies that can help to eradicate or eliminate these problems. The written statement on the docket is not included. so if the dockets get lost.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. case number. This chapter present the conclusions of study and makes recommendations based on the evidence received throughout the data collection methods namely: interview.2 RESPONDING TO RESEARCH QUESTIONS 5. on the 2nd October 2006. The problem is what is recorded on CAS system is not exactly what is written on the docket. complainant particulars. literature and questionnaires. They are using physical paper to open the docket and CAS system to register case into their database in this case is mainframe. nature of the crime/complaint. 5.1 What technologies do they currently use? The study found that SAPS is using both manual and electronic filling system.D.oneinnine. There is lot of information from the original docket missing. observation.1 INTRODUCTION This study sought to unveil how the use information technology and knowledge management (sharing and transferring) can benefit SAPS in their investigations. this will lead the case being thrown out of court for lack of sufficient evidence. We mentioned problems which were identified in the previous chapter. a year will have passed since 58 .2.org.

The police who is responsible for opening a case will use his employee number as his primary key for the purpose of audit trail in case. The current database doe not support graphic user interface (GUI). there is communication software (support protocol) between the server and client making conversion easier. whereas with Client-Server which supports GUI administrator can scan the docket information into the computer.2. Making easier to trace maladministration within our police force. According to Lewandowski (1998). Investigation officer is the one to request the server to save the opened the docket into the database. therefore complainant will have copy of his/her docket instead of only case number and investigators will have theirs. On the 12 th of June 2006 the matter was struck out of Tembisa Magistrate court’s roll due to certain key evidence being missing from the docket.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Busisiwe was raped. This environment support GUI.D. System with graphic user interface are easy to unlike mainframe programmes which are command driven. if docket is missing there is data integrity within this environment. client-server environment will benefit both victims and investigators. hence it is difficult to safe the whole docket. the CAS is object oriented its database is not. where they store cases. She has yet to give evidence in court. which does not objects (GUI).2 How can the use of knowledge technologies help in case investigations? Firstly let discuss how the use of Client-Sever technology can help. Currently they are using mainframe as their central system. 59 . There is a need for Client-Server computing or even P2P 5. In our case. Victim will receive printed docket with particulars of investigator who handles his/her case together with his/statement. lost of dockets will be minimized. Currently when the user opens the case he/she is only given case number as a proof.

the system will enhance communication. According Kimball and Rheingold (2000). According to Pauleen and Yoong (2001:191). The cost of traveling will be minimized. Virtual communities can promote innovation. virtual communities can promote knowledge sharing. There will be knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer. subsequently. innovation and competitiveness. Discussion in the virtual community can lead to the creation of community of memory for group deliberation and brainstorming that stimulate the capture of ideas and facilities finding information when it is needed. Through the use of these technologies there will be less dockets disappearance. as dockets will be the responsibility of a group. The investigators can share and transfer knowledge without being logged on to the intranet or internet that’s according to Miller (2001) There will be various inputs from different people who are aiming for one goal. SAPS investigators will learn from each other investigators . collaboration. they can do it through virtual communication. without ever being physically present.D. It will also enhance the potential for innovation and development by investigators. With P2P. this will minimize the corruption. When groups get turned on by what they can do online. leading to less postponement of cases. Thirdly the focus is on how virtual communities and CoP’s can help with investigation. they go beyond problem-solving and start inventing together. so that they will move from knowledge-sharing to 60 . With P2P communication is possible without being connected to intranet or internet. little has been written on how on-line relationships among employees influence business values and. The investigators will have a broader understand of contents as it does not come from one source. Therefore this will speed-up the case investigation. communication among employees Participation in virtual community discussion can help improve the way individuals think collectively. learning and innovation because: Virtual communities provide an ongoing context for knowledge exchange that can be for more effective than memoranda.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Secondly focus is on how the P2P technology can help in investigation.

P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 collective knowing. 5. We should bear in mind that virtual communities do not exist without intranet/internet or P2P whereas CoP’s can exist. where collective aspiration is set free.3 RECOMMENDATION Based on the findings of the study. The management should see intranet as enabler of knowledge management and knowledge sharing culture.D. as well as participation and contribution to the development of new ideas and innovation. Based on the findings it is important that SAPS becomes a learning organization. human being are. they can help to capture. this is the opposite with SAPS. 61 . organize. An open sharing culture should promote the success of the knowledge management programme and incentives could in turn help to make this culture possible. On how can the use of the intranet/internet help in investigation. Out of the analysis chapter it was found that the SAPS do not necessarily use intranet to share and transfer knowledge. Intranets themselves do not create and share knowledge. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. According to Easterby-Smith et al ‘learning organizations’ are organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. According to Bryson (2000:2) organization should use motivation and reward systems that encourage sharing of knowledge and learning. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. the interviewees mentioned that there was a need for more training regarding to how to use their CAS system for most of Investigators. store and transmit source material from which an individual may acquire knowledge that according Gundry and Metes (1996). the researcher makes the following recommendations. From the previous chapter. Intranet aid knowledge sharing.

Should these technologies implemented the following will be the benefits: (1) Minimization of the loss of case dockets. (4) The need for postponement or reminders of cases for further investigations will be eliminated Improved management information on status of case being investigated.4 CONCLUSION The purpose of this research was to find out what technologies are currently being used by SAPS and how can the use of knowledge technologies can benefit the investigators with their investigations. The investigators should be able to publish their knowledge on the SAPS intranet. by using electronic case dockets to reduce paper work. Intranet should form part of their daily routine.D. Investigators are not using intranet to share their experiences. (2) Improved information integrity. it should be compulsory to capture key learnings as part of investigation. they should see intranet and related technologies as knowledge management and sharing enabler. so that others can learn from their experiences. (3) Better police service and simpler work for police officers in solving cases.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 The SAPS management should invest in technology to resolve the current situation. It is high time that SAPS management see intranet as knowledge sharing enabler. daily tasks. Investigators should trained on how to use available technologies and showing them the benefits of using intranet. After implementing these knowledge management technologies. The leadership should identify and implement system that will recognize and reward for knowledge sharing. The management should communicate the knowledge management plan and massage that support and enhance commitment to a knowledge sharing culture. For SAPS to be learning organization it needs to train its staff on available technologies. 62 . (5) Easy sharing or transferring of knowledge amongst the investigators. 5.

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A.pdf. Accessed : 09/10/2006. 02 October 2006. Knowledge Management: Literature Overview. PONELIS.oneinnine. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy 11(3):190-202. & GREEN. http://www. H. 67 . S. 52.gsu. & TAKEUCHI. Accessed : 27/07/2006. Virtual Communities as a crossroads for global knowledge. 2001.54-61. Facilitating virtual team relationships via Internet and conventional communication channels. 2001. V. South African Journal of Library and Information Science 66(1):1-9.za/default.edu/mstswh/courses/it7000/papers/alookat. F. National Day of Protest.org/oti/printerversions/0201.Available[Online]:http://www. V.pwcglobal. Accessed: 02/07/2006.html. OLUIC-VUKOVIC. New York: Oxford University Press. I. 365 days still no justice for Busisiwe. P.com/. PADULA.2001.” Journal of the American Society for information Science and Technology. NONAKA. (1999). (1995) The knowledge creating company: how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. PAULEEN.htm Accessed: 12/06/2006. Available [Online]. M.J. “from information to knowledge: some reflections on the origin of the current shifting towards knowledge processing and further perspective.L. Communities of Practice. Available [online] : www.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 MOORLAND. PUTNEY. [Online] Available at:http://www. 1998.asp. & YOONG. L. & FAIRER-WESSELS.isoc.. J.G..D.org. D.padu la. Reading research quarterly./969e34662e87ccd785256870007c3bcc/ $FILE/Virtual%20Communities. 2003.

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REISMAN, R.R. 1997. What’s an extranet? And other key terms. Available [Online]: www.teleshuttle.com. ROMM, C., PLISKIN, N. & CLARKE, R.L. 1997. Virtual Communities and society: toward an integrative three-phase model. International Journal of information Management 17(4): 261-270. SLATER, F.W III.1996. President of the Chicago Chapter of the Internet Society Standards Australia.2003. The interim Australian standard on knowledge management. Australian standard AS 2037 (int) – 2003.Sydney: Standard Australia. Available [Online]: http://www.isoc.org/internet/history. Accessed: 10/07/2006. SMITH, D. 2000. Knowledge, Groupware, and the internet. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA. 2003. The interim Australia standard on knowledge management. Australian Standard AS 2037(Int) - 2003. Sydney: Standards Australia. STODDART, L. 2001. Managing intranet to encourage knowledge sharing: opportunities and constraints. Online information review,25(1). TILLMAN, H.N. 2000. Virtual community building using internet tools. [Online]. Available: http://www.hopetillman.com/i100vc.html. Accessed 06/06/2006. UZOKWELU, C.J. & Gunnardottir, L.A. 2001. What roles do virtual communities play 02/06/2006. VAN WYK, N. 2006. Not for all the money in the world. Former Judges and Police officers pooh-pooh Nqakula’s plan to lure them back to fight crime. Available [Online] : http://www.citypress.co.za. Accessed : 08/10/2006 in the new economy? [Online].Available: Accessed http://www.itc.dk/~nice/Virtual_Communities_site/printversion.pdf.

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WENGER, E.1998. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity (Cambridge University Press, 1998). WINGATE, G. & WINGATE, W. 2004. Computer Systems Validation.

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APPENDIX A

QUESTIONNAIRE

1

CB radio)  None of the above  Don’t know  Other (please specify) In which of the following places do you usually access your e-mails or the internet? Please answer with yes or no. (Multiple selections possible). 6.3)  Internet (continue with questions 6.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Which of the following information and communication tools do you currently use? Please answer with yes or no. internet shop. 6.D.  In my office  At home  At a public provider (e. 6. 6. telecenter)  Other (please specify) Since approximately which year is your organization making use of internet or e-mail? (Enter ?. multiple selections possible)  Radio  Television  Fixed line telephone  Mobile telephone  Fax machine  Computer  Email (continue with questions 6.2. if respondent doesn’t know) 2 .1. (Answer required.2.g.1.3)  Radio Handset (Walky Talky.

MS Word. 8. software for accounting. (Multiple selections possible)  Standard office tools (e.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Which of the following methods do you use to access the internet or send emails? Please answer with yes or no. Open Office. Please provide us with some more detail. Which of the following do you use for administrative and managerial tasks? Please answer with yes or no. email programs)  Specialized software programs (e. spreadsheets.1. project management.g. (Multiple selections possible)  Fixed telephone network  Mobile telephone network  Don’t know  Other access methods (please specify) Do you use a completely paper based system or do you also make use of computer software for internal administration and program management?  Completely paper based  Also make use of computer software (continue with question 8.g.D.2)  Don’t know You indicated that to some extent you use computer software for administrative and managerial tasks. personnel management)  Don’t know  Other (please specify) 3 .

Skype.g.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Irrespective of your current use. How important are the following methods for communicating with them? Use a scale of 1 – 5. Open Office. pick the one that is most applicable to you: 4 . letters. email  programs) Specialized software programs (e.g. software for accounting.g. MS Word. spreadsheets. how do you rate the importance of the following software for the administration and management of organizations like yours? Use a scale of 1 – 5. where 1=”not important” and 5 = “extremely important” 1 Face-to face dialogue Paper based documents (e. personnel management) 2  3  4  5  Don’t know       Consider all staff IN YOUR ENTIRE organization.D. posters) Fixed line telephone Fax machine Mobile telephone Radio handsets (e.g.g. memos. project  management. ICQ. MSN Messenger. Yahoo Messenger)          2          3       4             5          Don’t know          Not Applicable          How easy is it for your organization to access information relevant for your work? Of the following phrases. where 1=”not important” and 5 = “extremely important” 1 Standard office tools (e. Walky Talky or CB radio) Email Intranet Internet tools for instant messaging and telephony (e.

D.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862  There is no access to information  There is limited access to information  There is average access to information  There is good access to information  There is very good access to information  Don’t know  Not applicable How often do you share your experience of knowing where to find with other members of staff via the intranet/internet? Never Seldom Often Always How frequently do you use intranet/internet for work related task? Daily Weekly Monthly Seldomly How do you share your experience of knowing whom to ask for help with other member of staff via intranet/internet? Never Seldom Often Always How often do you share your experience of knowing how to resolve a problem with other staff members via internet/intranet? Never Seldom Often Always What improvements could be made to the internet/intranet to make knowledge sharing easier for departmental information? What improvements could be made to the intranet/internet to make knowledge sharing easier for investigations? How easily do you locate information on the intranet/internet to your work? 5 .

P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Very easy Easily With difficulty some With difficulty great Have you published on the intranet/internet previous year? Yes No If yes how easy is it to publish on the intranet/internet? Very easy Easy With difficult some Very difficult How do you publish items on the intranet (mark one) Directly Via Webmaster Both Ways What type of information do you publish? Please briefly state why you are not publishing on the intranet/internet? To what extent does using the intranet/internet help improve productivity? To no extent To a small extent To a moderate To a large extent extent How often do you use communities of practice? Daily Weekly Monthly Seldom Did you receive the right level of training to participate effectively in knowledge-sharing initiatives on the intranet/internet? Yes No 6 .D.

D.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV 99093862 Do new investigators attend an induction session on how to use the intranet? Yes No Any barriers you might have recognized to knowledge sharing on the internet/intranet? To what extent does sharing your knowledge via intranet/internet strengthen the relationship between staff? To no extent To small extent Moderately To a large extent Do you have any other comments you would like to make about sharing knowledge over the intranet/internet? 7 .

D.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 APPENDIX B ARTICLE 1 .

D. Peer-to-Peer technology is the most suitable for virtual communities in transferring and sharing knowledge. In today’s life having computer without internet be it individual or corporate you will fall behind. intranet/intranet.com ABSTRACT According to Cothrel (2000). client-server computing 1 INTRODUCTION We are living in the ever changing environment. P2P computing.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES Donald Mohlala Tshwane University of Technology Private Bag x 680 Pretoria 0001 donaldmohlala@yahoo. Internet has really changed the way we work and interact it has changed the way we are living our lives. For individuals or corporate to survive they need to gain new knowledge. In this article we will look at different 2 . internet makes it possible to bring together people with common interest and ideas in a virtual way without them ever having to meet face-to-face. disseminate this knowledge throughout the organization and embody such knowledge into knowledge enabling technologies for future reuse. In most of the cases Client-Server technology has been the main technology used by most corporate. virtual communities. This article summarizes the relationship between knowledge management and information technologies Key words: knowledge management.

Firstly. strategic planning. It encompasses both the management of information (explicit knowledge) and management of individuals with specific abilities (people with tacit knowledge) According to Standard Australia (2003:5) knowledge management involves variety of disciplines. Thirdly they added a separate process of knowledge sharing. and creation of knowledge. Knowledge management is a multi-disciplined approach to accomplishing organizational objectives by making knowledge accessible to the people in the organization through the structuring of people. they replaced knowledge dissemination from Oluic-Vukovic (2001). representing. but merely one aspect of the knowledge creation step and knowledge representation generally falls within the scope of the storage and organization process. change management. it is often integrated with a range of business and academic disciplines including human resource management. information management. support Oluic-Vukovic (2001) though they altered some of his steps.D. organizing. and disseminating.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 information technologies that can be considered knowledge transfer and sharing possible or enablers. document management. Bouthillier and Shearer (2002). acquisition. technology and knowledge content. Oluic-Vukovic (2001) outlines 5 steps in the knowledge processing chain: gathering. their "gathering" step has been separated into three different processes. organizational learning. information technology. each of which is distinct from the other: discovery. they left out refining and representing processes. communications. philosophy and sociology. refining. According to 3 . Secondly. business management. because they believe that refining is not a major enough process in the knowledge flow. 2 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT According to Polines and Fairer-Wessels (1998).

Knowledge 4 . The creation of new knowledge can accomplished by information analysis to create new knowledge. Figure 2 Conceptual framework: knowledge management processes (Bouthillier and Shearer: 2002) According to Lin et al (2006) their model compliments Bouthillier and Shearer(2002) model . storage and update phases.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 them knowledge sharing seem to be terminology commonly used in the knowledge management field. Acquisition involves bringing knowledge into an organization from external sources. Discovery involves locating internal knowledge within the organization. it must be stored and shared. Technologies are useful at this stage because they can facilitate the creation of new knowledge through the synthesis of data and information captured from diverse sources. Their model consist of five phases namely acquisition.D. After knowledge has been gathered. According Oluic-Vukovic (2001). extraction.

D. they share common interest. physical location. Figure 3 Concepts and framework for knowledge management (Lin et al: 2006) 3 VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES According to Romm et al (1997) he defined virtual communities as a group of people communicate with each other via electronic media.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 sharing involves the transfer of knowledge from one (or more) person to another one (or more). According to Kardaras (2003) he described virtual community as a group of people who communicate with each other via electronic media such as internet. physical interaction or ethnic origin does not impose any constraints for the formation of community. and their geographical location. This is where the relationship the two comes into place. 5 .

4. people should be talking to one another because of their interest intersect often do not communicate because they are in different parts of the world.D. 3. given time to compose their thoughts with nobody watching them while they do it. Barriers to communication are broken down – according to Kimball and Rheingold (2000). Cost barriers are broken down . There are no geographical barriers – according to Kimball and Rheingold (2000) virtual communities connect people and build relationships across boundaries of geography or discipline by creating an online social space for people who are geographically dispersed. can influence discussion they might not have joined before. different floors. According to Kimball and Rheingold (2000). a level of trust is created which results in greater depth and value of individual exchange. an organization can achieve many of the same goals by linking participants electronically to each other and to a wealth of online resources.according to Kimball and Rheingold (2000) virtual communities bring people together in a cost-effective manner. or in different departments. learning and innovation in the following ways: 6 .1 BENEFITS OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES 1. they say quite people who might never have something to contribute in a face-to-face meeting.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 3. Knowledge sharing and learning – according to Smith (2000). workshops and courses. virtual communities can promote knowledge sharing. Instead of organizing expensive face-to-face conferences. According to Barnard et al (2004) our police force are using dispersed which are not working properly. virtual communities have the ability to focus knowledge sharing and learning. if a group have enough in common and if the topic directly relates to their work. 2.

o Through virtual communities.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 o Virtual communities provide an ongoing context for knowledge exchange that can be for more effective than memoranda.D. Enhance the impact of face-to-face events – according to Smith(2000) virtual communities complement and enhance the impact of face-toface events and provide the backbone of more focused communities of practice. and one that is not divorced from normal business processes. because virtual community can help reduce social friction and encourage social cohesion. o Discussion in the virtual community can lead to the creation of community of memory for group deliberation and brainstorming that stimulate the capture of ideas and facilities finding information when it is needed. so that they will move from knowledge-sharing to collective knowing. o Virtual communities allow organizations to turn training into continuous process. particularly during periods of between live events. o Participation in virtual community discussion can help improve the way individuals think collectively. they go beyond problemsolving and start inventing together. online discussion and interactive websites are capable of keeping participants connected and engaged on an ongoing basis. organizations can attract and retain the best employees by providing access to social capital that is only available within the organization. According to her 7 . 5. When groups get turned on by what they can do online. o Through participation in virtual communities. organization can multiply its intellectual capital by he power of social capital. 4 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES (IT) According to Stoddart (2001). information technology (IT) and information management are intricately linked. Organizational learning. o Virtual communities can promote innovation.

8 . Slater. databases and archives.D. 4. organization and access to information and data in computer applications.1 INTERNET According to William F. internet is a network of networks. • • Cross platform: the information available is not dependent upon the type of computer used. hypertext documents. Distributed: it is impossible to store all of the information available on the web in one location – the information is spread over thousands of computers that are hooked up to the web and. university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail. databases and other computational resources.1. because it is constantly being updated and new information is being added. as Griffin (1999) says internet is an information system composed of a massive network of computers around the world. Interactive: the user of the Net can search for more information in countless ways.1 REASONS FOR USING INTERNET Griffin (1999) outlined the following as reasons for using the internet. III (1996). 4. • • • Global: information is available from computers located in virtually evry country of the world. bulletin boards.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 information management involves the categorization. joining many government. Dynamic: the information presented on the web is always changing. while technology provides the tools to facilitate information flow and knowledge sharing. file archives. According to him it is vast collection of computer networks which form and act as a single huge network for transport of data and messages across distances which can be anywhere from the same office to anywhere in the world.

3. they can help to capture. 4. organise. According to Brown (1998). how this information will further help the organization’s operational efficiency. store and transmit source material from which an individual may acquire knowledge. sharing and transferring knowledge on how to speedy their investigations. essentially as is. instead you can move from topic to topic at random with this method of cross-referencing.3 KIND OF INTRANETS It is always important for any organization to know what it expects to accomplish with the intranet before embarking on the installation or setup. he said it is the matter of looking from the outside in to further determine what content and functionality will benefit users most. According to Barnes (2001).2 INTRANET According to Reisman (1997). Through the use of internet investigating officers all over the world from different police agencies can form virtual communities. for use within an enterprise. According to Gundry and Mete (1996) Intranets aid knowledge sharing. defined an intranet as a private application of the same Internetworking technology. to their internal groupware needs. Reisman (1997).D. to figure out how to get the ‘quick hits’ in terms of usability and ROI. 4.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 • A hypertext information system: information is not presented in a linear fashion.1 Communication tool 9 . 4. he defines intranet as ‘nothing more than your existing corporate local-wide are network using internet infrastructure ‘ – any site. software and applications within a private network. there fore based on internet technology that is placed on private servers within the organization. the concept of an ‘intranet’ took off when organizations realized they could take this easy-to-use open and wellsupported vehicle and apply it.

where everyone knows their role and everyone works on improvement and health of the organization. says an intranet useful for sharing knowledge will certainly fall into this category as ‘those intranet which are static and non-collaborative do not stimulate knowledge sharing. The intention behind this type should be interaction and. we can say that this a suitable tool for virtual communities. The intention of this type is one way communication.3.4 PEER-TO-PEER COMPUTING 10 . it become easier to achieve.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 According to Barnes (2001).g. He says that if there is a collective will that need to be communicated to all employees. Barr (1998). 4.D.2 Application enabler If the purpose of the intranet is to enable two way communication. 4. transactional content can be added to the intranet. a group. Stoddart (2001).3. says the idea of intranet is a technology that permits the organization to define itself as an entity. Based on the above mentioned definitions. such as logging help desk request or enrolling for benefits. personnel administration. if the purpose of the intranet is to communicate and update (provide the latest) information to the company employees. 4. to extent.3 Collaboration facilitator This type of intranet is a very dynamic tool that can be not only to educate and inform employees. involvement of employees. a family. but increase corporate communication and establish and maintain a corporate culture the organization wants to nurture. for e.

Peers can function as both client and server. P2P is a complete contrast to the traditional client-server network architecture. The primary content of the network is provided by peers. 4. P2P attributes will definitely come handy to Virtual Communities and Communities of Practice.1 P2P CHARACTERISTICS According to Miller (2001). • • • • • The network facilitates real-time transmission of data or messages between the peers. client-server computing refers computing model where two or more computers interact in such a way that one provides service to the other. the following are characteristics of P2P. The network gives control and autonomy to the peer. for each participating computer or node in a P2P system is called a “peer” meaning that the participants interact as equal that’s according to Kubiatowicsz (2003:33). 11 . The network accommodates peers who are not always connected and who may not have permanent internet protocol (IP) addresses. such as spare computing cycles and storage capacity through internet or private network. This enables knowledge transfer and sharing within the organization. Participants act as a client and server figure 5 will distinguish P2P and Client-Server network.5 CLIENT-SERVER COMPUTING According to Lewandowski(1998).D. Miller (2001) says with P2P computers share data and resources.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 Miller (2001:19) defined P2P as the topology and architecture of the computer in a system in which each computer has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. 4.4. computers can also communicate directly and manage computing tasks without using servers.

application serving and communication serving According to Lewandowski (1998). Client serves as a consumer in a client/server system.5. the user sees and interact with. disk speed and capacities. 4. filing data or service request made by clients. • The hardware platform and operating systems of client and server are not usually the same.5. Client programs usually manage user-interface portion for application. database serving. He mentioned that today networks have computers for file serving. According to Lewandowski(1998). The server is the resource that handles client’s request.D. The front-end task and back-end task have fundamentally different requirement for computing resources such as processor speed. The client based process is the front-end of the application that. validate data entered by the user. The services might be to run an application. memory. query a database or printing a document. identified the following as characteristics of client-server computing: • • Combination of a client or front-end portion that interact with the user and a server or back-end portion that interacts with shared resource.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 Client-server computing consist of two logical components. dispatch request to the server programs and sometimes execute business logic. the client-server computing relate to two or more threads of execution using a consumer/producer relationship.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF CLIENT/SERVER COMPUTING Lewandowski (1998). client is a process of (program) that sends a message to a server process (program) requesting the server perform task (service). a client request service of the server and a server that provide service. The server plays the role of the producer.2 ADVANTAGES OF CLIENT-SERVER COMPUTING 12 . 4.

multi-media. • • • • • Affordability .D. The advantages of this environment include: • • Interoperability .cost effectiveness is insured by using less expensive MIPs available on each platform. broad band networks.new technology (i. domain and referential integrity are maintained on the database server.e. pen computing. without major impact on the other elements.performance may be optimized by hardware and process.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 According to Lewandowski (1998) Client/server is an open system. Scalability .data may be accessed from WANs and multiple client applications. Figure 3 Client-Server processing (Lewandowski:1998) 13 .key components (client/network/server) work together. Performance .any of the key elements may be replaced when the need to either grow or reduce processing for that element dictates.) may be incorporated into the system. • Adaptability .. etc.entity. distributed database. Data Integrity . Security .data security is centralized on the server. Accessibility .

4 FINDINGS In our data analysis chapter we discovered the following loopholes. Key learnings are not captured after completion. execute database retrieval. These technologies requires skilled employees. Insufficient resources committed to knowledge management initiatives. Client-server is good for storage and retrieving of information. Poor sharing of knowledge. and manage data integrity.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 According to Lewandowski (1998). Virtual communities do not exist. but human being. Intranet is not part of their daily routine tasks. Leadership team does not encourage employees to share knowledge through internet. Server process acts as a software engine that manages the shared resources such database. which requires an urgent attention from SAPS leadership management committee: • • • • • • • • • Investigators do not have access to the internet/intranet. Interviewees were concern that the government was not prepared to invest in training them on the use of IT and knowledge technologies. and dispatch response to client requests. server process (program) fulfils the client request by performing task requested. Employees do not receive incentives or rewards for participating in knowledge sharing.D. 14 . Staff do not know how to use system effectively CAS 5 CONCLUSION The intranet and computing technologies themselves do not create knowledge. Some of the investigators do not have computers in their offices. Server programs generally receives request from client programs. printers and communication links.

D. organise.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 The fact that investigators do not have internet/intranet show that the management do not see intranet as knowledge sharing or transfer enabler. they can help to capture. These information technologies should be seen as relatives to knowledge management for they are enablers or vehicles of knowledge transfer and sharing 15 . store and transmit source material from which an individual may acquire knowledge. According to Gundry and Mete (1996) Intranets aid knowledge sharing.

200104/cs_04_18_01a. 1998. 20/08/2006.html. Available [Online]: http://www. Available [Online]: http://www.ualberta. Available [Online]: http://www. computers in psychology.umsl. Canada.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 BIBLIOGRAPHY: BARNES.P.G. Available [Online]: http://www. McGill University. Available [Online]: http://www. Accessed 20/08/2006. intranets and library applications. Planning a corporate intranet.D. Strategy and Leadership 28(2):18-21.html. Team knowledge management: a computer-mediated approach. Information Research.co/~barr/intranet/linear. H. BOUTHILLIER. S.com/articles. G. J. Accessed: 02/09/2006. 8 No 1.uk/wbwteam.com/oramag/oracle/98-Sep. Best Practices for successful intranets.D. Montreal. M.knowab. Vol. 19/08/2006.html.oracle. F & SHEARER.J. 1996. COTHREL. 1998. B. K. Accessed: Accessed: 16 . Measuring the success of an online community.2002. BROWN. 2001. PSY 302.co.intranetjournal. Understanding knowledge management and information management: the need for an empirical perspective.2000. BARR.html. J.58prob. & METES. 1999. Graduate School of Library and Information Studies. GUNDRY.edu/~mgriffin/psy302/WWW_Defination. GRIFFIN. Accessed: 20/08/2006.

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D. Online information review. 2003. Australian Standard AS 2037(Int) . STODDART. 18 . R.2003. 1997. Sydney: Standards Australia. Available [Online]: www.R. What’s an extranet? And other key terms.P MOHLALA PROJECT IV (ARTICLE) 99093862 REISMAN. 2001.25(1). Managing intranet to encourage knowledge sharing: opportunities and constraints. The interim Australia standard on knowledge management. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA. L.teleshuttle.com.

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