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Location: Tunnel Tripa

Georesistivity survey has carried out to identify the rock type and condition below
the ground and to determine the extent of the rocks and soil both vertical and
horizontal succesions. This survey is using 2D georesistivity survey with Wenner
electrode array. Electrode spacing interval were set to be 10 meters with 10 max
number of n. According to this method, this georesistivity survey may gain
resistivity value of rocks down to 40-50 meters below the ground. It is deep enough
to identify fresh rock below.

Suvey lines are consist of 10 lines from GL-1 to GL-10. GL-1 is located at the north,
near the dam area, while GL-10 is located at south, near the power house area. Each
line extends about 500 meters. Location of line surveys can be seen in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Georesistivity survey line positions and extents.

Whole long section of resistivity from dam to the power hous of Tripa 1 area are
showed in Figure 1.2 below. There are 5 distinct value ranges found in the long
section. These values are identified to be different rock types. Southern survey lines
show lower resistivity values than northern ones. Northern survey lines contain
separated high resistivity values below the ground.
Figure 1.2 Long section from dam to power house

The first rock type is the top soil. Top soil covers the surface of he area down to 5-20
meters depth. Resistivity value ranges above 200 ohm.m, up to above 7000 ohm.m in
the north.

There are two rock types identified as weathered parent rock. The first one is located
in the southern georesistivity survey lines. It has resistivity value from 20 – 200
ohm.m. It is laid below the top soil. The value keep decreasing as the depth increase,
where the fresh parent rock is. The second type is the weathered parent rock with
higher value, 30 – 1000 ohm.m. It is found locally in the northern survey lines. This
type may be of the same parent rock with the first type, or a totally different, high
resistivity rock like intrusion rock.

The other two rock types are the fresh rock, sandstone. There are two type of
sandstone identified in resistivity values. The first is in the northern survey line,
possibly the older stratas. This rock has resistivity value from 10 to 50 ohm.m. The
younger stratas has lower resistivity values. It is ranging below 10 ohm.m. This
value can be caused also by groundwater, mostly on the lower part of the resistivity
section line.

According to the section line, the lower part of the section consists of rocks at the
depth of the tunnel. This is an important information for decision whether making a
tunnel or an open stream channel. Open stream channel would be used if soil is
found at the planned tunnel depth. Here, underground tunnel is a good option to
channel the water from dam to the surge tank since the surrounding lithologies at
the planned tunnel depth are formed by rocks.

Detail part of each line survey section may be seen as follow:


There are three distinct resistivity features found in this section (Figure 1.3), the most
northern georesistivity station. The first one is the horizon extending relatively
parallel to the surface. This is the top soil with high resistivity value zone ranging
above 1000 ohm.m (brown), up to more than 7000 ohm.m (purple). This feature
extends mostly to 10 meters below the grown, down to 20 meters below the ground
in the north. The second one is the lower resistivity value found below 20 meters
below the ground. This zone has resistivity value lower than 200 ohm.m (20 – 200
ohm.m), extending down to the last depth of the section. This zone is interpreted to
be sandstones.

The last resistivity features is the high resistivity zone with discordant, intruding the
lower resistivity zone, the second zone. This zone are found spotted with resistivity
from 500 ohm.m (greenish brown), up to more than 7000 ohm.m (purple). The
highest resistivity value coincides with the vicinity of the high resistivity value of the
top soil zone. This zone may be weathered parent rock or an intrusion rock.

Figure 1.3 GL1 Section


There are three group of resistivity values found in this section. The first zone is top
soil near the surface. It has high resistivity value ranging from about 1000 ohm.m
(orange) to about 6000 ohm.m (purple) in the south. This zone varies in thickness
from 7 to 20 meters, but mostly 10 meters in thickness. Below this zone is weathered
parent rocks, with resistivity value ranging from 200 ohm.m (yelow) to 1000 ohm.m
(brown). The deeper, the value goes lower. This zone gets thinner in the northern
part of section. The third group of resistivity value is located at the bottom of the
section. These value are of sandstones with resistivity from 10 ohm.m – 100 ohm.m
(green). Sandstone may be found near the surface at the north but gets deeper in the

Figure 1.4 GL-2 Section


There are also three distinct resistivity values.

GL-4 – GL-10

The following sections have different features than sections before. They have lower
resistivity than the rocks at the sections in the north, sections above. There are three
resistivity zones that vary in depth.

The top soil, extending from near the surface, down to 5-20 meters, mostly has 10
meters in thickness. This zone has high resistivity values ranging from 500 ohm.m
(brown) to 2000 ohm.m (dark red). Some area has resistivity value more than 5000
ohm.m (purple).

Zone below this top soil are layers of weathered parent rocks. It’s not so thick, about
10 meters. Resistivity values vary from 20 ohm.m (light green) to 200 ohm.m
(yellow). Below this zone are the low resistivity zone. This zone has resistivity lower
than 10 ohm.m (blue). This zone is interpreted to be sandstone with groundwater
and may be found 20 meters below the ground.