9 views

Uploaded by Pikachu Alsaleh

IGCSE

- 11-2
- physics syllabus 2012
- Global Absolute Temperatures [Global Warming compared to Annual Global Temperature]
- kbl 7000 circuit diagram
- SPH3U2 Formula Sheet
- Geothermal Reserves Determination
- Thermodynamics
- Thermal control in concrete
- 05 Energetics and thermochemistry (IB Chemistry-HL Pearson)
- Specific Heat Lab- Honors Chemistry
- Computational Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of A
- GROUP-3_HEAT-TEMPERATURE.docx
- 12_LectureOutlineThermalPropertiesOfMatter.ppt
- Measuring the Quantity of Heat.pdf
- 251491675-Thermal-Energy-Activity.doc
- HOMOGENEOUS VERSUS DIMENSIONALLY INCONSISTENT EQUATIONS
- 2011wksht heating curve- calcs
- 1-s2.0-0017931067900324-main
- 10.1016@j.jngse.2017.03.020
- MECH-14

You are on page 1of 6

CHAPTER 4: HEAT

4.1 Thermal Equilibrium

Heat

Object 1 Object 2

Heat

The net transfer of heat is zero

The two objects have the same temperature

To calibrate a thermometer, two fixed points must be chosen to mark its scale. These points must be able to

be reproduced accurately. The two fixed points are:

ice point (0°C) – temperature of pure ice melting under standard atmospheric pressure

steam point (100°C) – temperature of pure water boiling under standard atmospheric pressure

l l 0

100C

l100 l 0

l0 = length on scale at 0 °C

l100 = length on scale at 100°C

lθ = length on scale of temperature to be measured

Physics SPM 2017 Chapter 4: Heat

4.2 Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Capacity

Specific heat capacity: The amount of heat energy needed to change the temperature of 1 kg of a

material by 1°C

Heat capacity: The amount of heat energy needed to change the temperature of an object by 1°C

Q = mcθ

m = mass [kg]

c = specific heat capacity of the material [J kg-1°C-1]

θ = change in temperature [°C]

4.2.1 Applications

Specific heat capacity is large,

Easily obtained and cheap,

Does not chemically react with the materials in the

engine.

Cooking utensils (woks, pots) are usually made of material with low specific heat capacity to ensure

temperature increases quickly when heated.

Handles are made of material with high specific heat capacity and are poor conductors.

Clay pots are made of clay with high specific heat capacity and are poor conductors. When removed

from heat, the soup inside the pot will continue to boil as heat is still being received from the pot.

Specific latent heat: The amount of heat needed to change the state of 1 kg of a material

Latent heat: Heat that is absorbed during the change of state of the material

Q = mL

m = mass [kg]

L = specific latent heat [J kg-1]

Latent heat of

vapourization

Latent heat of

fusion

Physics SPM 2017 Chapter 4: Heat

4.3.1 Specific Heat Capacity and Specific Latent Heat

Temperature

Q = mcθ

Q = mcθ

Q = mcθ

Q = mL

Q = mL

SOLID + LIQUID

SOLID LIQUID GAS

LIQUID + GAS

Boiling point

Melting point

Time

Temperature

Q = mcθ

Q = mcθ

Q = mcθ

Q = mL

Q = mL

LIQUID SOLID +

GAS LIQUID SOLID

+ GAS LIQUID

Condensation point

Freezing point

Time

(Note: If the temperature becomes constant before the condensation or

melting point of the material, it is because that is the room temperature.)

Physics SPM 2017 Chapter 4: Heat

When calculating the amount of heat needed to change the state and temperature of an object, remember to

take into account the different stages of heating as shown in the graph above.

Example:

To calculate the amount of heat needed to heat ice at 0 ºC to water at 25 ºC:

change ice at 0 ºC to change water at 0 ºC

water at 0 ºC to water at 25 ºC

When calculating the exchange of heat, remember to take into account the different stages of heating for

each side of the equation.

Example:

Ice 0 ºC is added to hot water 90 ºC. To calculate the final temperature, xºC:

mL + mcθ = mcθ

change ice at 0 ºC change water at 0 ºC hot water at 90 ºC to

to water at 0 ºC to water at xºC water at xºC

Physics SPM 2017 Chapter 4: Heat

4.4 Gas Laws

Fixed number of molecules

Constant mass

The gas behaviour is dependant on three variables:

Pressure

Volume

Temperature

Note: For all gas law equations, the temperature involved must be absolute, i.e. in Kelvin

T = θ + 273

θ = temperature [°C]

Capillary tube with a mercury column trapping some air in it. Given that the atmospheric pressure is 76 cm

Hg, to calculate the pressure of the air in the tube:

(76+h) cm Hg (76-h) cm Hg

P

For a gas of fixed mass, the pressure is inversely

proportional to its volume if the temperature is constant.

1

𝑃∝

𝑉

V

P1V1 = P2V2

P

PV

where P = pressure of the gas [Pa]

V = volume of the gas [m3]

Physics SPM 2017 Chapter 4: Heat

V

4.4.2 Charles’ Law

For a gas of fixed mass, the volume is directly proportional to its absolute

temperature if the pressure is constant.

VαT T (K)

V

V1 V2

T1 T2

where V = volume of the gas [m3]

T = temperature of the gas [K]

θ (°C)

4.4.3 Pressure Law P

For a gas of fixed mass, the pressure is directly proportional to its absolute

temperature if the volume is constant.

PαT

T (K)

P1 P2 P

T1 T2

where V = volume of the gas [m3]

T = temperature of the gas [K]

θ (°C)

4.4.4 Universal Gas Law

PV

k

T

P1V1 P2V2

T1 T2

- 11-2Uploaded byEdwin Aldrin
- physics syllabus 2012Uploaded bymoonlight997
- Global Absolute Temperatures [Global Warming compared to Annual Global Temperature]Uploaded byJonathan Drake
- kbl 7000 circuit diagramUploaded byPaulmanke
- SPH3U2 Formula SheetUploaded byFrederick Ding
- Geothermal Reserves DeterminationUploaded bywindarta.rezki
- ThermodynamicsUploaded byHardeep Singh Bali
- Thermal control in concreteUploaded byDeshapriya
- 05 Energetics and thermochemistry (IB Chemistry-HL Pearson)Uploaded byWenFangChang
- Specific Heat Lab- Honors ChemistryUploaded byKatelynn Nguyen
- Computational Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of AUploaded byErick Morales Quezada
- GROUP-3_HEAT-TEMPERATURE.docxUploaded byJeazel Mosendo
- 12_LectureOutlineThermalPropertiesOfMatter.pptUploaded byOrlando
- Measuring the Quantity of Heat.pdfUploaded byJonathan Majaw
- 251491675-Thermal-Energy-Activity.docUploaded byRachelle Ann Baldonade
- HOMOGENEOUS VERSUS DIMENSIONALLY INCONSISTENT EQUATIONSUploaded bymarky
- 2011wksht heating curve- calcsUploaded byapi-298247873
- 1-s2.0-0017931067900324-mainUploaded byDarshan Mb
- 10.1016@j.jngse.2017.03.020Uploaded byHesam Ahmadian
- MECH-14Uploaded byhamza2595
- s9_1Uploaded byYEe FaNg
- Kinetic TheoryUploaded byKM_147
- 11 ChapterUploaded byShashwat Sahay
- CHAPTER 4 TESTS.docxUploaded byjose briones
- Power CalculationsUploaded byAbhoe Stank
- TDC 41599 a (Physics)Uploaded byEr Paramjit Singh
- Anti Tracking Heat Shrinkable TubeUploaded bysales3167
- hw08[1]Uploaded byJudimel Muñoz Guayambal
- 21035T_RAYTEK.pdfUploaded byAri Erfan
- CJBAS-13-01-02-04Uploaded byCJBAS Manager

- Physics Final Revision - Introduction to Physics 2013.pdfUploaded byCikgu Faizal
- GlossaryUploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- Cie Igcse Ict 0417 ZnotesUploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- ICT Practical Exam Notes.pdfUploaded byEsther
- Physics Final Revision - Electromagnetism 2013.pdfUploaded byCikgu Faizal
- Important Equation in PhysicsUploaded bya7med00
- IGCSE PHYSICS - Revision Guide - Andrew Richard Ward - 2014Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- Cie Igcse Physics 0625 ZnotesUploaded byAlbert Ng Wee Po
- CHAPTER 9 Electronics 2015Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- Znotes Practical Paper 6Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- Chapter 10 Radioactivity 2017Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- Chapter 6 Waves 2016Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- CHAPTER 3 Forces and Pressure 2017Uploaded byFernando Sorto
- CHAPTER 5 Light and Vision 2017Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- CHAPTER 2 Forces and Motion 2017Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- CHAPTER 7 Electricity 2016Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- Mathematics - IGCSE - Guinness and Nagle - Third Edition - Hodder 2013Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh

- Linearization Circuit of the Thermistor ConnectionUploaded byAlexis Cháirez Ulloa
- irp dpp no3Uploaded byShivam Jaggi
- 2 - Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index - Review Science - 2004Uploaded byCaio Mendes
- Project Report-transmission Line Fault MonitoringUploaded byBhushan Jichkar
- Wo 2013104042 a 1Uploaded byMladen Muškinja
- Computers and StruUploaded byCakra Winata
- 11- Pervane teorisiUploaded byizzet9696
- Tutorial Pressure Relief Valve AnalysisUploaded bysanthosh_yash1
- On the Torque Transmission by a Cardan-Hooke JointUploaded byGustavo
- CH-43 Electric TractionUploaded byPunit
- Hyades LabUploaded byMarcus Casillas
- FCB Solution Checklist Tempelate V1 1Uploaded bydevilzkiller817961
- 9th Matter in Our Surroundings McqUploaded byramanji1021
- Well Test Tools_pptUploaded bykartikey
- Case Study 4Uploaded byAndreas Pantziaros
- 3.5 Archimedes' principle.pptxUploaded byPauling Chia
- Developing flow pressure drop and friction factorUploaded bymirmanto708167
- 1441138460_903__Experiment%252B1Uploaded byRaza Hyder
- Trina VanAusdal VideosUploaded byjoe_pulaski
- Vol.6 ElectricsUploaded byANAKI
- Important Questions domUploaded bySanthosh Rasa
- Cie Earth Tester.pdf.PDFUploaded byTeemsAcademy
- Protection Operation ManualUploaded byChu Nam
- Direct Flux Vector Control of Induction Motor Drives with Maximum Efficiency Per TorqueUploaded byAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- MW Inverter IC RM6203Uploaded byKybernetikum
- SistemKelistrikanKapal.docxUploaded byJohann Sjbt
- FHoton SolarPAKUploaded bySINES France
- Control Devices.pptUploaded bySuzaini Supingat
- Heating and Cooling Load Calculations-ReportUploaded byEhtisham Tanvir
- Partial Discharge Detection in Power Transformers Using Accoustic Emmission TechniqueUploaded byS Naved Masood