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November 7, 2017

Earthing modelling of concrete slabs


Utilise Steel Reinforcement in Earthing Designs

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Background
Switchgear in substations is installed on top of concrete slabs containing substantial quantities of steel reinforcement.  Often the
embedded steel reinforcement is bonded to the main earthing system and used to cost-effectively improve earthing electrical
performance and safety.

Bonding of earthing to reinforcement


The steel reinforcement inside the concrete slab is welded together to make it electrically contiguous and metal bars ( ags) are then
welded to the steel reinforcement.  The metal ags are bolted to the electrical switchgear earthing points.

Thus, if there’s a fault on the earthed electrical switchgear (which is supported on the slab) then the fault current ows into earth via
the metal ag connections and is effectively dissipated via the reinforcement mesh (which often has a large surface area) into the
earth.
Figure 1 Bonding reinforcement to earthing

Modelling of concrete slabs


Concrete slabs which are buried absorb moisture from the surrounding environment and are substantially electrically conductive.  The
concrete in these slabs assumes roughly the same resistivity as that of the surrounding soil since the resistivity and permittivity of
both mediums are mainly in uenced by their moisture content.

Therefore, in a software earthing model the concrete component is not ignored but treated as having the same electrical resistivity as
the surrounding soil.

The steel reinforcement bars and meshes embedded in the concrete slabs are of large cross-sectional area and of high electrical
conductivity.  The resistance of the steel reinforcement is not greatly affected by the presence of the concrete, so long as the
reinforcement and concrete cover approximately the same area.

The steel reinforcement is included in the earthing model but only when it is known to be connected to the main earthing grid.  Note it
is not essential to model all the ne meshes of the steel reinforcement but that it is more important to represent the total area
covered by the reinforcement.

Modelling concrete oors in a control building


If the reinforcement steel inside the concrete oor of a control building is connected to the main earthing system then the entire
concrete may be considered as equipotential.  This means that during an earth fault no hazardous touch potentials shall exist between
earthed metallic equipment inside the control building and step potential hazards may also be deemed as safe.

The reinforcement in concrete oors on ground or basement levels which is connected to the main earth grid may be included in the
main earthing system model to improve performance and safety.

It is not necessary to model the reinforcement in concrete oors which are above ground in a multi-level building if the reinforcement
is connected to the main earthing system as they are equipotential.

It is essential to follow local Standards and manufacturer guidelines for earthing of electrical equipment inside control buildings.  Gas-
insulated switchgear may require additional steel reinforcement be added inside the concrete oor.
Figure 2 Earthing detail of GIS switchgear to concrete oor reinforcement

Summary
So long as the reinforcement in a concrete slab or foundation is deliberately connected to the main earthing system it can and should
be included in the software earthing model.

The concrete inside these concrete slabs roughly assumes the same electrical resistivity as the surrounding soil and can be modelled
as such.

It is more important to model the area covered by the steel reinforcement in a slab rather than the intricacies of the meshes.

The concrete oors inside control buildings can be assumed to be equipotential and modelling is not necessary if the reinforcement is
deliberately connected with the main earth system.

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