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# Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

M M

F F Remarks
2. This paper counts the gasket load in terms of force per unit
length of circumference, as this approach is usual in the circular plate
a theory.
3. For calculation of the reaction on free-to-rotate edge, the
circular plate theory gives results that are quite insensitive vs. variations
G G
of plate rigidity.

F
∑ Fbolts
bolts

2π a
a

## No pressure, no external loads

Fpressure
F bolts
H G ( p) = H G0 −
2π a
HG (p) Fpressure HG (p) Fpressure = π a 2 p
and
ap
G=2a H G ( p) = H G 0 −
2

F
F bolts
F
H G ( F) = H G0 −
2π a
HG (F) HG(F)
is the gasket load for the case no pressure, external tensile force.
Remarks: - A tensile force F > 0 is decreasing the gasket load.
G=2a - A compressive force F < 0 is increasing the gasket load.

## No pressure, external tensile force

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Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

M
A bending moment is changing the gasket load, but H G ( M ) is variable
F bolts along the gasket circumference.
The gasket load can be described by the following model, based on the
theory of circular plates.
maxHG (M) minH G(M)

G=2a
M -p
No pressure, external bending moment p

a -V
V
(Vmax) (Vmin)
G

θ
a cosθ G=2a

pa
V= cos θ is the evaluation of the edge reaction
4
following the circular plate theory
(see “Theory of Plates and Shells” by S. Timoshenko and S.
Woinowsky-Krieger, Second edition, 1959, paragraph 63
“Circular Plates under Linearly Varying Loads)
and
π
2
 pa  πa 3 p
M=4 
 ∫4
cos θ  (a cos θ) adθ =
 4
0
is the moment equation.

It results:
4M
p= 3
πa
pa 4 M a M
Vmax = = =
4 πa 3 4 πa 2
M
H G ( M ) = H G0 + Vmax cos θ = H G 0 + cos θ
πa 2
M
min H G ( M ) = H G0 −
θ πa 2
external bending moment.
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Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

## THE FOLLOWING EQUIVALENCES CAN BE WRITTEN:

F
M
M F
min H G (M , F ) = H G 0 − 2 −
F πa 2πa
bolts

M F
max HG(M,F) min H G(M,F) max H G (M , F ) = H G 0 + 2 −
πa 2πa

G=2a

## No pressure, external bending moment

and external tensile force

IS EQUIVALENT WITH

## Feq The equivalence is considered in terms

of “tensile force that gives the reaction on

## HG (Feq ) HG (Feq ) min H G ( M , F ) = H G ( Feq ) or

 M F  Feq
H G0 −  2 +  = H G0 −
G=2a
 πa 2πa  2πa
That means:
Feq M F
No pressure, equivalent tensile force = 2+ , i.e.
2 πa πa 2 πa
2M 4M
Feq = F + =F+
a G
Remark: This equivalence is conservative made
and is really true just for a point, not for the entire gasket
IS EQUIVALENT WITH circumference.

Feq pressure

## F bolts The equivalence is considered in terms of “pressure that

gives the same effect as Feq ”, i.e.
p eq πa 2 = Feq
HG (peq ) HG (peq )
1  2M  F 2M 4 F 16M
2  = 2 + 3
or p eq = F+ = +
πa  a  πa πa a=
G πG 2 πG 3
2
G=2a
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Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

Fpressure
Feq pressure For the tensile loaded part of the flange, the minimum
F bolts
Fpressure + Feq pressure πa 2 (p + peq )
H G (peq ,p) = H G 0 − = HG0 −
2π a 2π a
HG (peq ,p) HG (peq ,p)

## This load must be limited to the value corresponding to

G=2a
the rating pressure.
Internal pressure, equivalent pressure

## versus the limit given by the rating pressure

FRATING pressure

F bolts
πa 2 p RATING
H G ( p RATING ) = H G0 −
2π a
HG (pRATING ) HG (pRATING )

G=2a

The gasket tightness condition means to accept for the gasket load only values that are greater than the
value corresponding to the rating pressure.
The condition H G ( p eq , p) ≥ H G ( p RATING ) means p + p eq ≤ p RATING .